Caracterização molecular e biológica

1) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

2) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia.
Autor: Jouannic Jean-Marie,Friszer Stephanie,Leparc-Goffart Isabelle,Garel Catherine,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051-1052, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

3) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

4) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

5) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

6) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

7) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

8) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

9) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

10) University of Georgia to collaborate with Geovax on zika vaccine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: States News Service, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

11) Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Biosafety; Green synthesis; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 925-935, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)(50) values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 mu g/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 mu g/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

12) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

13) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

14) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

15) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

16) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

17) ZIKATracker: A mobile App for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin, Alyson A., Banner, David, Pamplona, Luciano, Alencar, Carlos, Rubino, Salvatore, Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika virus, Mobile apps, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

18) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

19) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

20) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

21) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

22) Evidences for the action mechanism of angiotensin II and its analogs on Plasmodium sporozoite membranes
Autor: Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Silva, Adriana Farias; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Miranda, Antonio; Cordeiro, Rodrigo Maghdissian; Oliveira Junior, Vani Xavier
Assunto: Angiotensin II; Malaria; Molecular dynamics; Plasmodium
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry
Fonte: Journal of Peptide Science, v. 22, n. 3, p. 132-142, 2016
ISSN: 1075-2617
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease responsible for approximately one million deaths annually. Oligopeptides such as angiotensin II (AII) and its analogs are known to have antimalarial effects against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium falciparum. However, their mechanism of action is still not fully understood at the molecular level. In the work reported here, we investigated this issue by comparing the antimalarial activity of AII with that of (i) its diastereomer formed by only d-amino acids; (ii) its isomer with reversed sequence; and (iii) its analogs restricted by lactam bridges, the so-called VC5 peptides. Data from fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the antiplasmodial activities of both all-D-AII and all-D-VC5 were as high as those of the related peptides AII and VC5, respectively. In contrast, retro-AII had no significant effect against P. gallinaceum. Conformational analysis by circular dichroism suggested that AII and its active analogs usually adopted a -turn conformation in different solutions. In the presence of membrane-mimetic micelles, AII had also a -turn conformation, while retro-AII was random. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the AII chains were slightly more bent than retro-AII at the surface of a model membrane. At the hydrophobic membrane interior, however, the retro-AII chain was severely coiled and rigid. AII was much more flexible and able to experience both straight and coiled conformations. We took it as an indication of the stronger ability of AII to interact with membrane headgroups and promote pore formation. Copyright (c) 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

23) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

24) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

25) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

26) Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida
Autor: Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim
Assunto: Olfactory system; Neuropeptide; Serotonin; Insect; 3D reconstruction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Research, v. 363, n. 3, p. 679-692, 2016
ISSN: 0302-766X
Resumo: The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures.

27) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

28) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

29) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

30) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

31) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

32) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Brazil is facing a disturbing spike in a severe birth defect called microcephaly. Babies are born with heads that are far too small, a sign that the brain failed to fully develop. Doctors there have reported nearly 3000 cases since July 2015--more than 20 times the usual rate. Scientists are scrambling to understand what is going on. The leading theory so far is that the condition is caused by a little known mosquito-borne virus called Zika that surfaced in Brazil in March and is quickly spreading through Latin America. The news has prompted the government to declare a public health emergency; some doctors are recommending women not get pregnant until more is known. Researchers are trying to develop better diagnostic tests for the virus so they can track whether mothers of affected babies were infected during their pregnancies, and other groups are hoping to use stem cell models of the developing human brain to understand how the virus might affect fetal growth. Meanwhile, the virus is advancing fast. It surfaced in Colombia, Suriname, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico in October and November; Puerto Rico reported its first cases in late December. Researchers warn that countries across the Americas should be prepared for a similar wave of birth defects in coming months.

33) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

34) Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: another viral cause to add to the list.
Autor: Smith David W,Mackenzie John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1486-1488, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

35) Cover.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Genome editing, Government policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Time International (Atlantic Edition), v. 187, n. 5, p. C1, 2016
ISSN: 9288430
Resumo: The cover page of the journal is presented which includes information on a conversation with U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, the associated between the mosquito-borne Zika virus and microcephaly in bewborn infants, and the approval of human embryos gene editing in Great Britain.

36) Reversible estrous cycle suppression in prepubertal female rabbits treated with slow-release deslorelin implants
Autor: Geyer, A.; Daub, L.; Otzdorff, C.; Reese, S.; Braun, J.; Walter, B.
Assunto: Deslorelin; Female rabbit; GNRH stimulation test; Long-term contraception; GnRH; GNRH - Agonist implant; Long-term contraception; Pseudopregnant rabbits; Analog deslorelin; Plasma progesterone; Ovarian activity; Domestic cats; Male dogs; LH Surge; Ovulation
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry
Fonte: Theriogenology, v. 85, n. 2, p. 282-287, 2016
ISSN: 0093-691X
Resumo: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of a 4.7-mg deslorelin GnRH analog implant on ovarian function in the prepubertal female rabbit. Seven female rabbits (group 1) were treated with the implant at the age of 60 days. The implant was inserted subcutaneously in the umbilical region. Two animals (group 2) were not treated and served as a control group. The vulva of all 9 animals was examined for the presence of typical cyclical changes, additionally the occurrence of mounting behavior was recorded. Ovarian function was checked by administration of a short-acting GnRH agonist to induce ovulation and pseudopregnancy (0.8 mu g of buserelin per animal intramuscularly). Ten days after each treatment with buserdin, blood was collected for progesterone measurement to confirm pseudopregnancy. After implant insertion, the first blood collection (Day 10) was done without preceding induction of ovulation to screen for implant induced ovulation and pseudopregnancy. The implant was in situ for 273 days, and during this time span, 12 attempts of induction of ovulation were caiTied out in intervals of 21 days, beginning at the age ofBl days. Afterward, it was removed under local anesthesia and 3 further inductions of ovulation by the same scheme were conducted. The insertion of the implant led to the establishment of a pseudopregnancy in 2 of 7 animals; the remaining 5 animals did not show elevated progesterone values. Attempts to induce ovulation by administration of the short-acting GnRH analog while the slow-release GnRH analog implant was in place were not successful in treated animals, and progesterone concentrations were basal. The effect was reversible as ovulation could be induced in 2 subsequent cycles in all animals by the third induction of ovulation after implant removal. Induction of ovulation in control animals at the age of 110 and 131 days resulted in elevated progesterone levels after 10 days. No adverse side effects could be observed in implanttreated animals. The typical red coloration of the vulva could be seen in group 2 and after implant removal in group 1. The results suggest that in 5 of 7 rabbits, puberty was delayed by the treatment with the 4.7-mg deslorelin slow-release analog until the implant had been removed. In the other animals, the treatment induced an initial flare-up phenomenon. Afterward, the treatment could reversibly suppress ovarian function in all 7 treated animals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

37) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

38) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

39) Zika virus genome from the Americas.
Autor: Enfissi Antoine,Codrington John,Roosblad Jimmy,Kazanji Mirdad,Rousset Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

40) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

41) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

42) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.
Autor: Gyurech Danielle,Schilling Julian,Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas,Cassinotti Pascal,Kaeppeli Franz,Dobec Marinko
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, 2016
ISSN: 1424-3997
Resumo:

43) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

44) Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Bravo-Filho V., Góis A.L., Belfort R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), macular degeneration, macular neuroretinal atrophy, microcephaly (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

45) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

46) Evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses - Brazil, 2015
Autor: Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana; Rollin, Dominique; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Luz, Kleber G.; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria; Freire Davi, Helaine Pompeia; de Oliveria, Wanderson Kleber; Lanciotti, Robert; Lambert, Amy; Zaki, Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

47) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

48) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

49) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

50) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

51) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

52) Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae
Autor: Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri;Suharjono, Suharjono
Assunto: Toxicants; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Larvae; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Phylogeny; Beaches; Toxins; Soil; Colonies; Islands; Saline water; Cytology; Heat shock; Toxicity testing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 2, p. 148-154, 2016.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island. Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology, and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus 2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values within 48 h. PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16s rDNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes (using multiplex PCR). Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates (namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1-2 bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes. Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

53) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

54) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

55) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

56) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

57) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, n. 5, p. 587-590, 2016.
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

58) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

59) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

60) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

61) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

62) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

63) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

64) Zika virus: a roar after years of whispering
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balkhair, Abdullah ; Al- Maamari, Khuloud ; Alawi , Fatma Ba ; Al- Adawi, Badriya
Assunto: Medical science and research; Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA
Fonte: Oman Medical Journal, v. 3, n. 2, p. 87, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

65) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

66) Zika virus on the move.
Autor: Robert P. Kruger
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-587, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo:

67) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

68) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

69) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

70) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

71) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

72) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

73) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

74) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

75) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

76) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

77) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

78) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

79) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

80) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

81) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

82) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

83) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

84) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.
Autor: Hamel Rodolphe,Liégeois Florian,Wichit Sineewanlaya,Pompon Julien,Diop Fodé,Talignani Loïc,Thomas Frédéric,Desprès Philippe,Yssel Hans,Missé Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA, arbovirus, epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, vector
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

85) Monkey study reveals zika damage in developing brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Showing the closest link yet between Zika virus and fetal brain injury in an animal model that closely resembles humans, researchers today described brain abnormalities in the fetus of a macaque experimentally infected during the late stage of her pregnancy. In other developments, Thailand reported several more Zika cases, many of them linked to a cluster in Bangkok, as the number of infections in Singapore grew steadily. In Florida, health officials denied a newspaper report charging problems with Zika reporting, and Broward County began aerial spraying withan organic pesticide as a prevention step

86) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvez E., Guillaumot L., Millet L., Marie J., Bossin H., Rama V., Faamoe A., Kilama S., Teurlai M., Mathieu-Daudé F., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, insect genetics
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding: We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (F(ST) = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

87) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

88) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth.
Autor: Tang Hengli,Hammack Christy,Ogden Sarah C,Wen Zhexing,Qian Xuyu,Li Yujing,Yao Bing,Shin Jaehoon,Zhang Feiran,Lee Emily M,Christian Kimberly M,Didier Ruth A,Jin Peng,Song Hongjun,Ming Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

89) ZIKA virus circulates in new regions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Attar N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 62, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1740-1534 (electronic),1740-1526
Resumo:

90) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

91) Analysis of the miRNA expression profile in an Aedes albopictus cell line in response to bluetongue virus infection
Autor: Xing, Shanshan; Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong
Assunto: Aedes albopictus cell line; Bluetongue virus; Deep sequencing; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 39, p. 74-84, 2016
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be key regulators of virus-host interactions. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-borne virus that causes huge economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Aedes albopictus cell lines have become powerful and convenient tools for studying BTV-vector interactions. However, the role of miRNAs in A. albopictus cells during BTV infection is not well understood. In this study, we performed a deep sequencing analysis of small RNA libraries of BTV-infected and mock-infected A. albopictus cells, and a total of 11,206,854 and 12,125,274 clean reads were identified, respectively. A differential expression analysis showed that 140 miRNAs, including 15 known and 125 novel miRNAs, were significantly dysregulated after infection, and a total of 414 and 2307 target genes were annotated, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the expression patterns of 11 selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation of the target genes suggested that these target genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, endocytosis, RNA transport, as well as the FoxO, Hippo, Jak-STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways. This is the first systematic study on the effect of BTV infection on miRNA expression in A. albopictus cells. This investigation provides information concerning the cellular miRNA expression profile in response to BTV infection, and it offers clues for identifying potential candidates for vector-based antiviral strategies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

92) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

93) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

94) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

95) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

96) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

97) Zika virus: A new global threat for 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

98) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

99) Effect of promoters and plasmid copy number on Cyt1A synthesis and crystal assembly in bacillus thuringiensis
Autor: Park, Hyun-Woo; Hice, Robert H.; Federici, Brian A.
Assunto: Messenger - RNA sequence; SUBSP Israelensis; Culex - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Protein; Expression; Resistance; Toxin; Construction; Sphaericus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Current Microbiology, v. 72, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 0343-8651
Resumo: Cyt1Aa is a major mosquitocidal protein synthesized during sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, composing more than 50 % of its parasporal body. This high level of synthesis is due to several factors including three strong sporulation-dependent promoters, a strong transcription termination sequence, and an associated 20-kDa helper protein. Cyt1Aa's toxicity is low compared to the Cry proteins of this species, namely, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa, but it nevertheless plays an important role in the biology of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in that it synergizes their mosquitocidal toxicity and suppresses the evolution of resistance. In the present study, the effects of using different cyt1Aa promoter combinations and plasmid copy number on synthesis of Cyt1Aa were evaluated. Using the 4Q7 (plasmid-cured) strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis as an experimental host, a plasmid copy number of two or three yielded no Cyt1Aa, whereas a copy number of four yielded only small crystals, even when expression was driven by one of the wild-type promoters. However, using all three wild-type promoters and a plasmid copy number of 20 yielded Cyt1A crystals tenfold larger than those produced by one promoter and a plasmid copy number of four. High levels of Cyt1Aa synthesis resulted in significantly fewer spores per unit medium and imperfectly formed crystals. Similar results were obtained when Cyt1Aa synthesis was evaluated using the same expression constructs in a mutant strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis that lacks the cyt1Aa gene.

100) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

101) Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase
Autor: Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Ammonia; Gene silencing; Protein expression; Uric acid; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: FASEB Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 111-120, 2016
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose-and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected controlmosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. FASEB J. 30, 111-120 (2016). www.fasebj.org

102) Oxis Biotech Inc. Says It Has Identified Inhibitors That Could Block Zika Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Mass communications and publishing; News, opinion and commentary; Business and industries; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: PR Newswire, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

103) Evolution of the assassin's arms: insights from a phylogeny of combined transcriptomic and ribosomal DNA data (Heteroptera: Reduvioidea)
Autor: Zhang, Junxia; Gordon, Eric R. L.; Forthman, Michael; Hwang, Wei Song; Walden, Kim; Swanson, Daniel R.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Meier, Rudolf; Weirauch, Christiane
Assunto: Bugs Hemiptera Reduviidae; Attachment Structures; Insecta-Heteroptera; Molecular Phylogeny; Fossula Spongiosa; Data Sets; Cimicomorpha; Models; Characters; Morphology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 22177, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Assassin bugs (Reduvioidea) are one of the most diverse (> 7,000 spp.) lineages of predatory animals and have evolved an astounding diversity of raptorial leg modifications for handling prey. The evolution of these modifications is not well understood due to the lack of a robust phylogeny, especially at deeper nodes. We here utilize refined data from transcriptomes (370 loci) to stabilize the backbone phylogeny of Reduvioidea, revealing the position of major clades (e.g., the Chagas disease vectors Triatominae). Analyses combining transcriptomic and Sanger-sequencing datasets result in the first well-resolved phylogeny of Reduvioidea. Despite amounts of missing data, the transcriptomic loci resolve deeper nodes while the targeted ribosomal genes anchor taxa at shallower nodes, both with high support. This phylogeny reveals patterns of raptorial leg evolution across major leg types. Hairy attachment structures (fossula spongiosa), present in the ancestor of Reduvioidea, were lost multiple times within the clade. In contrast to prior hypotheses, this loss is not directly correlated with the evolution of alternative raptorial leg types. Our results suggest that prey type, predatory behavior, salivary toxicity, and morphological adaptations pose intricate and interrelated factors influencing the evolution of this diverse group of predators.

104) Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control
Autor: Leftwich, Philip T.; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey
Assunto: Fitness; Genetic Modification; Release Of Insects Carrying A Dominant Lethal; Resistance; Selection; Sterile Insect Technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 9, n. 1, p. 212-230, 2016
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

105) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

106) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

107) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

108) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

109) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

110) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

111) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

112) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

113) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

114) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

115) Zika virus: A previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gatherer D., Kohl A.
Assunto: pandemic, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099 (electronic),0022-1317
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

116) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

117) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

118) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

119) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

120) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

121) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

122) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

123) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

124) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

125) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

126) Scientists probe Zika link to birth defects: Mosquito-borne virus is now present in 33 countries
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Check Hayden E.
Assunto: congenital malformation (congenital disorder), Flavivirus infection, Zika infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

127) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

128) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

129) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

130) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

131) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

132) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

133) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

134) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

135) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

136) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

137) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

138) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

139) Zika virus: a new threat from mosquitoes.
Autor: Li Xiao-Feng,Han Jian-Feng,Shi Pei-Yong,Qin Cheng-Feng
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Science China, 2016
ISSN: 1869-1889
Resumo:

140) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

141) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

142) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

143) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

144) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

145) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

146) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

147) Expression of a sugar Glade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori
Autor: Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi
Assunto: Juvenile Hormone; 20-Hydroxyecdysone; Post-Translation Modification; Cholesterol; Lipid Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, n. , p. 85-98, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar Glade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

148) The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East.
Autor: Tridane Abdessamad,El Khajah Abdelmajid,Ali Bassam R
Assunto: Congenital microcephaly, Middle East, Travel warning, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo:

149) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

150) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

151) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

152) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

153) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

154) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I.
Assunto: virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

155) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Edillo, Frances E.; Sarcos, Janet R.; Sayson, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Aedes; Culicidae; Dengue; Arbovirus; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 282-291, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We attempted to determine the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Mosquito sub-adults were collected monthly from households and the field during the wet-dry-wet season from November, 2011 to July, 2012 and were laboratory-reared to adults. Viral RNA extracts in mosquitoes were assayed by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Results showed that 62 (36.26%; n=679) out of 171 mosquito pools (n=2,871) were DENV+. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of DENV ranged from 0 in wet months to 48.22/1,000 mosquitoes in April, 2012 (mid-dry). DENVs were detected in larvae, pupae, and male and female adults, with DENV-4, DENV-3, and DENV-1, in that rank of prevalence. DENV-1 co-infected with either DENV-3 or -4 or with both in April, 2012; DENV-3 and -4 were present in both seasons. More DENV+ mosquitoes were collected from households than in field premises (p<0.001) and in the dry than in the wet season (p<0.05), with significant interaction (p<0.05) between sites and premises but no interaction between sites and seasons (p>0.05). By Generalized Linear Mixed models, the type of premises nested in sites and monthly total rainfall were significant predictors of monthly dengue cases (p<0.05) and not MIR, season, temperature, and relative humidity. Surveillance of DENV prevalence in Ae. aegypti and detecting their natural foci in the dry season provide an early warning signal of dengue outbreak.

156) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

157) Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes
Autor: Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod
Assunto: Multiple dengue types; Etiology; DHF
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 150, n. , p. 107-110, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

158) Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sasaki, Naniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antonio Pancracio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Ligia
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Digestive enzyme; Kunitz-type inhibitor; Molecular docking; Molecular modeling
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biochimie, v. 112, p. 172-186, 2015
ISSN: 0300-9084
Resumo: Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated :a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects adapt to them. (C) (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

159) Emergence of the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Émergence du virus Zika
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anarthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

160) Effects of the P20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on insecticidal crystal protein Cry4Ba
Autor: Elleuch, Jihen; Zghal, Raida Zribi; Ben Fguira, Ines; Lacroix, Marie Noel; Suissi, Jihed; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir
Assunto: 20-kDa chaperone-like protein; Cry4BLB larvicidal activity; Toxin solubilization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 79, p. 174-179, 2015
ISSN: 0141-8130
Resumo: The accessory protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis has been defined as an important molecular chaperone for forming crystal Cyt1Aa, and enhancing Cry11Aa and Cry4Aa expression. To investigate its putative role in Cry4Ba delta-endotoxin production and toxicity, a p20 gene was cloned and introduced into B. thuringiensis recombinant strain expressing cry4Ba type gene (cry4BLB). The delta-endotoxin synthesis was enhanced by 262%. The generated inclusions were assayed against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The combination of P20 protein with Cry4BLB delta-endotoxin led to a stable mortality rate of 25% with doses ranging from 0.2 mg l(-1) to 0.6 mg l(-1). Cry4BLB crystals produced in the presence of P20 were much less soluble than those produced by the control strain lacking P20 at pH lower than or equal to 10.5. The observed toxicity perturbation correlates with a decrease of Cry4BLB inclusions solubility. The presence of P20 protein has affected Cry4BLB crystallization and altered greatly its solubility properties. Cry4Ba effectiveness against A. aegypti larvae is related to the solubilization step in larval guts environment. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

161) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

162) Efficacy of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum against Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae and adults
Autor: Rocha, L. F. N.; Sousa, N. A.; Rodrigues, J.; Catao, A. M. L.; Marques, C. S.; Fernandes, E. K. K.; Luz, C.
Assunto: Biological control; Entomopathogenic fungus; Hypocreales; Isolate; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of applied microbiology, v. 119, n. 5, p. 1412-1419, 2015
ISSN: 1364-5072
Resumo: AimsThe aim of this study was to test the activity of seven Tolypocladium cylindrosporum isolates against different developmental stages of Aedes aegypti.Methods and ResultsOvicidal activity (30% of eclosion; at a 84% eclosion of control eggs) and lowest cumulative emergence of adults (30%; at a 663% control emergence) originating from eclosing larvae was found 15 and 30days, respectively, after applying conidia of ARSEF 962 or 1580 onto the eggs. All isolates induced larval mortality when third-instar larvae were treated with conidia (5% control mortality); the lowest lethal concentration (LC50) at 5days after treatment was found with ARSEF 1580 (92x10(5)conidiaml(-1)), and the shortest lethal time (LT50) with ARSEF 2912 (28days at 33x10(6)conidiaml(-1)). The pathogenicity of T.cylindrosporum to A.aegypti adults is corroborated. ARSEF 1027, 1580 and 2912 induced the highest cumulative mortality in adults (90%) 15days after application (5% control mortality).ConclusionsFindings emphasized an isolate- and developmental stage-related virulence of T.cylindrosporum.Significance and Impact of the StudyARSEF 1580, in the group of tested isolates, is the most promising isolate for use against terrestrial eggs, aquatic larvae and adults of this important vector.

163) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

164) Eilat virus induces both homologous and heterologous interference
Autor: Nasar, Farooq; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Haddow, Andrew D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Superinfection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 484, p. 51-58, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, and humans. Occasionally, alphaviruses can spill over into the human population and cause disease characterized by debilitating arthralgia or fatal encephalitis. Recently, a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described that readily infects mosquito but not vertebrate cell lines. Here, we investigated the ability of EILV to induce superinfection exclusion. Prior infection of C7/10 (Aedes albopictus) cells with EILV induced homologous and heterologous interference, reducing the virus titers of heterologous superinfecting viruses (SINV, VEEV, EEEV, WEEV, and CHIKV) by similar to 10-10,000 fold and delaying replication kinetics by 12-48 h. Similar to in vitro infection, prior in vivo EILV infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes delayed dissemination of chikungunya virus for 3 days. This is the first evidence of heterologous interference induced by a mosquito-specific alphavirus in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights. reserved.

165) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Population genetics; Insecticides; Allelles; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Heredity; Vectors; Vaccines; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ;
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

166) Elizabethkingia anophelis: Molecular Manipulation and Interactions with Mosquito Hosts
Autor: Chen, Shicheng; Bagdasarian, Michael; Walker, Edward D.
Assunto: 16s ribosomal-rna; Green fluorescent protein; Mariner-based transposon; Aedes-aegypti; Bacteroides-fragilis; Gliding motility; Salivary-glands; Gut microbiota; Vector; Identification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Applied and environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 6, p. 2233-2243, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Flavobacteria (members of the family Flavobacteriaceae) dominate the bacterial community in the Anopheles mosquito midgut. One such commensal, Elizabethkingia anophelis, is closely associated with Anopheles mosquitoes through transstadial persistence (i.e., from one life stage to the next); these and other properties favor its development for paratransgenic applications in control of malaria parasite transmission. However, the physiological requirements of E. anophelis have not been investigated, nor has its capacity to perpetuate despite digestion pressure in the gut been quantified. To this end, we first developed techniques for genetic manipulation of E. anophelis, including selectable markers, reporter systems (green fluorescent protein [GFP] and NanoLuc), and transposons that function in E. anophelis. A flavobacterial expression system based on the promoter PompA was integrated into the E. anophelis chromosome and showed strong promoter activity to drive GFP and NanoLuc reporter production. Introduced, GFP-tagged E. anophelis associated with mosquitoes at successive developmental stages and propagated in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi but not in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Feeding NanoLuc-tagged cells to A. gambiae and A. stephensi in the larval stage led to infection rates of 71% and 82%, respectively. In contrast, a very low infection rate (3%) was detected in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes under the same conditions. Of the initial E. anophelis cells provided to larvae, 23%, 71%, and 85% were digested in A. stephensi, A. gambiae, and Aedes triseriatus, respectively, demonstrating that E. anophelis adapted to various mosquito midgut environments differently. Bacterial cell growth increased up to 3-fold when arginine was supplemented in the defined medium. Furthermore, the number of NanoLuc-tagged cells in A. stephensi significantly increased when arginine was added to a sugar diet, showing it to be an important amino acid for E. anophelis. Animal erythrocytes promoted E. anophelis growth in vivo and in vitro, indicating that this bacterium could obtain nutrients by participating in erythrocyte lysis in the mosquito midgut.

167) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

168) Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil
Autor: Teixeira Nunes, Marcio Roberto; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Golding, Nick; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro; Andrade da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Carvalho, Valeria Lima; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Ribeiro Cruz, Ana Cecilia; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; da Silva Goncalves Vianez, Joao Lidio, Jr.; Diniz Nunes, Bruno Tardelli; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Tesh, Robert B.; Hay, Simon I.; Pybus, Oliver G.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; National surveillance; Public health; Spatial prediction; Statistical methods
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 13, n. 102, 2015
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: Background: In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil.Methods: We compiled epidemiological and clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil and polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April and September 2014. Two imported and four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities.Results: We detected 41 CHIKV importations and 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola and developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country and provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil.Conclusions: The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian and ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance and vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

169) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

170) Emergence of de novo proteins from 'dark genomic matter' by 'grow slow and moult'
Autor: Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Schmitz, Jonathan; Heberlein, Magdalena
Assunto: Domain rearrangements; Orphan genes; Protein disorder; Protein evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Biochemical Society Transactions, v. 43, n. 5, p. 867-873, 2015
ISSN: 0300-5127
Resumo: Proteins are the workhorses of the cell and, over billions of years, they have evolved an amazing plethora of extremely diverse and versatile structures with equally diverse functions. Evolutionary emergence of new proteins and transitions between existing ones are believed to be rare or even impossible. However, recent advances in comparative genomics have repeatedly called some 10%-30% of all genes without any detectable similarity to existing proteins. Even after careful scrutiny, some of those orphan genes contain protein coding reading frames with detectable transcription and translation. Thus some proteins seem to have emerged from previously non-coding 'dark genomic matter'. These 'de novo' proteins tend to be disordered, fast evolving, weakly expressed but also rapidly assuming novel and physiologically important functions. Here we review mechanisms by which 'de novo' proteins might be created, under which circumstances they may become fixed and why they are elusive. We propose a 'grow slow and moult' model in which first a reading frame is extended, coding for an initially disordered and non-globular appendage which, over time, becomes more structured and may also become associated with other proteins.

171) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

172) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

173) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

174) A standard cytogenetic map of Culex quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes in application for fine-scale physical mapping
Autor: Unger, Maria F.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Harshbarger, Adam J.; Glass, Patrick; Collins, Frank H.
Assunto: Physical mapping; Culex fatigans; Culex pipiens; Culex quinquefasciatus; Polytene chromosomes; Gene mapping; Chromosomal map; FISH; Assembly; Misassembly; Cytogenetic map
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 307, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus belongs to the C. pipiens cryptic species complex, with global distribution and unclear taxonomy. Mosquitoes of the complex can transmit human and animal pathogens, such as filarial worm, West Nile virus and avian malarial Plasmodium. Physical gene mapping is crucial to understanding genome organization, function, and systematic relationships of cryptic species, and is a basis for developing new vector control strategies. However, physical mapping was not established previously for Culex due to the lack of well-structured polytene chromosomes. Inbreeding was used to diminish inversion polymorphism and asynapsis of chromosomal homologs. Identification of larvae of the same developmental stage using the shape of imaginal discs allowed achievement of uniformity in chromosomal banding pattern. This together with high-resolution phase-contrast photography enabled the development of a cytogenetic map. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used for gene mapping. A detailed cytogenetic map of C. quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes was produced. Landmarks for chromosome recognition and cytological boundaries for two inversions were identified. Locations of 23 genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs, and 2 cDNA were established. Six supercontigs were oriented and one was found putatively misassembled. The cytogenetic map was linked to the previously developed genetic linkage groups by corresponding positions of 2 genetic markers and 10 supercontigs carrying genetic markers. Polytene chromosomes were numbered according to the genetic linkage groups. This study developed a new standard cytogenetic photomap of the polytene chromosomes for C. quinquefasciatus and was applied for the fine-scale physical mapping. It allowed us to infer chromosomal position of 1333 of annotated genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs and find orientation of 6 of these supercontigs; the new cytogenetic and previously developed genetic linkage maps were integrated based on 12 matches. The map will further assist in finding chromosomal position of the medically important and other genes, contributing into improvement of the genome assembly. Better assembled C. quinquefasciatus genome can serve as a reference for studying other vector species of C. pipiens complex and will help to resolve their taxonomic relationships. This, in turn, will contribute into future development of vector and disease control strategies.

175) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

176) Endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs derived from transposable elements and genes in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Biryukova, Inna; Ye, Tao
Assunto: Endo-siRNAs; Endo-piRNAs; Anopheles gambiae; Transposable elements
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 247, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: The siRNA and piRNA pathways have been shown in insects to be essential for regulation of gene expression and defence against exogenous and endogenous genetic elements (viruses and transposable elements). The vast majority of endogenous small RNAs produced by the siRNA and piRNA pathways originate from repetitive or transposable elements (TE). In D. melanogaster, TE-derived endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs are involved in genome surveillance and maintenance of genome integrity. In the medically relevant malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae TEs constitute 12-16% of the genome size. Genetic variations induced by TE activities are known to shape the genome landscape and to alter the fitness in An. gambiae.Results: Here, using bioinformatics approaches we analyzed the small RNA data sets from 6 libraries formally reported in a previous study and examined the expression of the mixed germline/somatic siRNAs and piRNAs produced in adult An. gambiae females. We characterized a large population of TE-derived endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs, which constitutes 56-60% of the total siRNA and piRNA reads in the analysed libraries. Moreover, we identified a number of protein coding genes producing gene-specific siRNAs and piRNAs that were generally expressed at much lower levels than the TE-associated small RNAs. Detailed sequence analysis revealed that An. gambiae piRNAs were produced by both "ping-pong" dependent (TE-associated piRNAs) and independent mechanisms (genic piRNAs). Similarly to D. melanogaster, more than 90% of the detected piRNAs were produced from TE-associated clusters in An. gambiae. We also found that biotic stress as blood feeding and infection with Plasmodium parasite, the etiological agent of malaria, modulated the expression levels of the endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs in An. gambiae.Conclusions: We identified a large and diverse set of the endogenously derived siRNAs and piRNAs that share common and distinct aspects of small RNA expression across insect species, and inferred their impact on TE and gene activity in An. gambiae. The TE-specific small RNAs produced by both the siRNA and piRNA pathways represent an important aspect of genome stability and genetic variation, which might have a strong impact on the evolution of the genome and vector competence in the malaria mosquitoes.

177) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

178) A serine protease inhibitor from the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons, exhibits antimicrobial activities
Autor: Lee, Kyeong Yong; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jin, Byung Rae
Assunto: Osmia cornifrons; Hornfaced bee; Serine protease inhibitor; Antimicrobial activity; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 18, n. 3, p. 489-495, 2015
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Serine protease inhibitors play a critical role in physiological processes and immune responses by regulating serine protease activities. Here we describe the molecular cloning and antimicrobial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons (OcSPI). OcSPI consists of 405 amino acid residues and contains a potential reactive center loop (RCL) region in its C-terminus. Recombinant OcSPI was produced as a 64-kDa glycoprotein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin. Additionally, OcSPI demonstrated inhibitory activity against microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against tissue plasminogen activator, thrombin, or plasmin. Recombinant OcSPI bound directly to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Beauveria bassiana and exhibited antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Our results demonstrated the antimicrobial functions of OcSPI and suggest a role for OcSPI in the immune response of O. cornifrons bees. (C) 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

179) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

180) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

181) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

182) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

183) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane ; Diallo, Diawo ; Faye, Oumar ; Ba, Yamar ; Gaye, Alioune
Assunto: Diseases and conditions; Infectious diseases; Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 492, 2015
ISSN:
Resumo:

184) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

185) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Public health; Dengue; Control programs; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The authors carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-olymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. They report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitan in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

186) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

187) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticle; Bacillus megaterium; Bioreduction; Pathogenicity; LC50 and LC90
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4069-4079, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated chi (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

188) A transferrin gene associated with development and 2-tridecanone tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera
Autor: Zhang, L.; Shang, Q.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Gao, X.
Assunto: Transferrin; Helicoverpa armigera; RNA interference; 2-tridecanone
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 155-166, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: The full-length cDNA (2320bp) encoding a putative iron-binding transferrin protein from Helicoverpa armigera was cloned and named HaTrf. The putative HaTrf sequence included 670 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 76kDa. Quantitative PCR results demonstrated that the transcriptional level of HaTrf was significantly higher in the sixth instar and pupa stages as compared with other developmental stages. HaTrf transcripts were more abundant in fat bodies and in the epidermis than in malpighian tubules. Compared with the control, the expression of HaTrf increased dramatically 24h after treatment with 2-tridecanone. Apparent growth inhibition with a dramatic body weight decrease was observed in larvae fed with HaTrf double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), as compared with those fed with green fluorescent protein dsRNA. RNA interference of HaTrf also significantly increased the susceptibility of larvae to 2-tridecanone. These results indicate the possible involvement of HaTrf in tolerance to plant secondary chemicals.

189) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

190) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus Zika: Um Novo Capítulo na História da Medicina
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Flaviviridae, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 679-680, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo:

191) Evidence of two mechanisms involved in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis decreased toxicity against mosquito larvae: Genome dynamic and toxins stability
Autor: Elleuch, Jihen; Zghal, Raida Zribi; Lacoix, Marie Noel; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; Aedes aegypti; Cry genes content; Proteolysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Microbiological Research, v. 176, n. , p. 48-54, 2015
ISSN: 0944-5013
Resumo: Biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis are the most used and most successful around the world. This bacterium is characterized by a dynamic genome able to win or lose genetic materials which leads to a decrease in its effectiveness. The detection of such phenomena is of great importance to monitor the stability of B. thuringiensis strains in industrial production processes of biopesticides. New local B. thuringiensis israelensis isolates were investigated. They present variable levels of delta-endotoxins production and insecticidal activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Searching on the origin of this variability, molecular and biochemical analyses were performed. The obtained results describe two main reasons of the decrease of B. thuringiensis israelensis insecticidal activity. The first reason was the deletion of cry4Aa and cry10Aa genes from the 128-kb pBtoxis plasmid as evidenced in three strains (BLB124, BLB199 and BLB506) among five. The second was the early degradation of Cry toxins by proteases in larvae midgut mainly due to some amino acids substitutions evidenced in Cry4Ba and Cryl1Aa delta-endotoxins detected in BLB356. Before biological treatment based on B. thuringiensis israelensis, the studies of microflore in each ecosystem have a great importance to succeed pest management programs. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

192) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

193) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

194) Accelerated evolution of constraint elements for hematophagic adaptation in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Ming-Shan; Adeola, Adeniyi C.; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Wu, Dong-Dong
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Constraint elements; Accelerated elements; Hematophagyÿ
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Zoological Research, v. 36, n. 6, p. 320-327, 2015
ISSN: 0254-5853
Resumo: Comparative genomics is a powerful approach that comprehensively interprets the genome. Herein, we performed whole genome comparative analysis of 16 Diptera genomes, including four mosquitoes and 12 Drosophilae. We found more than 540 000 constraint elements (CEs) in the Diptera genome, with the majority found in the intergenic, coding and intronic regions. Accelerated elements (AEs) identified in mosquitoes were mostly in the protein-coding regions (>93%), which differs from vertebrates in genomic distribution. Some genes functionally enriched in blood digestion, body temperature regulation and insecticide resistance showed rapid evolution not only in the lineage of the recent common ancestor of mosquitoes (RCAM), but also in some mosquito lineages. This may be associated with lineage-specific traits and/or adaptations in comparison with other insects. Our findings revealed that although universally fast evolution acted on biological systems in RCAM, such as hematophagy, same adaptations also appear to have occurred through distinct degrees of evolution in different mosquito species, enabling them to be successful blood feeders in different environments.

195) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

196) Acetylcholinesterases from the disease vectors aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae: functional characterization and comparisons with vertebrate orthologues
Autor: Engdahl, Cecilia; Knutsson, Sofie; Fredriksson, Sten-Ake; Linusson, Anna; Bucht, Goran; Ekstrom, Fredrik
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Torpedo - Californica; Mass - Spectrometry; Malaria mosquito; Target site; Inhibitors; Butyrylcholinesterase; Identification; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquitoes of the Anopheles (An.) and Aedes (Ae.) genus are principal vectors of human diseases including malaria, dengue and yellow fever. Insecticide-based vector control is an established and important way of preventing transmission of such infections. Currently used insecticides can efficiently control mosquito populations, but there are growing concerns about emerging resistance, off-target toxicity and their ability to alter ecosystems. A potential target for the development of insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity is the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Herein, we report cloning, baculoviral expression and functional characterization of the wild-type AChE genes (ace-1) from An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, including a naturally occurring insecticide-resistant (G119S) mutant of An. gambiae. Using enzymatic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we found that the secreted proteins were post-translationally modified. The Michaelis-Menten constants and turnover numbers of the mosquito enzymes were lower than those of the orthologous AChEs from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. We also found that the G119S substitution reduced the turnover rate of substrates and the potency of selected covalent inhibitors. Furthermore, non-covalent inhibitors were less sensitive to the G119S substitution and differentiate the mosquito enzymes from corresponding vertebrate enzymes. Our findings indicate that it may be possible to develop selective non-covalent inhibitors that effectively target both the wild-type and insecticide resistant mutants of mosquito AChE.

197) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

198) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

199) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

200) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

201) Co-infection with zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dupont-Rouzeyrol M., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Daures M., John M., Grangeon J.-P., Gourinat A.-C.
Assunto: Dengue virus, mixed infection, virus, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 381-382, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

202) (E)-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil
Autor: Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patricia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique
Assunto: Chemical composition; Insecticide resistance; Acaricidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Pyrethroid resistance; Diptera culicidae; Medicinal plants; Aromatic plants; Vector control; Oleogum resin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with a-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and beta-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and a-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

203) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

204) AealRACK1 expression and localization in response to stress in C6/36 HT mosquito cells
Autor: Gonzalez-Calixto, Cecilia; Cazares-Raga, Febe E.; Cortes-Martinez, Leticia; Maria del Angel, Rosa; Medina-Ramirez, Fernando; Mosso, Clemente; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Henry Rodriguez, Mario; de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel
Assunto: C6/36 HT cells; Receptor for activated C; Kinase (RACK1); Scaffold protein; Stress conditions; Aedes mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 119, p. 45-60, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: The Receptor for Activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffold protein member of the tryptophanaspartate (WD) repeat family, folds in a seven-bladed 3-propeller structure that permits the association of proteins to form active complexes. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes sp., are vectors of virus producing important diseases such as: dengue, chilcungunya and yellow fever. Based on the highly conserved gene sequence of AeaeRACK1 of the mosquito Aedes aegypti we characterized the mRNA and protein of the homologous AealRACK1 from the Ae. alloopictusderived cell line C6/36 HT. Two protein species differing in MW/pI values were observed at 35 kDa/8.0 and 36 IrDa/6.5. The behavior of AealRACK1 was studied inducing stress with serum deprivation and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Both stressors induced increase of the expression of AealRACK1 mRNA and proteins. In serum-deprived cells AealRACK1 protein was located cortically near the plasma membrane in contrast to dexamethasone-treated cells where the protein formed a dotted pattern in the cytoplasm. In addition, 33 protein partners were identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Most of the identified proteins were ribosomal, involved in signaling pathways and stress responses. Our results suggest that AealRACK1 in C6/36 FIT cells respond to stress increasing its synthesis and producing phosphorylated activated form.Biological significanceInsect cells adapt to numerous environmental stressors, including chemicals and invasion of pathogenic microorganisms among others, coordinating cellular and organismal responses. Individual cells sense the environment using receptors that trigger signaling pathways that regulate expression of specific effector proteins and/or cellular responses as movement or secretion. In the coordination of responses to stress, scaffold proteins are pivotal molecules that recruit other proteins forming active complexes. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is the best studied member of the conserved tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family. RACK1 folds in a seven-bladed p-propeller structure and it could be activated during stress, participating in different signaling pathways. The presence and activities of RACK1 in mosquitoes had not been documented before, in this work the molecule is demonstrated in an Aedes albopictus-derived cell line and its reaction to stress is observed under the effect of serum deprivation and the presence of glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone, a chemical used to cause stress in vitro. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

205) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

206) 20-hydroxyecdysone stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the mosquito corpora allata
Autor: Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Juvenile hormone ; Mosquito ; Biosynthesis ; Corpora allata ; 20-Hydroxyecdysone
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 100-105, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. JH titer decreases in the last instar larvae allowing pupation and metamorphosis to progress. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) prepares the pupae for ecdysis, and would be an ideal candidate to direct a developmental program in the CA of the pharate adult mosquito. In this study, we provide evidence that 20E acts as an age-linked hormonal signal, directing CA activation in the mosquito pupae. Stimulation of the inactive brain-corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex (Br-CA-CC) of the early pupa (24 h before adult eclosion or -24 h) in vitro with 20E resulted in a remarkable increase in JH biosynthesis, as well as increase in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). Addition of methyl farnesoate but not farnesoic acid also stimulated JH synthesis by the Br-CA-CC of the -24 h pupae, proving that epoxidase activity is present, but not JHAMT activity. Separation of the CACC complex from the brain (denervation) in the -24 h pupae also activated JH synthesis. Our results suggest that an increase in 20E titer might override an inhibitory effect of the brain on JH synthesis, phenocopying denervation. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that 20E acts as a developmental signal that ensures proper reactivation of JH synthesis in the mosquito pupae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

207) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

208) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in mauritania: first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott
Autor: Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Ould Ahmedou Salem; Brahim, Khyarhoum Ould; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Brengues, Cecile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frederic; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius; Emergence; Larval habitat; Climate change
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 730-733, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

209) A critical role for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha 2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

210) Aedes aegypti has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Goundar, Anjali; White, Vanessa; Yang, Qiong; Filipovic, Igor; Johnson, Petrina; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Arguni, Eggi
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Indonesia; Genetic structure; RADseq; Microsatellites; mtDNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 610, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue fever, the most prevalent global arboviral disease, represents an important public health problem in Indonesia. Control of dengue relies on the control of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, yet nothing is known about the population history and genetic structure of this insect in Indonesia. Our aim was to assess the spatio-temporal population genetic structure of Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta, a densely populated region on Java with common dengue outbreaks. We used multiple marker systems (microsatellites, nuclear and mitochondrial genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) to analyze 979 Ae. aegypti individuals collected from the Yogyakarta city and the surrounding hamlets during the wet season in 2011 and the following dry season in 2012. We employed individual-and group-based approaches for inferring genetic structure. We found that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations. The spatial structuring was significant for the nuclear and mitochondrial markers, while the temporal structuring was non-significant. Nuclear markers identified three main genetic clusters, showing that hamlets have greater genetic isolation from each other and from the inner city sites. However, one hamlet experienced unrestricted mosquito interbreeding with the inner city, forming a single genetic cluster. Genetic distance was poorly correlated with the spatial distance among mosquito samples, suggesting stronger influence of human-assisted gene flow than active mosquito movement on spatial genetic structure. A star-shaped mitochondrial haplotype network and a significant R-2 test statistic (R-2 = 0.0187, P = 0.001) support the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta originated from a small or homogeneous source and has undergone a relatively recent demographic expansion. We report the first insights into the spatio-temporal genetic structure and the underlying processes in the dengue fever mosquito from Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Our results provide valuable information on the effectiveness of local control measures as well as guidelines for the implementation of novel biocontrol strategies such as release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes

211) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

212) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

213) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

214) Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals
Autor: Seaman, Jonathan A.; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Dabire, Roch K.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A.; Kuklinski, Wojtek S.; Black, William C.; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Ivermectin; Vector control; Malaria transmission; RNA-seq
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 797, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and comparing phylogeny to transcriptional patterns revealed that NPCs have rapidly evolved and separate members respond to either blood meals or to ivermectin.Conclusion: We present evidence of increased ivermectin susceptibility in older An. gambiae mosquitoes that had previously bloodfed. Differential expression analysis suggests complex midgut interactions resulting from ivermectin ingestion that likely involve blood meal digestion physiological responses, midgut microflora, and innate immune responses. Thus, the transcription of certain gene families is consistently affected by ivermectin ingestion, and may provide important clues to ivermectin's broad effects on malaria vectors. These findings contribute to the growing understanding of ivermectin's potential as a transmission control tool

215) Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Ebola virus at low resource settings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Abd El Wahed A., Patel P., Faye O., Nentwich O., Wende A., Piepenburg O., Sall A., Weidmann M.
Assunto: Ebolavirus, European, laboratory, public health, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 20, supl. 1, p. 29-30, set. 2015
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: INTRODUCTION The current outbreak of Ebola has killed over 10 000 people in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Early identification and isolation of the infected Ebola cases are the most important control measures. Detection of the Ebola virus by using the rapid antigen lateral flow tests is an easy to be applied at the point-of-care. Nevertheless, the results must be confirmed by additional laboratory tests. Laboratory diagnosis mainly depends on Ebola RNA detection by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is available in central laboratories and has a turnaround time of more than 3 h. For decentralized low resource settings, there is a need for a simple molecular point-of-need test. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, a mobile suitcase laboratory (62× 49× 30 cm) containing all reagents and equipment for the detection of Ebola RNA was developed. Moreover, it was operated by a solar power battery. All reagents were cold-chain independent in order to ease the use at poor resource settings. RNA extraction was performed by a magnetic bead based method, in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. In one reaction tube, the reverse transcription step as well as the DNA amplification and detection by the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was achieved. RESULTS Using spiked plasma samples, as few as 15 Ebola RNA copies were detected in less than 30 min, while samples containing Crimean-Congo-Hemorrhagic-Fever, Yellow Fever, Lassa, Marburg, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses and Plasmodium falciparum were negative. CONCLUSION The mobile suitcase laboratory is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Ebola virus especially at low resource settings. Currently, two mobile suitcase laboratories are being used in Guinea.

216) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

217) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

218) A cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide with anti-inflammatory activity from the black fly salivary glands
Autor: Wu, Jing; Mu, Lixian; Zhuang, Li; Han, Yi; Liu, Tong; Li, Jun; Yang, Yuan; Yang, Hailong; Wei, Lin
Assunto: Cecropin, Antimicrobial peptide, Anti-inflammation, Black fly, Simulium bannaense
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 2-13, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belonging to the cecropin family have been identified from the salivary glands of different black fly species, however, the immunological functions for these molecules were poorly understood. A novel cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide (SibaCec) was purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium bannaense. The amino acid sequence of SibaCec was determined by a combination method of automated Edman degradation and cDNA sequencing. The morphologic changes of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli treated with SibaCec were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) generation was examined using a Griess assay and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappa B) were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was performed to evaluate the secondary structure of SibaCec in solvent environment. Interaction of SibaCec with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated LPS aggregates. Neutralization of LPS by SibaCec was assayed with the chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. qPCR was also used to analyze the expression of SibaCec mRNA in the salivary glands of insects after oral infection with the bacteria E. coli. SibaCec possessed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and showed low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. SEM analysis indicated that SibaCec killed bacteria through the disruption of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, SibaCec significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interferon-6 (IL-6) by blocking the activation of MAPKs and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. It mainly adopted an alpha-helix conformation in membrane-mimetic environments. SibaCec could interact and neutralize LPS. Infection of black flies with bacteria caused an upregulation of the expression of SibaCec. These results demonstrated that in addition to the bactericidal capacity, SibaCec can function as immune regulator, inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors.

219) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

220) A comparative analysis of reproductive biology of insect vectors of human disease
Autor: Shaw, W. Robert; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Aksoy, Serap; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Assunto: Fly ; Glossina ? Morsitans ; Aedes Aegypti ? Mosquitos ; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Tsetse ? Fly ; Juvenile ?Hormone ; Cytoplasmic incompatibility ; Molecular characterization ; African trypanosomiasis ; Wolbachia infections ; Host interactions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 142-148, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: Studying the reproductive strategies of insect species that transmit diseases to humans can identify new exploitable targets for the development of vector control methods. Here we describe shared characteristics and individual features of the reproductive biology of three major disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Glossina morsitans. Current studies are identifying i) species-specific molecular cascades that determine female monandrous behavior, ii) core aspects of egg development that could be disrupted for controlling natural populations, and iii) the increasingly apparent role of resident microbiota in shaping reproductive success and disease transmission potential. The recent completion of multiple genome sequencing projects is allowing comparative genomics studies that not only increase our knowledge of reproductive processes but also facilitate the identification of novel targets for vector control.

221) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology In Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015.
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

222) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

223) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

224) A corpora allata farnesyl diphosphate synthase in mosquitoes displaying a metal ion dependent substrate specificity
Autor: Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nyati, Pratik; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Prenyltranferases; Metal dependence; Substrate specificity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 44-50, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate famesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg2+ ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co2+ ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg2+ the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP > DMAPP > IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays "catalytic promiscuity", changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

225) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 911-913, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

226) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

227) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

228) A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue Prevention
Autor: Achee, Nicole L.; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C., Jr.; Morrison, Amy C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Gubler, Duane J.; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Aedes - Aegypti diptera ; Cluster ? Randomized ?Trial ; Bancroftian filariasis ; Developing ?Countries ; Mosquito population ; Sustained ? Release ; RNA interference ; Field ? Evaluation ; Lethal ovitrap ; Key container
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

229) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

230) Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?
Autor: Reavey, Catherine E.; Warnock, Neil D.; Garbett, Amy P.; Cotter, Sheena C.
Assunto: Aging; defensin; Ecological immunology; Insect; Lifespan; Lysozyme; Nicrophorus; Parental care; Phenoloxidase; Wounding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Ecology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 19, p. 4365-4375, 2015
ISSN: 2045-7758
Resumo: How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in staying alive in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

231) Zika: Another sexually transmitted infection?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Patiño-Barbosa A.M., Medina I., Gil-Restrepo A.F., Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: sexually transmitted disease, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sexually Transmitted Infections, v. 91, n. 5, p. 359, aug. 2015
ISSN: 1472-3263 (electronic),1368-4973
Resumo:

232) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

233) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

234) Allatostatin-C reversibly blocks the transport of citrate out of the mitochondria and inhibits juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes
Autor: Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Allatostatin; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Membrane citrate transport
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 57, p. 20-26, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti allatostatin-C (AeaAST-C or PISCF-AST) is a strong and fast reversible inhibitor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) synthesis by the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. AeaAST-C showed no inhibitory activity in the presence of any of the intermediate precursors of JH III indicating that the AeaAST-C target is located before the entry of acetylCoA in the pathway. Stimulation experiments using different sources of carbon (glucose, pyruvate, acetate and citrate) suggest that AST-C acts after pyruvate is transformed to citrate in the mitochondria. In vitro inhibition of the citrate mitochondrial carrier (CIC) mimicked the effect of AeaAST-C, and was overridden by addition of citrate or acetate. Our results provide compelling evidence that AeaAST-C inhibits JH III synthesis by blocking the CIC carrier that transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, obstructing the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA that sustains JH III synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

235) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

236) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

237) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

238) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

239) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

240) A draft genome sequence of an invasive mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus
Autor: Dritsou, Vicky; Topalis, Pantelis; Windbichler, Nikolai; Simoni, Alekos; Hall, Ann; Lawson, Daniel; Hinsley, Malcolm; Hughes, Daniel; Napolioni, Valerio; Crucianelli, Francesca; Deligianni, Elena; Gasperi, Giuliano; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Savini, Grazia; Manni, Mose; Scolari, Francesca; Malacrida, Anna R.; Arca, Bruno; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Moretti, Riccardo; Aprea, Giuseppe; Calvitti, Maurizio; Picciolini, Matteo; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Favia, Guido; Crisanti, Andrea; Louis, Christos
Assunto: NGS; WGS; BUSCO; Repetitive DNA; Transposable elements; Invasive species; Disease vector; Dengue fever; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 5, p. 207-220, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo: The draft genome sequence of Italian specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined using a standard NGS (next generation sequencing) approach. The size of the assembled genome is comparable to that of Aedes aegypti; the two mosquitoes are also similar as far as the high content of repetitive DNA is concerned, most of which is made up of transposable elements. Although, based on BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues) analysis, the genome assembly reported here contains more than 99% of protein-coding genes, several of those are expected to be represented in the assembly in a fragmented state. We also present here the annotation of several families of genes (tRNA genes, miRNA genes, the sialome, genes involved in chromatin condensation, sex determination genes, odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors). These analyses confirm that the assembly can be used for the study of the biology of this invasive vector of disease.

241) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

242) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

243) Heritable CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Dong, Shengzhang; Lin, Jingyi; Held, Nicole L.; Clem, Rollie J.; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Genomes; Promoters; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Transcription; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Nucleotides; Transformation; Gene disruption; Eye; Yellow fever; Enzymes; Nuclease; Genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: In vivo targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool to study gene function. Thus far, two tools for genome editing in Aedes aegypti have been applied, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN). As a promising alternative to ZFN and TALEN, which are difficult to produce and validate using standard molecular biological techniques, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has recently been discovered as a "do-it-yourself" genome editing tool. Here, we describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In a transgenic mosquito line expressing both Dsred and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) from the eye tissue-specific 3xP3 promoter in separated but tightly linked expression cassettes, we targeted the ECFP nucleotide sequence for disruption. When supplying the Cas9 enzyme and two sgRNAs targeting different regions of the ECFP gene as in vitro transcribed mRNAs for germline transformation, we recovered four different G1 pools (5.5% knockout efficiency) where individuals still expressed DsRed but no longer ECFP. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed indels in the ECFP target gene ranging from 2-27 nucleotides. These results show for the first time that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing is achievable in Ae. aegypti, paving the way for further functional genomics related studies in this mosquito species.

244) Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Autor: de Toni Aquino da Cruz, Lucineia Claudia; Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Leal-Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini; dos Santos, Marina Atanaka
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Vertical transmission; Entomological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 48, n. 1, p. 18-25, 2015
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. Methods: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriario neighborhood of Cuiaba, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758) were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%). Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3). This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiaba, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

245) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

246) An investigation on the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and its relationship with incidence of vector borne diseases
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, R. L. J.; Thirugnanasambantham, K.; Ragul, K.; Mani, C.; Balagangadharan, K.
Assunto: Thuringiensis subsp Israelensis; Rapid larvicidal activity; Bacillus - Thuringiensis; Culex -Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Whole - Cell; Sphaericus; Proteins; Identification; Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 84-97, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Control of mosquitoes is the most important aspect of public health, as mosquitoes transmit many human diseases, including the fatal infection, Japanese encephalitis. This paper addresses the isolation of new mosquitocidal bacteria from soil samples in the Union Territory of Pondicherry, India, where, no clinical cases of vector borne infections have been reported. Bacterial isolates from soil samples were screened for potential mosquitocidal strains and bioassays against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) were carried out. Genomic DNA of potential mosquitocidal isolates was amplified and species identification was carried out using BLASTn program (NCBI). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of mosquitocidal bacteria revealed seven potential isolates. SDS-PAGE results have shown that there was considerable difference in the protein profiles. Numerical analysis revealed 4 distinct groups at similarity level 25%. The relationship between VBDs and prevalence of soil mosquitocidal bacteria in the study sites has elicited considerable interest in the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and their application for mosquito borne diseases control.

247) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

248) An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors
Autor: Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Orfano, Alessandra S.; Bahia, Ana C.; Duarte, Ana P. M.; Rios-Velasquez, Claudia M.; Melo, Fabricio F.; Pessoa, Felipe A. C.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Campos, Keillen M. M.; Villegas, Luis Martinez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabe; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simoes, Rejane C.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M.; Lima, Jose B. P.; Barbosa, Maria G. V.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Tadei, Wanderli P.; Secundino, Nagila F. C.
Assunto: Anopheles; Plasmodium; Transmission; Amazon vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 1, p. 23-47, 2015
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Anopheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

249) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

250) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

251) New and Common Haplotypes Shape Genetic Diversity in Asian Tiger Mosquito Populations from Costa Rica and Panama
Autor: Futami, K.; Valderrama, A.; Baldi, M.; Minakawa, N.; Marin Rodriguez, R.; Chaves, L. F.
Assunto: Mitochodrial COI; ND5; Aedes albopictus ; Invasive species; Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of Economic Entomology, v. 108, n. 2, p. 761-768, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0493
Resumo: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panama and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (similar to 558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panama'. In contrast, a long COI sequence (similar to 1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (+/- SD) was relatively high in CR (0.72 +/- 0.04) when compared with Panama' (0.33 +/- 0.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.89 +/- 0.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panama'. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panama' belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panama' and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (K-st = 1.33; P < 0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panama

252) An. gambiae gSG6-P1 evaluation as a proxy for human-vector contact in the Americas: a pilot study
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Drame, Papa M.; Weitzel, Thomas; Rosas, Reinaldo; Gripping, Crystal; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Alvares, Marcela; Wesson, Dawn M.; Poinsignon, Anne; Remoue, Franck; Colpitts, Tonya M.
Assunto: Salivary protein GSG6; Anopheles - Gambiae; Antibody - Response; Human exposure; Aedes aegypti; Malaria transmission; Tropical Africa; Mosquito; Peptide; Bites
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 533, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: During blood meal, the female mosquito injects saliva able to elicit an immune response in the vertebrate. This immune response has been proven to reflect the intensity of exposure to mosquito bites and risk of infection for vector transmitted pathogens such as malaria. The peptide gSG6-P1 of An. gambiae saliva has been demonstrated to be antigenic and highly specific to Anopheles as a genus. However, the applicability of gSG6-P1 to measure exposure to different Anopheles species endemic in the Americas has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether human participants living in American countries present antibodies able to recognize the gSG6-P1, and whether these antibodies are useful as a proxy for mosquito bite exposure and malaria risk.Methods: We tested human serum samples from Colombia, Chile, and the United States for the presence of IgG antibodies against gSG6-P1 by ELISA. Antibody concentrations were expressed as delta optical density (Delta OD) of each sera tested in duplicates. The difference in the antibody concentrations between groups was tested using the nonparametric Mann Whitney test (independent groups) and the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (dependent groups). All differences were considered significant with a P < 0.05. We found that the concentration of gSG6-P1 antibodies was significantly correlated with malaria infection status and mosquito bite exposure history. People with clinical malaria presented significantly higher concentrations of IgG anti-gSG6-P1 antibodies than healthy controls. Additionally, a significant raise in antibody concentrations was observed in subjects returning from malaria endemic areas. Our data shows that gSG6-P1 is a suitable candidate for the evaluation of exposure to Anopheles mosquito bites, risk of malaria transmission, and effectiveness of protection measures against mosquito bites in the Americas

253) Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses
Autor: Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina
Assunto: Phlebotomus perniciosus; Phlebovirus; Toscana virus; CDC light trap; Sticky trap; Viral isolation; RNA amplification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 576, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an interception method suitable to collect dead specimens in high numbers, with a risk for virus viability or integrity. Sand flies storage requires a "deep cold chain" or specimen preservation in ethanol. In the present study the influence of sand fly collection and storage methods on viral isolation and RNA detection performances was evaluated experimentally.Methods: Specimens of laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus were artificially fed with blood containing Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Various collection and storage conditions of blood-fed females were evaluated to mimic field procedures using single and pool samples. Isolation on VERO cell cultures, quantitative Real time-Retro-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Nested-RT-PCR were performed according to techniques commonly used in surveillance studies.Results: Live engorged sand flies stored immediately at -80 degrees C were the most suitable sample for phlebovirus identification by both virus isolation and RNA detection. The viral isolation rate remained very high (26/28) for single dead engorged females frozen after 1 day, while it was moderate (10/30) for specimens collected by sticky traps maintained up to 3 days at room temperature and then stored frozen without ethanol. Opposed to viral isolation, molecular RNA detection kept very high on dead sand flies collected by sticky traps when left at room temperature up to 6 days post blood meal and then stored frozen in presence (88/95) or absence (87/88) of ethanol. Data were confirmed using sand fly pools.Conclusions: While the collection and storage methods investigated had not much impact on the ability to detect viral RNA by molecular methods, they affected the capacity to recover viable viruses. Consequently, sand fly collection and handling procedures should be established in advance depending on the goal of the surveillance studies.

254) Analysis of dengue virus genetic diversity during human and mosquito infection reveals genetic constraints
Autor: Sessions, October M.; Wilm, Andreas; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Choy, Milly M.; Chow, Angelia; Chong, Yuwen; Ong, Xin Mei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Cook, Alex R.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Strong purifying selection; Influenza-A virus; West nile - Virus; RNA viruses; Global distribution; Genome cyclization; Interfering RNA; Type-3 virus; Intra - Host; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV) cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening acute disease throughout the tropical world. While drug development efforts are underway, there are concerns that resistant strains will emerge rapidly. Indeed, antiviral drugs that target even conserved regions in other RNA viruses lose efficacy over time as the virus mutates. Here, we sought to determine if there are regions in the DENV genome that are not only evolutionarily conserved but genetically constrained in their ability to mutate and could hence serve as better antiviral targets. High-throughput sequencing of DENV-1 genome directly from twelve, paired dengue patients' sera and then passaging these sera into the two primary mosquito vectors showed consistent and distinct sequence changes during infection. In particular, two residues in the NS5 protein coding sequence appear to be specifically acquired during infection in Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Importantly, we identified a region within the NS3 protein coding sequence that is refractory to mutation during human and mosquito infection. Collectively, these findings provide fresh insights into antiviral targets and could serve as an approach to defining evolutionarily constrained regions for therapeutic targeting in other RNA viruses.

255) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

256) Zika virus ,2015
Autor: Shapshak P., Somboonwit C., Foley B.T., Alrabaa S.F., Wills T., Sinnott J.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus; Dengue Virus; Emerging Virus; Flavivirus; Global Warming; Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Mosquito; Social Mobility; Tick; Urbanization; Vector; West Nile Virus; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 477-500,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Zika virus is an arbovirus in the Flavivirus family that includes yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was discovered in a sentinel monkey in Uganda in 1947. Subsequently, this virus was detected over the years in Africa and Asia. Human-to-human transmission of Zika virus was described in the USA, from a scientist who contracted the infection in Senegal in2008. Zika virus is an emerging pathogen and the point of this review is to highlight its epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular biology. The detection of Zika virus demonstrates association with the other related viruses that are more pathogenic. Although Zika virus is a relatively non-lethal virus, it is potentially dangerous as it is genetically related to more virulent and perilous viruses: e.g., yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. It could conceivably mutate into a more pathogenic form. Under the current conditions of emergent viruses, human behaviors, modern technology, mobile society, urbanization, and global climate changes, we suggest continued monitoring of Zika virus because of the dangers posed by the members of the virulent virus group to which it is related. © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

257) Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens
Autor: Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.
Assunto: West Nile Virus; Arbovirus; Microbiome; Culex Mosquitoes; Invertebrate Immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Viruses Basel, v. 7, n. 10, p. 5619-5631, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia.

258) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Article; Brazil; Congenital Infection; Disease Association; Encephalomyelitis; Flaviviridae; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Human; Meningoencephalitis; Microcephaly; Neurotropism; Pregnancy; Virus Infection; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 679-680,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: [No abstract available]

259) New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans
Autor: Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet
Assunto: Nuclear hormone receptor; Caenorhabditis elegans; Life span; Reproductive development; Vitellogenin receptors; Larval development; RNA interference; Homeobox genes; Aedes aegypti; Pest control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success.

260) A multipurpose, high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism chip for the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti
Autor: Evans, Benjamin R.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Genomics; Population genetics; Aedes aegypti; SNP; Vector biology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 5, p. 711-718, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease.

261) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

262) A Mutation in the intracellular loop III/IV of mosquito sodium channel synergizes the effect of mutations in helix IIS6 on pyrethroid resistance
Autor: Wang, Lingxin; Nomura, Yoshiko; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Nannan; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke
Assunto: Knockdown resistance; Anopheles - Gambiae; Widespread distribution; Molecular evidence; Crystal - structure; Point mutation; Aedes aegypti; 1st Detection; Ion channels; Drug binding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Pharmacology, v. 87, n. 3, p. 421-429, 2015
ISSN: 0026-895X
Resumo: Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for proper electrical signaling in excitable cells. Pyrethroid insecticides promote activation and inhibit inactivation of sodium channels, resulting in prolonged opening of sodium channels. They preferably bind to the open state of the sodium channel by interacting with two distinct receptor sites, pyrethroid receptor sites PyR1 and PyR2, formed by the interfaces of domains II/III and I/II, respectively. Specific mutations in PyR1 or PyR2 confer pyrethroid resistance in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Recently, a unique mutation, (NY)-Y-1575, in the cytoplasmic loop linking domains III and IV (LIII/IV) was found to coexist with a PyR2 mutation, (LF)-F-1014 in IIS6, in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae. To ex-amine the role of this mutation in pyrethroid resistance, (NY)-Y-1575 alone or (NY)-Y-1575 1 (LF)-F-1014 were introduced into an Aedes aegypti sodium channel, AaNa(v)1-1, and the mutants were functionally examined in Xenopus oocytes. (NY)-Y-1575 did not alter AaNa(v)1-1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. However, the (NY)-Y-1575 + (LF)-F-1014 double mutant was more resistant to pyrethroids than the (LF)-F-1014 mutant channel. Further mutational analysis showed that (NY)-Y-1575 could also synergize the effect of (LS)-S-1014/W, but not L(1014)G or other pyrethroid-resistant mutations in IS6 or IIS6. Computer modeling predicts that (NY)-Y-1575 allosterically alters PyR2 via a small shift of IIS6. Our findings provide the molecular basis for the coexistence of (NY)-Y-1575 with (LF)-F-1014 in pyrethroid resistance, and suggest an allosteric interaction between IIS6 and LIII/IV in the sodium channel.

263) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

264) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

265) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

266) Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand
Autor: Champakaew, D.; Junkum, A.; Chaithong, U.; Jitpakdi, A.; Riyong, D.; Sanghong, R.; Intirach, J.; Muangmoon, R.; Chansang, A.; Tuetun, B.; Pitasawat, B.
Assunto: Repellent; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Angelica sinensis; DEET; Phthalides; Phthalates
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 6, p. 2187-2198, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations.

267) 3D structured illumination microscopy of mammalian embryos and spermatozoa
Autor: Popken, Jens; Dahlhoff, Maik; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri
Assunto: Superresolution fluorescence microscopy; Electron - Microscopy; Resolution limit; Reconstruction; Artifacts; Breaking; Guide
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry
Fonte: BMC Developmental Biology, v. 15, n. 46, 2015.
ISSN: 1471-213X
Resumo: Background: Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy performed via 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is well established on flat, adherent cells. However, blastomeres of mammalian embryos are non-adherent, round and large. Scanning whole mount mammalian embryos with 3D-SIM is prone to failure due to the movement during scanning and the large distance to the cover glass.Results: Here we present a highly detailed protocol that allows performing 3D-SIM on blastomeres of mammalian embryos with an image quality comparable to scans in adherent cells. This protocol was successfully tested on mouse, rabbit and cattle embryos and on rabbit spermatozoa.Conclusions: Our protocol provides detailed instructions on embryo staining, blastomere isolation, blastomere attachment, embedding, correct oil predictions, scanning conditions, and oil correction choices after the first scan. Finally, the most common problems are documented and solutions are suggested. To our knowledge, this protocol presents for the first time a highly detailed and practical way to perform 3D-SIM on mammalian embryos and spermatozoa.

268) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

269) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis aubl. (negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Aguiar, Raimundo WagnerSouza; Santos, Suetonio Fernandesdos; Morgado, Fabricio daSilva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia deMendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Repellents; Pupae; Pollution effects; Pest control; Toxicity; Larval development; Necrosis; Skin; Insect cells; Developmental stages; Essential oils; Eggs; Mortality; Larvae; Insects; Urban areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

270) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

271) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

272) Anopheles gambiae blood feeding initiates an anticipatory defense response to plasmodium berghei
Autor: Upton, Leanna M.; Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Innate immunity; Ecdysone; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Innate Immunity, v. 7, n. 1, p. 74-86, 2015
ISSN: 1662-811X
Resumo: Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, the function of most family members is largely unknown. We screened Anopheles gambiae LRIMs by RNAi for effects on mosquito infection by rodent malaria and found that LRIM9 is a Plasmodium berghei antagonist with phenotypes distinct from family members LRIM1 and APL1C, which are key components of the mosquito complement-like pathway. LRIM9 transcript and protein levels are significantly increased after blood feeding but are unaffected by Plasmodium or midgut microbiota. Interestingly, LRIM9 in the hemolymph is strongly upregulated by direct injection of the ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Our data suggest that LRIM9 may define a novel anti-Plasmodium immune defense mechanism triggered by blood feeding and that hormonal changes may alert the mosquito to bolster its defenses in anticipation of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

273) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

274) Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori
Assunto: Cell line; Mosquito; Armigeres subalbatus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, v. 51, n. 7, p. 672-679, 2015
ISSN: 1071-2690
Resumo: Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

275) Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M.; Filipovic, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Maspero, Renato C.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Genetic structure; Microsatellites; Mito-nuclear discordance; RAD-seq; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 8, n. 9, p. 901-915, 2015.
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300 million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing, as well as traditional microsatellite markers in Ae. aegypti from Rio. We found four divergent mitochondrial lineages and a strong spatial structuring of mitochondrial variation, in contrast to the overall nuclear homogeneity across Rio. Despite a low overall differentiation in the nuclear genome, we detected strong spatial structure for variation in over 20 genes that have a significantly altered expression in response to insecticides, xenobiotics, and pathogens, including the novel biocontrol agent Wolbachia. Our results indicate that high genetic diversity, spatially unconstrained admixing likely mediated by male dispersal, along with locally heterogeneous genetic variation that could affect insecticide resistance and mosquito vectorial capacity, set limits to the effectiveness of measures to control dengue fever in Rio.

276) The potential threat to blood transfusion safety of emerging infectious disease agents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, communicable disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, v. 13, n. 7, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1543-0790
Resumo:

277) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

278) Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia
Autor: Lima, V. S.; Pinto, A. C.; Rafael, M. S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Isodillapiole; qRT-PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 14, n. 4, p. 16728-16735, 2015
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 mu g/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G(1), G(2), G(3), and G(4)). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 mu g/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

279) Reports outline intercellular signaling peptides and proteins study findings from National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) (Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Life sciences; Science and technology
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: Life Science Weekly, p. 2377, 2015
ISSN: 1552-2466
Resumo:

280) Effect of repeat human blood feeding on Wolbachia density and dengue virus infection in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Amuzu, Hilaria E.; Simmons, Cameron P.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Wolbachia; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 246, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti populations is a novel approach to reduce disease transmission. The presence of Wolbachia limits the ability of the mosquito to transmit dengue virus (DENV) and the strength of this effect appears to correlate with Wolbachia densities in the mosquito. There is also some evidence that Wolbachia densities may increase following the consumption of a bloodmeal. Here we have examined whether multiple blood feeds lead to increases in density or associated changes in Wolbachia-mediated blocking of DENV. The Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti mosquito line was used for the study. There were three treatment groups; a non-blood fed control, a second group fed once and a third group fed twice on human blood. All groups were orally infected with DENV-2 and then their midguts and salivary glands were dissected 10-11 days post infection. RNA/DNA was simultaneously extracted from each tissue and subsequently used for DENV RNA copies and Wolbachia density quantification, respectively. We found variation between replicate vector competence experiments and no clear evidence that Wolbachia numbers increased in either the salivary glands or remainder of the body with feeding and hence saw no corresponding improvements in DENV blocking.Conclusions: Aedes aegypti are "sip" feeders returning often to obtain bloodmeals and hence it is important to assess whether repeat blood feeding improved the efficacy of Wolbachia-based DENV blocking. Our work suggests in the laboratory context when Wolbachia densities are high that repeat feeding does not improve blocking and hence this ability should likely be stable with respect to feeding cycle in the field

281) Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?
Autor: Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan
Assunto: Aquatic organisms; Culicidae; Green nano-synthesis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnology; Plant-borne mosquitocidals
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1519-1529, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10xLC(50)) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in medical entomology and parasitology, allowing us to propose A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles as effective candidates to develop newer and safer mosquitocidal control tools.

282) Effect of salinity on the behavior of Aedes aegypti populations from the coast and plateau of southeastern Brazil
Autor: de Brito-Arduino, Marylene; Mucci, Luis Filipe; Nunes Serpa, Ligia Leandro; Rodrigues, Marianni de Moura
Assunto: Adaptation; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Biological cycle; Breeding sites; Salinity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 1, p. 79-87, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Mosquito larvae can develop in fresh, salty and brackish water. The larvae of Aedes aegypti develop in fresh water. However, in laboratory studies, tolerance of this species for oviposition and hatching in brackish water was observed. Immature forms of Ae. aegypti have also been found developing in brackish water in coastal areas. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of salt on the biological cycle of Ae. aegypti populations from coastal and plateau areas of southeastern Brazil. Aedes aegypti were collected from plateau (Taubate) and coastal (Sao Sebastiao) municipalities to establish colonies. Specimens of the F-1 generation were exposed to five salt concentrations (3.5, 7, 10.5, 14 and 17.5 parts per thousand) to assess the oviposition and cycle development from egg hatching to adult eclosion. Deionized water was used in the control groups. Both Taubate and Sao Sebastian populations oviposited in all salt concentrations tested; however, development occurred in all except in the 17.5% concentration. Significant differences in development and adult size were observed at intermediate concentrations (Sao Sebastiao from 10.5 parts per thousand and Taubate from 7 parts per thousand, for both variables) between the two populations.Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed different response patterns to salinity between the two populations, suggesting better adaptive adjustment of the coastal population to the metabolic constraints exerted by salt. The implications of this adaptation are discussed, and additional studies are suggested to evaluate the mechanisms that determinate the adaptive processes of Ae. aegypti in brackish water and the implications to its vectorial capacity

283) Silencing of end-joining repair for efficient site-specific gene insertion after TALEN/CRISPR mutagenesis in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Basu, Sanjay; Aryan, Azadeh; Overcash, Justin M.; Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Dahlem, Timothy J.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Aedes; CRISPR; TALEN; Transgenic; Recombination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 13, p. 4038-4043, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Conventional control strategies for mosquito-borne pathogens such as malaria and dengue are now being complemented by the development of transgenic mosquito strains reprogrammed to generate beneficial phenotypes such as conditional sterility or pathogen resistance. The widespread success of site-specific nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in model organisms also suggests that reprogrammable gene drive systems based on these nucleases may be capable of spreading such beneficial phenotypes in wild mosquito populations. Using the mosquito Aedes aegypti, we determined that mutations in the FokI domain used in TALENs to generate obligate heterodimeric complexes substantially and significantly reduce gene editing rates. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-based editing in the mosquito Ae. aegypti is also highly variable, with the majority of guide RNAs unable to generate detectable editing. By first evaluating candidate guide RNAs using a transient embryo assay, we were able to rapidly identify highly effective guide RNAs; focusing germ line-based experiments only on this cohort resulted in consistently high editing rates of 24-90%. Microinjection of double-stranded RNAs targeting ku70 or lig4, both essential components of the end-joining response, increased recombination-based repair in early embryos as determined by plasmid-based reporters. RNAi-based suppression of Ku70 concurrent with embryonic microinjection of site-specific nucleases yielded consistent gene insertion frequencies of 2-3%, similar to traditional transposon- or ...C31-based integration methods but without the requirement for an initial docking step. These studies should greatly accelerate investigations into mosquito biology, streamline development of transgenic strains for field releases, and simplify the evaluation of novel Cas9-based gene drive systems. (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae/symbols omitted.)

284) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

285) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

286) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

287) Real-time PCR tests in dutch exotic mosquito surveys; implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus identification tests, and the development of tests for the identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Vossenberg, B. T. L. H. Van De; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Metz-Verschure, E.; Veen, E. J. Van; Bruil-Dieters, M. L.; Scholte, E. J.
Assunto: Cytochromes; Specificity; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Introduced species; Environmental factors; DNA fragmentation; Cytochrome-c oxidase; Environmental conditions; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 336-350, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

288) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

289) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

290) Phylogenetic analysis reveals genetic variations of densovirus isolated from field mosquitoes in Bangkok and surrounding regions
Autor: Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong;Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Screening; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Phylogenetics; Public health; Capsids; Phylogeny; Dengue; Yellow fever; Restriction fragment length polymorphism; Vectors; Habitat; Culex; Toxorhynchites; Densovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Screening for densoviruses (DNV) from Aedes, Culex and Toxorhynchites mosquitoes collected in Bangkok and surrounding regions identified two clades of Aedes DNV; Ae. aegypti DNV (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus DNV (AalDNV) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). From nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons of a fragment of DNV capsid gene, these DNVs were shown to be new DNV genetic variations similar to AaeDNV. Isolation and identification of densoviruses from indigenous field mosquitoes reside in natural habitat should be helpful in monitoring the distribution of DNVs in important mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses.

291) Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions
Autor: Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Pereira Lima, Jose Bento; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Physiology; Locomotor activity; Laboratory
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 304, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25 degrees C.Methods: Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes.Results: Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females.Conclusions: This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus

292) Wolbachia infection modifies the profile, shuttling and structure of microRNAs in a mosquito cell line
Autor: Mayoral, Jaime G.; Etebari, Kayvan; Hussain, Mazhar; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Replication; Cytoplasm; Environmental impact; Immunity; Strains; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Development; Immune response; Nuclei; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Small RNA deep sequencing technology provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of the miRNA profile of a mosquito cell line from Aedes aegypti. We characterized the miRNA composition of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and compared it with the one of cells infected with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia strain wMelPop-CLA. We found an overall increase of small RNAs between 18 and 28 nucleotides in both cellular compartments in Wolbachia-infected cells and identified specific miRNAs induced and/or suppressed by the Wolbachia infection. We discuss the mechanisms that the cell may use to shuttle miRNAs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In addition, we identified piRNAs that changed their abundance in response to Wolbachia infection. The miRNAs and piRNAs identified in this study provide promising leads for investigations into the host-endosymbiont interactions and for better understanding of how Wolbachia manipulates the host miRNA machinery in order to facilitate its persistent replication in infected cells.

293) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

294) In Silico Modeling and Immunoinformatics Probing Disclose the Epitope Based PeptideVaccine Against Zika Virus Envelope Glycoprotein
Autor: Shawan, Mohammad Mahfuz AliKhan , AlMahmud, Hafij ; Hasan, Md Mahmudul ; Parvin, Afroza ; Rahman, Md Nazibur ; Rahman, S. M. Badier
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, v. 2, n. 4, p. 44, 2014
ISSN: 2320-9267
Resumo: In this study, amino acid sequence of ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was obtained from a protein database and examined with in silico approaches to determine the most immunogenic epitopes for B cell and T cell which could induce humoral as well as cell mediated immune response. Both the linear and conformational epitopes for B cell were predicted by immunoinformatics tools housed in IEDB resources. The peptide sequence DAHAKRQTVVVLGSQEGAV from position 121 and peptide sequence from 117-137 amino acids were predicted as most potential B cell linear and conformational epitopes respectively. Epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell were also predicted by using tools within IEDB resource and peptide sequence MMLELDPPF from position 250-258 amino acids was predicted as most immunogenic CD8+ T cell epitope with immune response evoking ability prediction score (I pMHC) of 0.09139 and conservancy of 52.17%. The innate immune response for ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was determined by interferon (IFN)-gamma effectuation and mimicking capacity by immunoinformatics and molecular docking study respectively.

295) Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Blázquez A.-B., Escribano-Romero E., Merino-Ramos T., Saiz J.-C., Martín-Acebes M.A.
Assunto: autophagy, cellular stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Flavivirus infection, unfolded protein response
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 5, jun. 2014
ISSN: 1664-302X (electronic)
Resumo: The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. © 2014 Blázquez, Escribano-Romero, Merino-Ramos, Saiz and Martín-Acebes.

296) Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K.
Assunto: Parasites , Binding sites , Crystal structure , Proteins , Ligands , Hydrogen bonds , Malaria , Erythrocytes , Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7527, p. 427-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents1. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions2. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN)3,4. Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro4-9, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

297) Two cases of zika fever imported from french polynesia to Japan, December to January 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kutsuna S., Kato Y., Takasaki T., Moi M.L., Kotaki A., Uemura H., Matono T., Fujiya Y., Mawatari M., Takeshita N., Hayakawa K., Kanagawa S., Ohmagari N.
Assunto: import disease (epidemiology), virus infection (epidemiology), zika fever (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: We present two cases of imported Zika fever to Japan, in travellers returning from French Polynesia, where an outbreak due to Zika virus (ZIKV) is ongoing since week 41 of 2013. This report serves to raise awareness among healthcare professionals, that the differential diagnosis of febrile and subfebrile patients with rash should include ZIKV infection, especially in patients returning from areas affected by this virus.

298) Dual RNA-seq of parasite and host reveals gene expression dynamics during filarial worm-mosquito interactions
Autor: Choi, Young-Jun; Aliota, Matthew T.; Mayhew, George F.; Erickson, Sara M.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Assunto: Parasites; Studies; Mosquitoes; Proteins; Experiments; Infections; Tropical diseases; Competition; Gene expression; Technological change; Nematodes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In a parasitic relationship, both host and parasite genotypes influence the parameters of their relationship. Previous studies examining host-parasite systems have examined the effects of the genotype of the host or the parasite on the relationship, but due to limitations of technology, have rarely examined interactions between the two genotypes. Here, we utilized a dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach to examine the entirety of the known transcriptomes and their interactions in the dynamic process of filarial worm development in the mosquito. In addition, the unprecedented sequencing depth achieved with this technology allowed us to compare, for the first time, parasite gene expression of larval developmental stages within the intermediate host with those life cycle stages found within the mammalian definitive host. These data provide a strong foundation for understanding how Brugia malayi interacts with its vector's transcriptome temporally during its complex life cycle and also simultaneously provides information on how Aedes aegypti responds to filarial worm infection. These data are extremely valuable for future studies of the underlying mechanisms of this mosquito-filarial worm relationship.

299) Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nilles E.J., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, virus infection, zika virus, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 20, n. 10, p. O595-O596, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo:

300) Multigene Phylogenetics Reveals Temporal Diversification of Major African Malaria Vectors
Autor: Kamali, Maryam; Marek, Paul E.; Peery, Ashley; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Tu, Zhijian; Simard, Frederic; Sharakhov, Igor V.
Assunto: Anopheles nili group; Molecular identification; Population genetics; Cytogenetic map; Genome sequence; Gambiae; Culicidae; Diptera; Mosquitos; Cameroon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 4, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with each other, placing An. nili as a basal clade that diversified from the studied malaria mosquito species 47.6 million years ago (mya). Other African malaria vectors originated more recently, and independently acquired traits related to vectorial capacity. The lineage leading to An. gambiae diverged 30.4 mya, while the African vector An. funestus and the Asian vector An. stephensi were the most closely related sister taxa that split 20.8 mya. These results were supported by consistently high bootstrap values in concatenated phylogenetic trees generated individually for each chromosomal arm. Genome-wide multigene phylogenetic analysis is a useful approach for discerning historic relationships among malaria vectors, providing a framework for the correct interpretation of genomic changes across species, and comprehending the evolutionary origins of this ubiquitous and deadly insect-borne disease.

301) Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range
Autor: Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Host range
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 595, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.Methods: Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 107 PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 104-101 PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 109, 107, 105 PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection.Results: All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 109 PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 109 and 107 PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively.Conclusions: The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single mosquito host. As a consequence, EILV displays a narrow vector range in mosquito species responsible for the maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.

302) Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Pest control; Disease transmission; Public health; Immune system; Vector-borne diseases; Disease control; Survival; Infection; Dengue; Midgut; Immune response; Larvae; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chromobacterium; Plasmodium falciparum; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

303) Electrophysiological and behavioural response of Aedes albopictus to n-heinecosane, an ovipositional pheromone of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Gonzalez, Paula V.; Gonzalez Audino, Paola A.; Masuh, Hector M.
Assunto: Hydrocarbon; Diptera; Cuticular; Culicidae; Electroantennogram; Attractant; Repellent; EAD; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, v. 151, n. 3, p. 191-197, 2014
ISSN: 0013-8703
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are highly anthropophilic mosquito species and potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever. The location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influence females before they lay their eggs. In this study, the effect of n-heneicosane, a recognized oviposition pheromone of Ae.aegypti, on the olfactory receptors of the antennae of Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus was studied using electroantennographic detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC-EAD). A significant electroantennographic response to n-heneicosane in adult females of both mosquito species was observed. In addition, gravid Ae.albopictus females laid more eggs in substrate treated with n-heneicosane at 0.1, 1, or 10p.p.m. than in the control, denoting oviposition attractancy. Conversely, at 30, 50, 100, and 200p.p.m., more eggs were laid in the control substrate, indicating oviposition repellency. Analysis of the larval cuticle by GC and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of n-heneicosane in the cuticles of Ae.albopictus larvae. The species-specific role of n-heneicosane as an oviposition pheromone in Ae.aegypti and its significance as a behaviour modifier of Ae.albopictus in breeding sites is discussed.

304) Complete coding sequence of zika virus from a French polynesia outbreak in 2013.
Autor: Baronti Cécile,Piorkowski Géraldine,Charrel Rémi N,Boubis Laetitia,Leparc-Goffart Isabelle,de Lamballerie Xavier
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 2, n. 3, p. e00500-00514, 2014
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: Zika virus is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus member of the Spondweni serocomplex, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. We report here the complete coding sequence of a Zika virus strain belonging to the Asian lineage, isolated from an infected patient returning from French Polynesia, an epidemic area in 2013/2014.

305) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections ? An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific2012?2014
Autor: Roth A., Mercier A., Lepers C., Hoy D., Duituturaga S., Benyon E., Guillaumot L., Souarès Y.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya Alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue Virus; Disease Surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic Distribution; Infection Risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public Health; Serotype; Virus Infection; Virus Transmission; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41,2014.
ISSN: 1025496X
Resumo: Since January2012, the Pacific Region has experienced28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. ©2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

306) Mosquito-specific microRNA-1174 targets serine hydroxymethyltransferase to control key functions in the gut
Autor: Liu, Shiping; Lucas, Keira J.; Roy, Sourav; Ha, Jisu; Raikhel, Alexander S.
Assunto: Insect disease vector; Antagomir
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 111, n. 40, p. 14460-14465, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Lineage-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to functions specific to hematophagous mosquitoes and, as such, have potential for contributing to the development of future mosquito control approaches. Here we report that the mosquito- and gut-specific miRNA, miR-1174, is required for proper sugar absorption, fluid excretion, blood intake, and, consequently, egg maturation and survival in female mosquitoes. miR-1174 is highly expressed and localized in the posterior midgut, the blood-digesting portion of the mosquito alimentary canal. Depletion of miR-1174 results in severe defects in sugar absorption and blood intake. We identified serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a direct miR-1174 target. The adverse phenotypes caused by miR-1174 silencing were rescued by SHMT RNA interference. Our results suggest that miR-1174 is essential for fine-tuning the SHMT transcript to levels necessary for normal mosquito gut functions.

307) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the20th Century
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36-,2014.
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/" xlink:type="simple" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/</ext-link>) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. ©2014 Faye et al.

308) Novel DNA extraction assay for molecular identification of Aedes spp eggs
Autor: Freitas, M. T. S.; Gomes-Junior, P. P.; Batista, M. V. A.; Leal-Balbino, T. C.; Araujo, A. L.; Balbino, V. Q.
Assunto: Epidemiologic surveillance; Molecular identification; Aedes sp
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 13, n. 4, p. 8776-8782, 2014
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus represent the two most important species of mosquitoes in relation to dengue virus transmission both in the Americas and Asia. However, the study of theses species generally requires the establishment of a colony for the larvae to hatch, or waiting for the adult development to perform its taxonomic classification, which is time consuming. Thus, the establishment of new methods aimed at obtaining DNA directly from the mosquito eggs is relevant. Accordingly, we compared a new approach based on Chelex (R) 100 resin with the standard STE method to extract DNA from the eggs of Aedes spp to molecularly identify these vectors. The Chelex (R) 100 resin approach was very efficient, as satisfactory amounts of DNA were obtained, making it possible to amplify and sequence a mitochondrial DNA barcode region widely used to identify species. The STE protocol yielded substantial amounts of DNA, but the 260/280 optical density ratio indicated a low quality, precluding amplification. This new method proved quite effective in obtaining DNA from even a single mosquito egg, and it can thus be applied in population genetic studies of various vector insects to enhance monitoring programs.

309) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo D., Sall A.A., Diagne C.T., Faye O., Faye O., Ba Y., Hanley K.A., Buenemann M., Weaver S.C., Diallo M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti , Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

310) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Dengue virus; Sequence alignment; Recombinant sequences; Phylogenetic analysis; Envelope proteins; Genus flavivirus; Mosaic structure; Yellow-Fever; Missing data; RNA viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

311) A single-amino-acid polymorphism in chikungunya virus E2 glycoprotein influences glycosaminoglycan utilization
Autor: Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Dermody, Terence S.
Assunto: Surface heparin - Sulfate; Herpes simplex -Virus; Ross river virus; Sindbis - Virus; Encephalitis -Virus; Reunion Island; Aedes aegypti; Virulence attenuation; Japanese encephalitis; Attachment receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 5, p. 2385-2397, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Pre-incubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.IMPORTANCEChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection.

312) Application of quantitative PCR for quantization of densovirus genome
Autor: Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; qPCR; Quantization; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 1, p. 47-52, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Densovirus is classified as invertebrate virus belonging to the subfamily Densovirinae of Parvoviridae family. This group of viruses infects only insects and several densoviruses have been isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. A number of mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of viruses, which are the major causes of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. As densoviruses do not cause any pathology in humans, these viruses have been proposed to be a potential vector for use in biological control of mosquitoes and insects. We report the application of quantitative (q)PCR to determine the amount of densovirus genome in mosquito cell culture supernatant and mosquito. This method is simple, rapid and has a wide dynamic range, and therefore is likely to be useful and applicable in the determination of viral load of other viruses in a variety of biological specimens.

313) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ioos S., Mallet H.-P., Leparc Goffart I., Gauthier V., Cardoso T., Herida M.
Assunto: epidemic, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, v. 44, n. 7, p. 302-307, jul. 2014
ISSN: 1769-6690 (electronic),0399-077X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (Aedes), similar to other arboviruses, first identified in Uganda in 1947. Few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika outbreak occurred in Yap, Micronesia, even though ZIKV activity had been reported in Africa and in Asia through virological surveillance and entomological studies. French Polynesia has recorded a large outbreak since October 2013. A great number of cases and some with neurological and autoimmune complications have been reported in a context of concurrent circulation of dengue viruses. The clinical presentation is a "dengue-like syndrome". Until the epidemic in French Polynesia, no severe ZIKV disease had been described so far. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral genome detection by genomic amplification (RT- PCR) and viral isolation. These two large outbreaks occurred in a previously unaffected area in less than a decade. They should raise awareness as to the potential for ZIKV to spread especially since this emergent disease is not well known and that some questions remain on potential reservoirs and transmission modes as well as on clinical presentations and complications. ZIKV has the potential to spread to new areas where the Aedes mosquito vector is present and could be a risk for Southern Europe. Strategies for the prevention and control of ZIKV disease should include the use of insect repellent and mosquito vector eradication. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

314) Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Insecticides; Mortality; Methanol; Medicinal plants; Filariasis; Leaves; Schistosomiasis; Benzene; Disease transmission; Chloroform; Dengue; Yellow fever; Ethyl acetate; Hatchability; Plant extracts; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Schistosoma; Fabaceae; Anopheles stephensi; Culicidae; Erythrina; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 2, p. 777-791, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD sub(50) and LD sub(90) values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus.

315) Evidence of lumpy skin disease virus over-wintering by transstadial persistence in Amblyomma hebraeum and transovarial persistence in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks
Autor: Lubinga, J. C.; Tuppurainen, E. S. M.; Coetzer, J. A. W.; Stoltsz, W. H.; Venter, E. H.
Assunto: Amblyomma hebraeum; Rhipicephalus decoloratus; Lumpy skin disease virus; Transstadial transmission; Transovarial transmission; Ixodidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental and Applied Acarology, v. 62, n. 1, p. 77-90, 2014
ISSN: 0168-8162
Resumo: Lumpy skin disease is a debilitating cattle disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus. Epidemics of the disease usually occur in summer, when insect activity is high. Limited information is available on how LSDV persists during inter-epidemic periods. Transmission of LSDV by mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti has been shown to be mechanical, there is no carrier state in cattle and the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of the disease seems to be of minor importance. Recent studies in ticks have shown transstadial persistence of LSDV in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma hebraeum as well as transovarial persistence of the virus in Rhipicephalus decoloratus, R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. The over-wintering of ticks off the host as part of their life cycles is well known: A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus over-winter, for example, on the ground as engorged nymphs/unfed (emergent) adults while R. decoloratus over-winters on the ground as engorged females. In this study, transstadial and transovarial persistence of LSDV from experimentally infected A. hebraeum nymphs and R. decoloratus females after exposure to cold temperatures of 5 degrees C at night and 20 degrees C during the day for 2 months was reported. This observation suggests possible over-wintering of the virus in these tick species.

316) Facilitating Wolbachia invasions
Autor: Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes; Fitness Costs; Invasion; Mosquito; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Austral Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 125-132, 2014
ISSN: 2052-1758
Resumo: Following the recent transfer of Wolbachia from Drosophila to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the wMel Wolbachia infection now has been introduced successfully into natural A. aegypti populations in northern Queensland with likely suppressive effects on the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. However, the introduction of other Wolbachia strains that might affect the population dynamics of A. aegypti and/or provide almost complete blockage of virus transmission like wMelPop remains challenging given the strong fitness costs of these strains for their hosts. Here, the different approaches that might be followed in facilitating introductions of such strains, including ways to suppress populations prior to release stains, interventions during release to boost the fitness of released strains and timing of releases to provide an initial boost in infection frequencies are reviewed. Suppression of a single mosquito life stage prior to release is likely to have little impact on invasion success, whereas suppression of populations of uninfected mosquitoes at all life stages provides a promising strategy for invasion. Implementation of these approaches requires a detailed understanding of the local ecology of mosquito populations, as well as an understanding of the level of isolation of a local population, particularly when the Wolbachia infection results in population suppression as well as strong blockage of virus transmission.

317) Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus, Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, feb. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Methodology/Principal Findings:Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.Conclusions/Significance:We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. © 2014 Grard et al.

318) Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues Drives Mosquito Attraction to Humans
Autor: McMeniman, Conor J.; Corfas, Roman A.; Matthews, Benjamin J.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Vosshall, Leslie B.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Human skin; Chemosensory receptors; Anopheles gambiae; Maxillary palp; Host-seeking; Drosophila; Responses; Neurons; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Cell, v. 156, n. 5, p. 1060-1071, 2014
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Multiple sensory cues emanating from humans are thought to guide blood-feeding female mosquitoes to a host. To determine the relative contribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) detection to mosquito host-seeking behavior, we mutated the AaegGr3 gene, a subunit of the heteromeric CO2 receptor in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Gr3 mutants lack electrophysiological and behavioral responses to CO2. These mutants also fail to show CO2-evoked responses to heat and lactic acid, a human-derived attractant, suggesting that CO2 can gate responses to other sensory stimuli. Whereas attraction of Gr3 mutants to live humans in a large semi-field environment was only slightly impaired, responses to an animal host were greatly reduced in a spatial-scale-dependent manner. Synergistic integration of heat and odor cues likely drive host-seeking behavior in the absence of CO2 detection. We reveal a networked series of interactions by which multimodal integration of CO2, human odor, and heat orchestrates mosquito attraction to humans.

319) Zika virus, French polynesia, South pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thane Hancock W., Marfel M., Bel M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

320) Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Nanoparticles; Leucas aspera; Plant extracts; AgNPs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1673-1679, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm super(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm super(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C=O group. The band 1,383 developed for C=C and C=N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated, and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC sub(50) values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l) and (LC sub(90) values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l), respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti.

321) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waehre, Torgun ; Maagard, Anne , Tappe, Dennis ; Cadar, Daniel ; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo:

322) Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric
Assunto: Hematophagy; Evolution; Saliva; Transgenesis; RNAi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 19, p. 6946-6951, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85-87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78-300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (15-56 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency.

323) A viral over-expression system for the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Niu, Guodong; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti mosquitos; Complement - Like protein; Genome organization; Directed evolution; Symbiotic bacteria; Reverse genetics; Borne disease; Vector; Densovirus; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 4, n. 5127, 2014
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Understanding pathogen/mosquito interactions is essential for developing novel strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Technical advances in reverse-genetics, such as RNA interference (RNAi), have facilitated elucidation of components of the mosquito immune system that are antagonistic to pathogen development, and host proteins essential for parasite development. Forward genetic approaches, however, are limited to generation of transgenic insects, and while powerful, mosquito transgenesis is a resource-and time-intensive technique that is not broadly available to most laboratories. The ability to easily "over-express" genes would enhance molecular studies in vector biology and expedite elucidation of pathogen-refractory genes without the need to make transgenic insects. We developed and characterized an efficient Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) over-expression system for the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. High-levels of gene expression were detected at 3 days post-infection and increased over time, suggesting this is an effective system for gene induction. Strong expression was observed in the fat body and ovaries. We validated multiple short promoters for gene induction studies. Finally, we developed a polycistronic system to simultaneously express multiple genes of interest. This AgDNV-based toolset allows for consistent transduction of genes of interest and will be a powerful molecular tool for research in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

324) Application of post-PCR methods for analysis of mosquito densovirus
Autor: Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; Mosquito; Post-PCR technique; RFLP; SSCP
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 4, p. 801-807, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Two clades of Aedes densovirus, Aedes aegypti densovirus and Aedes albopictus densovirus, were classified according to the origin of isolation. These two densoviruses were isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines, respectively. This group of invertebrate viruses belongs to the subfamily Densovirinae of the Parvoviridae family and infects only insects. Several types of densoviruses have been isolated from mosquitoes especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are important vectors of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. The authors describe applications of post-PCR techniques, restriction fragment length polymorphism and single-strand conformation polymorphism to classify these two clades of Aedes densoviruses isolated from different origins. These methods are simple and rapid and are applicable to identify other groups of densoviruses isolated from biological samples.

325) Optimization and synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Isaria fumosorosea against human vector mosquitoes
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Isaria fumosorosea; Silver nanoparticles; Toxicity; LC50 and LC90
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 10, p. 3843-3851, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of silver generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) against major vector mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The Ifr-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized structurally and functionally using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optimum pH (alkaline), temperature (30 A degrees C) and agitation (150 rpm) for AgNP synthesis and its stability were confirmed through colour change. Ae. aegypti larvae (I-IV instars) were found highly susceptible to synthesized AgNPs than the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the mortality rate was indirectly proportional to the larval instar and the concentration. The lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90 % of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the tested concentration are 0.240, 0 0.075.337, 0.430, 0.652 and 1.219, 2.210, 2.453, 2.916; 0.065, 0.075, 0.098, 0.137 and 0.558, 0.709, 0.949, 1.278 ppm with respect to 0.03 to 1.00 ppm of Ifr-AgNPs against first, second, third and fourth instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. This is the first report for synthesis of AgNPs using Ifr against human vector mosquitoes. Hence, Ifr-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide.

326) First case of Zika virus infection in a returning Canadian Traveler
Autor: Fonseca, Kevin ; Meatherall, Bonnie ; Zarra, Danielle ; Drebot, Michael ; MacDonald, Judy ; Pabbaraju, Kanti ; Wong, Sallene ; Webster,Patricia ; Lindsay, Robbin ; Tellier, Raymond
Assunto: Antibodies, Urine, Nucleotide sequence, Emergencies, Public health, Malaria, Cell culture, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

327) Odorant and Gustatory Receptors in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans
Autor: Obiero, George F. O.; Mireji, Paul O.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; Christoffels, Alan; Robertson, Hugh M.; Masiga, Daniel K.
Assunto: Nonpreferred waterbuck hosts; Multiple sequence alignment; Anopheles gambiae; Chemoreceptor superfamily; Drosophila melanogaster; Molecular evolution; Olfactory responses; Gene expression; Aedes aegypti; Tribolium castaneum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 4, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Author SummaryTsetse flies navigate their environments using chemosensory receptors, which permit them to locate hosts, mating partners, and resting and larviposition sites. The genome of G. m. morsitans was interrogated for coding genes of odorant receptors (ORs) and gustatory receptors (GRs) that express in antennae and maxillary palp, and detect the volatile and soluble chemical signals. The signals are then transmitted to the central nervous system and translated to phenotypes. Majority of these genes in G. m. morsitans were spread across different scaffolds, but a few were found to occur in clusters, which suggested possible co-regulation of their expression. The number of ORs and GRs were much reduced in the G. m. morsitans genome, including the apparent loss of receptors for sugar when compared to selected Diptera. There was also an apparent numerical expansion of some receptors, presumably to maximize on their restricted blood-meal diet. The annotation of the chemoreceptor package of G. m. morsitans provides a resource for investigating key activities of tsetse flies that could be exploited for their control.Tsetse flies use olfactory and gustatory responses, through odorant and gustatory receptors (ORs and GRs), to interact with their environment. Glossina morsitans morsitans genome ORs and GRs were annotated using homologs of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster and an ab initio approach based on OR and GR specific motifs in G. m. morsitans gene models coupled to gene ontology (GO). Phylogenetic relationships among the ORs or GRs and the homologs were determined using Maximum Likelihood estimates. Relative expression levels among the G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were established using RNA-seq data derived from adult female fly. Overall, 46 and 14 putative G. m. morsitans ORs and GRs respectively were recovered. These were reduced by 12 and 59 ORs and GRs respectively compared to D. melanogaster. Six of the ORs were homologous to a single D. melanogaster OR (DmOr67d) associated with mating deterrence in females. Sweet taste GRs, present in all the other Diptera, were not recovered in G. m. morsitans. The GRs associated with detection of CO2 were conserved in G. m. morsitans relative to D. melanogaster. RNA-sequence data analysis revealed expression of GmmOR15 locus represented over 90% of expression profiles for the ORs. The G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were phylogenetically closer to those in D. melanogaster than to other insects assessed. We found the chemoreceptor repertoire in G. m. morsitans smaller than other Diptera, and we postulate that this may be related to the restricted diet of blood-meal for both sexes of tsetse flies. However, the clade of some specific receptors has been expanded, indicative of their potential importance in chemoreception in the tsetse.

328) Determinants of heterogeneous blood feeding patterns by Aedes aegypti in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: Liebman, Kelly A.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Perkins, TAlex; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Blood; Fingerprinting; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; DNA fingerprinting; Mathematical models; Biting; Control programs; Vectors; Blood meals; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: We studied the biting habits of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue virus, to determine why certain people are bitten more often by this day-active mosquito. Over one year in dengue-endemic Iquitos, Peru, we collected blood fed mosquitoes from 19 households. Mosquito blood meals were then matched to household residents using genetic fingerprinting. We found that within a household, larger individuals and those spending more time in the home were bitten more often than other household residents. Importantly, our results show that one's probability of being bitten is dependent on the characteristics of other household residents and visitors. These results indicate that measurable characteristics of individuals do predict who is most exposed to mosquito-borne pathogens, which contributes to our understanding of pathogen transmission processes, informs development of mathematical disease models, and can enhance the design of targeted control programs.

329) Accuracy of microRNA discovery pipelines in non-model organisms using closely related species genomes
Autor: Etebari, Kayvan; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: DEEP-Sequencing data; Aedes aegypti; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Expression analysis; Wolbachia uses; Identification; Mirnas; Miranalyzer; Biomarkers; Diseases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mapping small reads to genome reference is an essential and more common approach to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in an organism. Using closely related species genomes as proxy references can facilitate miRNA expression studies in non-model species that their genomes are not available. However, the level of error this introduces is mostly unknown, as this is the result of evolutionary distance between the proxy reference and the species of interest. To evaluate the accuracy of miRNA discovery pipelines in non-model organisms, small RNA library data from a mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were mapped to three well annotated insect genomes as proxy references using miRanalyzer with two strict and loose mapping criteria. In addition, another web-based miRNA discovery pipeline (DSAP) was used as a control for program performance. Using miRanalyzer, more than 80% reduction was observed in the number of mapped reads using strict criterion when proxy genome references were used; however, only 20% reduction was recorded for mapped reads to other species known mature miRNA datasets. Except a few changes in ranking, mapping criteria did not make any significant differences in the profile of the most abundant miRNAs in A. aegypti when its original or a proxy genome was used as reference. However, more variation was observed in miRNA ranking profile when DSAP was used as analysing tool. Overall, the results also suggested that using a proxy reference did not change the most abundant miRNAs' differential expression profiles when infected or non-infected libraries were compared. However, usage of a proxy reference could provide about 67% of the original outcome from more extremely up-or down-regulated miRNA profiles. Although using closely related species genome incurred some losses in the number of miRNAs, the most abundant miRNAs along with their differential expression profile would be acceptable based on the sensitivity level of each project.

330) Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila
Autor: Panda, Debasis; Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Dunagin, Margaret; Tudor, Matthew; Hopkins, Kaycie C.; Xu, Jie; Gold, Beth; Raj, Arjun; Capelson, Maya; Cherry, Sara
Assunto: Innate immunity; Nuclear pore; Nucleoporin; Pol II regulation; P-TEFb
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 111, n. 37, p. E3890-E3899, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are additional uncharacterized mechanisms at play. Our previous studies revealed that a rapidly-induced antiviral gene expression program is active against disparate human arthropod-borne viruses in Drosophila. Moreover, one-half of this program is regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing. Here we found that Nup98, a virus-induced gene, was antiviral against a panel of viruses both in cells and adult flies since its depletion significantly enhanced viral infection. Mechanistically, we found that Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression in Drosophila at the level of transcription. Expression profiling revealed that the virus-induced activation of 36 genes was abrogated upon loss of Nup98; and we found that a subset of these Nup98-dependent genes were antiviral. These Nup98-dependent virus-induced genes are Cdk9-dependent and translation-independent suggesting that these are rapidly induced primary response genes. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Nup98 is directly bound to the promoters of virus-induced genes, and that it promotes occupancy of the initiating form of RNA polymerase II at these promoters, which are rapidly induced on viral infection to restrict human arboviruses in insects.

331) Zika virus infections
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arboviruses; Diagnosis; Emergence; French Polynesia; Outbreak; Zika; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, v.2014, n. 467, p. 45-52,2014.
ISSN: 1773035X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV is an arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus) belonging to the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, especially Aedes species. Sporadic human cases were reported from the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. In2007, Yap Island (Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) reported the first large ZIKV outbreak. From October2013 to March2014, French Polynesia (FP), Pacific, experienced the largest ZIKV outbreak ever reported with an estimate of28.000 cases (11% of the population). Before the FP outbreak, Zika fever was reported as a self-limited disease, no severe form nor hospitalization have been reported. During this outbreak, the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndromes was20 fold higher than expected and this neurological complication was probably linked with ZIKV infections. During this outbreak, perinatal and possible transfusion-related ZIKV transmissions have been described. Acute phase diagnosis relies on molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR). Serodiagnosis is limited by the high degree of cross reactions with other flaviviruses, especially in the case of secondary-flaviviruses infections. To date, there is no available commercial test and diagnosis is limited to reference laboratories. Zika fever should be suspected from patients presenting with a "dengue like syndrome", returning or living in a ZIKV endemic area and tested negative for the other predominant arboviruses, especially dengue. ©2014 - Elsevier Masson SAS - Tous droits réservés.

332) The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Vanderveken, Mark; O'Donnell, Michael J
Assunto: Ion transport; Erythrocytes; Receptors; Hosts; Glycoproteins; Hormones; Osmoregulation; Follicle-stimulating hormone; Follicles; Malpighian tubules; Gonadotropins; Thyroid; Digestion; Gene expression; Hindgut; Cations; Cysteine; Luteinizing hormone; Electrodes; Neurotransmitters; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Metazoa; Nematoda
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: A family of evolutionarily old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds. In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSH beta ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LH beta ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSH beta ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CG beta ). A novel glycoprotein heterodimer was identified in vertebrates by genome analysis, called thyrostimulin, composed of two novel subunits, GPA2 and GPB5, and homologs occur in arthropods, nematodes and cnidarians, implying that this neurohormone system existed prior to the emergence of bilateral metazoans. In order to discern possible physiological roles of this hormonal signaling system in mosquitoes, we have isolated the glycoprotein hormone genes producing the alpha- and beta-subunits (AedaeGPA2 and AedaeGPB5) and assessed their temporal expression profiles in the yellow and dengue-fever vector, Aedes aegypti. We have also isolated a putative receptor for this novel mosquito hormone, AedaeLGR1, which contains features conserved with other glycoprotein leucine-rich repeating containing G protein-coupled receptors. AedaeLGR1 is expressed in tissues of the alimentary canal such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules and hindgut, suggesting that this novel mosquito glycoprotein hormone may regulate ionic and osmotic balance. Focusing on the hindgut in adult stage A. aegypti, where AedaeLGR1 was highly enriched, we utilized the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) to determine if AedaeGPA2/GPB5 modulated cation transport across this epithelial tissue. Our results suggest that AedaeGPA2/GPB5 does indeed participate in ionic and osmotic balance, since it appears to inhibit natriuresis and promote kaliuresis. Taken together, our findings imply this hormone may play an important role in ionic balance when levels of Na+ are limited and levels of K+ are in excess - such as during the digestion and assimilation of erythrocytes following vertebrate blood-feeding by females.

333) Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Vinauger, Clement; Lutz, Eleanor K.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.
Assunto: Olfactory learning; Long-term memory; Appetitive conditioning; Disease vector; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 217, n. 13, p. 2321-2330, 2014
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS - some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in naive mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (beta-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses.

334) Editorial: The 2014 Ebola outbreak and its significance to New Zealand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hall R., Williamson D.
Assunto: disease surveillance, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (drug therapy, drug therapy, epidemiology), epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New Zealand Public Health Surveillance Report, v. 12, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1176-2888
Resumo:

335) Oral susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for dengue serotypes 1 and 3 viruses
Autor: Gaye, Alioune; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dakar; Kedougou; Senegal; Oral susceptibility; Dengue serotypes 1 and 3
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Medicine & International Health, v. 19, n. 11, p. 1355-1359, 2014
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: To investigate the potential for domestic and wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Dakar and Kedougou to develop a disseminated infection after exposure to DENV-3 and DENV-1.METHODS We have exposed sylvatic and urban population of Ae. aegypti from Senegal to bloomeals containing dengue serotype 1 and 3. At different incubation period, individual mosquito legs/wings and bodies were tested for virus presence using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection and dissemination rates.RESULTS The data indicated low susceptibility to DENV-3 (infection: 2.4-15.2%, and dissemination rates: 0-8.3%) and higher susceptibility to DENV-1 (infection and dissemination rates up to 50%).CONCLUSION Aedes aegypti from Senegal seem able to develop a disseminated infection of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Further studies are needed to test their ability to transmit the two serotypes.

336) Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing
Autor: David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frederic; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurelie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane
Assunto: RNA sequencing; RNA-seq; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito; Dengue; Detoxification enzymes; Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP; Cuticle; Transporters
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur. Results: After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin selection strongly affected the polymorphism of several transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases likely involved in insecticide biodegradation. Conclusions: The present study confirmed the power of RNA-seq for identifying concomitantly quantitative and qualitative transcriptome changes associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Our results suggest that transcriptome modifications can be selected rapidly by insecticides and affect multiple biological functions. Previously neglected by molecular screenings, polymorphism variations of detoxification enzymes may play an important role in the adaptive response of mosquitoes to insecticides.

337) Advances in Research of Odorant Receptor Proteins of Mosquitoes
Autor: Dai Yu-Hua; Zhao Zhong-Yi; Cheng Peng; Liu Li-Juan; Gong Mao-Qing
Assunto: Fun?Æo da expressÆo; Repelente - Receptor olfativo
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Jishengchong Yu Yixue Kunchong Xuebao, v. 21, n. 1, p. 59-64, 2014
ISSN: 1005-0507
Resumo: Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever. In mosquitoes, the olfactory system plays a crucial role in many types of behavior, including nectar feeding, host preference selection and oviposition. Odorant receptors ( ORs) are comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. They are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ORs have been identified in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. This review enclosed the lately research progress of ORs, including the characteristics of structure, expression regulation and physiological function. Moreover, a highly conserved, broadly expressed olfactory receptor Or83b were summarized in the article. The relationship between OR with the development of mosquito repellents was also involved in the present paper.

338) Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Ho, Yung S.; Ariani, Cristina V.; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Viruses; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Parasites; Nucleotide sequence; Recombination; Dengue; Yellow fever; Genetic markers; Genetic crosses; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. Mosquitoes are important for transmission of human diseases including dengue and yellow fever. The sequencing of the genomes of key mosquito species including Aedes aegypti has helped us to understand the factors that allow mosquitoes to vector disease. While the genome for Ae. aegypti has been sequenced, it is in many pieces which have not yet been arranged on chromosomes. To this end, we have created a genetic linkage map and measured the distance between genetic markers, which allows us to assign them to regions of the genome. Using this method, we also detected errors in the current genome sequences. We used our genetic map to find regions of the mosquito genome associated with the development of Brugia malayi, a nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. A better genome assembly will be important for the development of novel methods for controlling disease transmission.

339) 20-hydroxyecdysone mediates non-canonical regulation of mosquito vitellogenins through alternative splicing
Autor: Provost-Javier, K. N.; Rasgon, J. L.
Assunto: Vitellogenin ; Intron retention ; Mosquito reproduction ; Nonsense-mediated decay ; 20-hydroxyecdysone
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 4, p. 407-416, 2014
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Vitellogenesis is one of the most well-studied physiological processes in mosquitoes. Expression of mosquito vitellogenin genes is classically described as being restricted to female adult reproduction. We report premature vitellogenin transcript expression in three vector mosquitoes: Culex tarsalis, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vitellogenins expressed during non-reproductive stages are alternatively spliced to retain their first intron and encode premature termination codons. We show that intron retention results in transcript degradation by translation-dependent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This is probably an example of regulated unproductive splicing and translation (RUST), a mechanism known to regulate gene expression in numerous organisms but which has never been described in mosquitoes. We demonstrate that the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is responsible for regulating post-transcriptional splicing of vitellogenin. After exposure of previtellogenic fat bodies to 20E, vitellogenin expression switches from a non-productive intron-retaining transcript to a spliced protein-coding transcript. This effect is independent of factors classically known to influence transcription, such as juvenile hormone-mediated competence and amino acid signalling through the target of rapamycin pathway. Non-canonical regulation of vitellogenesis through RUST is a novel role for the multifunctional hormone 20E, and may have important implications for general patterns of gene regulation in mosquitoes.

340) Assessing quality of life-shortening Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the field based on capture rates and morphometric assessments
Autor: Yeap, Heng Lin; Axford, Jason K.; Popovici, Jean; Endersby, Nancy M.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; Ritchie, Scott A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Wolbachia; Aedes aegypti; Size; Shape; Quality
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Recent releases have been carried out with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMelPop mosquito cell-line adapted (wMelPop-CLA) strain of Wolbachia. This infection introduced from Drosophila provides strong blockage of dengue and other arboviruses but also has large fitness costs in laboratory tests. The releases were used to evaluate the fitness of released infected mosquitoes, and (following termination of releases) to test for any effects of wMelPop-CLA on wing size and shape when mosquitoes were reared under field conditions. Methods: We monitored gravid females via double sticky traps to assess the reproductive success of wMelPop-CLA-infected females and also sampled the overall mosquito population post-release using Biogent Sentinel traps. Morphometric analyses were used to evaluate infection effects on wing shape as well as size. Results: Oviposition success as assessed through double sticky traps was unrelated to size of released mosquitoes. However, released mosquitoes with lower wing loading were more successful. Furthermore, wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes had 38.3% of the oviposition success of uninfected mosquitoes based on the predicted infection frequency after release. Environmental conditions affected wing shape and particularly size across time in uninfected mosquitoes, but not in naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes. Although the overall size and shape do not differ between naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, the infected mosquitoes tended to have smaller wings than uninfected mosquitoes during the cooler November in comparison to December. Conclusion: These results confirm the lower fitness of wMelPop-CLA infection under field conditions, helping to explain challenges associated with a successful invasion by this strain. In the long run, invasion may depend on releasing strains carrying insecticide resistance or egg desiccation resistance, combined with an active pre-release population suppression program.

341) Effects of ingested vertebrate-derived factors on insect immune responses
Autor: Pakpour, Nazzy; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 3, p. 1-5, 2014
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: During the process of blood feeding insect vectors are exposed to an array of vertebrate-derived blood factors ranging from byproducts of blood meal digestion to naturally occurring products in the blood including growth hormones, cytokines and factors derived from blood-borne pathogens themselves. In this review, we examine the ability of these ingested vertebrate blood factors to alter the innate pathogen defenses of insect vectors. The ability of these factors to modify the immune responses of insect vectors offers new intriguing targets for blocking or reducing transmission of human disease-causing pathogens.

342) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A.; Balasubramanian, C.; Moorthi, P.
Assunto: Biological control; Particle size; Scanning electron microscopy; Vectors; Spectroscopy; Dengue; Nanoparticles; Silver; Larvicides; Biosynthesis; Microscopy; Spectrophotometers; Aedes egypti; Bacillus thuringiensis; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, p. 311-316, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UVavisible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

343) Molecular caracterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declere, Stephane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Central Africa; Aedes africanus; Zika virus; Genomic Characterization; Aedes opok
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus and Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, 2014.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

344) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Yellow fever virus; 17D vaccine; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. , p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes.

345) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Virus envelope protein; Aedes; Africa; Article; Disease re-emergence; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Human; Immunofluorescence; Molecular epidemiology; Molecular evolution; Nucleotide sequence; Phylogeny; Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RNA extraction; Virus recombination; Virus strain; Zika flavivirus; Envelope protein - Glycosylation
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

346) Myco-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beauveria bassiana against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticle; Beauveria bassiana; Pathogenicity; Percent cumulative mortality; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 8, p. 2869-2877, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of silver synthesized biolarvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was assessed against the different larval instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The silver nanoparticles were observed and characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). A surface plasmon resonance band was observed at 420 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The characterization was confirmed by shape (spherical), size 36.88-60.93 nm, and EDX spectral peak at 3 keV of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have been tested against the different larval instars of Ae. aegypti at different concentrations for a period of 24 h. Ae. aegypti larvae were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The LC50 and LC90 values are 0.79 and 1.09 ppm with respect to the Ae. aegypti treated with B. bassiana (Bb) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). First and second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti have shown cent percent mortality while third and fourth instars found 50.0, 56.6, 70.0, 80.0, and 86.6 and 52.4, 60.0, 68.5, 76.0, and 83.3 % mortality at 24 h of exposure in 0.06 and 1.00 ppm, respectively. It is suggested that the entomopathogenic fungus synthesized silver nanoparticles would be appropriate for environmentally safer and greener approach for new leeway in vector control strategy through a biological process.

347) Aedes aegypti midgut remodeling during metamorphosis
Autor: Fernandes, Kenner Morals; Neves, Clovis Andrade; Serrao, Jose Eduardo; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira
Assunto: Midgut; Development; Aedes aegypti; Endocrine cells; Stem cells; Regenerative cells
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Parasitology International, v. 63, n. 3, p. 506-512, 2014
ISSN: 1383-5769
Resumo: The Aedes aegypti midgut is restructured during metamorphosis; its epithelium is renewed by replacing the digestive and endocrine cells through stem or regenerative cell differentiation. Shortly after pupation (white pupae) begins, the larval digestive cells are histolized and show signs of degeneration, such as autophagic vacuoles and disintegrating microvilli. Simultaneously, differentiating cells derived from larval stem cells form an electron-dense layer that is visible 24 h after pupation begins. Forty-eight hours after pupation onset, the differentiating cells yield an electron-lucent cytoplasm rich in microvilli and organelles. Dividing stem cells were observed in the fourth instar larvae and during the first 24 h of pupation, which suggests that stem cells proliferate at the end of the larval period and during pupation. This study discusses various aspects of the changes during midgut remodeling for pupating A. aegypti. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

348) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

349) Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection
Autor: Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid; Recognition gene; Niemann Pick-type C gene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 43, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2014
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type Cl (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted-in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito's immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

350) Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C.; Thirugnanasambantham, K.; Praba, V.; Ahangar, Niyaz; Balagangadharan, K.
Assunto: Growth; Nucleotide sequence; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Lymphocytes B; Control programs; Filariasis; Vectors; Biomass; Toxins; Soil; Homology; Marine environment; Pesticides; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Bacillus cereus; Bacillus sphaericus; Bacillus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 323-332, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely aCry4Aaa. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

351) Aedes aegypti salivary protein "aegyptin" co-inoculation modulates dengue virus infection in the vertebrate host
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Grasperge, B. J.; Calvo, E.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: Aegyptin; Allergen; Dengue; Mosquito; Mouse; Saliva; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 468-470, p. 133-139, 2014
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted in the saliva of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti during blood meal acquisition. This saliva is composed of numerous proteins with the capacity to disrupt hemostasis or modulate the vertebrate immune response. One such protein, termed "aegyptin," is an allergen and inhibitor of clot formation, and has been found in decreased abundance in the saliva of DENV-infected mosquitoes. To examine the influence of aegyptin on DENV infection of the vertebrate, we inoculated IRF-3/7(-/- -/-) mice with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 with and without co-inoculation of aegyptin. Mice that received aegyptin exhibited decreased DENV titers in inoculation sites and in circulation, as well as increased concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-5, and IL-6, at 48 h post-inoculation when compared to mice that received inoculation of DENV alone. These and other data suggest that aegyptin impacts DENV perpetuation via elevated induction of the immune response. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

352) Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain
Autor: Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Epithelial cells; Serotypes; Double-stranded RNA; Transgenes; Cell culture; Genotypes; Disease resistance; Infection; Homozygotes; Expression vectors; Integration; RNA; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. Expression of a DENV2 sequence-derived IR RNA in the mosquito midgut initiates an antiviral intracellular RNAi response that efficiently blocks DENV2 infection and profoundly impairs vector competence for that virus in Aedes aegypti. DENV2-specific IR RNA expression in the Carb109M strain has maintained the RNAi-based, refractory phenotype for 33 generations in laboratory culture. The two transgene integration sites were stable after multiple generations and following introgression into a genetically-diverse (GDLS) Ae. aegypti population. Introgression of the transgene into the GDLS genetic background changed GDLS from a DENV2 susceptible phenotype to a DENV2 refractory phenotype. The DENV2 refractory homozygous line, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ, exhibits (relative to GDLS) minimal fitness loss associated with the transgene. This line could be a potential candidate for proof-of-principle field studies.

353) Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Germany have vector competence for Japan encephalitis virus but are refractory to infection with West Nile virus
Autor: Huber, Katrin; Jansen, Stephanie; Leggewie, Mayke; Badusche, Marlis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie C.
Assunto: Aedes japonicus japonicus; Vector competence; West Nile virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 9, p. 3195-3199, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The interplay between arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses and their vectors is usually complex and often exert unique relationships. Aedes japonicus japonicus (Hulecoeteomyia japonica or Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus), an invasive mosquito species with laboratory proven vector competence for a number of emerging viruses has been newly introduced to Germany and is currently expanding its range throughout the country. On the other hand, West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging arbovirus originating from Africa, is already circulating in several European countries and might soon be introduced to Germany. Because newly introduced and rapidly expanding vector species pose a potential risk for public health in Germany, we assessed the vectorial capacity of German Ae. j. japonicus populations for WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The results indicate that German Ae. j. japonicus are susceptible for JEV but are refractory to infection with WNV. Of 67 Ae. j. japonicus females challenged by feeding of WNV-containing blood, none had measurable amounts of WNV-RNA (0 % infection rate) on day 14 post-infection. In contrast, all females challenged with JEV were positive for JEV-RNA (100 % infection rate) on day 14 post-infection. The reason for WNV resistance remains to be determined but is independent from co-infection with other flaviviruses or the presence of endosymbiotic Wolbachia, since we found no evidence for other flavivirus infections within 1,033 tested A. j. japonicus females from the sampling region, nor detectable Wolbachia infection within 30 randomly selected individuals.

354) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti, December 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wæhre T., Maagard A., Tappe D., Cadar D., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412-1414, 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

355) Aedes mosquito salivary immune peptides: boost or block dengue viral infections
Autor: Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Dengue, Aedes, Mosquito immune, Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 2, n. 2, p. 163-168, 2014
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: Dengue virus, one of the most important arthropod borne viruses, infected to human can severely cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are expected about 50 million dengue infections and 500 000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue hemorrhagic fever, mainly in Southeast Asia, Pacific, and in Americas reported each year. The rapid expansion of global dengue is one of a major public health challenge, together with not yet successful solutions of dengue epidemic control strategies. Thus, these dynamic dengue viral infections exhibited high demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure impacts on human. This review aimed to highlight the current understanding of dengue mosquito immune responses and role of mosquito salivary glands on dengue infection. These information may provide a valuable knowledge of disease pathogenesis, especially in mosquito vector and dengue virus interaction, which may help to control awl prevent dengue distribution.

356) Heterogeneous feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, on individual human hosts in rural Thailand
Autor: Harrington, Laura C.; Fleisher, Andrew; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wa, Chrystal V.; Poulson, Rebecca L; Edman, John D.; Clark, John M.; Jones, James W.; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Hot spots; Viruses; Disease control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Age; Vectors; Infection; Children; Models; Blood; Dengue; DNA; Vaccines; Feeding behavior; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue, a potentially lethal infection impacting hundreds of millions of human lives annually, is caused by viruses transmitted during mosquito blood feeding. With no vaccine or treatment commercially available, understanding the underlying factors linked to virus exposure is critical for developing more effective dengue interventions. We conducted a study in an endemic region of Thailand where transmission is high and children are expected to be the non-immune, amplifying portion of the host population. We examined Ae. aegypti feeding patterns and risk by matching human DNA profiles in blood-fed mosquitoes to study area residents. A small number of meals matched people from the study area, suggesting that mosquitoes feed on people moving transiently through communities. People under 25 years of age were bitten less frequently than older people. We constructed network models to explore the presence of mosquito feeding "hotspots" and detected a local market "hotspot" in one study village during the high dengue transmission season. Our results provide new details on dengue vector feeding patterns and highlight the need to conduct integrated studies of vector feeding and human behavior, and virus transmission patterns in order to better understand the dengue transmission efficiency and spread.

357) Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Henry R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 6, p. 1090, june 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

358) Chemical composition and bioactivity studies of Alpinia nigra essential oils
Autor: Ghosh, Sudipta; Ozek, Temel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas;Rehman, Junaid; Khan, Ikhlas; Rangan, Latha
Assunto: Antibacterial activity; Biting deterrent activity; DPPH assay; Essential oil; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Industrial Crops and Products, v. 53, p. 111-119, 2014.
ISSN: 0926-6690
Resumo: Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including beta -caryophyllene as major component. All the EOs were found to possess notable antioxidant activities as determined using methods for scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Rhizome essential oil (REO) exhibited best effective free radical scavenging activities among other EOs compared to the standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxyl toluene. The efficacy of A. nigra EOs was tested against three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria. Flow cytometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the bacterial cell membrane damage and disintegration when they are treated with REO. Further, all EOs showed weak biting deterrent and larvicidal activity against the blood-feeding female adults and 1 day old Aedes aegypti larvae except flower essential oil which was inactive at 125 ppm. Current investigation highlights the detailed chemical composition and bioactive potential of A. nigra EOs for the first time.

359) A comparative study of haemocytes in three cyclorrhaphous dipteran flies
Autor: Pal, Ruchita; Kumar, Krishna
Assunto: Haemocytes, THC, DHC, Sarcophaga ruficornis, Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, v. 34, n. 3, p. 207-216, 2014
ISSN: 1742-7584
Resumo: The larval haemolymph of three cyclorrhaphous dipteran flies, Sarcophaga ruficornis Fab., Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala Fab., possesses five different types of haemocytes: prohaemocytes; plasmatocytes; granulocytes; spherulocytes; oenocytoids. In addition, vermicytes are found in the haemolymph of S. ruficornis and adipohaemocytes in the haemolymph of M. domestica. The total haemocyte counts in the three dipteran flies show an increasing trend throughout the larval stage, attaining a peak value in the freshly formed white puparium stage and declining thereafter. The differential haemocyte count shows a decline in the number of prohaemocytes with an increase in the number of plasmatocytes, granulocytes and spherulocytes.

360) Imported zika virus infection from the Cook Islands into Australia, 2014.
Autor: Pyke Alyssa T,Daly Michelle T,Cameron Jane N,Moore Peter R,Taylor Carmel T,Hewitson Glen R,Humphreys Jan L,Gair Richard
Assunto: Arbovirus, Infectious disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Currents, v. 6, 2014
ISSN: 2157-3999
Resumo: A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

361) Aedesin: structure and antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacterial strains
Autor: Godreuil, Sylvain; Leban, Nadia; Padilla, Andre; Hamel, Rodolphe; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Chauffour, Aurelie; Vittecoq, Marion; Hoh, Francois; Thomas, Frederic; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Lionne, Corinne; Yssel, Hans; Misse, Dorothee
Assunto: Immune - Response; Peptides; Antibacterial; Infections; Lipophosphoglycan; Expression; Drosophila; Membrane; CECROPIN; NMR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Multidrug resistance, which is acquired by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, causes infections that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in many clinical settings around the world. Because of the rapidly increasing incidence of pathogens that have become resistant to all or nearly all available antibiotics, there is a need for a new generation of antimicrobials with a broad therapeutic range for specific applications against infections. Aedesin is a cecropin-like anti-microbial peptide that was recently isolated from dengue virus-infected salivary glands of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In the present study, we have refined the analysis of its structural characteristics and have determined its antimicrobial effects against a large panel of multidrug resistant bacterial strains, directly isolated from infected patients. Based the results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Aedesin has a helix-bend-helix structure typical for a member of the family of a-helix anti-microbial peptides. Aedesin efficiently killed Gram-negative bacterial strains that display the most worrisome resistance mechanisms encountered in the clinic, including resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, 4th generation fluoroquinolones, folate inhibitors and monobactams. In contrast, Gram-positive strains were insensitive to the lytic effects of the peptide. The anti-bacterial activity of Aedesin was found to be salt-resistant, indicating that it is active under physiological conditions encountered in body fluids characterized by ionic salt concentrations. In conclusion, because of its strong lytic activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains displaying all types of clinically relevant resistance mechanisms known today, Aedesin might be an interesting candidate for the development of alternative treatment for infections caused by these types of bacteria.

362) Construction and characterization of the interdomain chimeras using Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis and identification of a possible novel toxic chimera
Autor: Sun, Yunjun; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Dasheng; Ding, Xuezhi;Wang, Jingfang; Hu, Quanfang; Yuan, Zhiming; Park, Hyun-Woo; Xia, Liqiu
Assunto: Biological control; Bioassays; Lethal limits; Toxicants; DNA; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Biotechnology; Public health; Chimeras; Inclusion bodies; Toxins; Amino acid sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biotechnology Letters, v. 36, n. 1, p. 105-111, 2014.
ISSN: 0141-5492
Resumo: Three structural domains of mosquitocidal Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis were exchanged to produce interdomain chimeras [BAA (11Ba/11Aa/11Aa), ABA (11Aa/11Ba/11Aa), AAB (11Aa/11Aa/11Ba), ABB (11Aa/11Ba/11Ba), BAB (11Ba/11Aa/11Ba), BBA (11Ba/11Ba/11Aa]. Chimeras BAB, BAA, BBA, and AAB formed inclusion bodies in the crystal-negative B. thuringiensis host and produced expected protein bands on SDS-PAGE gel. However, no inclusion body or target protein could be found for chimeras ABA and ABB. In bioassays using the fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, AAB had 50 % lethal concentrations of 4.8 and 2.2 mu g ml super(-1), respectively; however, the rest of chimeras were not toxic. This study thus helps to understand the domain-function relationships of the Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba toxins. The toxic chimera, AAB, might be a candidate for mosquito control as its amino acid sequence is different from the two parental toxins.

363) Alphavirus mutator variants present host-specific defects and attenuation in mammalian and insect models
Autor: Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Mongelli, Vanesa; Blanc, Herve; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Vignuzzi, Marco
Assunto: Dependent RNA - Polymerase; West Nile - Virus; Naturally infected mosquitos; Chikungunya -Virus; Sindbis virus; Replication fidelity; Lethal mutagenesis; In-vivo; Cooperative interactions; Purifying selection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Arboviruses cycle through both vertebrates and invertebrates, which requires them to adapt to disparate hosts while maintaining genetic integrity during genome replication. To study the genetic mechanisms and determinants of these processes, we use chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging human pathogen transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. We previously isolated a high fidelity (or antimutator) polymerase variant, C483Y, which had decreased fitness in both mammalian and mosquito hosts, suggesting this residue may be a key molecular determinant. To further investigate effects of position 483 on RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) fidelity, we substituted every amino acid at this position. We isolated novel mutators with decreased replication fidelity and higher mutation frequencies, allowing us to examine the fitness of error-prone arbovirus variants. Although CHIKV mutators displayed no major replication defects in mammalian cell culture, they had reduced specific infectivity and were attenuated in vivo. Unexpectedly, mutator phenotypes were suppressed in mosquito cells and the variants exhibited significant defects in RNA synthesis. Consequently, these replication defects resulted in strong selection for reversion during infection of mosquitoes. Since residue 483 is conserved among alphaviruses, we examined the analogous mutations in Sindbis virus (SINV), which also reduced polymerase fidelity and generated replication defects in mosquito cells. However, replication defects were mosquito cell-specific and were not observed in Drosophila S2 cells, allowing us to evaluate the potential attenuation of mutators in insect models where pressure for reversion was absent. Indeed, the SINV mutator variant was attenuated in fruit flies. These findings confirm that residue 483 is a determinant regulating alphavirus polymerase fidelity and demonstrate proof of principle that arboviruses can be attenuated in mammalian and insect hosts by reducing fidelity.Author Summary Chikungunya (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus that constitutes a major and growing human health burden. Like all RNA viruses, during viral replication CHIKV copies its genome using a polymerase that makes an average of one mistake per replication cycle. Therefore, a single virus generates millions of viral progeny that carry a multitude of distinct mutations in their genomes. In this study, we isolated CHIKV mutators (strains that make more errors than the wildtype virus), to study how higher mutation rates affect fitness in arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). CHIKV mutators have reduced virulence in mice and severe replication defects in Aedes mosquito cells. However, these replication defects result in selective pressure for reversion of mutators to a wildtype polymerase in mosquito hosts. To examine how mutators would behave in an insect model in absence of this genetic instability, we isolated mutators of a related virus, Sindbis virus (SINV). SINV mutators had no replication defect in fruit fly (Drosophila) cells, and a SINV mutator strain was stable and attenuated in fruit flies. This work shows proof of principle that arbovirus mutators can exhibit attenuation in both mammalian and insect hosts, and may remain a viable vaccine strategy.

364) Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Hurk, Andrew FVan Den; McMahon, Jamie L.; Eiras, Alvaro E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; BGS trap; Surveillance; Sticky ovitrap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 210-219, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7X and 2.4 X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools of Ae. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degree C and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries.

365) Trouble in paradise
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brust K.B., Prince W.S., Fader R.C.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: IDCases, v. 1, n. 4, p. 95-96, 2014
ISSN: 2214-2509
Resumo:

366) Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of dengue viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Wanja, Elizabeth; Parker, Zahra F.; Odusami, Oluwakemi; Rowland, Tobin; Dave, Kirti; Dave, Sonia; Turell, Michael J.
Assunto: Antigens; Disease detection; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Risk groups; Vectors; Rift Valley fever; Rift valleys; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 220-225, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: There is a threat for dengue virus (DENV) reemergence in many regions of the world, particularly in areas where the DENV vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), are readily available. However, there are currently no accurate and reliable diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of DENV within the vector populations to implement appropriate vector control and personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect DENV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes infected with any of the four viral serotypes. The DENV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, and provided clear results within 30 min. It was highly specific and did not cross-react with samples spiked with West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, Ross River, LaCrosse, or Caraparu viruses. The DENV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of DENV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.

367) Air travel Is associated with intracontinental spread of dengue virus serotypes 1-3 in Brazil
Autor: Nunes, Marcio R. T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa, Jr.; Pantoja, Jamilla A.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Savji, Nazir; Baele, Guy; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Lipkin, W. Ian
Assunto: Statistical phylogenetics; Evolutionary dynamics; Sequence alignment; Phylogeography; Model; Replacement; Performance; Interface; Emergence; Selection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus and its four serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) infect 390 million people and are implicated in at least 25,000 deaths annually, with the largest disease burden in tropical and subtropical regions. We investigated the spatial dynamics of DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3 in Brazil by applying a statistical framework to complete genome sequences. For all three serotypes, we estimated that the introduction of new lineages occurred within 7 to 10-year intervals. New lineages were most likely to be imported from the Caribbean region to the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, and then to disperse at a rate of approximately 0.5 km/day. Joint statistical analysis of evolutionary, epidemiological and ecological data indicates that aerial transportation of humans and/or vector mosquitoes, rather than Aedes aegypti infestation rates or geographical distances, determine dengue virus spread in Brazil.Author SummaryDengue virus serotypes are associated with millions of infections and thousands of deaths globally each year, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. We investigated the spatial dynamics of DENV (serotypes 1-3) in Brazil by applying a statistical framework to complete genome sequences. Co-circulation of distinct genotypes, lineage extinction and replacement and multiple viral introduction events were found for all three serotypes. New lineages were typically introduced from the Caribbean into Northern Brazil and dispersed thereafter at a rate of approximate to 0.5 km/year. Our analysis indicates that aerial transportation is a more important determinant of viral dispersal than Aedes aegypti infestation rates or geographical distance.

368) Identification of carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Poupardin, Rodolphe; Srisukontarat, Wannaporn; Yunta, Cristina; Ranson, Hilary
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Insecticides; Pest control; Hosts; Biopolymorphism; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Amino acid substitution; Acetylcholinesterase; Dengue; Gene polymorphism; Enzymes; Carboxylesterase; Mutation; Amino acid sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Temephos is the most important insecticide used in larviciding campaigns to reduce the risk of dengue transmission. This organophosphate insecticide has been in use for over 50 years and resistance to this chemical has been reported in Aedes aegypti populations from Latin America, the Caribbean and from Asia. In other insect species, organophosphate resistance is typically associated with mutations in the target site, acetylcholinesterase, that decrease the insect's sensitivity to the insecticide, or increases in the activity of one or more carboxylesterase enzymes, either by overproduction and/or amino acid substitutions, that reduce the amount of insecticide reaching the target site. Neither of these mechanisms has been previously characterised at the molecular level in dengue vectors. Here we identify an Ae aegypti carboxylesterase gene with expression levels and amino acid sequence polymorphisms correlating with temephos resistance in Thailand. This is a key step in the development of tools to manage resistance in this mosquito species.

369) Progress in infectious disease testing-NAT and beyond
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L., Dodd R.Y.
Assunto: blood transfusion, hematology, infection, organization, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ;
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 107, supl. 1, p. 5, june 2014
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Aims: To update membership on state-of-the-art testing technologies for infectious disease blood donation screening including new methods such as expanding NAT platforms, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays. Changes to testing algorithms with the availability of inactivation by pathogen reduction will also be highlighted. Background: Testing donated blood for markers of infectious disease plays a major role in establishing and maintaining blood safety. Minimal expectations worldwide are that blood is tested for syphilis, HIV, HCV and HBV. The norm for viral testing has been serology, but increasingly, nucleic acid testing is being implemented where resources allow, even for emerging infectious disease (EID) agents such as the chikungunya virus outbreak that started in Dec 2013 in the Caribbean, marking the first introduction of this virus in the Americas. The appropriate mix of tests and algorithms will depend on local epidemiology, infrastructure and economic considerations. Although NAT will detect acute infections, representing the greatest infectious threat, not all pathogens have adequate concentrations of nucleic acid for detection in the early acute or later chronic phases of infection (if chronicity is a feature of infection). Thus, for many agents, either serology only or a combination of serology and NAT exist. In developing test strategies, it is important to understand the actual risk of transfusion transmission and the impact of the test systems on such risk, especially where resources are limited. Methods: NAT has been implemented in over 30 nations worldwide as documented by an International Forum organized by the ISBT Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Disease Working Party that captured implementation from 1999 to 2009 for HCV, HIV and HBV (Roth et al., Vox Sang 2012;102:82-90). Testing has progressed from manual technologies using single markers to highly multiplexed automated assays. Routine NAT has been added, either as a required marker or under investigational studies for additional agents including, parvovirus B19, HAV, HEV, arboviruses including WNV, dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, the red-cell parasite, Babesia, and likely others. In addition to NAT, new technologies including pathogen reduction, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays will have an important impact on testing. Recently, the AABB EID working group has updated a listing of pathogen reduction technologies available including over 40 clinical trials in support of their safety and efficacy (http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/eidpostpub.aspx). The impact is either to prevent the need to introduce new tests, assuming availability of the technology to inactivate the component in which the agent is transmitted, and that the technology has sufficient robustness to produce an effective 'kill'. As an additional benefit, changes to existing testing algorithms may be feasible such that redundant tests may be eliminated. With respect to nucleic acid and protein microarrays, technological advances will allow the simultaneous detection and differentiation of hundreds of pathogens, but many hurdles prior to routine adoption exist. Conclusions: Blood systems worldwide must be ready to adapt to changes in their infectious disease epidemiology, emergence of new agents, and changes in their economic conditions and public expectations to accommodate the changing landscape of infectious disease testing.

370) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Ondo, Statiana Mboui; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Zika virus; Mutation; Infections; Phylogenetics; Flavivirus - Classification; Flavivirus - Genetics, Animals; Gabon; Humans; Phylogeny, Aedes - Virology; Communicable Diseases, Emerging - Virology; Flavivirus - Isolation and purification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Not previously considered an important human arboviral pathogen, the epidemic capacity of Zika virus (ZIKV, a dengue-related flavivirus) was revealed by the Micronesia outbreak in 2007, which affected about 5000 persons. Widely distributed throughout tropical areas of Asia and Africa, ZIKV is transmitted by a broad range of mosquito species, most of which are sylvatic or rural, Aedes aegypti, an anthropophilic and urban species, being considered the main ZIKV epidemic vector. In a context of emerging arbovirus infections (chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV)) in Gabon since 2007, we conducted a retrospective study to detect other, related viruses. In samples collected during the concurrent CHIKV/DENV outbreaks that occurred in the capital city in 2007, we detected ZIKV in both humans and mosquitoes, and notably the Asian mosquito Aedes albopictus that recently invaded the country and was the main vector responsible for these outbreaks. We found that the Gabonese ZIKV strain belonged to the African lineage, and phylogenetic analysis suggested ancestral diversification and spread rather than recent introduction. These findings, showing for the first time epidemic ZIKV activity in an urban environment in Central Africa and the presence of ZIKV in the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, raise the possibility of a new emerging threat to human health.

371) Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Gill, Sarjeet S.
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry11Aa toxin; Cadherin; ALP; APN; Receptor; Resistant mosquito; RNA-seq
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 54, p. 112-121, 2014
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT: However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (similar to 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

372) Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; West nile virus; Langerhans cell migration; Borne Encephalitis virus; Aedes aegypti; Heparan sulfate; Immune response; Arbovirus transmission; Infection; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 1, p. 164-175, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

373) A database of circadian and diel rhythmic gene expression in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Leming, Matthew T.; Rund, Samuel S. C.; Behura, Susanta K.; Duffield, Giles E.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Circadian rhythm, Database, Diel rhythm, Microarray, Gene expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, n. 1128, 2014
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: The mosquito species Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of many arboviral diseases, including dengue and yellow fevers, that are responsible for a large worldwide health burden. The biological rhythms of mosquitoes regulate many of the physiological processes and behaviors that influence the transmission of these diseases. For insight into the molecular basis of biological rhythms, diel and circadian gene expression profiling has been carried out for many species. To bring these resources to Aedes aegypti researchers, we used microarray technology to carry out a genome wide assessment of gene expression during the 24 hour light/dark (LD) cycle and during constant darkness (DD). The purpose of this report is to describe the methods, the validation of the results, and the organization of this database resource.Description: The Aedes aegypti Circadian Database is a publicly accessible database that can be searched via a text-based query to visualize 44 hour temporal expression patterns of a given gene in Ae. aegypti heads under diel (observed under a 12 hour/12 hour LD cycle) and circadian (observed under DD) conditions. Profiles of gene expression under these conditions were assayed by Nimblegen 12-plex microarrays and rhythmicity was objectively assessed by the JTK_CYCLE algorithm. The output of the search is a graphical representation of the expression data along with computed period length, the time-of-day of gene expression peaks, and statistical determination for rhythmicity.Conclusion: Our results show that at least 7.9% of the gene set present in the Aedes aegypti head are rhythmic under LD conditions and 6.7% can be considered circadian, oscillating under constant dark conditions. We present these results in the Aedes aegypti Circadian Database through Bioclock, a public website hosted by the University of Notre Dame at http://www.nd.edu/similar to bioclock/. This website allows searchable browsing of this quantitative gene expression information. The visualization allows for gene-by-gene comparison of transcript expression under both diel and circadian conditions, and the results are presented graphically in a plot profile of gene expression. The Ae. aegypti Circadian Database provides a community resource for observing diel and circadian fluctuations in gene expression across the Ae. aegypti genome.

374) Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors
Autor: Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Human diseases; Replication; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Chemical compounds; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Sugar; Mycophenolic acid; Double-stranded RNA; Vectors; Blood meals; Salivary gland; Infection; Longevity; Fecundity; Digestive tract; Insect cells; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; H super(+)-transporting ATPase; Gene silencing; Dengue; Machinery; Arthropods; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 mu M) and MPA (25 mu M) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. Arboviruses utilize homologous host factors of the mammalian and insect cellular machinery to complete the infection cycle. Studies in both mammalian and insect cell lines have shown that virus infection can be suppressed through inhibition of host factors by chemical compounds that therefore could be developed into transmission blocking agents. However, similar studies have not been conducted in adult mosquitoes. Here we investigated the effect of four chemical compounds (bafilomycin, mycophenolic acid, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin), known to inhibit the host factors vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and glucosidases, on dengue virus replication in adult mosquitoes. We found that bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid suppressed dengue virus replication in adult mosquito guts when they were injected prior to dengue virus infection; however, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin did not. Ingestion of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid also inhibited virus replication. We showed that the predicted target genes of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid function as virus host factors in adult mosquitoes through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Inhibition of vATPase also decreases mosquito longevity and fecundity, thereby further compromising vector capacity. Our study demonstrated that chemical compounds or double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) can be used to suppress virus infection through inhibition of host factors in adult mosquitoes, thereby rendering such approaches interesting for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies.

375) Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)
Autor: Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun
Assunto: Iron - Binding proteins; Light chain - Homolog; Oriental fruit - Fly; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Diptera tephritidae; Housekeeping genes; Messenger - RNA; Molecular characterization; Aedes aegypti; Host defense
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 4, n. 4806, 2014
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a "head to head'' fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge.

376) MicroRNA levels are modulated in Aedes aegypti after exposure to Dengue-2
Autor: Campbell, C. L.; Harrison, T.; Hess, A. M.; Ebel, G. D.
Assunto: Gene expression; Molecular biology; Viral diseases; Replication; Disease control; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Transduction; Public health; Data processing; Chromatin; Nucleotide sequence; miRNA; Algorithms; Mitochondria; Transcription; Infection; Dengue; Gene regulation; Signal transduction; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 132-139, 2014.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: To define microRNA (miRNA) involvement during arbovirus infection of Aedes aegypti, we mined deep sequencing libraries of Dengue type 2 (DENV2)-exposed mosquitoes. Three biological replicates for each timepoint [2, 4 and 9 days post-exposure (dpe)] and treatment group allowed us to remove the outliers associated with sample-to-sample variability. Using edgeR (R Bioconductor), designed for use with replicate deep sequencing data, we determined the log fold-change (logFC) of miRNA levels [18-23 nucleotides (nt)]. The number of significantly modulated miRNAs increased from less than or equal to 5 at 2 and 4 dpe to 23 unique miRNAs by 9 dpe. Putative miRNA targets were predicted by aligning miRNAs to the transcriptome, and the list was reduced to include the intersection of hits found using the Miranda, PITA, and TargetScan algorithms. To further reduce false-positives, putative targets were validated by cross-checking them with mRNAs reported in recent DENV2 host response transcriptome reports; 4076 targets were identified. Of these, 464 gene targets have predicted miRNA-binding sites in 3' untranslated regions. Context-specific target functional groups include proteins involved in transport, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, chromatin modification and signal transduction processes known to be required for viral replication and dissemination. The miRNA response is placed in context with other vector host response studies by comparing the predicted targets with those of transcriptome studies. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that profound and persistent changes to gene expression occur in DENV2-exposed mosquitoes.

377) Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ledermann J.P., Guillaumot L., Yug L., Saweyog S.C., Tided M., Machieng P., Pretrick M., Marfel M., Griggs A., Bel M., Duffy M.R., Hancock W.T., Ho-Chen T., Powers A.M.
Assunto: Aedes, Aedes hensilli, Chikungunya virus, Flaviviridae, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses.

378) MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2 autoregulates its replication in mosquito cells
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: RNA; Immunoprecipitation; Pathogens; Serotypes; Vero cells; miRNA; RNA viruses; Dengue; Cloning; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 7, p. 2746-2751, 2014.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in most cellular processes. In the seemingly endless arms race between hosts and pathogens, viruses also encode miRNAs that facilitate successful infection. In search of functional miRNAs or viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) encoded by Dengue virus (DENV), deep sequencing data of virus-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. From six vsRNAs, with candidate stem-loop structures in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the viral genomic RNA, inhibition of DENV-vsRNA-5 led to significant increases in viral replication. Silencing of RNA interference (RNAi)/miRNA pathways' associated proteins showed that Argonaute 2 is mainly involved in DENV-vsRNA-5 biogenesis. Cloning of the precursor stem loop, immunoprecipitations, ectopic expression and detection in RNAi-deficient C6/36, and the mammalian Vero cell lines further confirmed DENV-vsRNA-5 production. Furthermore, significant impact of synthetic mimic and inhibitor of DENV-vsRNA-5 on DENV RNA levels revealed DENV-vsRNA-5's role in virus autoregulation by targeting the virus nonstructural protein 1 gene. Notably, DENV-vsRNA-5 homologous mimics from DENV serotypes 1 and 4, but not 3, inhibited DENV-2 replication. The results revealed that DENV is able to encode functional vsRNAs, and one of those, which resembles miRNAs, specifically targets a viral gene, opening an avenue for possible utilization of the small RNA to limit DENV replication.

379) Case report: First case of Zika virus infection in a returning Canadian traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fonseca K., Meatherall B., Zarra D., Drebot M., MacDonald J., Pabbaraju K., Wong S., Webster P., Lindsay R., Tellier R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

380) Molecular analysis of Aedes aegypti classical protein tyrosine phosphatases uncovers an ortholog of mammalian PTP-1B implicated in the control of egg production in mosquitoes
Autor: Moretti, Debora Monteiro; Ahuja, Lalima Gagan; Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Cudischevitch, Cecilia Oliveira; Daumas-Filho, Carlos RenatoOliveira; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla;Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Jablonka, Willy; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Senna, Raquel
Assunto: Human diseases; Tyrosine; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Phosphatase; Data processing; Fat body; Enzymes; Cancer; Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase; Differentiation; Homology; Structure-function relationships; Vitellogenin; RNA-mediated interference; Protein turnover; Metabolism; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that catalyze phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation and modulate cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In mammals, PTPs play a key role in the modulation of canonical pathways involved in metabolism and immunity. PTP1B is the prototype member of classical PTPs and a major target for treating human diseases, such as cancer, obesity and diabetes. These signaling enzymes are, hence, targets of a wide array of inhibitors. Anautogenous mosquitoes rely on blood meals to lay eggs and are vectors of the most prevalent human diseases. Identifying the mosquito ortholog of PTP1B and determining its involvement in egg production is, therefore, important in the search for a novel and crucial target for vector control. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an analysis to identify the ortholog of mammalian PTP1B in the Aedes aegypti genome. We identified eight genes coding for classical PTPs. In silico structural and functional analyses of proteins coded by such genes revealed that four of these code for catalytically active enzymes. Among the four genes coding for active PTPs, AAEL001919 exhibits the greatest degree of homology with the mammalian PTP1B. Next, we evaluated the role of this enzyme in egg formation. Blood feeding largely affects AAEL001919 expression, especially in the fat body and ovaries. These tissues are critically involved in the synthesis and storage of vitellogenin, the major yolk protein. Including the classical PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or the PTP substrate DiFMUP in the blood meal decreased vitellogenin synthesis and egg production. Similarly, silencing AAEL001919 using RNA interference (RNAi) assays resulted in 30% suppression of egg production. Conclusions/Significance The data reported herein implicate, for the first time, a gene that codes for a classical PTP in mosquito egg formation. These findings raise the possibility that this class of enzymes may be used as novel targets to block egg formation in mosquitoes.

381) An analysis of the small RNA transcriptome of four developmental stages of the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri)
Autor: Liu, B.; Dou, W.; Ding, T-B.; Zhong, R.; Liao, C-Y.; Xia, W-K.; Wang, J-J.
Assunto: Expression analysis; Panonychus citri; known microRNA; Novel microRNA; Small RNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 2, p. 216-229, 2014
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: The citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) can feed on more than 112 plant species around the world. Endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have proved to be important components of gene regulation in many eukaryotes. Recently, many sRNAs have been shown to be involved in various biological processes, such as development in many animals, including insects; however, to date, no sRNAs have been reported in the citrus red mite. Using Illumina sequencing, several categories of sRNAs were identified, including 594 known microRNAs (miRNAs) grouped into 206 families and 31 novel miRNAs in the four developmental stages of citrus red mite. In addition, according to bioinformatics analysis and S-Poly(T) miRNA assays, the expression level of many miRNAs varied among the developmental stages. Furthermore, the prediction of miRNAs target genes and their functional annotation indicated that miRNAs are involved in the regulation of multiple pathways in the citrus red mite. As the first report of the sRNA world in citrus red mite, the present study furthers our understanding of the roles played by sRNAs in the development of citrus red mite and the data may help to develop methods of controlling the pests in the field.

382) Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Genomes; Nucleotide sequence; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Amino acid sequence; Public health; Data processing; Statistical analysis; Codons; codon bias; Transcription; Bioinformatics; Infection; DNA microarrays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 289, n. 5, p. 885-894, 2014.
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level.

383) A regulatory structure for working with genetically modified mosquitoes: lessons from Mexico
Autor: Ramsey, Janine M.; Bond, J. Guillermo; Macotela, Maria Elena; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Brown, David M.; Scott, Thomas W.; James, Anthony A.
Assunto: Engineered male mosquitos; Contained field trials; Vector mosquitos; Malaria control; Insect vectors; Aedes aegypti; Recommendations; Performance; Wolbachia; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 3, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo:

384) Inheritance of resistance to deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cuba
Autor: Rodriguez, Maria Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W.; Bisset, Juan A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Deltamethrin; Inheritance; Synergist; Insecticide resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1213-1219, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae.

385) A fat body-derived apical extracellular matrix enzyme is transported to the tracheal lumen and is required for tube morphogenesis in Drosophila
Autor: Dong, Bo; Miao, Guangxia; Hayashi, Shigeo
Assunto: Fat body;ÿChitin;ÿTranscytosis;ÿDrosophila trachea
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Development, v. 141, n. 21, p. 4104-4109, 2014
ISSN: 0950-1991
Resumo: The apical extracellular matrix plays a central role in epithelial tube morphogenesis. In the Drosophila tracheal system, Serpentine (Serp), a secreted chitin deacetylase expressed by the tracheal cells plays a key role in regulating tube length. Here, we show that the fly fat body, which is functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver, also contributes to tracheal morphogenesis. Serp was expressed by the fat body, and the secreted Serp was taken up by the tracheal cells and translocated to the lumen to functionally support normal tracheal development. This process was defective in rab9 and shrub/vps32 mutants and in wild-type embryos treated with a secretory pathway inhibitor, leading to an abundant accumulation of Serp in the fat body. We demonstrated that fat body-derived Serp reached the tracheal lumen after establishment of epithelial barrier function and was retained in the lumen in a chitin synthase-dependent manner. Our results thus reveal that the fat body, a mesodermal organ, actively contributes to tracheal development.

386) Lineage II of southeast Asian/American DENV-2 is associated with a severe dengue outbreak in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Williams, Maya; Mayer, Sandra V; Johnson, William L; Chen, Rubing; Volkova, Evgeniya; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Long, Kanya C; Hanley, Kathryn A; Morrison, Amy C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Halsey, Eric S
Assunto: Replication; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; Genotypes; Strains; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Dendritic cells; Amino acid substitution; Dengue; Monocytes; Positive selection; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 611-620, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: During 2010 and 2011, the Loreto region of Peru experienced a dengue outbreak of unprecedented magnitude and severity for the region. This outbreak coincided with the reappearance of dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) in Loreto after almost 8 years. Whole-genome sequence indicated that DENV-2 from the outbreak belonged to lineage II of the southeast Asian/American genotype and was most closely related to viruses circulating in Brazil during 2007 and 2008, whereas DENV-2 previously circulating in Loreto grouped with lineage I (DENV-2 strains circulating in South America since 1990). One amino acid substitution (NS5 A811V) in the 2010 and 2011 isolates resulted from positive selection. However, the 2010 and 2011 DENV-2 did not replicate to higher titers in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and did not infect or disseminate in a higher proportion of Aedes aegypti than DENV-2 isolates previously circulating in Loreto. These results suggest that factors other than enhanced viral replication played a role in the severity of this outbreak.

387) Epidemiological and molecular features of dengue, Zika and Chikungunya concurrent outbreaks in the pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Roche C., Teissier A., Nilles E.J., Musso D.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, hygiene, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 588, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: During more than a century dengue has been the only mosquito-borne virus considered as major public health concern for Pacific nations. However, during the past 5 years the epidemiology of arboviruses in the Pacific region has shown terrific changes. The situation gradually switched from the predominant circulation of a single dengue virus (DENV) to active transmission of multiple DENV serotypes and genotypes as observed in French Polynesia from 2013 and in New Caledonia and Fiji since the beginning of 2014. In the mean time, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) appeared for the first time in New Caledonia with autochtonous cases sporadically reported from 2011 up to 2013, and large outbreaks occurring in Papua New Guinea in 2012, Yap Island in 2013 and in Tonga in 2014. Another unexpected event was the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in French Polynesia at the end of 2013. ZIKV caused in French Polynesia the largest outbreak ever documented, and in a context of active circulation of DENV serotypes 1 and 3. At the beginning of 2014, ZIKV outbreaks also emerged in New Caledonia and Cook Islands. As of April 2014, outbreaks of “dengue-like illnesses” were under investigation in several other Pacific islands suggesting that the situation was evolving from bad to worse. We will describe here the early laboratory investigations that contributed to the identification of the aetiological agents of the outbreaks that recently occurred in the Pacific, notably based on the use of filter paper-spotted serum and saliva collected on cotton swab as a source of viral RNA. Based on phylogenetic data we will discuss how these viruses were introduced from continental regions into the Pacific and how they spread from one Pacific island country to another. We will also discuss the particular features of these outbreaks, notably in the occurrence of unusual clinical manifestations, like observed in French Polynesia during the ZIKV outbreak.

388) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors
Autor: Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan;Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian
Assunto: Molecular structure; Pesticides; Larvae; Leaves; Pest control; Acetone; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Mortality; Chemical composition; Methanol; Filariasis; Solvents; Vectors; Malaria; Habitat; Chloroform; Insecticides; Dengue; Petroleum; Ethyl acetate; Essential oils; Plant extracts; Aromatics; Rutaceae; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 7, p. 2475-2481, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC sub(50) = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC sub(90) = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC sub(50) = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC sub(90) = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC sub(50) = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97 %), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81 %), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14 %), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34 %), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35 %). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

389) An insight into the transcriptome of the digestive tract of the bloodsucking bug, rhodnius prolixus
Autor: Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Genta, Fernando A.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Logullo, Raquel; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Majerowicz, David; Medeiros, Marcelo; Koerich, Leonardo; Terra, Walter R.; Ferreira, Clelia; Pimentel, Andre C.; Bisch, Paulo M.; Leite, Daniel C.; Diniz, Michelle M. P.; Junior, Joao Lidio da S. G. V.; Da Silva, Manuela L.; Araujo, Ricardo N.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Brosson, Sebastien; Salmon, Didier; Bousbata, Sabrina; Gonzalez-Caballero, Natalia; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Gondim, Katia C.; Silva-Neto, Mario Alberto C.; Atella, Georgia C.; Araujo, Helena; Dias, Felipe A.; Polycarpo, Carla; Vionette-Amaral, Raquel J.; Fampa, Patricia; Melo, Ana Claudia A.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.; Balczun, Carsten; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Goncalves, Renata L. S.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Diambra, Luis; Schaub, Guenter A.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia; Braz, Gloria R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.
Assunto: Triatoma - Brasiliensis hemiptera; Transfer - RNA modifications; Activated protein - Kinase; Induced oxidative stress; Heme - Binding protein; Full - Length CDNA; Aedes aegypti; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Sequence characterization; Trypanosoma - Cruzi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7-8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the segments using pyrosequencing technology. Comparison of transcript frequency in digestive libraries with a whole-body library was used to evaluate expression levels. All classes of digestive enzymes were highly expressed, with a predominance of cysteine and aspartic proteinases, the latter showing a significant expansion through gene duplication. Although no protein digestion is known to occur in the anterior midgut (AM), protease transcripts were found, suggesting secretion as proenzymes, being possibly activated in the posterior midgut (PM). As expected, genes related to cytoskeleton, protein synthesis apparatus, protein traffic, and secretion were abundantly transcribed. Despite the absence of a chitinous peritrophic membrane in hemipterans - which have instead a lipidic perimicrovillar membrane lining over midgut epithelia several gut-specific peritrophin transcripts were found, suggesting that these proteins perform functions other than being a structural component of the peritrophic membrane. Among immunity-related transcripts, while lysozymes and lectins were the most highly expressed, several genes belonging to the Toll pathway - found at low levels in the gut of most insects were identified, contrasting with a low abundance of transcripts from IMD and STAT pathways. Analysis of transcripts related to lipid metabolism indicates that lipids play multiple roles, being a major energy source, a substrate for perimicrovillar membrane formation, and a source for hydrocarbons possibly to produce the wax layer of the hindgut. Transcripts related to amino acid metabolism showed an unanticipated priority for degradation of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. Analysis of transcripts related to signaling pathways suggested a role for MAP kinases, GTPases, and LKBP1/AMP kinases related to control of cell shape and polarity, possibly in connection with regulation of cell survival, response of pathogens and nutrients. Together, our findings present a new view of the triatomine digestive apparatus and will help us understand trypanosome interaction and allow insights into hemipteran metabolic adaptations to a blood-based diet.

390) Aedes aegypti saliva contains a prominent 34-kDa protein that strongly enhances dengue virus replication in human keratinocytes
Autor: Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Hamel, Rodolphe; Patramool, Sirilaksana; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Denizot, Melanie; Delaunay, Pascal; Thomas, Frederic; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Yssel, Hans; Misse, Dorothee
Assunto: Replication; Proteins; Public health; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, v. 134, n. 1, p. 281-284, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-202X
Resumo:

391) Identification of the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK: A novel sample type for diagnostic purposes and support for a potential non-vectorborne route of transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hearn P.T., Atkinson B., Hewson R., Brooks T.
Assunto: diagnosis, fever, hygiene, society, tropical medicine, United Kingdom
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 62-63, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and normally causes a self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, headache, conjunctival suffusion, myalgia and joint pains. It was discovered in 1947 at Zika Forest, near to Entebbe, Uganda. More recently it has been found outside Africa in outbreaks such as those of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. We report the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK, highlight novel samples for testing and a theoretical mode of non-vector-borne transmission. A couple travelled to the Cook Islands during what was thought to be a Dengue outbreak in February 2014. Within 6 days of exposure, both 'Patient 1' and his wife, 'Patient 2', had developed fatigue, followed 48 hours later by fever, headache, aching joints and a widespread maculopapular rash. Both reported symptoms resolving by day 5 of rash onset. In 2011, Foy et al described likely sexual transmission of ZIKV. A scientist from Colorado, travelling back from Senegal whilst incubating the virus, reportedly passed it to his wife, in whom clinical and serological evidence supported the diagnosis. On day 1 of rash onset, Patient 1 had serum sent to the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton Down and a panel of serological tests based on stated travel was performed. Dengue testing revealed positive IgM, but negative IgG and PCR. This pattern has been reported previously due to cross-reactivity between the flaviviruses. The sample was then tested by PCR for ZIKV and found to be positive. Further samples were taken on day 28 after rash onset. Blood and urine from both patients were tested in parallel, along with a semen sample from Patient 1. The semen was the only sample found to be positive for ZIKV by PCR. The reasons for persistence in the semen are not yet clear, but this case is significant not only as the first case of Zika Fever imported to the UK, but also as support for the possibility of sexual transmission, though not in this case, and highlights an additional sample type for the confirmation of infection in the future.

392) Genome-wide SNPs lead to strong signals of geographic structure and relatedness patterns in the major arbovirus vector, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Filipovic, Igor; Weeks, Andrew R.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing; In silico genome digestion; Fastq file demultiplexing; Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms; Mosquito population genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: Genetic markers are widely used to understand the biology and population dynamics of disease vectors, but often markers are limited in the resolution they provide. In particular, the delineation of population structure, fine scale movement and patterns of relatedness are often obscured unless numerous markers are available. To address this issue in the major arbovirus vector, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), we used double digest Restriction-site Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing for the discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We aimed to characterize the new SNP set and to test the resolution against previously described microsatellite markers in detecting broad and fine-scale genetic patterns in Ae. aegypti. Results: We developed bioinformatics tools that support the customization of restriction enzyme-based protocols for SNP discovery. We showed that our approach for RAD library construction achieves unbiased genome representation that reflects true evolutionary processes. In Ae. aegypti samples from three continents we identified more than 18,000 putative SNPs. They were widely distributed across the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes, with 47.9% found in intergenic regions and 17.8% in exons of over 2,300 genes. Pattern of their imputed effects in ORFs and UTRs were consistent with those found in a recent transcriptome study. We demonstrated that individual mosquitoes from Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and Brazil can be assigned with a very high degree of confidence to their region of origin using a large SNP panel. We also showed that familial relatedness of samples from a 0.4 km super(2) area could be confidently established with a subset of SNPs. Conclusions: Using a cost-effective customized RAD sequencing approach supported by our bioinformatics tools, we characterized over 18,000 SNPs in field samples of the dengue fever mosquito Ae. aegypti. The variants were annotated and positioned onto the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes. The new SNP set provided much greater resolution in detecting population structure and estimating fine-scale relatedness than a set of polymorphic microsatellites. RAD-based markers demonstrate great potential to advance our understanding of mosquito population processes, critical for implementing new control measures against this major disease vector.

393) Evidence of perinatal transmission of zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Besnard M., Lastère S., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Musso D.
Assunto: perinatal infection, virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology), virus transmission, zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 13, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: A Zika virus (ZIKAV) outbreak started in October 2013 in French Polynesia, South Pacific. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of two mothers and their newborns who had ZIKAV infection as confirmed by ZIKAV RT-PCR performed on serum collected within four days post-delivery in date. The infants' infection most probably occurred by transplacental transmission or during delivery. Attention should be paid to ZIKAV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, as data on the impact on them are limited.

394) Next generation sequencing reveals regulation of distinct Aedes microRNAs during chikungunya virus development
Autor: Shrinet, Jatin; Jain, Shanu; Jain, Jaspreet; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Sunil, Sujatha
Assunto: Sexual maturity; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Public health; Disease transmission; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Small, non-coding, RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNA) of length 18-24 nucleotide are reported in wide range of organisms and known to play a determinative role in regulation of various cellular processes. They have also reported to have regulatory roles during pathogen infection, maturation and transmission. Chikungunya virus is an important alphavirus transmitted through two important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. While Ae. aegypti has been the preferred vector for transmission of this virus, recently, Ae. albopictus has gained notoriety for disease transmission. Using Illumina platform, we sequenced the small RNA population an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with chikungunya virus. We studied the expression modulation of miRNAs upon CHIKV infection and found distinct set of miRNAs regulated in Aedes upon CHIKV infection. We further predicted the targets of these miRNAs and performed pathway analysis of these targets. The cellular functional targets of some of these miRNAs overlapped suggesting aggressive participation of the targeted pathways in establishing CHIKV infection.

395) Analysis of early dengue virus infection in mice as modulated by Aedes aegypti probing
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Salivary - Gland extracts; Host immune - Response; Gene - Expression; Dendritic cells; Mosquito bite; Nonvascular delivery; Housekeeping genes; RNA virus; Interferon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 4, p. 1881-1889, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-gamma, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection.

396) Zika virus ,2014
Autor: Henry R.
Assunto: Single Stranded Rna; Dengue; Evaluation Research; Flavivirus; Human; Letter; Nonhuman; Yellow Fever; Zika Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v.20, n. 6, p. 1090-,2014.
ISSN: 10806040
Resumo: [No abstract available]

397) Analysis of the genetic variability and structure of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from the Colombian Atlantic coast on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers
Autor: Bello, F. J.; Segura, N. A.; Ruiz-Garcia, M.
Assunto: Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus; Genetic heterogeneity; Random amplified polymorphic ; DNA-polymerase chain reaction; Genetic variability; Spatial autocorrelation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: brGenetics and Molecular Research, v. 13, n. 2, p. 4110-4123, 2014
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito, which is an efficient vector of the virus causing epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Colombia. This study used 9 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to analyze the mosquito's genetic variability and genetic structure of 122 specimens in 7 populations from the Colombian Atlantic coast. Assuming that all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, diversity statistics and analyses were performed. The average number of amplified fragments for each primer was 8.3, and the size of these fragments ranged from 350 to 3600 bp. The expected average heterozygosity was 0.358 +/- 0.103. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations studied was small (GST = 0.05 +/- 0.01); meanwhile, the gene flow estimates (N-m = 7.32 +/- 1.35) were high. In an identical way, the Nei's genetic distances obtained yielded very small values amongst the populations that were studied in this Colombian region. Furthermore, a spatial autocorrelation analysis with Moran's I index revealed a very weak, or inexistent, spatial genetic structure among these populations. The comparison of these results with those performed for other markers (isoenzymes and microsatellites) in populations of this same mosquito from the Colombian Atlantic coast was discussed. The results of our RAPD analysis showed scarce genetic differentiation among the mosquito populations on the Colombian Atlantic coast, which was probably determined by high gene flow levels.

398) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio CM; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo MA; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Biological surveys; Recombination; Epidemics; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Public health; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Molecular evolution; Vectors; Forests; Glycosylation; Infection; Fever; Genetic relationship; Exanthema; Epidemiology; Envelope protein; Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes; Zika virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Proteins ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in nature and that, after it emerged from Uganda in the early of the 20th century, it moved to West Africa and Asia in the first half of the century, without any clear preference for host and vector species.

399) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

400) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Autor: Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Landing statistics; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Canopies; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Agriculture; Savannahs; Vectors; Forests; Cadmium; Infection; Pest outbreaks; Aedes; Zika virus; Aedes furcifer; Aedes vittatus; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kedougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

401) Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Lima, Estelita Pereira; Fonseca Goulart, Marilia Oliveira; Rolim Neto, Modesto Leite
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; ABC transporters; Resistance mechanisms
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 109, n. 7, p. 964-966, 2014
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 mu M). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 mu M), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.

402) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa)--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard Gilda,Caron Mélanie,Mombo Illich Manfred,Nkoghe Dieudonné,Mboui Ondo Statiana,Jiolle Davy,Fontenille Didier,Paupy Christophe,Leroy Eric Maurice
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses. Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread. We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

403) Evaluation of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes
Autor: Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S. L.
Assunto: AgNPs; Adulticidal activity; Heliotropium indicum; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 12, p. 4567-4577, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Heliotropium indicum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of H. indicum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of H. indicum, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of A. stephensi (lethal dose (LD)(50)=26.712 mu g/mL; LD90=49.061 mu g/mL), A. aegypti (LD50=29.626 mu g/mL; LD90=54.269 mu g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LD50=32.077 mu g/mL; LD90=58.426 mu g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs.

404) Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.
Assunto: Reproductive behaviour; Public health; Disease transmission; Expression vectors; Mating; Fluorescence; RNA; Dengue; Secretion; Sperm; Seminal fluid; Accessory gland; Population control; Behavior; Physiology; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 70, p. 117-124, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A . aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

405) Excretion of NaCl and KCl loads in mosquitoes. 2. Effects of the small molecule Kir channel modulator VU573 and its inactive analog VU342
Autor: Rouhier, Matthew F.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Park, Seokhwan Terry; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod; Piermarini, Peter M.; Beyenbach, Klaus W.
Assunto: Excretion In Mosquitoes; Inhibition Of Electrolyte And Fluid Secretion; Malpighian Tubules; Renal Failure; VU573 Block Of Kir Channel
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, v. 307, n. 7, p. R850-R861, 2014
ISSN: 0363-6119
Resumo: The effect of two small molecules VU342 and VU573 on renal functions in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In isolated Malpighian tubules, VU342 (10 mu M) had no effect on the transepithelial secretion of Na+, K+, Cl-, and water. In contrast, 10 mu M VU573 first stimulated and then inhibited the transepithelial secretion of fluid when the tubules were bathed in Na+ -rich or K+ -rich Ringer solution. The early stimulation was blocked by bumetanide, suggesting the transient stimulation of Na-K-2Cl cotransport, and the late inhibition of fluid secretion was consistent with the known block of AeKir1, an Aedes inward rectifier K+ channel, by VU573. VU342 and VU573 at a hemolymph concentration of about 11 mu M had no effect on the diuresis triggered by hemolymph Na+ or K+ loads. VU342 at a hemolymph concentration of 420 mu M had no effect on the diuresis elicited by hemolymph Na+ or K+ loads. In contrast, the same concentration of VU573 significantly diminished the Na+ diuresis by inhibiting the urinary excretion of Na+, Cl-, and water. In K+ -loaded mosquitoes, 420 mu M VU573 significantly diminished the K+ diuresis by inhibiting the urinary excretion of K+, Na+, Cl-, and water. We conclude that 1) the effects of VU573 observed in isolated Malpighian tubules are overwhelmed in vivo by the diuresis triggered with the coinjection of Na+ and K+ loads, and 2) at a hemolymph concentration of 420 mu M VU573 affects Kir channels systemically, including those that might be involved in the release of diuretic hormones.

406) Clone 13-infected Aedes aegypti salivary components inhibit Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity
Autor: Coupanec, Alain Le; Babin, Divya; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Rift Valley fever virus; Clone 13; Salivary gland; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 16, n. 5, p. 439-444, 2014.
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks among humans and domestic animals in Africa. RVFV Clone 13, a naturally attenuated clone, is a promising vaccine which was used during the 2009-2010 outbreak in South Africa and played a key role in the control of the disease. In this work, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with RVFV Clone 13 and prepared salivary gland extracts (SGE). C57BL/6-NRJ male mice were infected with a mixture of SGE infected by Clone 13 and the ZH548 RVFV strain. With the injection of increasing doses of Clone 13-infected SGE, all mice were protected. Our results suggest Clone 13 infected SGE contain unique antiviral components able to counteract the replication of RVFV when injected into vertebrates.

407) Experimental Inoculation of Artibeus jamaicensis Bats with Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 or 4 Showed No Evidence of Sustained Replication
Autor: Cabrera-Romo, Salome; Recio-Totoro, Benito; Alcala, Ana C.; Lanz, Humberto; Maria del Angel, Rosa; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Rodriguez-Moreno, Angel; Ludert, Juan E.
Assunto: Experimental-Infection; Dendritic Cells; Protein Ns1; Pathogenesis; Antigen; Transmission; Diversity;Mosquitos; Immunity; Viremia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 6, p. 1227-1234, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease to humans. Bats are potential reservoirs for flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In this work, Artibeus jamaicensis bats were inoculated with two serotypes of DENV using different routes. For experimental inoculations (El) 1 and 2, bats were inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with DENV-4; for EI-3 bats were inoculated intraperitoneally with DENV-1. Mock inoculated bats were kept as controls. In EI-4, bats were bitten by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV-1 or 4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays in plasma and spleen tissue collected from Day 1 to Days 9-17 after inoculation failed to reveal the presence of viral RNA in any of the samples. No evidence of circulating NS1 or specific anti-DENV IgG was detected in the plasma of the inoculated bats. These results indicate that A. jamaicensis bats are incapable of sustaining dengue virus replication and are unlikely to act as reservoirs for this virus.

408) Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian Vectors of malaria and arboviruses
Autor: Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies
Assunto: Human diseases; Repellents; Malaria; Pest control; Pathogens; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Parity; Lotions; Vectors; Insecticides; DEET; Sensitivity; Acceptability; Prevention; Arthropods; Culex; Anopheles barbirostris; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Aedes albopictus; Mansonia; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological impact of large scale use of topical repellents on arthropod borne diseases. Malaria and arboviruses are transmitted by several mosquitoes. Targeting these mosquitoes instead of the pathogens can contribute to prevention of these diseases. For mosquitoes biting throughout the night, mosquito nets (preferably impregnated with insecticides) are very effective for mosquito control. However, bites of day-, evening- and outdoor-biting mosquitoes have to be prevented in different ways, for example by applying repellents on the skin which contain DEET or other active ingredients such as picaridin. Here we report on the evaluation of the performance of two formulated picaridin repellents (lotion 10% and spray 20%) against mosquito bites, including vectors of arboviruses and malaria in the field in Cambodia. These repellent formulations were compared to a DEET solution (20%). In general, all repellents performed very well, providing more than 97% protection against mosquito bites when used for five consecutive hours. At the highest concentration, the picaridin repellent performed similarly to DEET. However, different mosquito species reacted differently to the repellents. As such, repellents can provide an additional protection against bites of malaria and arbovirus vectors.

409) Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barra Medeiros Barbosa, Patricia Batista; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macdo; Araujo Rabelo, Luciana Maria; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchoa, Adriana Ferreira; de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fatima
Assunto: Larvicide; Pupicide; Adulticide; Ovipositional deterrence activity; Gut homogenate; Enzyme inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 10, p. 3565-3580, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

410) Dengue transmission model by means of viremic adult immuno-competent mouse
Autor: Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Konishi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Makino, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Eshita, Yuki
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Mass-infection; Viremia; Immuno-competent mouse
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue virus infection manifests in three distinct forms in humans: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Infection with the virus is a fatal disease; no vaccine is available and prevention depends on interruption of the chain of transmission. The study of dengue viral transmission by mosquitoes is hindered due to the lack of an affordable animal model. In general, immuno-competent mice are used as a simple and inexpensive animal model, but mice are not susceptible to dengue virus infection and therefore viremia will not occur following the inoculation of the virus in such mice. Here, we report a method for creating artificial viremia in immuno-competent mice, and further demonstrate the use of viremic mice to simultaneously infect a large number of Aedes aegypti. Methods: We infected K562 cells with DENV-2 in the presence of an antibody against DENV-4. We then incubated the cells for 2 d before injecting the infected cells into C3H mice. After 5 h incubation, we allowed 100-150 female Aedes aegypti to feed on blood from the mice directly. We collected blood samples from the mice and from randomly selected Ae. aegypti at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-blood meal and screened the samples for DENV-2 genome as well as for virus concentration. Results: Our procedure provided high virus concentrations in the mice for at least 7 h after viral inoculation. We found that 13 out of 14 randomly picked mosquitoes were infected with DENV-2. High concentrations of virus were detected in the mosquitoes until at least 12 h post-infection. Conclusions: Using the viremic immuno-competent mouse, we show that mass infection of Ae. aegypti is achievable. Compared to other infection techniques using direct inoculation, membrane-feeding, or immuno-deficient/humanized mice, we are confident that this method will provide a simpler and more efficient infection technique.

411) Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor
Autor: McBride, Carolyn S.; Baier, Felix; Omondi, Aman B.; Spitzer, Sarabeth A.; Lutomiah, Joel; Sang, Rosemary; Ignell, Rickard; Vosshall, Leslie B.
Assunto: Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Aegypti L Diptera; Aedes-Aegypti; Anopheles-Gambiae; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Volatile Compounds; Genome Annotation; Malaria Mosquito; Host Location; Alters Odor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7526, p. 222-U151, 2014
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Female mosquitoes are major vectors of human disease and the most dangerous are those that preferentially bite humans. A 'domestic' form of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has evolved to specialize in biting humans and is the main worldwide vector of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. The domestic form coexists with an ancestral, 'forest' form that prefers to bite non-human animals and is found along the coast of Kenya. We collected the two forms, established laboratory colonies, and document striking divergence in preference for human versus non-human animal odour. We further show that the evolution of preference for human odour in domestic mosquitoes is tightly linked to increases in the expression and ligand-sensitivity of the odorant receptor AaegOr4, which we found recognizes a compound present at high levels inhuman odour. Our results provide a rare example of a gene contributing to behavioural evolution and provide insight into how disease-vectoring mosquitoes came to specialize on humans.

412) Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti
Autor: Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araujo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimaraes, Anthony Erico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Celia; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Maleck, Marise
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Macrophages; Parasites; Mortality; Vectors; Medical importance; Toxicity; Eggs; Dengue; Nitric oxide; Vaccines; Midgut; Aedes aegypti; Ocotea; Lauraceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods: Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results: The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations greater than or equal to 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion: The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

413) Evidence of Experimental Vertical Transmission of Emerging Novel ECSA Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Agarwal, Ankita; Dash, Paban Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Parida, Man Mohan; Reiter, Paul
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Trans-Ovarial Transmission; Yellow-Fever Virus; Diptera-Culicidae; Albopictus Mosquitos; Encephalitis-Virus; Reunion Island; Oral Infection; Indian-Ocean; South-India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not.Methodology/Principal Findings: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1:35.5) and 20.2 (1:49.5) respectively.Conclusion/Significance: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

414) Contribution of S-Layer proteins to the mosquitocidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus
Autor: Allievi, Mariana Claudia; Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Acosta, Mariano Prado; Lanati, Leonardo; Ruzal, Sandra Monica;Sanchez-Rivas, Carmen
Assunto: Antibodies; Toxicants; Surface layers; Pest control; Immunofluorescence; Spores; Strains; Aquatic insects; Public health; Culex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, no. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging the antigenic group H5a5b produce spores with larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. C7, a new isolated strain, which presents similar biochemical characteristics and Bin toxins in their spores as the reference strain 2362, was, however, more active against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. The contribution of the surface layer protein (S-layer) to this behaviour was envisaged since this envelope protein has been implicated in the pathogenicity of several bacilli, and we had previously reported its association to spores. Microscopic observation by immunofluorescence detection with anti S-layer antibody in the spores confirms their attachment. S-layers and BinA and BinB toxins formed high molecular weight multimers in spores as shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot detection. Purified S-layer from both L. sphaericus C7 and 2362 strain cultures was by itself toxic against Culex sp larvae, however, that from C7 strain was also toxic against Aedes aegypti. Synergistic effect between purified S-layer and spore-crystal preparations was observed against Culex sp. and Aedes aegypti larvae. This effect was more evident with the C7 strain. In silico analyses of the S-layer sequence suggest the presence of chitin-binding and hemolytic domains. Both biochemical characteristics were detected for both S-layers strains that must justify their contribution to pathogenicity.

415) Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity in pakistan by DNA barcoding
Autor: Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad
Assunto: Aedes albopictus diptera; Stegomyia - Aegypti L.; Chain - Reaction assay; West nile - Virus; Anopheles - Fluviatilis; Molecular - Identification; Mitochondrial - DNA; Annularis complex; Species complex; Borne diseases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 5, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations

416) Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Viral diseases; Proteins; Peptides; AMP; Pest control; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Public health; Complement component C3; Defense mechanisms; Immunity; Infection; Antimicrobial peptides; Macroglobulins; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

417) Angola's 2013 dengue outbreak: clinical, laboratory and molecular analyses of cases from four Portuguese institutions
Autor: Parreira, Ricardo; Conceicao, Cludia; Centeno-Lima, Sonia; Marques, Nuno; da Cunha, Jose Saraiva; Abreu, Candida; Sa, Laura; Sarmento, Antonio; Atouguia, Jorge; Moneti, Virginia; Azevedo, Telma; Nina, Jaime; Mansinho, Kamal; Antunes, Abilio; Teodosio, Rosa; Nazareth, Teresa; Seixas, Jorge
Assunto: Dengue virus; Imported viral diseases; Laboratory surveillance; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 8, n. 9, p. 1210-1215, 2014
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the arbovirus with the widest impact on human health. In Africa in general, and in Angola in particular, the epidemiology and public health impact of DENV is far from clear. However, rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, increased international travel, and the presence of virus major vector (Aedes aegypti) in the country suggest that DENV transmission may occur. In parallel to the occurrence of a dengue outbreak affecting the capital of Angola, between March and July 2013 four Portuguese institutions diagnosed dengue infection in 146 individuals returning to Portugal. Clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and molecular analyses of partial viral genomic segments were performed.Results: The mean age of the individuals included in this study was 42 years old, the majority being men of Portuguese nationality, reporting various lengths of stay in Angola. Fever was the most reported clinical sign, being frequently associated (61.0%) with myalgia and headache. Hematological values, including hematocrit, white-blood cell and platelets counts, correlated with the absence of severe or complicated cases, or coagulation disorders. No deaths were observed. Viral NS1 was detected in 56.2% of the samples, and all NS1 negative cases had anti-dengue IgM antibodies. RT-PCR indicated the presence of DENV1, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of 25 partial NS5 viral sequences. The DENV cases analyzed conformed to classical and uncomplicated dengue, caused by the suggested exclusive circulation of a genetically homogeneous DENV1 of genotype III, apparently with a single origin

418) Aedes aegypti Mos20 cells internalizes cry toxins by endocytosis, and actin has a role in the defense against Cry11Aa toxin
Autor: Vega-Cabrera, Adriana; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Porta, Helena; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana
Assunto: Toxicants; Actin; Defence mechanisms; Lysosomes; Detoxification; Cry11A toxin; Osmotic shock; Larvae; Vectors; Toxins; Cytoskeleton; Endocytosis; Dengue; Yellow fever; Insect cells; Immune response; Cry1Ab toxin; Aedes aegypti; Bacillus thuringiensis; Lepidoptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Toxins, v. 6, n. 2, p. 464-487, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are used to control Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue fever and yellow fever. Bt Cry toxin forms pores in the gut cells, provoking larvae death by osmotic shock. Little is known, however, about the endocytic and/or degradative cell processes that may counteract the toxin action at low doses. The purpose of this work is to describe the mechanisms of internalization and detoxification of Cry toxins, at low doses, into Mos20 cells from A. aegypti, following endocytotic and cytoskeletal markers or specific chemical inhibitors. Here, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis are involved in the internalization into Mos20 cells of Cry11Aa, a toxin specific for Dipteran, and Cry1Ab, a toxin specific for Lepidoptera. Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab are not directed to secretory lysosomes. Instead, Mos20 cells use the Rab5 and Rab11 pathways as a common mechanism, most probably for the expulsion of Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab toxins. In conclusion, we propose that endocytosis is a mechanism induced by Cry toxins independently of specificity, probably as part of a basal immune response. We found, however, that actin is necessary for defense-specific response to Cry11Aa, because actin-silenced Mos20 cells become more sensitive to the toxic action of Cry11A toxin. Cry toxin internalization analysis in insect cell lines may contribute to a better understanding to Cry resistance in mosquitoes.

419) Molecular characterization of three zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet N., Nakouné E., Kamgang B., Selekon B., Descorps-Declère S., Gessain A., Manuguerra J.-C., Kazanji M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, virus identification, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, dec. 2014
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

420) First case of zika virus infection in a returning canadian traveler.
Autor: Fonseca Kevin,Meatherall Bonnie,Zarra Danielle,Drebot Michael,MacDonald Judy,Pabbaraju Kanti,Wong Sallene,Webster Patricia,Lindsay Robbin,Tellier Raymond
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

421) Anopheles gambiae salivary protein expression modulated by wild Plasmodium falciparum infection: highlighting of new antigenic peptides as candidates of An. gambiae bites
Autor: Marie, Alexandra; Holzmuller, Philippe; Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Rossignol, Marie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Corbel, Vincent; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Morlais, Isabelle; Remoue, Franck; Cornelie, Sylvie
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Wild Plasmodium falciparum; Salivary proteins; Biomarker; Infective bites; Proteomic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 599, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria is the major parasitic disease worldwide caused by Plasmodium infection. The objective of integrated malaria control programs is to decrease malaria transmission, which needs specific tools to be accurately assessed. In areas where the transmission is low or has been substantially reduced, new complementary tools have to be developed to improve surveillance. A recent approach, based on the human antibody response to Anopheles salivary proteins, has been shown to be efficient in evaluating human exposure to Anopheles bites. The aim of the present study was to identify new An. gambiae salivary proteins as potential candidate biomarkers of human exposure to P. falciparum-infective bites. Experimental infections of An. gambiae by wild P. falciparum were carried out in semi-field conditions. Then a proteomic approach, combining 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, was used to identify the overexpressed salivary proteins in infected salivary glands compared to uninfected An. gambiae controls. Subsequently, a peptide design of each potential candidate was performed in silico and their antigenicity was tested by an epitope-mapping technique using blood from individuals exposed to Anopheles bites. Five salivary proteins (gSG6, gSG1b, TRIO, SG5 and long form D7) were overexpressed in the infected salivary glands. Eighteen peptides were designed from these proteins and were found antigenic in children exposed to the Anopheles bites. Moreover, the results showed that the presence of wild P. falciparum in salivary glands modulates the expression of several salivary proteins and also appeared to induce post-translational modifications. This study is, to our knowledge, the first that compares the sialome of An. gambiae both infected and not infected by wild P. falciparum, making it possible to mimic the natural conditions of infection. This is a first step toward a better understanding of the close interactions between the parasite and the salivary gland of mosquitoes. In addition, these results open the way to define biomarkers of infective bites of Anopheles, which could, in the future, improve the estimation of malaria transmission and the evaluation of malaria vector control tools

422) Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Autor: Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Stephan, Celso; Lourenco, Roberto Wagner; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Arduino, Marylene de Brito; de Lima, Virgilia Luna Castor
Assunto: Biological surveys; Prediction; Infestation; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Control programs; Vectors; Eggs; Evolution; Models; Health risks; Sulfur dioxide; Risk factors; Seasonal variations; Geographical coordinates; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of Sao Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study. Dengue is a disease caused by a virus which has four serotypes DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. In Americas, A. aegypti is acknowledged as the only dengue vector in America. Currently the only strategy to prevent dengue is controlling A. aegypti mosquitoes. The generalized additive model was used to understand the relationship of the indicators of the presence of eggs, larvae-pupae and adult stages of A. aegypti with the occurrence of dengue cases in a medium sized city of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Dengue incidence as well as the entomological indicators in all stages of the mosquito showed a seasonal behavior. The infestation level was not a limiting or a determinant factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. Risk maps of the disease, from the crude and adjusted by generalized additive models, showed no differences, suggesting that the entomological indicators did not influence the incidence of dengue in the city. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive model could reveal the modulating effect on the disease risk, not found in this study.

423) Antibodies to a single, conserved epitope in anopheles APN1 inhibit universal transmission of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria
Autor: Armistead, Jennifer S.; Morlais, Isabelle; Mathias, Derrick K.; Jardim, Juliette G.; Joy, Jaimy; Fridman, Arthur; Finnefrock, Adam C.; Bagchi, Ansu; Plebanski, Magdalena; Scorpio, Diana G.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Borg, Natalie A.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.
Assunto: Protein - Structure models; Membrane - Feeding assay; Aedes aegypti; Blocking vaccines; Aminopeptidase-N; Mosquito midgut; Genome sequence; Class-Ii; Expression; Prediction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Infection and Immunity, v. 82, n. 2, p. 818-829, 2014
ISSN: 0019-9567
Resumo: Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) represent a promising approach for the elimination and eradication of this disease. AnAPN1 is a lead TBV candidate that targets a surface antigen on the midgut of the obligate vector of the Plasmodium parasite, the Anopheles mosquito. In this study, we demonstrated that antibodies targeting AnAPN1 block transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax across distantly related anopheline species in countries to which malaria is endemic. Using a biochemical and immunological approach, we determined that the mechanism of action for this phenomenon stems from antibody recognition of a single protective epitope on AnAPN1, which we found to be immunogenic in murine and nonhuman primate models and highly conserved among anophelines. These data indicate that AnAPN1 meets the established target product profile for TBVs and suggest a potential key role for an AnAPN1-based panmalaria TBV in the effort to eradicate malaria.

424) Temporal correlations between mosquito-based dengue virus surveillance measures or indoor mosquito abundance and dengue case numbers in Merida City, Mexico
Autor: Eisen, Lars; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Vazquez, Maria Del Rosario Najera; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba
Assunto: Temperature effects; Biological surveys; Entomology; Public health; RNA; Dengue; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Pest outbreaks; Sensitivity; Human populations; Temperature; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 885-890, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) females is of potential interest because human DENV infections are commonly asymptomatic, which decreases the effectiveness of dengue case surveillance to provide early warning of building outbreaks. Our primary aim was to examine if mosquito-based virological measures-monthly percentages of examined Ae. aegypti females infected with DENV or examined homes from which at least one DENV-infected Ae. aegypti female was collected-are correlated with reported dengue cases in the same or subsequent months within study neighborhoods in Merida City, Mexico. The study encompassed approximately 30 neighborhoods in the southern and eastern parts of the city. Mosquitoes were collected monthly over a 15-mo period within study homes (average of 145 homes examined per month); this produced approximately 5,800 Ae. aegypti females subsequently examined for DENV RNA. Although monthly dengue case numbers in the study neighborhoods varied >100-fold during the study period, we did not find statistically significant positive correlations between monthly data for mosquito-based DENV surveillance measures and reported dengue cases in the same or subsequent months. Monthly average temperature, rainfall, and indoor abundance of Ae. aegypti females were positively correlated (P less than or equal to 0.001) with dengue case numbers in subsequent months with lag times of 3-5, 2, and 1-2 mo, respectively. However, because dengue outbreak risk is strongly influenced by serotype-specific susceptibility of the human population to DENV, the value of weather conditions and entomological indices to predict outbreaks is very limited. Potential ways to improve the sensitivity of mosquito-based DENV surveillance are discussed.

425) Zika virus infections
Titulo Alternativo: Les infections à virus Zika
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Arboviruses; Diagnosis; Emergence; French Polynesia; Outbreak; Zika; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, v. 2014, n. 467, p. 45-52, 2014.
ISSN: 1773-035X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV is an arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus) belonging to the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, especially Aedes species. Sporadic human cases were reported from the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. In 2007, Yap Island (Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) reported the first large ZIKV outbreak. From October 2013 to March 2014, French Polynesia (FP), Pacific, experienced the largest ZIKV outbreak ever reported with an estimate of 28.000 cases (11percent of the population). Before the FP outbreak, Zika fever was reported as a self-limited disease, no severe form nor hospitalization have been reported. During this outbreak, the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndromes was 20 fold higher than expected and this neurological complication was probably linked with ZIKV infections. During this outbreak, perinatal and possible transfusion-related ZIKV transmissions have been described. Acute phase diagnosis relies on molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR). Serodiagnosis is limited by the high degree of cross reactions with other flaviviruses, especially in the case of secondary-flaviviruses infections. To date, there is no available commercial test and diagnosis is limited to reference laboratories. Zika fever should be suspected from patients presenting with a "dengue like syndrome", returning or living in a ZIKV endemic area and tested negative for the other predominant arboviruses, especially dengue.

426) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20(th) Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, molecular evolution, nucleotide sequence, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. © 2014 Faye et al.

427) Effect of dengue-2 virus infection on protein expression in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Londono, Berlin L.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; McCracken, Michael K.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Invertebrate vector genomics; Adult female mosquito; Glutathione transferases; Alters susceptibility; Gene - Expression; Pathogenesis; Replication; Competence; Drosophila; Resource
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 90, n. 3, p. 431-437, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENY) is the most important mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that is transmitted throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The primary mosquito vector of DENV in urban locations is Aedes aegypti. Key to understanding the transmission of DENV is the relationship between pathogen and vector. Accordingly, we report our preliminary characterization of the differentially expressed proteins from Ae. aegypti mosquitoes after DENV infection. We investigated the virus-vector interaction through changes in the proteome of the salivary glands of mosquitoes with disseminated DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infections using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Our findings indicate that DENV-2 infection in the Ae. aegypti salivary gland alters the expression of structural, secreted, and metabolic proteins. These changes in the salivary gland proteome highlight the virally influenced environment caused by a DENV-2 infection and warrant additional investigation to determine if these differences extend to the expectorated saliva.

428) Mosquitoes of Zika forest, Uganda: Species composition and relative abundance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Mutebi J.-P., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C., Akol A.M.
Assunto: biodiversity, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 104-113, jan. 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO(2)-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and thismaysuggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests a high potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

429) Effect of niloticin, a protolirnonoid isolated from Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) on the immature stages of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) (vol 139, pg 67, 2014)
Autor: Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 140, p. 202-203, 2014
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo:

430) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

431) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections: an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roth; Mercier; Lepers; Hoy; Duituturaga; Benyon; Guillaumot; Souars
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue virus; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic distribution; Infection risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public health; Serotype; Virus infection; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41, p. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: Since January 2012, the Pacific Region has experienced 28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world.

432) Expression of Mosquito MicroRNA Aae-miR-2940-5p Is Downregulated in Response to West Nile Virus Infection To Restrict Viral Replication
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Asgari, Sassan; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Mammalian-Cells; Flavivirus Rna; Kunjin Virus; Wolbachia Uses; Noncoding Rna;Identification; Aegypti; Translation; Repression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 15, p. 8457-8467, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome from the Flaviviridae family. WNV is spread by mosquitoes and able to infect humans, causing encephalitis and meningitis that can be fatal; it therefore presents a significant risk for human health. In insects, innate response to RNA virus infection mostly relies on RNA interference and JAK/SAT pathways; however, some evidence indicates that it can also involve microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level and play an important role in a number of processes, including immunity and antiviral response. In this study, we focus on the miRNA-mediated response to WNV in mosquito cells. We demonstrate that in response to WNV infection the expression of a mosquito-specific miRNA, aae-miR-2940, is selectively downregulated in Aedes albopictus cells. This miRNA is known to upregulate the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which we have also shown to be required for efficient WNV replication. Correspondingly, downregulation of aae-miR-2940 reduced the metalloprotease level and restricted WNV replication. Thus, we have identified a novel miRNA-dependent mechanism of antiviral response to WNV in mosquitoes.IMPORTANCEA detailed understanding of vector-pathogen interactions is essential to address the problems posed by vector-borne diseases. Host and viral miRNAs play an important role in regulating expression of viral and host genes involved in endogenous processes, including antiviral response. There has been no evidence to date for the role of mosquito miRNAs in response to flaviviruses. In this study, we show that downregulation of aae-miR-2940 in mosquito cells acts as a potential antiviral mechanism in the mosquito host to inhibit WNV replication by repressing the expression of the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which is required for efficient WNV replication. This is the first identification of an miRNA-dependent antiviral mechanism in mosquitoes, which inhibits replication of WNV. Our findings should facilitate identification of targets in the mosquito genome that can be utilized to suppress vector population and/or limit WNV replication.

433) Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-terminal domain
Autor: Carter, James R.; Keith, James H.; Fraser, Tresa S.; Dawson, James L.; Kucharski, Cheryl A.; Horne, Kate M.; Higgs, Stephen; Fraser, Malcolm J., Jr.
Assunto: Dengue; Trans - Splicing; Group I intron; Ribozyme; Mosquito; Antiviral; Suppression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 111, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of Delta N Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells. Targeting the conserved DENV circularization sequence (CS) by U143 intron trans-splicing activity appends a 3' exon RNA encoding Delta N Bax to the capsid coding region of the genomic RNA, resulting in a chimeric protein that induces premature cell death upon infection. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate an enhancement of DENV suppression for all DENV serotypes tested over the identical group I intron coupled with the non-apoptotic inducing firefly luciferase as the 3' exon. These cumulative results confirm the increased effectiveness of this aDENV-U143-Delta N Bax group I intron as a sequence specific antiviral that should be useful for suppression of DENV in transgenic mosquitoes. Annexin V staining, caspase 3 assays, and DNA ladder observations confirm DCA-Delta N Bax fusion protein expression induces apoptotic cell death. This report confirms the relative effectiveness of an anti-DENV group I intron coupled to an apoptosis-inducing Delta N Bax 3' exon that trans-splices conserved sequences of the 5' CS region of all DENV serotypes and induces apoptotic cell death upon infection. Our results confirm coupling the targeted ribozyme capabilities of the group I intron with the generation of an apoptosis-inducing transcript increases the effectiveness of infection suppression, improving the prospects of this unique approach as a means of inducing transgenic refractoriness in mosquitoes for all serotypes of this important disease

434) Effects of Amino Acid Deletion on the Antiplasmodial Activity of Angiotensin II
Autor: Rodrigues Ferreira, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Adriana Farias; Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Pedron, Cibele Nicolaski; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Vani Xavier, Jr.
Assunto: Malaria; Angiotensin II; Sporozoites; Plasmodium gallinaceum; SPPS; Structure-activity relationship
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, v. 20, n. 4, p. 553-564, 2014
ISSN: 1573-3149
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease for which effective treatment and prevention strategies remain limited. Our group recently reported that angiotensin II (AII) presents antiplasmodial activity and inhibits the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes aegypti. However, details concerning role of each amino acid residue in the antiplasmodial activity of the peptide and information about the minimal structure responsible for this activity remain unknown. In this work, we investigated the effects of specific deletions (i.e., mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-deletions) of AII amino acids on the antiplasmodial activity of this molecule. The peptides were synthesized on solid phase method using the t-Boc strategy, purified using high performance liquid chromatography and characterized using mass spectrometry. The lytic activity of the peptides was assessed in vitro using mature sporozoites extracted from the salivary glands of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results demonstrate that all of the deletions reduced antiplasmodial activity compared to native AII and that active analogs tend to adopt beta-turn conformations; however, the deletion of bulky hydrophobic residues causes greater reductions of bioactivity than the deletion of hydrophilic residues. Corroborating previous studies, we observed that analog extremities are susceptible to changes and can be carefully modified without compromising the activity of this compound. This research contributes to our understanding of the role of each AII amino acid residue in activity against Plasmodium gallinaceum and identifies two short analogs with similar antiplasmodial activity to AII. These analogs may be candidates for additional antimalarial assays because they are inexpensive and easy to synthesize.

435) Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination
Autor: Silva, Flavia Corvello da; Barros, Francisco Maikon; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Silva, Onilda Santos da; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Bordignon, Sergio Ade Loreto; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia;Poser, Gilsane Lino von
Assunto: Molecular structure; Lethal limits; Pesticides; Larvae; Hosts; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Insecticides; Benzophenone; Phenolic compounds; Vectors; Lipophilic; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Clusiaceae; Hypericum; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 6, p. 2367-2371, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 mu g/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 mu g/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.56 plus or minus 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.

436) Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of ceratopogonid and culicid larvae
Autor: Steinmann, I. C.; Pflueger, V.; Schaffner, F.; Mathis, A.; Kaufmann, C.
Assunto: Culicoides; Ceratopogonidae; Culicidae; MALDI-TOF MS; Identification; Insect; Larvae; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry
Fonte: Parasitology, v. 140, n. 3, p. 318-327, 2013
ISSN: 0031-1820
Resumo: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for the rapid identification of ceratopogonid larvae. Optimal sample preparation as evaluated with laboratory-reared biting midges Culicoides nubeculosus was the homogenization of gut-less larvae in 10% formic acid, and analysis of 0.2 mg/ml crude protein homogenate mixed with SA matrix at a ratio of 1:1.5. Using 5 larvae each of 4 ceratopogonid species (C. nubeculosus, C. obsoletus, C. decor, and Dasyhelea sp.) and of 2 culicid species (Aedes aegypti, Ae.japonicus), biomarker mass sets between 27 and 33 masses were determined. In a validation study, 67 larvae belonging to the target species were correctly identified by automated database-based identification (91%) or manual full comparison (9%). Four specimens of non-target species did not yield identification. As anticipated for holometabolous insects, the biomarker mass sets of adults cannot be used for the identification of larvae, and vice versa, because they share only very few similar masses as shown for C. nubeculosus, C. obsoletus, and Ae. japonicus. Thus, protein profiling by MALDI-TOF as a quick, inexpensive and accurate alternative tool is applicable to identify insect larvae of vector species collected in the field.

437) Genomic evolution of the pathogenic Wolbachia strain, wMelPop
Autor: Woolfit, Megan; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; Brownlie, Jeremy C; Walker, Thomas; Riegler, Markus; Seleznev, Andrei; Popovici, Jean; Rances, Edwige; Wee, Bryan A; Pavlides, Jennifer; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Beatson, Scott A; Lane, Amanda; Sidhu, Manpreet; McMeniman, Conor J; McGraw, Elizabeth A; O'Neill, Scott L
Assunto: Wolbachia; Evolution; Endosymbiont; Genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis
Fonte: Genome Biology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 11, p. 2189-2204, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Most strains of the widespread endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis are benign or behave as reproductive parasites. The pathogenic strain wMelPop is a striking exception, however: it overreplicates in its insect hosts and causes severe life shortening. The mechanism of this pathogenesis is currently unknown. We have sequenced the genomes of three variants of wMelPop and of the closely related nonpathogenic strain wMelCS. We show that the genomes of wMelCS and wMelPop appear to be identical in the nonrepeat regions of the genome and differ detectably only by the triplication of a 19-kb region that is unlikely to be associated with life shortening, demonstrating that dramatic differences in the host phenotype caused by this endosymbiont may be the result of only minor genetic changes. We also compare the genomes of the original wMelPop strain from Drosophila melanogaster and two sequential derivatives, wMelPop-CLA and wMelPop-PGYP. To develop wMelPop as a novel biocontrol agent, it was first transinfected into and passaged in mosquito cell lines for approximately 3.5 years, generating wMelPop-CLA. This cell line-passaged strain was then transinfected into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, creating wMelPop-PGYP, which was sequenced after 4 years in the insect host. We observe a rapid burst of genomic changes during cell line passaging, but no further mutations were detected after transinfection into mosquitoes, indicating either that host preadaptation had occurred in cell lines, that cell lines are a more selectively permissive environment than animal hosts, or both. Our results provide valuable data on the rates of genomic and phenotypic change in Wolbachia associated with host shifts over short time scales.

438) Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B.; Armijos, M. Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Barker, Christopher M.; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Dengue virus transmission; Climate - Change; Culicidae; Diptera; Mosquitos; Survival; Vector; Australia; Microclimate; California
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The effect of temperature on insect biology is well understood under constant temperature conditions, but less so under more natural, fluctuating conditions. A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26 degrees C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown. We investigated the effects of large and small daily temperature fluctuations at low (16 degrees C) and high (35-37 degrees C) mean temperatures, after we identified these temperatures as being thresholds for immature development and/or adult reproduction under constant temperature conditions. We found that temperature effects on larval development time, larval survival and adult reproduction depend on the combination of mean temperature and magnitude of fluctuations. Importantly, observed degree-day estimates for mosquito development under fluctuating temperature profiles depart significantly (around 10-20%) from that predicted by constant temperatures of the same mean. At low mean temperatures, fluctuations reduce the thermal energy required to reach pupation relative to constant temperature, whereas at high mean temperatures additional thermal energy is required to complete development. A stage-structured model based on these empirical data predicts that fluctuations can significantly affect the intrinsic growth rate of mosquito populations. Our results indicate that by using constant temperatures, one could under- or over-estimate values for numerous life-history traits compared to more natural field conditions dependent upon the mean temperature. This complexity may in turn reduce the accuracy of population dynamics modeling and downstream applications for mosquito surveillance and disease prevention.

439) Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana
Autor: Gois, Roberto Wagner da Silva; Sousa, Leoncio Mesquita de;Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues;Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos;Braz-Filho, Raimundo
Assunto: Molecular structure; Bioassays; Pesticides; Larvae; Metabolites; Toxicity tests; Mortality causes; Mortality; Data processing; Dichloromethane; Ethyl acetate; Methanol; Roots; Ethers; n-Hexane; Larvicides; Ethanol; Aedes aegypti; Bauhinia; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 7, p. 2753-2757, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 mu g/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 mu g/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC50 values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 plus or minus 1.8 mu g/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide.

440) Electrical hypothesis of toxicity of the Cry toxins for mosquito larvae
Autor: Lemeshko, Victor V.; Orduz, Sergio
Assunto: Cry toxin; Larval midgut; Membrane permeabilization; Mitochondrion; Plasma membrane; Polycationic peptide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Bioscience Reports, v. 33, n. 1, p. 125-136, 2013
ISSN: 0144-8463
Resumo: Many electrical properties of insect larval guts have been studied, but their importance for toxicity of the Cry-type toxins has never been reported in the literature. In the present work, we observed potential-dependent permeabilization of plasma membrane by several polycationic peptides derived from the Cry11Bb protoxin. The peptide BTM-P1d, all D-type amino acid analogue of the earlier reported peptide BTM-P1, demonstrated high membrane-permeabilizing activity in experiments with isolated rat liver mitochondria, RBC (red blood cells) and mitochondria in homogenates of Aedes aegypti larval guts. Two larger peptides, BTM-P2 and BTM-P3, as well as the Cry11Bb protoxin treated with the protease extract of mosquito larval guts showed similar effects. Only protease-resistant BTM-P1d, in comparison with other peptides, displayed A. aegypti larval toxicity. Taking into account the potential-dependent mechanism of membrane permeabilization by studied fragments of the Cry11Bb protoxin and the literature data related to the distribution of membrane and transepithelial potentials in the A. aegypti larval midgut, we suggest an electrical hypothesis of toxicity of the Cry toxins for mosquito larvae. According to this hypothesis, the electrical field distribution is one of the factors determining the midgut region most susceptible for insertion of activated toxins into the plasma membrane to form pores. In addition, potential-dependent penetration of short active toxin fragments into the epithelial cells could induce permeabilization of mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis or necrosis.

441) Novel Dicarboxylate Selectivity in an Insect Glutamate Transporter Homolog
Autor: Wang, Hui; Rascoe, Avi M.; Holley, David C.; Gouaux, Eric; Kavanaugh, Michael P.
Assunto: Amino acid transport; Drosophila melanogaster; Substrate interactions; Aspartate transporter; Family; Binding; Identification; Brain
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 8, p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mammals express seven transporters from the SLC1 (solute carrier 1) gene family, including five acidic amino acid transporters (EAAT1-5) and two neutral amino acid transporters (ASCT1-2). In contrast, insects of the order Diptera possess only two SLC1 genes. In this work we show that in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a carrier of West Nile virus, one of its two SLC1 EAAT-like genes encodes a transporter that displays an unusual selectivity for dicarboxylic acids over acidic amino acids. In eukaryotes, dicarboxylic acid uptake has been previously thought to be mediated exclusively by transporters outside the SLC1 family. The dicarboxylate selectivity was found to be associated with two residues in transmembrane domain 8, near the presumed substrate binding site. These residues appear to be conserved in all eukaryotic SLC1 transporters (Asp444 and Thr448, human EAAT3 numbering) with the exception of this novel C. quinquefasciatus transporter and an ortholog from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, in which they are changed to Asn and Ala. In the prokaryotic EAAT-like SLC1 transporter DctA, a dicarboxylate transporter which was lost in the lineage leading to eukaryotes, the corresponding TMD8 residues are Ser and Ala. Functional analysis of engineered mutant mosquito and human transporters expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes provide support for a model defining interactions of charged and polar transporter residues in TMD8 with a-amino acids and ions. Together with the phylogenetic evidence, the functional data suggest that a novel route of dicarboxylic acid uptake evolved in these mosquitos by mutations in an ancestral glutamate transporter gene.

442) Eliciting Renal Failure in Mosquitoes with a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Inward-Rectifying Potassium Channels
Autor: Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Ghosalkar, Dhairyasheel; Longo, Anthony; Beyenbach, Klaus W.; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.
Assunto: Yellow-fever mosquito; Malpighian tubules; aedes-aegypti; mechanisms; transport; diuresis; insects; kir1.1; urine; cells
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian) tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1). Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead) within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

443) Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi
Assunto: Suspension; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Spawning; Toxicity tests; Oviposition; Cell suspensions; Mortality; Deterrents; Repellency; Hatchability; Vectors; Cell culture; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Asteraceae; Asterales; Culicidae; Anopheles sinensis; Diptera; Artemisia annua
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 9, p. 3275-3282, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85 % compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of a0.94, a0.95, and a0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 plus or minus 4.08, 38.42 plus or minus 3.67, and 79.35 plus or minus 2.09 % for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

444) Evidence of cryptic genetic lineages within Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse)
Autor: Endersby, Nancy M.; White, Vanessa L.; Chan, Janice; Hurst, Tim; Rasic, Gordana; Miller, Adam; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes notoscriptus; Phylogenetics; Cryptic species; Geographical associations; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 18, n. , p. 191-201, 2013
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), a mosquito from the southwest Pacific region including Australia, has been implicated as a vector of arboviruses, but its status as a species is unclear. To investigate the taxonomic situation, we assessed genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among Ae. notoscriptus from the east coast of Australia, Western Australia and New Zealand. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from mitochondrial markers indicate that Ae. notoscriptus is a complex of divergent genetic lineages, some of which appear geographically restricted, while others are widespread in eastern Australia. Samples from New Zealand and Western Australia were related to populations from one southern Australian lineage. Nuclear markers show no evidence of genetic isolation by geographic distance in the overall sample of mosquitoes, but strong isolation by distance is obvious within two of the lineages, supporting their status as isolated gene pools. The morphological character of wing centroid size variation is also associated with genetic lineage. These findings point to the possibility that Ae. notoscriptus is a complex of species, highlighting the need to understand physiological and ecological differences that may influence future control strategies. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

445) Comparative mode of action of some terpene compounds against octopamine receptor and acetyl cholinesterase of mosquito and human system by the help of homology modeling and Docking studies
Autor: Khanikor, Bulbuli; Parida, Pratap; Yadav, R. N. S.; Bora, Dipsikha
Assunto: Terpenes; Human diseases; Receptors; Pest control; Berthing; Aquatic insects; Ligands; Aromatics; Public health; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, v. 3, n. 2, p. 6-12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of many diseases like malaria, encephalitis, dengue, filaria, yellow fever etc. and thus possess severe threat to public health. Essential oils of some aromatic plants and many pure terpene compounds have been reported effective against different strains of mosquitoes by many authors. In the present investigation, five reported terpene compounds namely eugenol, geraniol, coumarin, eucalyptol and carvacrol were allowed to dock against octopamine receptor and acetyl cholinesterase protein models of Aedes aegypti and Homo sapiens to evaluate their comparative efficacy in terms of docking performance. All the compounds were found to dock with both the protein models of the two animal systems while some of them were found to better perform against the protein models of A.aegypti than the protein models of H.sapiens which can further be explored in mosquito control programme as a comparatively safe compound(s). The results are discussed on the basis of energy value. 3D structures of proteins were modeled using Modeller9v8. The structures assessment were established using the Procheck, WhatCheck and WhatIF server of Swiss Model Workspace. Ligands were prepared using the Commercial Software Exome HorizonTM.

446) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Faye O., Diallo D., Diallo M., Weidmann M., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results: The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion: We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT - PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. © 2013 Faye et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

447) Larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from 11 native plants from Northeastern Mexico
Autor: de la Torre Rodriguez, Yael C.; Estrada, Francisco Ricardo Martinez; Suarez, Adriana Elizabeth Flores; Torres, Noemi Waksman de; Aranda, Ricardo Salazar
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Bioinsecticide; Ruta chalepensis; Zanthoxylum fagara; Ambrosia confertiflora
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 2, p. 310-313, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Of all mosquito-borne viral diseases, dengue is spreading most rapidly worldwide. Conventional chemical insecticides (e.g., organophosphates and carbamates) effectively kill mosquitoes at their larval stage, but are toxic to humans. Natural product-based insecticides may be highly specific. Herein, we report the insecticidal activities of 11 native Mexican plants against Aedes aegypti (L). Ether extracts of Ambrosia confertiflora De Candolle, Thymus vulgaris (L.), and Zanthoxylum fagara (L.), and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. were significantly larvicidal toward the dengue mosquito after 24 h of exposure. Of them, only the ether extract of A. confertiflora was toxic to Vero cells. In conclusion, the ether extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Z. fagara, and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L., could be considered as potential bioinsecticides.

448) Evidence of Habitat Structuring Aedes albopictus Populations in Reunion Island
Autor: Delatte, Helene; Toty, Celine; Boyer, Sebastien; Bouetard, Anthony; Bastien, Fanny; Fontenille, Didier
Assunto: Multilocus Genotype Data; Chikungunya-Virus; Indian-Ocean; Aegypti Populations; Dengue Vector; La Reunion; Mosquito; Dispersal; Culicidae; Infection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 3, 2013
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Arbovirus vector dynamics and spread are influenced by climatic, environmental and geographic factors. Major Chikungunya and Dengue fever outbreaks occurring the last 10 years have coincided with the expansion of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus to nearly all the continents. We characterized the ecological (larval development sites, population dynamics, insemination and daily survival rates) and genetic (diversity, gene flow, population structure) features of two Aedes albopictus populations from distinct environments (rural and urban) on Reunion Island, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Microsatellite analysis suggests population sub-structuring Ae. albopictus populations. Two genetic clusters were identified that were significantly linked to natural versus urban habitats with a mixed population in both areas. Ae. albopictus individuals prefer urban areas for mating and immature development, where hosts and containers that serve as larval development sites are readily available and support high population densities, whereas natural environments appear to serve as reservoirs for the mosquito.

449) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Abundance; Genetic diversity; Disease resistance; Infection; DNA microarrays; Gene expression; Colonies; Dengue; Gene regulation; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Gene silencing; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 7, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. Genetic variations among Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can greatly influence their ability to transmit human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). Some of these variations between mosquito populations are represented by differences in the expression of specific genes that control susceptibility to a pathogen. We have compared susceptibilities to dengue virus infection and the genome-wide gene expression patterns between laboratory-maintained Aedes aegypti strains as well as field-derived colonies collected from geographically-distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. These analyses in conjunction with functional gene silencing assays showed that the basal immune activity is a likely determinant of resistance to the dengue virus, along with other novel factors. Our study also identified two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor, thereby elucidating novel aspects of dengue virus - mosquito interactions.

450) Case report: Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwong J.C., Druce J.D., Leder K.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (etiology), travel, Zika virus infection (etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, sept. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

451) Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti mosquito strains varying in vector competence to dengue virus
Autor: Charan, Shakti S.; Pawar, Kiran D.; Severson, David W.; Patole, Milind S.; Shouche, Yogesh S.
Assunto: Human diseases; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Community composition; Infectivity; Dengue; Gene libraries; Abundance; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; rRNA 16S; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Janthinobacterium; Rahnella; Pseudomonas; Pedobacter; Bacillus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 7, p. 2627-2637, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Differences in midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue viruses (DENV), might influence the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to infection by DENV. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, comparative analysis of bacterial communities from midguts of mosquito strains with differential genetic susceptibility to DENV was performed. 16S rRNA gene libraries and real-time PCR approaches were used to characterize midgut bacterial community composition and abundance in three Aedes aegypti strains: MOYO, MOYO-R, and MOYO-S. Although Pseudomonas spp.-related clones were predominant across all libraries, some interesting and potentially significant differences were found in midgut bacterial communities among the three strains. Pedobacter sp.- and Janthinobacterium sp.-related phylotypes were identified only in the MOYO-R strain libraries, while Bacillus sp. was detected only in the MOYO-S strain. Rahnella sp. was found in MOYO-R and MOYO strains libraries but was absent in MOYO-S libraries. Both 16S rRNA gene library and real-time PCR approaches confirmed the presence of Pedobacter sp. only in the MOYO-R strain. Further, real-time PCR-based quantification of 16S rRNA gene copies showed bacterial abundance in midguts of the MOYO-R strain mosquitoes to be at least 10-100-folds higher than in the MOYO-S and MOYO strain mosquitoes. Our study identified some putative bacteria with characteristic physiological properties that could affect the infectivity of dengue virus. This analysis represents the first report of comparisons of midgut bacterial communities with respect to refractoriness and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to DENV and will guide future efforts to address the potential interactive role of midgut bacteria of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in determining vectorial capacity for DENV.

452) A study of the anti-plasmodium activity of angiotensin II analogs
Autor: Chamlian, Mayra; Bastos, Erick L.; Maciel, Ceres; Capurro, Margareth L.; Miranda, Antonio; Silva, Adriana F.; Torres, Marcelo Der T.; Oliveira, Vani X., Jr.
Assunto: Malaria; Saporozoites; Angiotensin II; Peptides; Plasmodium gallinaceum; Lactam bridge
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Journal of Peptide Science, v. 19, n. 9, p. 575-580, 2013
ISSN: 1075-2617
Resumo: Controlling the dissemination of malaria requires the development of new drugs against its etiological agent, a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus. Angiotensin II and its analog peptides exhibit activity against the development of immature and mature sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum. In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of angiotensin II linear and cyclic analogs with anti-plasmodium activity. The peptides were synthesized by a conventional solid-phase method on Merrifield's resin using the t-Boc strategy, purified by RP-HPLC and characterized by liquid chromatography/ESI (+) MS (LC-ESI(+)/MS), amino acid analysis, and capillary electrophoresis. Anti-plasmodium activity was measured in vitro by fluorescence microscopy using propidium iodine uptake as an indicator of cellular damage. The activities of the linear and cyclic peptides are not significantly different (p<0.05). Kinetics studies indicate that the effects of these peptides on plasmodium viability overtime exhibit a sigmoidal profile and that the system stabilizes after a period of 1h for all peptides examined. The results were rationalized by partial least-square analysis, assessing the position-wise contribution of each amino acid. The highest contribution of polar amino acids and a Lys residue proximal to the C-terminus, as well as that of hydrophobic amino acids in the N-terminus, suggests that the mechanism underlying the anti-malarial activity of these peptides is attributed to its amphiphilic character. Copyright (c) 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

453) Disruption of Aedes aegypti olfactory system development through chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle targeting of semaphorin-1a
Autor: Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen M.; Tomchaney, Michael; Severson, David W.; Duman-Scheel, Molly
Assunto: Smell; Mosquitoes; Nose; Genetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 5, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Despite the devastating impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, surprisingly little is known about mosquito developmental biology, including development of the olfactory system, a tissue of vector importance. Analysis of mosquito olfactory developmental genetics has been hindered by a lack of means to target specific genes during the development of this sensory system. In this investigation, chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were used to target semaphorin-1a (sema1a) during olfactory system development in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Immunohistochemical analyses and anterograde tracing of antennal sensory neurons, which were used to track the progression of olfactory development in this species, revealed antennal lobe defects in sema1a knockdown fourth instar larvae. These findings, which correlated with a larval odorant tracking behavioral phenotype, identified previously unreported roles for Sema1a in the developing insect larval olfactory system. Analysis of sema1a knockdown pupae also revealed a number of olfactory phenotypes, including olfactory receptor neuron targeting and projection neuron defects coincident with a collapse in the structure and shape of the antennal lobe and individual glomeruli. This study, which is to our knowledge the first functional genetic analysis of insect olfactory development outside of D. melanogaster, identified critical roles for Sema1a during Ae. aegypti larval and pupal olfactory development and advocates the use of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles as an effective means of targeting genes during post-embryonic Ae. aegypti development. Use of siRNA nanoparticle methodology to understand sensory developmental genetics in mosquitoes will provide insight into the evolutionary conservation and divergence of key developmental genes which could be exploited in the development of both common and species-specific means for intervention. Although mosquitoes transmit many of the world's deadliest diseases, mosquito developmental biology has been grossly understudied. To address this issue, we have begun to develop the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti as an emerging model for understanding mosquito developmental genetics. In this investigation, we analyze development of the Aedes aegypti olfactory system, a tissue of vector importance which is critical for recognition of human blood meal hosts and many other essential behaviors. We used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which were delivered through chitosan nanoparticle feedings to larvae, to target the axon guidance gene semaphorin-1a (sema1a). Loss of sema1a resulted in a variety of larval and pupal olfactory system defects, and these defects correlated with an odorant tracking behavioral phenotype. This study revealed that sema1a function is required for proper olfactory system development, and these findings advocate the use of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles as an effective means of targeting genes in Aedes aegypti.

454) Human encroachment on forests may increase exposure to new mosquito species and pathogens evidence from Zika Forest, Uganda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Kayondo J.K., Akol A.M., Masiga D., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C.
Assunto: exposure, forest, human, hygiene, mosquito, pathogenesis, society, species, tropical medicine, Uganda
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 337, nov. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The steady increase in contact between humans and wildlife is brought about by human encroachment, destruction of natural forests and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to new hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore identification of blood meal sources is important to determine the interaction between hosts and vectors. In this work, engorged mosquitoes were collected in Zika forest (Uganda) for a period of 12 months, and abdominal contents sequenced for cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. The sequences were subsequently blast searched in Genbank and the analyses revealed the presence of mammalian (86%), avian (13%) and amphibian-derived (1%) hosts. The first record of human origin blood-meals from Uranotaenia species in Zika Forest was shown. Earlier studies showed these species to feed exclusively on reptiles, amphibians, birds or domestic mammals. Taking of mammalian origin blood-meals puts the human and entire animal community at risk because of the possibility of exposure to new pathogens. Significant differences between host species were observed (Kruskal Wallis test, ?(2) = 19.118, df = 5, p = 0.018) suggesting a wide range of host exposure. This could possibly create new disease patterns. Several mosquitoes may be considered potential bridge vectors for a number of arboviruses from the composition of their blood-meals. These results highlight the public health significance of taking measures to avoid encroachment of forests and reserves for diseases prevention and control.

455) TALEN-based gene disruption in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Allelles; Nucleotide sequence; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Pigmentation; Gene disruption; KMO gene; Animal models; Nuclease; Vectors; Models; Dengue; DNA; Progeny; Embryos; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition to its role as the primary vector for dengue viruses, Aedes aegypti has a long history as a genetic model organism for other bloodfeeding mosquitoes, due to its ease of colonization, maintenance and reproductive productivity. Though its genome has been sequenced, functional characterization of many Ae. aegypti genes, pathways and behaviors has been slow. TALE nucleases (TALENs) have been used with great success in a number of organisms to generate site-specific DNA lesions. We evaluated the ability of a TALEN pair to target the Ae. aegypti kmo gene, whose protein product is essential in the production of eye pigmentation. Following injection into pre-blastoderm embryos, 20-40% of fertile survivors produced kmo alleles that failed to complement an existing khw mutation. Most of these individuals produced more than 20% white-eyed progeny, with some producing up to 75%. Mutant alleles were associated with lesions of 1-7 bp specifically at the selected target site. White-eyed individuals could also be recovered following a blind intercross of G1 progeny, yielding several new white-eyed strains in the genetic background of the sequenced Liverpool strain. We conclude that TALENs are highly active in the Ae. aegypti germline, and have the potential to transform how reverse genetic experiments are performed in this important disease vector.

456) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): A Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Singapore
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wong P.-S.J., Li M.-z.I., Chong C.-S., Ng L.-C., Tan C.-H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Arbovirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 8, p. 1-5, aug. 2013
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.Methodology/Principal Findings:To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose(50) assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.Conclusions/Significance:The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore. © 2013 Wong et al.

457) Evolutionary history of eukaryotic alpha -glucosidases from the alpha -amylase family
Autor: Gabrisko, Marek
Assunto: Biological surveys; Glycosides; Chromosomes; Fungi; Hydrolases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Disease transmission; alpha ?Amylase; Pseudogenes; Molecular evolution; Digestive tract; Glycoside hydrolase; Bioinformatics; Orthology; Toxins; alpha -Glucosidase
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Molecular Evolution, v. 76, n. 3, p. 129-145, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2844
Resumo: Although some alpha -glucosidases from the alpha -amylase family (glycoside hydrolase family GH13) have been studied extensively, their exact number, organization on the chromosome, and orthology/paralogy relationship were unknown. This was true even for important disease vectors where gut alpha -glucosidase is known to be receptor for the Bin toxin used to control the population of some mosquito species. In some cases orthologs from related species were studied intensively, while potentially important paralogs were omitted. We have, therefore, used a bioinformatics approach to identify all family GH13 alpha -glucosidases from the selected species from Metazoa (including three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus) as well as from Fungi in an effort to characterize their arrangement on the chromosome and evolutionary relationships among orthologs and among paralogs. We also searched for pseudogenes and genes coding for enzymatically inactive proteins with a possible new function. We have found GH13 alpha -glucosidases mostly in Arthropoda and Fungi where they form gene families, as a result of multiple lineage-specific gene duplications. In mosquito species we have identified 14 alpha -glucosidase (Aglu) genes of which only five have been biochemically characterized so far, two are putative pseudogenes and the rest remains uncharacterized. We also revealed quite a complex evolutionary history of the eukaryotic alpha -glucosidases probably involving multiple losses of genes or horizontal gene transfer from bacteria.

458) A unique Y gene in the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi encodes a small lysine-rich protein and is transcribed at the onset of embryonic development
Autor: Criscione, F.; Qi, Y.; Saunders, R.; Hall, B.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Male; Maternal-to-zygotic transition; Vector - Borne infectious disease; Y chromosome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 4, p. 433-441, 2013
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: In many organisms the Y chromosome initiates sex determination and regulates male fertility and mating behaviour. However, molecular characterization of Y genes is rare outside of a few model species because it is difficult to clone and analyse repeat-rich heterochromatic Y sequences. In insects, Y genes are only well characterized in a small number of Drosophila species. Here we report the discovery of GUY1 (gene unique to the Y), a gene unique to the Y chromosome in the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, using an approach that compares Illumina sequences separately obtained from male and female genomic DNA. Experimental evidence confirmed that GUY1 is a single copy gene found only on the Y chromosome. GUY1 is transcribed at the very onset of zygotic transcription and encodes a small lysine-rich protein that forms two alpha helices and shows DNA-binding properties. Interestingly, three helix-loop-helix proteins are key factors that determine sex in the early embryo in Drosophila melanogaster. Single embryo analysis indicated that GUY1 is only transcribed in male embryos and that the GUY1 promoter is functional in the early embryos. GUY1 may be used as a paternally inherited molecular marker. Further investigation of GUY1 will contribute to the genetic approaches to control mosquito-borne diseases.

459) The effect of sterilization on the mechanical properties of intact rabbit humeri in three-point bending, four-point bending and torsion
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Russell, Nicholas A; Rives, Alain; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bruce, Warwick J; Walsh, William R.
Assunto: Animals, Biomechanical phenomena, Bone transplantation - Methods, Dose - Response relationship, Drug , Dose - Response relationship, Radiation, Humerus - Microbiology, Rabbits, Weight -Bearing - Physiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Banking, v. 14, n. 2, p. 231-242, 2013.
ISSN: 1389-9333
Resumo: Load bearing bone allografts are used to replace the mechanical function of bone that has been removed or to augment bone that has been damaged in trauma. In order to minimize the risk of infection and immune response, the bone is delipidated and terminally sterilized prior to implantation. The optimal method for bone graft sterilization has been the topic of considerable research. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatments have been shown to terminally sterilize bone against a range of bacteria and viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SCCO2 treatment compared with two doses of gamma irradiation, on the mechanical properties of whole bone. Paired rabbit humeri were dissected and randomly assigned into either SCCO2 control, SCCO2 additive or gamma irradiation at 10 or 25 kGy treatment groups. The bones were mechanically tested in three-point and four-point bending and torsion, with the lefts acting as controls for the treated rights. Maximum load, energy to failure and stiffness were evaluated. This study found that SCCO2 treatment with or without additive did not alter maximum load, energy to failure or stiffness significantly under any loading modality. Gamma irradiation had a deleterious dose dependant effect, with statistically significant decreases in all mechanical tests at 25 kGy; while at 10 kGy there were reductions in all loading profiles, though only reaching statistical significance in torsion. This study highlights the expediency of SCCO2 treatment for bone allograft processing as terminal sterilization can be achieved while maintaining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the graft.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

460) Evidence of circulation of selected arboviruses in ijara and marigat districts, Kenya
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ofula V.O., Oundo J., Irura Z., Chepkorir E., Tigoi C., Lwande O., Ongus J., Schoepp R., Rossi C., Wurapa E.K., Sonde H., Sang R.
Assunto: Arbovirus, hygiene, Kenya, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 278, nov. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods with humans becoming infected during blood feeding by infected mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies. Characterization of arbovirus circulation and transmission in industrialized countries has been well documented, but there are many knowledge gaps in developing nations. Entomological surveys conducted so far have indicated circulation of arboviruses of significant public health importance in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species in vast populations in Kenya, suggesting the presence of competent vector systems. The human involvement in the transmission cycle of these viruses has however not been demonstrated. This study sought to determine the sero-prevalence of a range of arboviruses including; Chikungunya, Dengue, Sindbis, Sandfly Naples, Sandfly Sicilian, Uganda S, West Nile and Zika viruses in Ijara and Marigat Districts where vector surveillance has been done. A total of 351 patient serum samples were analyzed using IgG ELISA, of these 193 (54.9%) were male and 158 (45.1%) were female with age ranging between 3 and 73. The overall arbovirus prevalence was 53/351 (15.1%) with a prevalence of 7% (10/143) in Marigat and 21% (43/208) in Ijara. Of the positives, Flaviviruses were 69%, alpha viruses 29.6% and Bunyaviridae 1.4%. Uganda S virus was the most prevalent with 10%, followed by West Nile virus 6%, Sindbis 5%, Dengue 2%, Chikungunya 1.1%, Sandfly Naples 0.2% respectively. Semliki-forest virus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 3/351 (0.85%) persons tested. Antibodies against Sandfly Sicilian and Zika viruses were not detected. This study constitutes the first detection of antibodies against Sandfly Naples virus in Kenya. The study has demonstrated the circulation of the selected arboviruses in the two sites amongst human population. These findings will improve our understanding of impact of Arboviruses on public health in the regions so that preventive actions and awareness among clinicians in patient' recognition and management can be enhanced.

461) Nucleotide substitutions in dengue virus serotypes from Asian and American countries: insights into intracodon recombination and purifying selection
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Nucleotide substitution; Codon usage; Serotype; Intracodon recombination; Purifying selection; Fixed mutations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Microbiology, v. 13, n. , p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1471-2180
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection represents a significant public health problem in many subtropical and tropical countries. Although genetically closely related, the four serotypes of DENV differ in antigenicity for which cross protection among serotypes is limited. It is also believed that both multi-serotype infection as well as the evolution of viral antigenicity may have confounding effects in increased dengue epidemics. Numerous studies have been performed that investigated genetic diversity of DENV, but the precise mechanism(s) of dengue virus evolution are not well understood. We investigated genome-wide genetic diversity and nucleotide substitution patterns in the four serotypes among samples collected from different countries in Asia and Central and South America and sequenced as part of the Genome Sequencing Center for Infectious Diseases at the Broad Institute. We applied bioinformatics, statistical and coalescent simulation methods to investigate diversity of codon sequences of DENV samples representing the four serotypes. We show that fixation of nucleotide substitutions is more prominent among the inter-continental isolates (Asian and American) of serotypes 1, 2 and 3 compared to serotype 4 isolates (South and Central America) and are distributed in a non-random manner among the genes encoded by the virus. Nearly one third of the negatively selected sites are associated with fixed mutation sites within serotypes. Our results further show that of all the sites showing evidence of recombination, the majority (similar to 84%) correspond to sites under purifying selection in the four serotypes. The analysis further shows that genetic recombination occurs within specific codons, albeit with low frequency (< 5% of all recombination sites) throughout the DENV genome of the four serotypes and reveals significant enrichment (p < 0.05) among sites under purifying selection in the virus. The study provides the first evidence for intracodon recombination in DENV and suggests that within codons, genetic recombination has a significant role in maintaining extensive purifying selection of DENV in natural populations. Our study also suggests that fixation of beneficial mutations may lead to virus evolution via translational selection of specific sites in the DENV genome.

462) Oral delivery of double-stranded RNA in larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Implications for pest mosquito control
Autor: Singh, Aditi D.; Wong, Sylvia; Ryan, Calen P.; Whyard, Steven
Assunto: Beta-tubulin; Chitin synthase; Heat shock protein 83; Insecticides; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science, v. 13, n. , p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: RNA interference has already proven itself to be a highly versatile molecular biology tool for understanding gene function in a limited number of insect species, but its widespread use in other species will be dependent on the development of easier methods of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. This study demonstrates that RNA interference can be induced in the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) simply by soaking larvae in a solution of dsRNA for two hours. The mRNA transcripts for beta-tubulin, chitin synthase-1 and -2, and heat shock protein 83 were reduced between 30 and 50% three days post-dsRNA treatment. The dsRNA was mixed with a visible dye to identify those individuals that fed on the dsRNA, and based on an absence of RNA interference in those individuals that contained no dye within their guts, the primary route of entry of dsRNA is likely through the gut epithelium. RNA interference was systemic in the insects, inducing measurable knock down of gene expression in tissues beyond the gut. Silencing of the beta-tubulin and chitin synthase-1 genes resulted in reduced growth and/or mortality of the larvae, demonstrating the utility of dsRNA as a potential mosquito larvicide. Silencing of chitin synthase-2 did not induce mortality in the larvae, and silencing of heat shock protein 83 only induced mortality in the insects if they were subsequently subjected to a heat stress. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) larvae were also soaked in dsRNA designed to specifically target either their own beta-tubulin gene, or that of A. aegypti, and significant mortality was only seen in larvae treated with dsRNA targeting their own gene, which suggests that dsRNA pesticides could be designed to be species-limited.

463) Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission
Autor: Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.
Assunto: Pathogens; Biomarkers; Population dynamics; Disease transmission; Public health; Initiation factors; Fat body; Cuticles; Electron transfer; Mass spectroscopy; Longevity; Post-translation; Multivariate analysis; Superoxide dismutase; Dengue; Manganese; Bioindicators; Risk factors; Abundance; Mass spectrometry; Proteins; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting mosquito longevity.

464) A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica
Autor: Li, Ming; Reid, William R.; Zhang, Lee; Scott, Jeffery G.; Gao, Xiwu; Kristensen, Michael; Liu, Nannan
Assunto: Linkage analysis; Genetic crosses; House fly lines; Transcriptome; Insecticide resistance; Signaling pathways
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 14, n. 803, 2013
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Studies suggest that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multiple gene up-regulation, but it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory factors. However, no regulatory factors in insecticide resistance have yet been identified, and there has been no examination of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple insecticide resistant strain ALHF (wild-type) and two insecticide susceptible strains: aabys (with morphological recessive markers) and CS (wild type) to gain valuable insights into the gene interaction and complex regulation in insecticide resistance of house flies, Musca domestica. Over 56 million reads were used to assemble the adult female M. domestica transcriptome reference and 14488 contigs were generated from the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 6159 (43%) of the contigs contained coding regions, among which 1316 genes were identified as being co-up-regulated in ALHF in comparison to both aabys and CS. The majority of these up-regulated genes fell within the SCOP categories of metabolism, general, intra-cellular processes, and regulation, and covered three key detailed function categories: redox detailed function category in metabolism, signal transduction and kinases/phosphatases in regulation, and proteases in intra-cellular processes. The redox group contained detoxification gene superfamilies, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases, and esterases. The signal transduction and kinases/phosphatases groups contained gene families of rhodopsin-like GPCRs, adenylate and guanylate cyclases, protein kinases and phosphatases. The proteases group contained genes with digestive, catalytic, and proteinase activities. Genetic linkage analysis with house fly lines comparing different autosomal combinations from ALHF revealed that the up-regulation of gene expression in the three key SCOP detailed function categories occurred mainly through the co-regulation of factors among multiple autosomes, especially between autosomes 2 and 5, suggesting that signaling transduction cascades controlled by GPCRs, protein kinase/phosphates and proteases may be involved in the regulation of resistance P450 gene regulation. Taken together, our findings suggested that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multi-resistance mechanisms or up-regulated genes, but it is mediated through the trans and/or cis co-regulations of resistance genes.

465) Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.
Autor: Kwong Jason C,Druce Julian D,Leder Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, 2013
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

466) Abundance, diversity, and distribution of mosquito vectors in selected ecological regions of Kenya: public health implications
Autor: Lutomiah, Joel; Bast, Joshua; Clark, Jeffrey; Richardson, Jason; Yalwala, Santos; Oullo, David; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Musila, Lillian; Khamadi, Samoel; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako; Sang, Rosemary
Assunto: Mosquito density; Diversity; Ecology; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 38, n. 1, p. 134-142, 2013
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The diversity of mosquito arbovirus vectors was investigated to define regional risk of arbovirus transmission in Kenya. Mosquitoes were sampled between April, 2007 and December, 2010 at thirteen sites across seven administrative provinces and ecological zones. CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes while human-landing collection was conducted in five of the sites to target day-feeding Aedes (Stegomyia) species. Over 524,000 mosquitoes were collected and identified into 101 species, 30 of them known vectors of arboviruses endemic to Kenya. Ae. (Neomelaniconion) mcintoshi and Ae. (Aedimorphus) ochraceus were most abundant in Garissa in the arid northeastern province, and Mansonia uniformis and Mn. africana in semi-arid Baringo in the Rift Valley Province. Ae. ochraceus, Mn. africana and Mn. uniformis were also significant in Nyanza Province, while Ae. (Neomelaniconion) circumluteolus predominated in Budalangi, Western Province. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was predominant in Rabai in the Coast Province but insignificant in the western and Nyanza sites. Culex pipiens was abundant in Rift Valley and Nyanza Provinces around the lake shores. This study highlights the potential for emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases among vulnerable populations. This calls for comprehensive mapping of vector distribution and abundance for planning focused vector control measures.

467) Blood meal induced microRNA regulates development and immune associated genes in the Dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: MicroRNA; Blood meal; Mosquito; aae-miR-375; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 146-152, 2013.
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a blood-feeding mosquito that transmits human pathogens such as Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and Chikungunya virus. Recently, dramatic changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti following a blood meal have been reported; however, the molecular factors involved in regulating these changes are largely unknown. In this study, we found induction of a number of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood fed (BF) mosquitoes. One of these miRNAs, aae-miR-375, was only detected in BF mosquitoes. Based on target analyses, we found six different genes involved in development and immunity being regulated by aae-miR-375 at the post-transcriptional level. We further confirmed the specific interaction of aae-miR-375 with the target sequences in the transcripts of two immune related genes, cactus and REL1, using a GFP-based reporter assay. Overall, results from this report indicate that miRNAs induced upon blood feeding can regulate the transcript levels of several genes that are important in development and immune responses in mosquitoes. In addition, we demonstrate that aae-miR-375 enhances Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in an Ae. aegypti cell line.

468) Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties
Autor: Temeyer, Kevin B.; Brake, Danett K.; Tuckow, Alexander P.; Li, Andrew Y.; de Leon, Adalberto A. Perez
Assunto: Sand fly; Acetylcholinesterase; P. papatasi; cDNA; AChE
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 31, 2013
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduce or interrupt Leishmania transmission. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is vectored mainly by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Asia and Africa. Organophosphates comprise a class of insecticides used for sand fly control, which act through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system. Point mutations producing an altered, insensitive AChE are a major mechanism of organophosphate resistance in insects and preliminary evidence for organophosphate-insensitive AChE has been reported in sand flies. This report describes the identification of complementary DNA for an AChE in P. papatasi and the biochemical characterization of recombinant P. papatasi AChE. A P. papatasi Israeli strain laboratory colony was utilized to prepare total RNA utilized as template for RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase 1 using gene specific primers and 3'-5'-RACE. The cDNA was cloned into pBlueBac4.5/V5-His TOPO, and expressed by baculovirus in Sf21 insect cells in serum-free medium. Recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase was biochemically characterized using a modified Ellman's assay in microplates. A 2309 nucleotide sequence of PpAChE1 cDNA [GenBank: JQ922267] of P. papatasi from a laboratory colony susceptible to insecticides is reported with 73-83% nucleotide identity to acetylcholinesterase mRNA sequences of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Lutzomyia longipalpis, respectively. The P. papatasi cDNA ORF encoded a 710-amino acid protein [GenBank: AFP20868] exhibiting 85% amino acid identity with acetylcholinesterases of Cx. pipiens, Aedes aegypti, and 92% amino acid identity for L. longipalpis. Recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 was expressed in the baculovirus system and characterized as an insect acetylcholinesterase with substrate preference for acetylthiocholine and inhibition at high substrate concentration. Enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by eserine, BW284c51, malaoxon, and paraoxon, and was insensitive to the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors ethopropazine and iso-OMPA. Results presented here enable the screening and identification of PpAChE mutations resulting in the genotype for insensitive PpAChE. Use of the recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 will facilitate rapid in vitro screening to identify novel PpAChE inhibitors, and comparative studies on biochemical kinetics of inhibition.

469) Comparing autograft, allograft, and tricalcium phosphate ceramic in a goat instrumented posterolateral fusion model
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Delawi, Diyar; Kruyt, Moyo C; Huipin, Yuan; Vincken, Koen L; de Bruijn, Joost D; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter JÁ
Assunto: Animals, Goats, Imaging - Three-dimensional, Models - Animal, Spine - Drug effects, Spine - Radiography, Tomography - X-Ray Computed
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, v. 19, n. 11, p. 821-828, 2013.
ISSN: 1937-3384
Resumo: The most common application of bone grafts is spinal fusion surgery, in which the use of iliac crest autograft is the gold standard. Harvesting of autograft, however, requires an extra surgical procedure, which is associated with additional morbidity. Allograft is the well-known alternative, but it is generally considered less effective in posterior fusions. Therefore, the need for an effective alternative remains. Recently, it was shown that ceramics can be endowed with biologically instructive properties by changing the basic parameters of the material. In this study, we compared a novel tricalcium phosphate ceramic (TCP) to iliac crest autograft and allograft, in instrumented posterolateral fusions in a goat model. A total of nine goats were included, who underwent a two-level lumbar fusion. Each side of the spine was randomized into one type of graft: iliac crest autograft; fresh-frozen allograft; TCP alone; or TCP combined with local autograft (50:50). The fusion rates after 16 weeks were comparable between the groups (autograft 3/8, allograft 4/8, TCP 4/8, and TCP/local autograft 5/8). Calculation of the fusion volume on computed tomography images, showed significantly greater volume in the control groups (autograft 7.8 mL and allograft 8.9 mL) compared with the groups with TCP (TCP 6.1 mL and TCP/local autograft 6.0 mL). No adverse tissue response was seen on histological analysis and TCP was almost completely resorbed. The results demonstrate that TCP is capable of achieving fusion at a similar rate to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral fusions, while almost completely resorbing within 16 weeks. Despite the lower fusion volume, the TCP is a promising alternative circumventing the disadvantages of autograft and allograft. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

470) Oostatic peptides
Autor: Hlavacek, Jan
Assunto: Insect development regulation; Oostatic activity; TMOF and analogs; Genetic approach; Degradation in ovaries
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Amino Acids, v. 44, n. 4, p. 1095-1105, 2013
ISSN: 0939-4451
Resumo: Oostatic peptides are organic molecules, which influence an insect reproduction due to a regulation of the eggs development. It was proved that decapeptide-H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-OH (YDPAPPPPPP)-isolated from mosquito Aedes aegypti, inhibits trypsin activity in the midgut of the mosquito. Therefore, it was named trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (Aea-TMOF). Feeding the recombinant cells with cloned and expressed TMOF on the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to mosquito larvae, caused larval mortality. The TMOF was therefore designed for usage as a new biorational insecticide against mosquito. Similarly, a hexapeptide-H-Asn-Pro-Thr-Asn-Leu-His-OH (NPTNLH)-was isolated from the grey flesh fly Neobellieria bullata. This peptide and some of its analogs inhibited trypsin-like synthesis by the midgut in female flies and was therefore entitled Neb-TMOF. Interestingly, the synthetic Aea-TMOF and mainly its C-terminus shorten analogs, including those containing D-amino acids or methylene-oxy isosteric bond, quickly and strongly inhibited the hatchability and egg development in the flesh fly N. bullata.

471) Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis of mosquito larvae: a verdict of accidental death
Autor: Butt, Tariq M; Greenfield, Bethany PJ; Greig, Carolyn;Maffeis, Thierry GG; Taylor, James WD; Piasecka, Justyna;Dudley, Ed; Abdulla, Ahmed; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada
Assunto: Insect larvae; Inhibitors; Pest control; Pathogens; Mortality causes; Public health; Disease transmission; Adhesins; Mortality; Proteinase inhibitors; Cuticles; Infection; Cecropin; Dengue; Oxidative stress; Yellow fever; Autolysis; Caspase; Immune response; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Metarhizium anisopliae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungal pathogen of terrestrial arthropods, kills the aquatic larvae of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. The fungus kills without adhering to the host cuticle. Ingested conidia also fail to germinate and are expelled in fecal pellets. This study investigates the mechanism by which this fungus adapted to terrestrial hosts kills aquatic mosquito larvae. Genes associated with the M. anisopliae early pathogenic response (proteinases Pr1 and Pr2, and adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2) are upregulated in the presence of larvae, but the established infection process observed in terrestrial hosts does not progress and insecticidal destruxins were not detected. Protease inhibitors reduce larval mortality indicating the importance of proteases in the host interaction. The Ae. aegypti immune response to M. anisopliae appears limited, whilst the oxidative stress response gene encoding for thiol peroxidase is upregulated. Cecropin and Hsp70 genes are downregulated as larval death occurs, and insect mortality appears to be linked to autolysis through caspase activity regulated by Hsp70 and inhibited, in infected larvae, by protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented that a traditional host-pathogen response does not occur as the species have not evolved to interact. M. anisopliae retains pre-formed pathogenic determinants which mediate host mortality, but unlike true aquatic fungal pathogens, does not recognise and colonise the larval host.

472) Oligomerization is a key step in Cyt1Aa membrane insertion and toxicity but not necessary to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity in Aedes aegypti larvae
Autor: Lopez-Diaz, Jazmin A.; Emiliano Canton, Pablo; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra
Assunto: Thuringiensis subsp israelensis; Toxin binding cadherin; Bacillus thuringiensis; Delta endotoxin; Culex quinquefasciatus; Mosquito; Cyta; Resistance; Receptor; Mechanism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Environmental Microbiology, v. 15, n. 11, p. 3030-3039, 2013
ISSN: 1462-2912
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis produces insecticidal Cry and Cyt proteins that are toxic to different insect orders. In addition, Cyt toxins also display haemolytic activity. Both toxins are pore-forming proteins that form oligomeric structures that insert into the target membrane to lyse cells. Cyt toxins play an important role in mosquitocidal activity since they synergize Cry toxins and are able to overcome resistance to Cry toxins. Cry and Cyt toxins interact by specific epitopes, and this interaction is important to induce the synergistic activity observed. It was proposed that Cyt toxins do not interact with protein receptors but directly interacting with the specific midgut cell lipids. Here, we analysed if oligomerization and membrane insertion of Cyt1Aa are necessary steps to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity. We characterized Cyt1Aa helix -C mutants that were affected in oligomerization, in membrane insertion and also in haemolytic and insecticidal activities. However, these mutants were still able to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity indicating these steps are independent events of Cyt1Aa synergistic activity. Furthermore, the data indicate that formation of stable Cyt1Aa-oligomeric structure is a key step for membrane insertion, haemolysis and insecticidal activity.

473) The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology
Autor: Gulley, Melissa M.; Zhang, Xin; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Infectious disease; Serpin; Innate immunity; Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 2, p. 138-147, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: In vector-borne diseases, the complex interplay between pathogen and its vector's immune system determines the outcome of infection and therefore disease transmission. Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions. Their control over regulatory proteolytic cascades ultimately decides whether the recognition of a pathogen will lead to an appropriate immune response. In mosquitoes, serpins (SRPNs) regulate the activation of prophenoloxidase and thus melanization, contribute to malaria parasite lysis, and likely Toll pathway activation. Additionally, in culicine mosquitoes, SRPNs are able to regulate hemostasis in the vertebrate host, suggesting a crucial role during bloodfeeding. This review summarizes the annotation, transcriptional regulation, and current knowledge of SRPN function in the three mosquito species for which the complete genome sequence is available. Additionally, we give a brief overview of how SRPNs may be used to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases.

474) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of zika virus in singapore
Autor: Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-zhi Irene; Chong, Chee-Seng; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Cheong-Huat
Assunto: Yellow - Fever; Chikungunya; Micronesia; State
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 8, 2013
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV. To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 degrees C and 80-85% RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose(50) assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious. The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore

475) Multiple intron gain and loss events occurred during the evolution of Cenp-A gene
Autor: Fan XinYu; Yu Li; Xu HuaiLiang; Li Ying
Assunto: CENP-A; Evolution; Intron gain and loss
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 58, n. 18, p. 2174-2178, 2013
ISSN: 1001-6538
Resumo: Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a histone H3 like protein, and it plays a very important role in chromosomal segregation during mitosis and meiosis. The analyses on the exon-intron organization of the Cenp-A gene in representative genomes revealed that multiple intron gain and loss events have occurred during the evolution of Cenp-A gene in opisthokonta (common ancestor of fungi and animals). Moreover, our results revealed that at least two positions were conserved in the intron gain and loss events during the evolution of the Cenp-A gene.

476) Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector
Autor: Seixas, Goncalo; Salgueiro, Patricia; Silva, Ana Clara; Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Reyes-Lugo, Matias; Novo, Maria Teresa; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; Soares da Silva Pinto, Joao Pedro; Sousa, Carla Alexandra
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; dengue; knockdown resistance; mtDNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 108, n. , p. 3-U14, 2013
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.

477) Vertical transmission of key west dengue-1 virus by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from Florida
Autor: Buckner, Eva A.; Alto, Barry W.; Lounibos, L. Philip
Assunto: Interepidemic dengue transmission; Arbovirus; Container mosquito; Cost of infection; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 6, p. 1291-1297, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Following the 2009 and 2010 dengue-1 (DENV-1) outbreaks in Key West, FL, we used Florida Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes and DENV-1 isolated from Key West in 2010 to test the hypothesis that if the 2009 and 2010 DENV-1 genome sequences are similar, then vertical transmission of DENV-1 from infected Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes to their eggs could have served as an interepidemic reservoir between outbreaks. We also investigated the ability of Florida Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes to vertically transmit DENV-1. In addition, we determined the rates of infection and dissemination of these Florida mosquito species for DENV-1 and the effect of DENV-1 infection on oviposition success and number of mosquito eggs laid by females. Vertical transmission of DENV-1 was documented, with rates of 11.11% (2 out of 18) for Ae. albopictus and 8.33% (3 out of 36) for Ae. aegypti. Approximately 93% (111 out of 119) of Ae. aegypti that fed on DENV-1 in blood became infected, and 80% (89 out of 111) of infections were disseminated. Similarly, 93% of Ae. albopictus became infected (53 out of 57), and 85% (45 out of 53) of infections were disseminated. No significant differences were detected in numbers of eggs laid by either species after imbibing DENV-1 in blood, suggesting little cost of infection on number of eggs laid. Our results demonstrate that Florida Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are competent vectors for DENV-1, whose maintenance between the 2009 and 2010 Key West outbreaks may have been facilitated by vertical transmission.

478) Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval competition; Innate immunity; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; Antimicrobial peptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 6, p. 604-610, 2013
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Tollflind pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2 L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, RellA, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14 days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14 days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7 days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Tollflmd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up:regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SW infection suppresses Tbll/rind-pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the upregulation of cecropin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

479) Characterization of a novel mosquitocidal strain of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar aizawai which harbors a rolling-circle replication plasmid, pBt1-3
Autor: Liu, Qin; Roh, Jong; Wang, Yong; Choi, Jae; Tao, Xue; Jin, Byung; Je, Yeon
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Aizawai; cry2A; Cryptic plasmid; pBt1?3; RCR group VI
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 16, n. 3, p. 257-261, 2013.
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis 1-3, isolated from a Korean soil sample, was determined to belong to ssp. aizawai (H7) type by an H antiserum agglutination test, and produced bipyramidal-shaped crystal proteins with a molecular weight of 130 kDa. PCR analysis with specific cry gene primers showed that B. thuringiensis 1-3 contained cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1C, cry1D and cry2A genes, differing from that of serovar of aizawai (reference strain) which contains cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1C and cry1D genes. In contrast to the reference strain, B. thuringiensis aizawai showed insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae, the B. thuringiensis 1-3 showed insecticidal activity against not only P. xylostella, but also Aedes aegypti, owing to its Cry2A crystal protein. In this study, we modified the plasmid capture system (PCS) through in vitro transposition to clone small cryptic plasmids from B. thuringiensis 1-3. Fifty-three clones were acquired, and their sizes were approximately 10 kb. Based on the sequence analysis, they were classified into four groups, showing similarities with four known B. thuringiensis plasmids, pGI3, pBMB175, pGI1 and pGI2, respectively. One of the pGI3-like clones, pBt1-3, was fully sequenced, and its putative open reading frames (ORFs), Rep-protein, double-strand origin of replication (dso), single-strand origin of replication (sso), have been identified. The structure of pBt1-3 showed high similarity with pGI3, which is of the rolling-circle replication (RCR) group VI family.

480) A Chimeric Dengue Virus Vaccine using Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Strain SA14-14-2 as Backbone Is Immunogenic and Protective against Either Parental Virus in Mice and Nonhuman Primates
Autor: Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hui-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Xue-Dong; Li, Shi-Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jie; Yu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Li, Yu-Hua; Qin, E-De; Shi, Pei-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Feng
Assunto: West ? Nile ? Virus ; Nonstructural protein Ns1 ; Cd8(+) T-Cells ; Neutralizing antibody ?Response ; Aedes ? Aegypti Mosquitos ; Yellow ? Fever Vaccine ; Sa 14-14-2 Vaccine ; Growth ? Characteristics ; Immune ? Responses ; Mouse model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 87, n. 24, p. 13694-13705, 2013
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The development of a safe and efficient dengue vaccine represents a global challenge in public health. Chimeric dengue viruses (DENV) based on an attenuated flavivirus have been well developed as vaccine candidates by using reverse genetics. In this study, based on the full-length infectious cDNA clone of the well-known Japanese encephalitis virus live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as a backbone, a novel chimeric dengue virus (named ChinDENV) was rationally designed and constructed by replacement with the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue 2 virus. The recovered chimeric virus showed growth and plaque properties similar to those of the parental DENV in mammalian and mosquito cells. ChinDENV was highly attenuated in mice, and no viremia was induced in rhesus monkeys upon subcutaneous inoculation. ChinDENV retained its genetic stability and attenuation phenotype after serial 15 passages in cultured cells. A single immunization with various doses of ChinDENV elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with wild-type DENV, all animals except one that received the lower dose were protected against the development of viremia. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDENV conferred efficient cross protection against lethal JEV challenge in mice in association with robust cellular immunity induced by the replicating nonstructural proteins. Taken together, the results of this preclinical study well demonstrate the great potential of ChinDENV for further development as a dengue vaccine candidate, and this kind of chimeric flavivirus based on JE vaccine virus represents a powerful tool to deliver foreign antigens.

481) First screening of Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins
Autor: Doucoure, S.; Cornelie, S.; Patramool, S.; Mouchet, F.; Demettre, E.; Seveno, M.; Dehecq, J. S.; Rutee, H.; Herve, J. P.; Favier, F.; Misse, D.; Gasque, P.; Remoue, F.
Assunto: Screening; Molecular biology; Antibodies; Proteins; Biomarkers; Aquatic insects; Public health; Feeding; Bites; Antigenicity; Vectors; Antibody response; Apyrase; Blood; Immunogenicity; Adenosine deaminase; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 4, p. 411-423, 2013.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Study of the human antibody (Ab) response to Aedes salivary proteins can provide new biomarkers to evaluate human exposure to vector bites. The identification of genus- and/or species-specific proteins is necessary to improve the accuracy of biomarkers. We analysed Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins by 2D immunoproteomic technology and compared the profiles according to human individual exposure to Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti bites. Strong antigenicity to Ae. albopictus salivary proteins was detected in all individuals whatever the nature of Aedes exposure. Amongst these antigenic proteins, 68% are involved in blood feeding, including D7 protein family, adenosine deaminase, serpin and apyrase. This study provides an insight into the repertoire of Ae. albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins for the first time.

482) Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 converts farnesal into farnesoic acid in the corpora allata of mosquitoes
Autor: Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Clifton, Mark. E.; Garcia, Elena Martin; LeBlanc, Elizabeth; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Corpora allata; Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3; RNAi; Aldo-keto reductase; Farnesal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 8, p. 675-682, 2013
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: The juvenile hormones (JHs) play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. Interrupting JH biosynthesis has long been considered a promising strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. Using a combination of RNAi, in vivo and in vitro studies we characterized the last unknown biosynthetic enzyme of the JH pathway, a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (AaALDH3) that oxidizes farnesal into farnesoic acid (FA) in the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes. The AaALDH3 is structurally and functionally a NAD(+)-dependent class 3 ALDH showing tissue- and developmental-stage-specific splice variants. Members of the ALDH3 family play critical roles in the development of cancer and Sjogren-Larsson syndrome in humans, but have not been studies in groups other than mammals. Using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we demonstrated that AaALDH3 activity, as well as the concentrations of famesol, famesal and FA were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. In CA of blood-fed females the low catalytic activity of AaALDH3 limited the flux of precursors and caused a remarkable increase in the pool of famesal with a decrease in FA and JH synthesis. The accumulation of the potentially toxic farnesal stimulated the activity of a reductase that converted famesal back into farnesol, resulting in farnesol leaking out of the CA. Our studies indicated AaALDH3 plays a key role in the regulation of JH synthesis in blood-fed females and mosquitoes seem to have developed a "trade-off" system to balance the key role of farnesal as a JH precursor with its potential toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

483) Infection with a virulent strain of Wolbachia disrupts genome wide-patterns of cytosine methylation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Ye, Yixin H; Woolfit, Megan; Huttley, Gavin A; Rances, Edwige; Caragata, Eric P; Popovici, Jean; McGraw, Elizabeth A
Assunto: Gene expression; Genomes; ATP; Transcription; Strains; Phenotypes; Endosymbionts; Genotypes; Infection; Models; Cytosine; Methylase; DNA methylation; Ions; Amino acids; DNA methylase; Developmental stages; Alternative splicing; Demethylation; Gene regulation; Transcription factors; Vacuoles; Conservation; Methylation; Evolution; Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 6, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Cytosine methylation is one of several reversible epigenetic modifications of DNA that allow a greater flexibility in the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Methylation in the simplest models dampens gene expression by modifying regions of DNA critical for transcription factor binding. The capacity to methylate DNA is variable in the insects due to diverse histories of gene loss and duplication of DNA methylases. Mosquitoes like Drosophila melanogaster possess only a single methylase, DNMT2. Description Here we characterise the methylome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and examine its relationship to transcription and test the effects of infection with a virulent strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia on the stability of methylation patterns. Conclusion We see that methylation in the A. aegypti genome is asso