Caracterização molecular e biológica

1) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

2) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Crotalaria verrucosa leaves against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what happens around? An analysis of dragonfly predatory behaviour after exposure at ultra-low doses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Sanoopa, C. P.; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Roni, Mathath; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Higuchi, Akon; Kumar, Suresh; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brachydiplax sobrina; Green synthesis; Nanobiotechnologies; EDX; FTIR; SEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 30, n. 7, p. 826-833, 2016
ISSN: 1478-6419
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease infecting 50-100million people every year. Here, we biosynthesised mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa. The green synthesis of AgNP was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX and FTIR. C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNPs were toxic against A. aegypti larvae and pupae. LC50 of AgNP ranged from 3.496ppm (I instar larvae) to 17.700ppm (pupae). Furthermore, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of dragonfly nymphs, Brachydiplax sobrina, against II and III instar larvae of A. aegypti in an aquatic environment contaminated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. Under standard laboratory conditions, predation after 24h was 87.5% (II) and 54.7% (III). In an AgNP-contaminated environment, predation was 91 and 75.5%, respectively. Overall, C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNP could be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval population of dengue vectors enhancing predation rates of dragonfly nymphs.

3) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

4) Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Roni, Mathath; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Kumar, Suresh; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Anophelinae; Antioxidant; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanosynthesis; Nanotechnology; Smoke toxicity; Longevity; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 997-1013, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 mu g/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 mu g/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 x LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 mu g/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 mu g/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing.

5) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

6) Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Mosquito-borne diseases; Yellow fever; CO1; DNA barcoding; PhyloGenetics; Ancestral lineage; Purifying selection; Molecular Ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1149-1160, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban Areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their Molecular Ecology and Evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes Sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to Molecular Ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

7) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

8) Hydrothermal synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: mosquitocidal potential and anticancer activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kavithaa, Krishnamoorthy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Ponraj, Thondhi; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Apoptosis; Antibacterial activity; Chemotherapy; Cytotoxicity; DAPI; MCF-7 cells; TiO2; Western blot
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1085-1096, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for transmission of serious diseases worldwide. Mosquito control is being enhanced in many Areas, but there are significant challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of alternative, cost-effective, and eco-friendly products. To deal with these crucial issues, recent emphasis has been placed on plant materials with mosquitocidal properties. Furthermore, cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Nanotechnology is a promising field of research and is expected to give major innovation impulses in a variety of industrial sectors. In this study, we synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDX). The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial cells (HBL-100). After 24-h incubation, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 60 and 80 mu g/mL on MCF-7 and normal HBL-100 cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments conducted against the primary dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti, LC50 values of nanoparticles were 4.02 ppm (larva I), 4.962 ppm (larva II), 5.671 ppm (larva III), 6.485 ppm (larva IV), and 7.527 ppm (pupa). Overall, our results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may be considered as a safe tool to build newer and safer mosquitocides and chemotherapeutic agents with little systemic toxicity.

9) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

10) Fighting arboviral diseases: low toxicity on mammalian cells, dengue growth inhibition (in vitro), and mosquitocidal activity of Centroceras clavulatum-synthesized silver nanoparticles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aruna, Palanimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Syuhei, Ban; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Biopesticide; Biosafety; Cytotoxicity; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 651-662, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of the world in recent years. Female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, transmit dengue. Approximately 3,900 million people, in 128 countries, are at risk of dengue infection. Recently, a focus has been provided on the potential of green-synthesized nanoparticles as inhibitors of the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in Vero cells and downregulators of the expression of dengue viral E gene. Algae are an outstanding reservoir of novel compounds, which may help in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were rapidly synthesized using a cheap extract of the alga Centroceras clavulatum. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 values of C. clavulatum extract against A. aegypti larvae and pupae were 269.361 ppm (larva I), 309.698 ppm (larva II), 348.325 ppm (larva III), 387.637 ppm (larva IV), and 446.262 ppm (pupa). C. clavulatum extract also exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, both in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays. LC50 values of C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP were 21.460 ppm (larva I), 23.579 ppm (larva II), 25.912 ppm (larva III), 29.155 ppm (larva IV), and 33.877 ppm (pupa). Furthermore, C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP inhibited dengue (serotype dengue virus type-2 (DEN-2)) viral replication in Vero cells. Notably, 50 mu g/ml of green-synthesized AgNP showed no cytotoxicity on Vero cells while reduced DEN-2 viral growth of more than 80 %; 12.5 mu g/ml inhibited viral growth of more than 50 %. Cellular internalization assays highlighted that untreated infected cells showed high intensity of fluorescence emission, which denotes high level of viral internalization. Conversely, AgNP-treated infected cells showed reduced levels of fluorescence, failing to show significant viral load. Overall, our study showed that alga-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles may be considered to develop newer, safer, and cheap tools in the fight against the dengue virus, serotype DEN-2, and its vector A. aegypti, with little cytotoxicity on mammalian cells.

11) Evolution of the assassin's arms: insights from a phylogeny of combined transcriptomic and ribosomal DNA data (Heteroptera: Reduvioidea)
Autor: Zhang, Junxia; Gordon, Eric R. L.; Forthman, Michael; Hwang, Wei Song; Walden, Kim; Swanson, Daniel R.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Meier, Rudolf; Weirauch, Christiane
Assunto: Bugs Hemiptera Reduviidae; Attachment Structures; Insecta-Heteroptera; Molecular Phylogeny; Fossula Spongiosa; Data Sets; Cimicomorpha; Models; Characters; Morphology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 22177, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Assassin bugs (Reduvioidea) are one of the most diverse (> 7,000 spp.) lineages of predatory animals and have evolved an astounding diversity of raptorial leg modifications for handling prey. The evolution of these modifications is not well understood due to the lack of a robust phylogeny, especially at deeper nodes. We here utilize refined data from transcriptomes (370 loci) to stabilize the backbone phylogeny of Reduvioidea, revealing the position of major clades (e.g., the Chagas disease vectors Triatominae). Analyses combining transcriptomic and Sanger-sequencing datasets result in the first well-resolved phylogeny of Reduvioidea. Despite amounts of missing data, the transcriptomic loci resolve deeper nodes while the targeted ribosomal genes anchor taxa at shallower nodes, both with high support. This phylogeny reveals patterns of raptorial leg evolution across major leg types. Hairy attachment structures (fossula spongiosa), present in the ancestor of Reduvioidea, were lost multiple times within the clade. In contrast to prior hypotheses, this loss is not directly correlated with the evolution of alternative raptorial leg types. Our results suggest that prey type, predatory behavior, salivary toxicity, and morphological adaptations pose intricate and interrelated factors influencing the evolution of this diverse group of predators.

12) Transcriptome analysis and discovery of genes relevant to development in Bradysia odoriphaga at three developmental stages
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gao, Huanhuan; Zhai, Yifan; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Xianhong; Zhuang, Qianying; Yu, Yi; Li, Rumei
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most important pest of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) in Asia; however, the molecular genetics are poorly understood. To explore the molecular biological mechanism of development, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly were performed in the third-instar, fourth-instar, and pupal B. odoriphaga. The study resulted in 16.2 Gb of clean data and 47,578 unigenes (>= 125bp) contained in 7,632,430contigs, 46.21% of which were annotated from non-redundant protein (NR), Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. It was found that 19.67% of unigenes matched the homologous species mainly, including Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ceratitis capitata, and Anopheles gambiae. According to differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, 143, 490, and 309 DEGs were annotated as involved in the developmental process in the GO database respectively, in the comparisons of third-instar and fourth-instar larvae, third-instar larvae and pupae, and fourth-instar larvae and pupae. Twenty-five genes were closely related to these processes, including developmental process, reproduction process, and reproductive organs development and programmed cell death (PCD). The information of unigenes assembled in B. odoriphaga through transcriptome and DEG analyses could provide a detailed genetic basis and regulated information for elaborating the developmental mechanism from the larval, pre-pupal to pupal stages of B. odoriphaga.

13) Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Biosafety; Green synthesis; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 925-935, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)(50) values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 mu g/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 mu g/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

14) Insulin-Related Peptide 5 is Involved in Regulating Embryo Development and Biochemical Composition in Pea Aphid with Wing Polyphenism
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Tong-Xian
Assunto: Aphid; Insulin-Like Peptide; Wing Polyphenism; Wing Differentiation; Biochemical Components
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Frontiers in Physiology, v. 7, 2016
ISSN: 1664-042X
Resumo: In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS) pathway regulate alternation of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5) affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax in the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryos, and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to the control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

15) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

16) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

17) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

18) Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: African-Green Monkey; Aedes-Aegypti; Monoclonal-Antibodies; Phenotypic Characterization; Evolutionary Genetics; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Emergence; Transmission; Strains; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian Evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from approximate to 120 years to approximate to 315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted.

19) ZIKATracker: A mobile App for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin, Alyson A., Banner, David, Pamplona, Luciano, Alencar, Carlos, Rubino, Salvatore, Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika virus, Mobile apps, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

20) Protein kinase C modulates transcriptional activation by the juvenile hormone receptor methoprene-tolerant
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ojani, Reyhaneh; Liu, Pengcheng; Fu, Xiaonan; Zhu, Jinsong
Assunto: Juvenile hormone; Protein kinase C; Phospholipase C; Hormone receptor; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, p. 44-52, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Juvenile hormone OH) controls many biological events in insects by triggering dramatic changes in gene expression in target cells. The Methoprene-tolerant (MET) protein, an intracellular JH receptor, acts as a transcriptional regulator and binds to the promoters of tissue- and stage-specific JH target genes when JH is present. Our recent study has demonstrated that the transcriptional activation by MET is modulated by a membrane-initiated JH signaling pathway, involving phospholipase C (PLC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC) is another essential intermediate of this pathway. PKC was activated by JH and this action was PLC-dependent. Inhibition of the PKC activity substantially weakened the JH-induced gene expression in mosquito cells. RNAi experiments indicated that several PKC isoforms were involved in the JH action during the post-emergence development of adult female mosquitoes. JH treatment considerably increased the binding of MET to the promoters of JH response genes in cultured mosquito abdomens that were collected from newly emerged female adults. The JH-induced DNA binding of MET was hindered when the abdomens were treated with a PKC inhibitor and JH. Therefore, the results suggest that PKC modulates the transactivation activity of MET by enhancing the binding of MET to JH response elements in the JH target genes. This mechanism may allow for variable and stage- and tissue-specific genomic responses to JH. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

21) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

22) Genetic variability in the natural populations of Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), detected by RAPD markers and by esterase isozymes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Coelho-Bortolo, T.; Mangolin, C. A.; Lapenta, A. S.
Assunto: Lasioderma Serricorne; Genetic Structure; Polymorphism; Genetic Variability
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 106, n. 1, p. 47-53, 2016
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Lasioderma serricorne (F.) is a small cosmopolitan beetle regarded as a destructive pest of several stored products such as grains, flour, spices, dried fruit and tobacco. Chemical insecticides are one of the measures used against the pest. However, intensive insecticide use has resulted in the appearance of resistant insect populations. Therefore, for the elaboration of more effective control programs, it is necessary to know the biological aspects of L. serricorne. Among these aspects, the genetic variability knowledge is very important and may help in the development of new control methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of 11 natural populations of L. serricorne collected respectively in three and four towns in the states of Parana and Sao Paulo, Brazil, using 20 primers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and polymorphisms of esterases. These primers produced 352 polymorphic bands. Electrophoretic analysis of esterases allowed the identification of four polymorphic loci (Est-2, Est-4, Est-5 and Est-6) and 18 alleles. Results show that populations are Genetically differentiated and there is a high level of genetic variability within populations. The high degree of genetic differentiation is not directly correlated to geographical distance. Thus, our data indicate that movement of infested commodities may contribute to the dissemination of L. serricorne, facilitating gene flow.

23) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

24) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2016
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

25) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

26) Quantitative trait locus mapping and functional genomics of an organophosphate resistance trait in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Coates, B. S.; Alves, A. P.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.; Nowatzki, T.; Chen, H.; Rangasamy, M.; Robertson, H. M.; Whitfield, C. W.; Walden, K. K.; Kachman, S. D.; French, B. W.; Meinke, L. J.; Hawthorne, D.; Abel, C. A.; Sappington, T. W.; Siegfried, B. D.; Miller, N. J.
Assunto: Pesticide resistance; Methyl-parathionresistance; Genome mapping; Functional genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 25, n. 1, p. 1-15, 2016
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is an insect pest of corn and population suppression with chemical insecticides is an important management tool. Traits conferring organophosphate insecticide resistance have increased in frequency amongst D. v. virgifera populations, resulting in the reduced efficacy in many corn-growing regions of the USA. We used comparative functional genomic and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches to investigate the genetic basis of D. v. virgifera resistance to the organophosphate methyl-parathion. RNA from adult methyl-parathion resistant and susceptible adults was hybridized to 8331 microarray probes. The results predicted that 11 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in resistant phenotypes, with the most significant (fold increases >= 2.43) being an alpha-esterase-like transcript. Differential expression was validated only for the alpha-esterase (ST020027A20C03), with 11- to 13-fold greater expression in methyl-parathion resistant adults (P < 0.05). Progeny with a segregating methylparathion resistance trait were obtained from a reciprocal backcross design. QTL analyses of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data predicted involvement of a single genome interval. These data suggest that a specific carboyx-esterase may function in field-evolved corn rootworm resistance to organophosphates, even though direct linkage between the QTL and this locus could not be established.

27) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

28) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

29) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

30) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

31) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

32) The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East.
Autor: Tridane Abdessamad,El Khajah Abdelmajid,Ali Bassam R
Assunto: Congenital microcephaly, Middle East, Travel warning, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo:

33) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

34) Zika virus: a new threat from mosquitoes.
Autor: Li Xiao-Feng,Han Jian-Feng,Shi Pei-Yong,Qin Cheng-Feng
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Science China, 2016
ISSN: 1869-1889
Resumo:

35) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

36) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

37) Cover.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Genome editing, Government policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Time International (Atlantic Edition), v. 187, n. 5, p. C1, 2016
ISSN: 9288430
Resumo: The cover page of the journal is presented which includes information on a conversation with U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, the associated between the mosquito-borne Zika virus and microcephaly in bewborn infants, and the approval of human embryos gene editing in Great Britain.

38) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Brazil is facing a disturbing spike in a severe birth defect called microcephaly. Babies are born with heads that are far too small, a sign that the brain failed to fully develop. Doctors there have reported nearly 3000 cases since July 2015--more than 20 times the usual rate. Scientists are scrambling to understand what is going on. The leading theory so far is that the condition is caused by a little known mosquito-borne virus called Zika that surfaced in Brazil in March and is quickly spreading through Latin America. The news has prompted the government to declare a public health emergency; some doctors are recommending women not get pregnant until more is known. Researchers are trying to develop better diagnostic tests for the virus so they can track whether mothers of affected babies were infected during their pregnancies, and other groups are hoping to use stem cell models of the developing human brain to understand how the virus might affect fetal growth. Meanwhile, the virus is advancing fast. It surfaced in Colombia, Suriname, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico in October and November; Puerto Rico reported its first cases in late December. Researchers warn that countries across the Americas should be prepared for a similar wave of birth defects in coming months.

39) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

40) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

41) Zika virus genome from the Americas.
Autor: Enfissi Antoine,Codrington John,Roosblad Jimmy,Kazanji Mirdad,Rousset Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

42) Zika virus: A previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gatherer D., Kohl A.
Assunto: pandemic, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099 (electronic),0022-1317
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

43) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

44) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

45) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

46) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

47) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

48) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

49) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

50) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

51) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

52) Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida
Autor: Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim
Assunto: Olfactory system; Neuropeptide; Serotonin; Insect; 3D reconstruction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Research, v. 363, n. 3, p. 679-692, 2016
ISSN: 0302-766X
Resumo: The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures.

53) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

54) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

55) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

56) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

57) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

58) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

59) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, n. 5, p. 587-590, 2016.
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

60) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

61) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

62) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

63) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

64) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

65) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

66) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

67) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

68) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

69) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

70) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

71) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

72) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

73) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

74) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

75) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

76) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

77) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

78) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

79) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

80) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

81) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

82) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

83) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

84) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.
Autor: Hamel Rodolphe,Liégeois Florian,Wichit Sineewanlaya,Pompon Julien,Diop Fodé,Talignani Loïc,Thomas Frédéric,Desprès Philippe,Yssel Hans,Missé Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA, arbovirus, epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, vector
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

85) Monkey study reveals zika damage in developing brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Showing the closest link yet between Zika virus and fetal brain injury in an animal model that closely resembles humans, researchers today described brain abnormalities in the fetus of a macaque experimentally infected during the late stage of her pregnancy. In other developments, Thailand reported several more Zika cases, many of them linked to a cluster in Bangkok, as the number of infections in Singapore grew steadily. In Florida, health officials denied a newspaper report charging problems with Zika reporting, and Broward County began aerial spraying withan organic pesticide as a prevention step

86) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

87) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

88) Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Bravo-Filho V., Góis A.L., Belfort R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), macular degeneration, macular neuroretinal atrophy, microcephaly (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

89) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

90) Reversible estrous cycle suppression in prepubertal female rabbits treated with slow-release deslorelin implants
Autor: Geyer, A.; Daub, L.; Otzdorff, C.; Reese, S.; Braun, J.; Walter, B.
Assunto: Deslorelin; Female rabbit; GNRH stimulation test; Long-term contraception; GnRH; GNRH - Agonist implant; Long-term contraception; Pseudopregnant rabbits; Analog deslorelin; Plasma progesterone; Ovarian activity; Domestic cats; Male dogs; LH Surge; Ovulation
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry
Fonte: Theriogenology, v. 85, n. 2, p. 282-287, 2016
ISSN: 0093-691X
Resumo: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of a 4.7-mg deslorelin GnRH analog implant on ovarian function in the prepubertal female rabbit. Seven female rabbits (group 1) were treated with the implant at the age of 60 days. The implant was inserted subcutaneously in the umbilical region. Two animals (group 2) were not treated and served as a control group. The vulva of all 9 animals was examined for the presence of typical cyclical changes, additionally the occurrence of mounting behavior was recorded. Ovarian function was checked by administration of a short-acting GnRH agonist to induce ovulation and pseudopregnancy (0.8 mu g of buserelin per animal intramuscularly). Ten days after each treatment with buserdin, blood was collected for progesterone measurement to confirm pseudopregnancy. After implant insertion, the first blood collection (Day 10) was done without preceding induction of ovulation to screen for implant induced ovulation and pseudopregnancy. The implant was in situ for 273 days, and during this time span, 12 attempts of induction of ovulation were caiTied out in intervals of 21 days, beginning at the age ofBl days. Afterward, it was removed under local anesthesia and 3 further inductions of ovulation by the same scheme were conducted. The insertion of the implant led to the establishment of a pseudopregnancy in 2 of 7 animals; the remaining 5 animals did not show elevated progesterone values. Attempts to induce ovulation by administration of the short-acting GnRH analog while the slow-release GnRH analog implant was in place were not successful in treated animals, and progesterone concentrations were basal. The effect was reversible as ovulation could be induced in 2 subsequent cycles in all animals by the third induction of ovulation after implant removal. Induction of ovulation in control animals at the age of 110 and 131 days resulted in elevated progesterone levels after 10 days. No adverse side effects could be observed in implanttreated animals. The typical red coloration of the vulva could be seen in group 2 and after implant removal in group 1. The results suggest that in 5 of 7 rabbits, puberty was delayed by the treatment with the 4.7-mg deslorelin slow-release analog until the implant had been removed. In the other animals, the treatment induced an initial flare-up phenomenon. Afterward, the treatment could reversibly suppress ovarian function in all 7 treated animals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

91) ZIKA virus circulates in new regions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Attar N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 62, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1740-1534 (electronic),1740-1526
Resumo:

92) Evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses - Brazil, 2015
Autor: Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana; Rollin, Dominique; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Luz, Kleber G.; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria; Freire Davi, Helaine Pompeia; de Oliveria, Wanderson Kleber; Lanciotti, Robert; Lambert, Amy; Zaki, Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

93) Analysis of the miRNA expression profile in an Aedes albopictus cell line in response to bluetongue virus infection
Autor: Xing, Shanshan; Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong
Assunto: Aedes albopictus cell line; Bluetongue virus; Deep sequencing; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 39, p. 74-84, 2016
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be key regulators of virus-host interactions. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-borne virus that causes huge economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Aedes albopictus cell lines have become powerful and convenient tools for studying BTV-vector interactions. However, the role of miRNAs in A. albopictus cells during BTV infection is not well understood. In this study, we performed a deep sequencing analysis of small RNA libraries of BTV-infected and mock-infected A. albopictus cells, and a total of 11,206,854 and 12,125,274 clean reads were identified, respectively. A differential expression analysis showed that 140 miRNAs, including 15 known and 125 novel miRNAs, were significantly dysregulated after infection, and a total of 414 and 2307 target genes were annotated, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the expression patterns of 11 selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation of the target genes suggested that these target genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, endocytosis, RNA transport, as well as the FoxO, Hippo, Jak-STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways. This is the first systematic study on the effect of BTV infection on miRNA expression in A. albopictus cells. This investigation provides information concerning the cellular miRNA expression profile in response to BTV infection, and it offers clues for identifying potential candidates for vector-based antiviral strategies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

94) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

95) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

96) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

97) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

98) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

99) Zika virus: A new global threat for 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

100) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

101) Effect of promoters and plasmid copy number on Cyt1A synthesis and crystal assembly in bacillus thuringiensis
Autor: Park, Hyun-Woo; Hice, Robert H.; Federici, Brian A.
Assunto: Messenger - RNA sequence; SUBSP Israelensis; Culex - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Protein; Expression; Resistance; Toxin; Construction; Sphaericus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Current Microbiology, v. 72, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 0343-8651
Resumo: Cyt1Aa is a major mosquitocidal protein synthesized during sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, composing more than 50 % of its parasporal body. This high level of synthesis is due to several factors including three strong sporulation-dependent promoters, a strong transcription termination sequence, and an associated 20-kDa helper protein. Cyt1Aa's toxicity is low compared to the Cry proteins of this species, namely, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa, but it nevertheless plays an important role in the biology of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in that it synergizes their mosquitocidal toxicity and suppresses the evolution of resistance. In the present study, the effects of using different cyt1Aa promoter combinations and plasmid copy number on synthesis of Cyt1Aa were evaluated. Using the 4Q7 (plasmid-cured) strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis as an experimental host, a plasmid copy number of two or three yielded no Cyt1Aa, whereas a copy number of four yielded only small crystals, even when expression was driven by one of the wild-type promoters. However, using all three wild-type promoters and a plasmid copy number of 20 yielded Cyt1A crystals tenfold larger than those produced by one promoter and a plasmid copy number of four. High levels of Cyt1Aa synthesis resulted in significantly fewer spores per unit medium and imperfectly formed crystals. Similar results were obtained when Cyt1Aa synthesis was evaluated using the same expression constructs in a mutant strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis that lacks the cyt1Aa gene.

102) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

103) Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase
Autor: Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Ammonia; Gene silencing; Protein expression; Uric acid; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: FASEB Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 111-120, 2016
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose-and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected controlmosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. FASEB J. 30, 111-120 (2016). www.fasebj.org

104) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

105) Cloning and expressing trypsin modulating oostatic factor in chlorella desiccata to control mosquito larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chlorella desiccata; Genetic engineering; Trypsin modulating oostatic factor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 91, n. 1, p. 17-36, 2016
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 +/- 4 g +/- SEM and 17 +/- 3 g +/- SEM, respectively in 3 x 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh.

106) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

107) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

108) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.
Autor: Gyurech Danielle,Schilling Julian,Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas,Cassinotti Pascal,Kaeppeli Franz,Dobec Marinko
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, 2016
ISSN: 1424-3997
Resumo:

109) Co-expression of Dorsal and Rel2 Negatively Regulates Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhong, Xue; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yi, Hui-Yu; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang
Assunto: Immune signaling pathways; Mosquito Aedes - aegypti; Genome - Wide Analysis; C-Type lectin; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Recognition protein; Lipoteichoic acid; Bombyx - Mori; Prophenoloxidase activation; Transcriptional regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 20654, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-kappa B factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-kappa B factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Both MsRel2A and MsRel2B contain only a Rel homology domain (RHD) and lack the ankyrin-repeat inhibitory domain. Overexpression of the RHD domains of MsDorsal and MsRel2 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells can activate AMP gene promoters from M. sexta and D. melanogaster. We for the first time confirmed the interaction between MsDorsal-RHD and MsRel2-RHD, and suggesting that Dorsal and Rel2 may form heterodimers. More importantly, co-expression of MsDorsal-RHD with MsRel2-RHD suppressed activation of several M. sexta AMP gene promoters. Our results suggest that the short MsRel2 isoforms may form heterodimers with MsDorsal as a novel mechanism to prevent over-activation of antimicrobial peptides.

110) Evidences for the action mechanism of angiotensin II and its analogs on Plasmodium sporozoite membranes
Autor: Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Silva, Adriana Farias; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Miranda, Antonio; Cordeiro, Rodrigo Maghdissian; Oliveira Junior, Vani Xavier
Assunto: Angiotensin II; Malaria; Molecular dynamics; Plasmodium
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry
Fonte: Journal of Peptide Science, v. 22, n. 3, p. 132-142, 2016
ISSN: 1075-2617
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease responsible for approximately one million deaths annually. Oligopeptides such as angiotensin II (AII) and its analogs are known to have antimalarial effects against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium falciparum. However, their mechanism of action is still not fully understood at the molecular level. In the work reported here, we investigated this issue by comparing the antimalarial activity of AII with that of (i) its diastereomer formed by only d-amino acids; (ii) its isomer with reversed sequence; and (iii) its analogs restricted by lactam bridges, the so-called VC5 peptides. Data from fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the antiplasmodial activities of both all-D-AII and all-D-VC5 were as high as those of the related peptides AII and VC5, respectively. In contrast, retro-AII had no significant effect against P. gallinaceum. Conformational analysis by circular dichroism suggested that AII and its active analogs usually adopted a -turn conformation in different solutions. In the presence of membrane-mimetic micelles, AII had also a -turn conformation, while retro-AII was random. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the AII chains were slightly more bent than retro-AII at the surface of a model membrane. At the hydrophobic membrane interior, however, the retro-AII chain was severely coiled and rigid. AII was much more flexible and able to experience both straight and coiled conformations. We took it as an indication of the stronger ability of AII to interact with membrane headgroups and promote pore formation. Copyright (c) 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

111) Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Azadirachta indica; Biological control; Biosafety; Botanical byproduct; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanobiotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1015-1025, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

112) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

113) Calcium influx enhances neuropeptide activation of ecdysteroid hormone production by mosquito ovaries
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKinney, David A.; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Dhara, Animesh; Strand, Michael R.; Brown, Mark R.
Assunto: Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone; Insulin-like peptide; Prothoracicotropic hormone; Prothoracic gland; Bombyx mori; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, p. 160-169, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: A critical step in mosquito reproduction is the ingestion of a blood meal from a vertebrate host. In mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti, blood feeding stimulates the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3). This induces the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which then drives egg maturation. In many immature insects, prothoracicotropic hormone (PITH) stimulates the prothoracic glands to produce ECD that directs molting and metamorphosis. The receptors for OEH, ILP3 and PITH are different receptor tyrosine kinases with OEH and ILP3 signaling converging downstream in the insulin pathway and PITH activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Calcium (Ca2+) flux and CAMP have also been implicated in PTTH signaling, but the role of Ca2+ in OEH, ILP3, and cAMP signaling in ovaries is unknown. Here, we assessed whether Ca2+ flux affects OEH, ILP3, and cAMP activity in A. aegypti ovaries and also asked whether PTTH stimulated ovaries to produce ECD. Results indicated that Ca2+ flux enhanced but was not essential for OEH or ILP3 activity, whereas CAMP signaling was dependent on Ca2+ flux. Recombinant PTTH from Bombyx mori fully activated ECD production by B. mori PTGs, but exhibited no activity toward A. aegypti ovaries. Recombinant PTTH from A. aegypti also failed to stimulate either B. mori PTGs or A. aegypti ovaries to produce ECD. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of mosquito reproduction and ECD biosynthesis by insects generally. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

114) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

115) Fitness conSequences of altered feeding behavior in immune-challenged mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ohm, Johanna R.; Teeple, Janet; Nelson, William A.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Read, Andrew F.; Cator, Lauren J.
Assunto: Anopheles; Sickness behavior; Fitness; Parasite manipulation; Malaria
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 113, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria-infected mosquitoes have been reported to be more likely to take a blood meal when parasites are infectious than when non-infectious. This change in feeding behavior increases the likelihood of malaria transmission, and has been considered an example of parasite manipulation of host behavior. However, immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli induces the same behavior, suggesting that altered feeding behavior may be driven by adaptive responses of hosts to cope with an immune response, rather than by parasite-specific factors. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that down-regulated feeding behavior prior to infectiousness is a mosquito adaptation that increases fitness during infection.Methods: We measured the impact of immune challenge and blood feeding on the fitness of individual mosquitoes. After an initial blood meal, Anopheles stephensi Liston mosquitoes were experimentally challenged with heat-killed E. coli at a dose known to mimic the same temporal changes in mosquito feeding behavior as active malaria infection. We then tracked daily egg production and survivorship of females maintained on blood-feeding regimes that either mimicked down-regulated feeding behaviors observed during early malaria infection, or were fed on a four-day feeding cycle typically associated with uninfected mosquitoes.Results: Restricting access to blood meals enhanced mosquito survival but lowered lifetime reproduction. Immune-challenge did not impact either fitness component. Combining fecundity and survival to estimate the population-scale intrinsic rate of increase (r), we found that, contrary to the mosquito adaptation hypothesis, mosquito fitness decreased if blood feeding was delayed following an immune challenge.Conclusions: Our data provide no support for the idea that malaria-induced suppression of blood feeding is an adaptation by mosquitoes to reduce the impact of immune challenge. Alternatively, the behavioral alterations may be neither host nor parasite adaptations, but rather a conSequence of constraints imposed on feeding by activation of the mosquito immune response, i.e. non-adaptive illness-induced anorexia. Future work incorporating field conditions and different immune challenges could further clarify the effect of altered feeding on mosquito and parasite fitness.

116) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

117) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

118) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

119) Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antioxidant activity; Biological control; Carassius auratus; Lethocerus indicus; Nanotechnology; Predation efficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1071-1083, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological niche of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

120) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

121) Pharmacological regulation of digestion in the anautogenous flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, by simple injection of 6-hydroxydopamine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bil, Magdalena; Huybrechts, Roger
Assunto: 6-hydroxydopamine; Oxidopamine; Digestion; Vitellogenesis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology , v. 91, n. 3, p. 137-151, 2016
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Female anautogenous Sarcophaga flesh flies need a protein meal to start large-scale yolk polypeptides (YPs) production and oocyte maturation. Protein meal rapidly elicits a brain-dependent increase in midgut proteolytic activity. Trypsin and chymotrypsin together represent over 80% of protease activity in liver-fed flies. Abdominal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) dose-dependently prohibits this increase in proteolytic activity at translational level in a similar way as post liver feeding decapitation. Delayed injection of 6-OHDA later than 6 h post liver meal has no effect. In flesh flies, chemical decapitation by 6-OHDA, by interrupting the brain-gut dopaminergic signaling, can be used as tool for the controlled inhibition of midgut proteolytic activity and subsequent ovarial development. Inhibition of ovarial development is probably indirect due to a deficit in circulating amino acids needed for YPs synthesis. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

122) Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control
Autor: Leftwich, Philip T.; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey
Assunto: Fitness; Genetic Modification; Release Of Insects Carrying A Dominant Lethal; Resistance; Selection; Sterile Insect Technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 9, n. 1, p. 212-230, 2016
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

123) Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Pyrethroids; RNA-seq; CYP6AA9; RNAi; Communicated by Q. Xia.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 291, n. 1, p. 309-321, 2016
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450 s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

124) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

125) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Cytoplasmic Incompatibility; Drosophila-Simulans; Natural-Populations; Genetic-Structure; Infection; Dengue; Diptera; Culicidae; Release
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel Biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

126) Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: another viral cause to add to the list.
Autor: Smith David W,Mackenzie John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1486-1488, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

127) Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Leal dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Mayaro Virus; Entomological Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 111, n. 1, p. 20-29, 2016
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171 Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiaba has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

128) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

129) Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martinez-Garcia, P. J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
Assunto: RNA-Seq; Cryptococcus; Phytophthora; Juglans regia; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: AMB EXPRESS, v. 6, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 2191-0855
Resumo: Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of similar to 400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

130) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

131) Physiological and biochemical response of Aedes aegypti tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wu, Songqing; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Zhaoxia; Rebeca, Carballar-Lejarazu; Fu, Tao; Han, Chaoqiang; Shao, Ensi; Pan, Xiaohong; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Zou, Shuangquan; Zhang, Lingling; Guan, Xiong
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Aedes aegypti; Detoxifying enzymes; Mosquito tolerance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biocontrol Science and Technology, v. 26, n. 2, p. 227-238, 2016
ISSN: 0958-3157
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) represents the only eco-friendly bio-degradable insecticide for mosquito-borne disease control. Our research aims to identify if mosquito detoxification enzymes play an important role in Bti tolerance mechanisms in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Several enzymes, such as amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analysed and level of activity determined in Ae. aegypti larvae after Bti treatment. Bti exposure significantly increased the level of amylase (183.2%) as well as the activity of cytochromes P450 (177.5%), and Na+/K+-ATPase (142.9%). On the other hand, there was a decrease of 8.6% and 11.4% in acetylcholinesterase and GST activity, and no significant effect in the total level of protease activity. We suggest that the variation in amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and GST activity may be associated with the Bti insecticidal mechanism. This study provides the basis of detoxifying enzymes in Bti tolerance.

132) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

133) Expression of a sugar Glade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori
Autor: Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi
Assunto: Juvenile Hormone; 20-Hydroxyecdysone; Post-Translation Modification; Cholesterol; Lipid Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, n. , p. 85-98, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar Glade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

134) Zika virus: a roar after years of whispering
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balkhair, Abdullah ; Al- Maamari, Khuloud ; Alawi , Fatma Ba ; Al- Adawi, Badriya
Assunto: Medical science and research; Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA
Fonte: Oman Medical Journal, v. 3, n. 2, p. 87, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

135) University of Georgia to collaborate with Geovax on zika vaccine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: States News Service, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

136) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

137) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

138) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

139) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

140) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

141) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

142) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

143) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth.
Autor: Tang Hengli,Hammack Christy,Ogden Sarah C,Wen Zhexing,Qian Xuyu,Li Yujing,Yao Bing,Shin Jaehoon,Zhang Feiran,Lee Emily M,Christian Kimberly M,Didier Ruth A,Jin Peng,Song Hongjun,Ming Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

144) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

145) Oxis Biotech Inc. Says It Has Identified Inhibitors That Could Block Zika Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Mass communications and publishing; News, opinion and commentary; Business and industries; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: PR Newswire, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

146) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

147) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

148) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

149) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

150) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

151) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

152) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

153) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

154) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

155) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

156) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

157) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

158) Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae
Autor: Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri;Suharjono, Suharjono
Assunto: Toxicants; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Larvae; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Phylogeny; Beaches; Toxins; Soil; Colonies; Islands; Saline water; Cytology; Heat shock; Toxicity testing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 2, p. 148-154, 2016.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island. Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology, and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus 2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values within 48 h. PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16s rDNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes (using multiplex PCR). Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates (namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1-2 bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes. Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

159) Scientists probe Zika link to birth defects: Mosquito-borne virus is now present in 33 countries
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Check Hayden E.
Assunto: congenital malformation (congenital disorder), Flavivirus infection, Zika infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

160) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

161) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

162) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

163) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

164) Zika virus on the move.
Autor: Robert P. Kruger
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-587, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo:

165) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

166) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia.
Autor: Jouannic Jean-Marie,Friszer Stephanie,Leparc-Goffart Isabelle,Garel Catherine,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051-1052, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

167) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

168) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

169) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

170) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvez E., Guillaumot L., Millet L., Marie J., Bossin H., Rama V., Faamoe A., Kilama S., Teurlai M., Mathieu-Daudé F., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, insect genetics
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding: We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (F(ST) = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

171) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

172) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

173) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

174) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

175) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

176) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

177) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

178) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

179) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

180) Mechanisms of sex determination and transmission ratio distortion in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kim Phuc Hoang; Tze Min Teo; Thien Xuan Ho; Vinh Sy Le
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Sex determination; Transformer-2; Meiotic drive; Spermatogenesis; Culicinae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: More effective mosquito control strategies are urgently required due to the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance. The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal allele (RIDL) are two proposed methods for environmentally-friendly, species-targeted population control. These methods may be more suitable for developing countries if producers reduce the cost of rearing insects. The cost of control programs could be reduced by producing all-male mosquito populations to circumvent the isolation of females before release without reducing male mating competitiveness caused by transgenes.Results: An RNAi construct targeting the RNA recognition motif of the Aedes aegypti transformer-2 (tra-2) gene does not trigger female-to-male sex conversion as commonly observed among dipterous insects. Instead, homozygous insects show greater mortality among m-chromosome-bearing sperm and mm zygotes, yielding up to 100 % males in the subsequent generations. The performance of transgenic males was not significantly different to wild-type males in narrow-cage competitive mating experiments.Conclusion: Our data provide preliminary evidence that the knockdown of Ae. aegypti tra-2 gene expression causes segregation distortion acting at the level of gametic function, which is reinforced by sex-specific zygotic lethality. This finding could promote the development of new synthetic sex distorter systems for the production of genetic sexing mosquito strains.

181) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology in Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

182) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

183) Comparative Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to Dengue Virus Infection After Feeding on Blood of Viremic Humans: Implications for Public Health
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Whitehorn, James; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Nguyet Minh Nguyen; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Kyrylos, Peter P.; Carrington, Lauren B.; Chau Nguyen Bich Tran; Nguyen Thanh Ha Quyen; Long Vo Thi; Dui Le Thi; Nguyen Thanh Truong; Tai Thi Hue Luong; Chau Van Vinh Nguyen; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; susceptibility; transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 212, n. 8, p. 1182-1190, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is secondary to Aedes aegypti as a vector of dengue viruses (DENVs) in settings of endemicity, but it plays an important role in areas of dengue emergence. This study compared the susceptibility of these 2 species to DENV infection by performing 232 direct blood-feeding experiments on 118 viremic patients with dengue in Vietnam. Field-derived A. albopictus acquired DENV infections as readily as A. aegypti after blood feeding. Once infected, A. albopictus permitted higher concentrations of DENV RNA to accumulate in abdominal tissues, compared with A. aegypti. However, the odds of A. albopictus having infectious saliva were lower than the odds observed for A. aegypti (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, .52-.93). These results quantitate the susceptibility of A. albopictus to DENV infection and will assist parameterization of models for predicting disease risk in settings where A. albopictus is present.

184) Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Ebola virus at low resource settings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Abd El Wahed A., Patel P., Faye O., Nentwich O., Wende A., Piepenburg O., Sall A., Weidmann M.
Assunto: Ebolavirus, European, laboratory, public health, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 20, supl. 1, p. 29-30, set. 2015
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: INTRODUCTION The current outbreak of Ebola has killed over 10 000 people in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Early identification and isolation of the infected Ebola cases are the most important control measures. Detection of the Ebola virus by using the rapid antigen lateral flow tests is an easy to be applied at the point-of-care. Nevertheless, the results must be confirmed by additional laboratory tests. Laboratory diagnosis mainly depends on Ebola RNA detection by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is available in central laboratories and has a turnaround time of more than 3 h. For decentralized low resource settings, there is a need for a simple molecular point-of-need test. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, a mobile suitcase laboratory (62× 49× 30 cm) containing all reagents and equipment for the detection of Ebola RNA was developed. Moreover, it was operated by a solar power battery. All reagents were cold-chain independent in order to ease the use at poor resource settings. RNA extraction was performed by a magnetic bead based method, in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. In one reaction tube, the reverse transcription step as well as the DNA amplification and detection by the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was achieved. RESULTS Using spiked plasma samples, as few as 15 Ebola RNA copies were detected in less than 30 min, while samples containing Crimean-Congo-Hemorrhagic-Fever, Yellow Fever, Lassa, Marburg, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses and Plasmodium falciparum were negative. CONCLUSION The mobile suitcase laboratory is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Ebola virus especially at low resource settings. Currently, two mobile suitcase laboratories are being used in Guinea.

185) Molecular characterization of midgut microbiota of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti from Arunachal Pradesh, India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Bora, Ajitabh; Datta, Sibnarayan; Chandel, Kshitij; Gogoi, Hemant K.; Prasad, G. B. K. S.; Veer, Vijay
Assunto: Aedes; Parasites; 16S rRNA; Midgut microbiota
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Microbiota inhabiting midguts of mosquitoes play a key role in the host - parasite interaction and enhance vectorial capacity of viral diseases like dengue and chikungunya fevers. Mosquito midgut is considered to be an important site for host-pathogen interaction and pathogen survival is thought to be an outcome of this interaction. In the present study we examined the bacterial community in the midgut of Aedes mosquitoes in Arunanchal Pradesh, India, a subtropical zone where dengue fever is reported to be emerging.Method: Larvae and pupa of Aedes mosquitoes were collected from a biodiversity hotspot, Bhalukpong, Arunachal Pradesh, India. 16S rRNA gene Sequences were used for identification of isolated bacterial population from each species of mosquitoes. We used various diversity indices to assess the diversity and richness of the bacterial isolates in both mosquito species.Result: On the basis of 16S rRNA gene Sequence analysis a total of 24 bacterial species from 13 genera were identified belonging to 10 families of four major phyla. Phylum Proteobacteria was dominant followed by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The midgut bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were isolated from both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, whereas, bacteria belonging to phylum Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were isolated only from Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. Enterobacter cloacae was the dominant bacterial species in both Ae. albopictus (33.65 %) and Ae. aegypti (56.45 %). Bacillus aryabhattai (22.78 %) was the second most common bacterial species in Ae. albopictus whereas, in Ae. aegypti the second most common bacterial species was Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (7.44 %).Conclusion: The family Enterobacteriaceae of phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both species of Aedes mosquitoes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to study midgut microbiota from a biodiversity hotspot in Northeastern India. Some bacterial genera Enterobacter and Acinetobacter isolated in this study are known to play important roles in parasite-vector interaction. Information on midgut microflora may lead towards the development of novel, safe, and effective strategies to manipulate the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes.

186) Evidence of two mechanisms involved in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis decreased toxicity against mosquito larvae: Genome dynamic and toxins stability
Autor: Elleuch, Jihen; Zghal, Raida Zribi; Lacoix, Marie Noel; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; Aedes aegypti; Cry genes content; Proteolysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Microbiological Research, v. 176, n. , p. 48-54, 2015
ISSN: 0944-5013
Resumo: Biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis are the most used and most successful around the world. This bacterium is characterized by a dynamic genome able to win or lose genetic materials which leads to a decrease in its effectiveness. The detection of such phenomena is of great importance to monitor the stability of B. thuringiensis strains in industrial production processes of biopesticides. New local B. thuringiensis israelensis isolates were investigated. They present variable levels of delta-endotoxins production and insecticidal activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Searching on the origin of this variability, molecular and biochemical analyses were performed. The obtained results describe two main reasons of the decrease of B. thuringiensis israelensis insecticidal activity. The first reason was the deletion of cry4Aa and cry10Aa genes from the 128-kb pBtoxis plasmid as evidenced in three strains (BLB124, BLB199 and BLB506) among five. The second was the early degradation of Cry toxins by proteases in larvae midgut mainly due to some amino acids substitutions evidenced in Cry4Ba and Cryl1Aa delta-endotoxins detected in BLB356. Before biological treatment based on B. thuringiensis israelensis, the studies of microflore in each ecosystem have a great importance to succeed pest management programs. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

187) Assembling of Holotrichia parallela (dark black chafer) midgut tissue transcriptome and identification of midgut proteins that bind to Cry8Ea toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shu, Changlong; Tan, Shuqian; Yin, Jiao; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Liu, Chunqing; Geng, Lili; Song, Fuping; Li, Kebin; Zhang, Jie
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry8Ea; Binding; Holotrichia parallela; Midgut proteins
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 99, n. 17, p. 7209-7218, 2015
ISSN: 0175-7598
Resumo: Holotrichia parallela is one of the most severe crop pests in China, affecting peanut, soybean, and sweet potato crops. Previous work showed that Cry8Ea toxin is highly effective against this insect. In order to identify Cry8Ea-binding proteins in the midgut cells of H. parallela larvae, we assembled a midgut tissue transcriptome by high-throughput sequencing and used this assembled transcriptome to identify Cry8Ea-binding proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). First, we obtained de novo sequences of cDNAs from midgut tissue of H. parallela larvae and used available cDNA data in the GenBank. In a parallel assay, we obtained 11 Cry8Ea-binding proteins by pull-down assays performed with midgut brush border membrane vesicles. Peptide sequences from these proteins were matched to the H. parallela newly assembled midgut transcriptome, and 10 proteins were identified. Some of the proteins were shown to be intracellular proteins forming part of the cell cytoskeleton and/or vesicle transport such as actin, myosin, clathrin, dynein, and tubulin among others. In addition, an apolipophorin, which is a protein involved in lipid metabolism, and a novel membrane-bound alanyl aminopeptidase were identified. Our results suggest that Cry8Ea-binding proteins could be different from those characterized for Cry1A toxins in lepidopteran insects.

188) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

189) Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i gene sequence analysis of Aedes albopictus in Malaysia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ismail, Nurul-Ain; Dom, Nazri Che; Ismail, Rodziah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Zaki, Afiq; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Haplotype; Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase 1; Polymorphism; Sequence Variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 305-312, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: A study was conducted to establish polymorphic variation of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene in Aedes albopictus isolated from 2 hot spot dengue-infested Areas in the Subang Jaya District, Malaysia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed with the use of Sequences obtained from USJ6 and Taman Subang Mas (TSM). Comparison of the local CO1 Sequences with a laboratory strain (USM), alongside reference strains derived from the GenBank database revealed low genetic variation in terms of nucleotide differences and haplotype diversity. Four methods were used to construct a phylogenetic tree and illustrate the genetic relationship of the 37 Ae. albopictus populations based on the CO1 Sequences, namely neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian method, which revealed a distinct relationship between isolates from USJ6 and TSM. Our findings provide new information regarding the genetic diversity among morphologically similar Ae. albopictus, which has not been reported to date.

190) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

191) Contrasting host-pathogen interactions and genome evolution in two generalist and specialist microsporidian pathogens of mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sanscrainte, Neil D.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Heiman, David; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Madhani, Hiten D.; Becnel, James J.; Cuomo, Christina A.
Assunto: Parasite encephalitozoon - Cuniculi; Edhazardia - Aedis; Aedes aegypti; Sequence; Annotation; Alignment; Culicidae; Proteins; Insights; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Nature Communications, v. 6, n. 7121, 2015
ISSN: 2041-1723
Resumo: Obligate intracellular pathogens depend on their host for growth yet must also evade detection by host defenses. Here we investigate host adaptation in two Microsporidia, the specialist Edhazardia aedis and the generalist Vavraia culicis, pathogens of disease vector mosquitoes. Genomic analysis and deep RNA-Seq across infection time courses reveal fundamental differences between these pathogens. E. aedis retains enhanced cell surface modification and signalling capacity, upregulating protein trafficking and secretion dynamically during infection. V. culicis is less dependent on its host for basic metabolites and retains a subset of spliceosomal components, with a transcriptome broadly focused on growth and replication. Transcriptional profiling of mosquito immune responses reveals that response to infection by E. aedis differs dramatically depending on the mode of infection, and that antimicrobial defensins may play a general role in mosquito defense against Microsporidia. This analysis illuminates fundamentally different evolutionary paths and host interplay of specialist and generalist pathogens.

192) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

193) Maternal Germline-Specific Genes in the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi: Characterization and Application for Disease Control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Pledger, David; James, Anthony A.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Vector Control; Vector-Borne Disease; Transcriptome; An. Stephensi; Gene Drive
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 2, p. 157-166, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: Anopheles stephensi is a principal vector of urban malaria on the Indian subcontinent and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito biology. To enhance our understanding of female mosquito reproduction, and to develop new tools for basic research and for genetic strategies to control mosquito-borne infectious diseases, we identified 79 genes that displayed previtellogenic germline-specific expression based on RNA-Seq data generated from 11 life stage-specific and sex-specific samples. Analysis of this gene set provided insights into the biology and Evolution of female reproduction. Promoters from two of these candidates, vitellogenin receptor and nanos, were used in independent transgenic cassettes for the expression of artificial microRNAs against suspected mosquito maternal-effect genes, discontinuous actin hexagon and myd88. We show these promoters have early germline-specific expression and demonstrate 73% and 42% knockdown of myd88 and discontinuous actin hexagon mRNA in ovaries 48 hr after blood meal, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate maternal-specific delivery of mRNA and protein to progeny embryos. We discuss the application of this system of maternal delivery of mRNA/miRNA/protein in research on mosquito reproduction and embryonic development, and for the development of a gene drive system based on maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest.

194) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

195) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Puerto Rico; Population - Dynamics; Diptera - Culicidae; Oral infection; Transmission; Mosquitos; Susceptibility; America; Temperature; Maintenance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes.MethodsTo compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1-4 per os at viral titers of 5-6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution.ResultsAe. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus.ConclusionsThis study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs.

196) Molecular Characterization Of An Apolipophorin-Iii Gene From The Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea Pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Antheraea Pernyi; Apolipophorin III; Expression; Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 88, n. 3, p. 155-167, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein Sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

197) Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the mosquito sex determination cascade
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Price, Dana C.; Egizi, Andrea; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Doublesex; Mab-3; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex pipiens; Sterile insect technique; Vector biology; Sex determination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 15, n. 108, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2148
Resumo: The doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation of many metazoan species, including the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). As in other studied dipteran dsx homologs, the gene maintains functionality via evolutionarily conserved protein domains and sex-specific alternative splicing. The upstream factors that regulate splicing of dsx and the manner in which they do so however remain variable even among closely related organisms. As the induction of sex ratio biases is a central mode of action in many emerging molecular insecticides, it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors.Results: Here we report the full-length gene sequence of the doublesex gene in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cxqdsx) and its male and female-specific isoforms. Cxqdsx maintains characteristics possibly derived in the Culicinae and present in the Aedes aegypti dsx gene (Aeadsx) such as gain of exon 3b and the presence of Rbp1 cis-regulatory binding sites, and also retains presumably ancestral attributes present in Anopheles gambiae such as maintenance of a singular female-specific exon 5. Unlike in Aedes aegypti, we find no evidence for intron gain in the female transcript(s), yet recover a second female isoform generated via selection of an alternate splice donor. Utilizing next-gen sequence (NGS) data, we complete the Aeadsx gene model and identify a putative core promoter region in both Aeadsx and Cxqdsx. Also utilizing NGS data, we construct a full-length gene sequence for the dsx homolog of the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens form pipiens (Cxpipdsx). Analysis of peptide evolutionary rates between Cxqdsx and Cxpipdsx (both members of the Culex pipiens complex) shows the male-specific portion of the transcript to have evolved rapidly with respect to female-specific and common regions.Conclusions: As in other studied insects, doublesex maintains sex-specific splicing and conserved doublesex/mab-3 domains in the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. The cis-regulated splicing of Cxqdsx does not appear to follow either currently described mosquito model (for An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti); each of the three mosquito genera exhibit evidence of unique cis-regulatory mechanisms. The male-specific dsx terminus exhibits rapid peptide evolutionary rates, even among closely related sibling species.

198) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

199) Over-transcription of genes in a parathion-resistant strain of mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, Wei; Liu, Si-Lu; Liu, Yang-Yang; Qiao, Chuan-Ling; Chen, Shao-Liang; Cui, Feng
Assunto: cDNA microarray; Chymotrypsin; Gene up-regulation; Insecticide resistance; Suppression subtractive hybridization; Theta glutathione S-transferase
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Insect Science, v. 22, n. 1, p. 150-156, 2015
ISSN: 1672-9609
Resumo: Insecticide resistance is an evolutionary adaptation that develops quite quickly in mosquitoes because of the high selection pressure of chemical insecticides, rapid generation time and large population size. Identification of genes associated with insecticide resistance is fundamental to understand the complex processes responsible for resistance. We compared the gene transcriptional profiles of parathion-resistant and -susceptible Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus using a combination of suppression subtractive hybridization and complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray techniques. A total of 278colonies were selected from the resistant-susceptible mosquito subtractive library, 38 of which showed more than two fold stronger immunoblotting signals in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain using cDNA microarray selection. The sequencing results showed that the 38colonies can be matched to 12 genes of C. p. quinquefasciatus. Eight genes were confirmed to be overexpressed by more than two fold in the resistant strain. These genes encode chymotrypsin-1, theta glutathione S-transferase, lipase 3, larval serum protein 1 chain, cytochrome b, mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit, 28S rRNA, and a protein with unknown function. This study serves as a preliminary attempt to identify new genes associated with organophosphate resistance in this mosquito species and provides insights into the complicated physiological phenomenon of insecticide resistance.

200) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

201) Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Wesson, Dawn M.; Arellano, Consuelo; Apperson, Charles S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Bacterial isolates; Behavioral assays; Attractants
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are vectors of pathogenic viruses that cause major human illnesses including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Both mosquito species are expanding their geographic distributions and now occur worldwide in temperate and tropical climates. Collection of eggs in oviposition traps (ovitraps) is commonly used for monitoring and surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes populations by public health agencies charged with managing mosquito-transmitted illness. Addition of an organic infusion in these traps increases the number of eggs deposited. Gravid females are guided to ovitraps by volatile chemicals produced from the breakdown of organic matter by microbes. We previously isolated and cultured 14 species of bacteria from attractive experimental infusions, made from the senescent leaves of canebrake bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea). Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28 degrees C with constant shaking (120 rpm) and cell densities were determined with a hemocytometer. Behavioral responses to single bacterial isolates and to a mix of isolates at different cell densities were evaluated using two-choice sticky-screen bioassay methods with gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In behavioral assays of a mix of 14 bacterial isolates, significantly greater attraction responses were exhibited by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to bacterial densities of 10(7) and 10(8) cells/mL than to the control medium. When we tested single bacterial isolates, seven isolates (B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, B13 and B14) were significantly attractive to Ae. aegypti, and six isolates (B1, B5, B7, B10, B13 and B14) significantly attracted Ae. albopictus. Among all the isolates tested at three different cell densities, bacterial isolates B1, B5, B13 and B14 were highly attractive to both Aedes species. Our results show that at specific cell densities, some bacteria significantly influence the attraction of gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females to potential oviposition sites. Attractive bacterial isolates, when formulated for sustained release of attractants, could be coupled with an ovitrap containing a toxicant to achieve area-wide management of Aedes mosquitoes.

202) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

203) Assessing the effects of temperature and dengue virus load on dengue transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Esteva, Lourdes; Yang, Hyun Mo
Assunto: Entomological parameters; Extrinsic incubation period; Basic offspring number; Basic reproductive number
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Biological Systems, v. 23, n. 4, p. 527-554, 2015
ISSN: 0218-3390
Resumo: In this study, we propose a model to assess the effect of temperature on the incidence of dengue fever. For this, we take into account the dependence of the entomological and epidemiological parameters of the transmitter vector Aedes aegypti with respect to the temperature. The model consists of an ODE system that describes the transmission between humans and mosquitoes considering the aquatic stage of the vector population. The qualitative analysis of the model is made in terms of the parameters R-M and R-0, which represent the basic offspring of mosquitoes, and the basic reproductive number of the disease, respectively. If R-M < 1 mosquito population extinguishes while for R-M > 1 it tends asymptotically to a nonzero equilibrium. Analogously, the disease transmission is eliminated if R0 < 1, and it approaches an endemic equilibrium for R-0 > 1. Using entomological data of mosquitoes as well as experimental data of disease transmission we evaluate R-M and R-0 at different temperatures, obtaining that around 30 degrees C both parameters attain their maximum. Sensitivity analysis reveals that infection rates and mosquito mortality are the parameters for which R-0 is more sensitive.

204) A critical role for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha 2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

205) Physical and chemical aspects of water from Aedes aegypti breeding sites in the urban environment and the implications for dengue control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Arduino, Marylene de Brito; de Avila, Gabriela de Oliveira
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Breeding; Vector control; Physicochemical characteristics of water
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Patologia Tropical, v. 44, n. 1, p. 89-100, 2015
ISSN: 0301-0406
Resumo: Dengue fever is an infectious disease whose agent is an arbovirus, which has four serotypes. Despite the availability of a vaccine in an experimental stage and with promising results it is not yet available for the general population. Therefore, the control of dengue is still based on the reduction of vector density, eliminating containers with clean water that act as mosquito breeding sites. This study aimed to evaluate the types of breeding sites and water with the purpose of better understanding the containers colonized by this species and contributing to the improvement of control actions. In 14 months of collection, between October and April from 2003 to 2005, larvae and pupae were collected and the following variables were measured: volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, electrical conductivity and temperature of the water from the breeding sites. High rates of variation were observed for all measured parameters and larvae were recorded in water containing oil residue, rust, paint, salt and a high concentration of organic matter. These results show that the breeding sites of Ae. aegypti are not the classic "containers with clean water". These findings bring more difficulties and other implications for vector control. It is suggested that such knowledge should be included in the content of courses for health workers, as well as in campaigns and dengue prevention programs, helping to address the problem.

206) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

207) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban Areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log(10) TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log(10) TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

208) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

209) Trends in genome dynamics among major orders of insects revealed through variations in protein families
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal
Assunto: Comparative proteomics; Genome annotation; Protein classification; Hierarchical clustering; Protein families; Arthropods; Gene novelty; Homology search; Social insects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteome
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Insects belong to a class that accounts for the majority of animals on earth. With over one million identified species, insects display a huge diversity and occupy extreme environments. At present, there are dozens of fully sequenced insect genomes that cover a range of habitats, social behavior and morphologies. In view of such diverse collection of genomes, revealing evolutionary trends and charting functional relationships of proteins remain challenging.Results: We analyzed the relatedness of 17 complete proteomes representative of proteomes from insects including louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes, as well as an out-group from the crustaceans. The analyzed proteomes mostly represented the orders of Hymenoptera and Diptera. The 287,405 protein sequences from the 18 proteomes were automatically clustered into 20,933 families, including 799 singletons. A comprehensive analysis based on statistical considerations identified the families that were significantly expanded or reduced in any of the studied organisms. Among all the tested species, ants are characterized by an exceptionally high rate of family gain and loss. By assigning annotations to hundreds of species-specific families, the functional diversity among species and between the major clades (Diptera and Hymenoptera) is revealed. We found that many species-specific families are associated with receptor signaling, stress-related functions and proteases. The highest variability among insects associates with the function of transposition and nucleic acids processes (collectively coined TNAP). Specifically, the wasp and ants have an order of magnitude more TNAP families and proteins relative to species that belong to Diptera (mosquitoes and flies).Conclusions: An unsupervised clustering methodology combined with a comparative functional analysis unveiled proteomic signatures in the major clades of winged insects. We propose that the expansion of TNAP families in Hymenoptera potentially contributes to the accelerated genome dynamics that characterize the wasp and ants.

210) Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Gene Expression of the Circadian Clock Gene Period in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; de la Luz Martinez-Fierro, Margarita; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Zamudio Osuna, Michelle de Jesus; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura Elia; Guzman-Velasco, Antonio; Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Genome Sequence; Timeless Gene; Transcription; Mosquito; Oscillators
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-80, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the Period (PER) gene is important for the circadian clock that regulates some rhythmic biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. PER messenger amplification was done by RT-PCR from southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, larvae collected at three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. The amplified products were cloned, Sequenced, and compared/analyzed with those of other species of mosquitoes. A 3,093-bp amplified product was synthesized by PCR, which is the complete coding DNA Sequence (3,027 bp) of PER encoding an open reading frame of 996 amino acid residues and much smaller than the orthologous in other mosquitoes analyzed. No other simultaneous amplification was visualized; thus, possible alternative splicings were discarded or at least not detected by the method. Because PER is a widely conserved gene in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and maintaining colonies of southern house mosquitoes is relativity easy, determining the Sequence of the gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of using the gene as a model and generating data on the role in the circadian clock.

211) Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-kappa B Pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida
Assunto: Nitric-Oxide Synthase; Tumor-Necrosis-Factor; Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity; Signal-Regulated Kinase; Gene-Transcription; Protein-Kinases; Human Monocytes; Down-Regulation; Water Extract; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Mediators of Inflammation, 2015
ISSN: 0962-9351
Resumo: Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)), interleukin-(IL-) 6, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and I kappa B-alpha (inhibitor of kappa B) in a concentration dependent manner (100 mu g/mL and 200 mu g/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE(2), proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of I kappa B-alpha in NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

212) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

213) Microgeographic and temporal genetic changes of Aedes aegypti from Medellin, Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mario Cadavid, Jorge; Rua, Guillermo; Campo, Omer; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Genome; Mitochondrial; Haplotypes; Colombia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Biomedica, v. 35, n. 1, p. 53-61, 2015
ISSN: 0120-4157
Resumo: Aedes aegypti populations may experience changes in abundance and genetic diversity in addition to changes in their Evolutionary capability to respond to vector control. The knowledge on the changes in genetic variation on a spatio-temporal scale improves the epidemiological understanding of dengue and supports the appropriate and timely design of vector control strategies.Objective: To assess the genetic changes, diversity and gene flow in six microgeographical populations of Ae. aegypti in Medellin for different epidemiological periods of dengue.Materials and methods: A total of 255 specimens from six different neighborhoods in Medellin were used to assess variations in the CO1 mtDNA haplotype composition, diversity and genetic differentiation for an epidemic period (2010) and an endemic period (2012).Results: Two groups of highly differentiated haplotypes were present in both periods, and a highfrequency haplotype was assessed for all neighborhoods. The highest haplotype diversity was recorded in 2012, but the maximum nucleotide diversity was recorded in 2010. No significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was observed.Conclusions: The genetic composition of Ae. aegypti varies over time without a predictable pattern. In addition, the presence of a high-frequency haplotype in both periods could indicate a persistent variation adapted to vector control. However, the simultaneous movement of highly differentiated CO1haplotypes compatible with multiple introductions suggests that different gene pools would be suitable for transmission. These results are consistent with mosquito dispersion due to human activities, which would enable the rapid spread of the virus during epidemics in Medellin.

214) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

215) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Surveillance; Guerrero; Mexico
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. We report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitan in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

216) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticle; Bacillus megaterium; Bioreduction; Pathogenicity; LC50 and LC90
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4069-4079, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated chi (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

217) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis aubl. (negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Aguiar, Raimundo WagnerSouza; Santos, Suetonio Fernandesdos; Morgado, Fabricio daSilva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia deMendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Repellents; Pupae; Pollution effects; Pest control; Toxicity; Larval development; Necrosis; Skin; Insect cells; Developmental stages; Essential oils; Eggs; Mortality; Larvae; Insects; Urban areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

218) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

219) Predation by Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in an aquatic environment treated with mosquitocidal nanoparticles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Priyanka, Vishwanathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Khater, Hanem F.; Messing, Russell H.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Aquatic predators; Artemisia vulgaris; Dengue; Green synthesis; Mosquito control; Non target effects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3601-3610, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue and chikungunya. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes populations often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Botanical extracts have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles, but their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has not been well studied. We propose a single-step method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and XRD showed that AgNP were polydispersed, crystalline, irregularly shaped, with a mean size of 30-70 nm. EDX confirmed the presence of elemental silver. FTIR highlighted that the functional groups from plant metabolites capped AgNP, stabilizing them over time. We investigated the mosquitocidal properties of A. vulgaris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP against larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti. We also evaluated the predatory efficiency of Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against larvae of Ae. aegypti, under laboratory conditions and in an aquatic environment treated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. AgNP were highly toxic to Ae. aegypti larval instars (I-IV) and pupae, with LC50 ranging from 4.4 (I) to 13.1 ppm (pupae). In the lab, the mean number of prey consumed per tadpole per day was 29.0 (I), 26.0 (II), 21.4 (III), and 16.7 (IV). After treatment with AgNP, the mean number of mosquito prey per tadpole per day increased to 34.2 (I), 32.4 (II), 27.4 (III), and 22.6 (IV). Overall, this study highlights the importance of a synergistic approach based on biocontrol agents and botanical nano-insecticides for mosquito control.

220) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

221) Bacteria and antiviral immunity in insects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Karyn N.
Assunto: West Nile virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Wolbachia density; Blocks dengue; Albopictus; Infection; Host; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 8, p. 97-103, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: Tripartite interactions between viruses, bacteria and hosts can have significant implications for the outcome of infections. In insects recent studies have shown that these interactions can greatly influence the transmission of vector borne disease, including transmission of dengue virus. Mosquito gut bacteria modulate arbovirus infection of the mosquito host and specific bacterial isolates have been identified that negatively impact the outcome of infection. In addition, an endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia, which is very common in insects, protects flies and mosquitoes from virus infection. This antiviral protection has implications for both naturally infected insects and for use in disease control. This review summarises the current state of knowledge for each of these interactions with an emphasis on natural interactions.

222) Reports outline intercellular signaling peptides and proteins study findings from National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) (Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Life sciences; Science and technology
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: Life Science Weekly, p. 2377, 2015
ISSN: 1552-2466
Resumo:

223) CD8(+) T cells control ross river virus infection in musculoskeletal tissues of infected mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Burrack, Kristina S.; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Homann, Dirk; Morrison, Thomas E.
Assunto: Neurovirulent Sindbis virus; Chikungunya virus; Mouse model; Epidemic Polyarthritis; Nonhematopoietic cells; Arthritogenic disease; Alphavirus infection; Hemorrhagic -Fever; Immune - Response; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Immunology, v. 194, n. 2, p. 678-689, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1767
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus, and related alphaviruses cause debilitating polyarthralgia and myalgia. Mouse models of RRV and chikungunya virus have demonstrated a role for the adaptive immune response in the control of these infections. However, questions remain regarding the role for T cells in viral control, including the magnitude, location, and dynamics of CD8(+) T cell responses. To address these questions, we generated a recombinant RRV expressing the H-2(b)-restricted glycoprotein 33 (gp33) determinant derived from the glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Using tetramers, we tracked gp33-specific CD8(+) T cells during RRV-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We found that acute RRV infection induces activation of CD8(+) T cell responses in lymphoid and musculoskeletal tissues that peak from 10-14 d postinoculation, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells contribute to control of acute RRV infection. Mice genetically deficient for CD8(+) T cells or wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells had elevated RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue, but not joint-associated tissues, at 14 d postinoculation, suggesting that the ability of CD8(+) T cells to control RRV infection is tissue dependent. Finally, adoptively transferred T cells were capable of reducing RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue of Rag1(-/-) A mice, indicating that T cells can contribute to the control of RRV infection in the absence of B cells and Ab. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for T cells in the control of RRV infection and suggest that the antiviral capacity of T cells is controlled in a tissue-specific manner.

224) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

225) Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Anax immaculifrons; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Green synthesis; Mosquito - Borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Non - Target effects; Biosafety
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4645-4654, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons.

226) 3D structured illumination microscopy of mammalian embryos and spermatozoa
Autor: Popken, Jens; Dahlhoff, Maik; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri
Assunto: Superresolution fluorescence microscopy; Electron - Microscopy; Resolution limit; Reconstruction; Artifacts; Breaking; Guide
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry
Fonte: BMC Developmental Biology, v. 15, n. 46, 2015.
ISSN: 1471-213X
Resumo: Background: Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy performed via 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is well established on flat, adherent cells. However, blastomeres of mammalian embryos are non-adherent, round and large. Scanning whole mount mammalian embryos with 3D-SIM is prone to failure due to the movement during scanning and the large distance to the cover glass.Results: Here we present a highly detailed protocol that allows performing 3D-SIM on blastomeres of mammalian embryos with an image quality comparable to scans in adherent cells. This protocol was successfully tested on mouse, rabbit and cattle embryos and on rabbit spermatozoa.Conclusions: Our protocol provides detailed instructions on embryo staining, blastomere isolation, blastomere attachment, embedding, correct oil predictions, scanning conditions, and oil correction choices after the first scan. Finally, the most common problems are documented and solutions are suggested. To our knowledge, this protocol presents for the first time a highly detailed and practical way to perform 3D-SIM on mammalian embryos and spermatozoa.

227) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

228) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology In Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015.
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

229) Phylogenetic analysis reveals genetic variations of densovirus isolated from field mosquitoes in Bangkok and surrounding regions
Autor: Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong;Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Screening; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Phylogenetics; Public health; Capsids; Phylogeny; Dengue; Yellow fever; Restriction fragment length polymorphism; Vectors; Habitat; Culex; Toxorhynchites; Densovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Screening for densoviruses (DNV) from Aedes, Culex and Toxorhynchites mosquitoes collected in Bangkok and surrounding regions identified two clades of Aedes DNV; Ae. aegypti DNV (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus DNV (AalDNV) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). From nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons of a fragment of DNV capsid gene, these DNVs were shown to be new DNV genetic variations similar to AaeDNV. Isolation and identification of densoviruses from indigenous field mosquitoes reside in natural habitat should be helpful in monitoring the distribution of DNVs in important mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses.

230) Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes
Autor: Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod
Assunto: Multiple dengue types; Etiology; DHF
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 150, n. , p. 107-110, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

231) Complete Dosage Compensation in Anopheles stephensi and the Evolution of Sex-Biased Genes in Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jiang, Xiaofang; Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Comparative transcriptomes; RNA-seq; Sex - Specific expression; Gene duplication
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Genome Biology and Evolution, v. 7, n. 7, p. 1914-1924, 2015
ISSN: 1759-6653
Resumo: Complete dosage compensation refers to hyperexpression of the entire X or Z chromosome in organisms with heterogametic sex chromosomes (XY male or ZW female) in order to compensate for having only one copy of the X or Z chromosome. Recent analyses suggest that complete dosage compensation, as in Drosophila melanogaster, may not be the norm. There has been no systematic study focusing on dosage compensation in mosquitoes. However, analysis of dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes provides opportunities for evolutionary insights, as the X chromosome of Anopheles and that of its Dipteran relative, D. melanogaster formed independently from the same ancestral chromosome. Furthermore, Culicinae mosquitoes, including the Aedes genus, have homomorphic sex-determining chromosomes, negating the need for dosage compensation. Thus, Culicinae genes provide a rare phylogenetic context to investigate dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes. Here, we performed RNA-seq analysis of male and female samples of the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Autosomal and X-linked genes in An. stephensi showed very similar levels of expression in both males and females, indicating complete dosage compensation. The uniformity of average expression levels of autosomal and X-linked genes remained when An. stephensi gene expression was normalized by that of their Ae. aegypti orthologs, strengthening the finding of complete dosage compensation in Anopheles. In addition, we comparatively analyzed the differentially expressed genes between adult males and adult females in both species, investigated sex-biased gene chromosomal distribution patterns in An. stephensi and provided three examples where gene duplications may have enabled the acquisition of sex-specific expression during mosquito evolution.

232) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

233) Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticle targeting identifies AgCad1 cadherin in Anopheles gambiae larvae as an in vivo receptor of Cry11Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp jegathesan
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhang, Qi; Hua, Gang; Adang, Michael J.
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; Cry toxin; Mosquitocidal; Cadherin; RNAi; DsiRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 60, p. 33-38, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: The Cry11 Ba protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan crystals has uniquely high toxicity against a spectrum of mosquito species. The high potency of Cry11Ba against Anopheles gambiae is caused by recognition of multiple midgut proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase AgALP1, aminopeptidase AgAPN2, alpha-amylase AgAmy1 and alpha-glucosidase Agm3 that bind Cry11 Ba with high affinity and function as putative receptors. The cadherin AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae also binds Cry11Ba with high affinity (K-d = 12 nM) and is considered a putative receptor, while cadherin AgCad1 bound Cry11Ba with low affinity (K-d = 766 nM), a property not supportive for a Cry11Ba receptor role. Here, we show the in vivo involvement of AgCad1 in Cry11Ba toxicity in An. gambiae larvae using chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles to inhibit AgCad expression in larvae. Cry11Ba was significantly less toxic to AgCad1-silenced larvae than to control larvae. Because AgCad1 was co-suppressed by AgCad2 DsRNAi, the involvement of AgCad2 in Cry11Ba toxicity could not be ascertained. The ratio of AgCad1:AgCad2 transcript level is 36:1 for gut tissue in 4th instar larvae. Silencing AgCad expression had no effect on transcript levels of other binding receptors of Cry11Ba. We conclude that AgCad1 and possibly AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae are functional receptors of Cry11Ba toxin in vivo. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

234) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

235) Oxidative Stress Correlates with Wolbachia-Mediated Antiviral Protection in Wolbachia-Drosophila Associations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wong, Zhee Sheen; Brownlie, Jeremy C.; Johnson, Karyn N.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Unidirectional incompatibility; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Dengue virus; DNA damage; C virus; Infection; Simulans; Plasmodium; Populations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 9, p. 3001-3005, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection in insect hosts and is being developed as a potential biocontrol agent to reduce the spread of insect-vectored viruses. Definition of the molecular mechanism that generates protection is important for understanding the tripartite interaction between host insect, Wolbachia, and virus. Elevated oxidative stress was previously reported for a mosquito line experimentally infected with Wolbachia, suggesting that oxidative stress is important for Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection. However, Wolbachia experimentally introduced into mosquitoes impacts a range of host fitness traits, some of which are unrelated to antiviral protection. To explore whether elevated oxidative stress is associated with antiviral protection in Wolbachia-infected insects, we analyzed oxidative stress of five Wolbachia-infected Drosophila lines. In flies infected with protective Wolbachia strains, hydrogen peroxide concentrations were 1.25-to 2-fold higher than those in paired fly lines cured of Wolbachia infection. In contrast, there was no difference in the hydrogen peroxide concentrations in flies infected with nonprotective Wolbachia strains compared to flies cured of Wolbachia infection. Using a Drosophila mutant that produces increased levels of hydrogen peroxide, we investigated whether flies with high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species had altered responses to virus infection and found that flies with high levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide were less susceptible to virusinduced mortality. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated oxidative stress correlates with Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection in natural Drosophila hosts.

236) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

237) MicroRNAs of two medically important mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hu, W.; Criscione, F.; Liang, S.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Mirna; Mosquito; Evolution; Early; Embryo
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 240-252, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded small RNAs that have important regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study, we characterize miRNAs in two divergent mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, through deep sequencing of small RNAs spanning all developmental stages. We discovered eight novel miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and 20 novel miRNAs in An. stephensi, which enabled the first systematic analysis of miRNA Evolution in mosquitos. We traced the phylogenetic history of all miRNAs in both species and report a rate of 0.055-0.13 miRNA net gain per million years. Most novel miRNAs originate de novo. Duplications that produced miRNA clusters and families are more common in Ae. aegypti than in An. stephensi. We also identified arm-switch as a source of new miRNAs. Expression profile analysis identified mosquito-specific miRNAs that showed strong stage-specific expression in one or both lineages. For example, the aae-miR-2941/2946 family represents the most abundant maternally deposited and zygotically transcribed miRNAs in Ae. aegypti. miR-2943 is a highly expressed zygotic miRNA in both Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Such information provides the basis from which to study the function of these miRNAs in biology common to all mosquitos or unique to one particular lineage.

238) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

239) Protein-protein interactions between A-aegypti midgut and dengue virus 2: two-hybrid screens using the midgut cDNA library
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Chew, Miaw-Fang; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Yeast two hybrid; cDNA library; Protein protein interaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection In Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 12, p. 1338-1349, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Introduction: Dengue virus (DENV) is principally transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. To date, mosquito population control remains the key strategy for reducing the continuing spread of DENV. The focus on the development of new vector control strategies through an understanding of the mosquito-virus relationship is essential, especially targeting the midgut, which is the first mosquito organ exposed to DENV infection.Methodology: A cDNA library derived from female adult A. aegypti mosquito midgut cells was established using the switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART), in combination with a highly potent recombination machinery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were performed against DENV-2 proteins (E, prM, M, and NS1). Mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) and double immunofluorescence assays (IFA) were conducted to validate the authenticity of the three selected interactions.Results: The cDNA library was of good quality based on its transformation efficiency, cell density, titer, and the percentage of insert size. A total of 36 midgut proteins interacting with DENV-2 proteins were identified, some involved in nucleic acid transcription, oxidoreductase activity, peptidase activity, and ion binding. Positive outcomes were obtained from the three selected interactions validated using M2H and double IFA assays.Conclusions: The identified proteins have different biological activities that may aid in the virus replication pathway. Therefore, the midgut cDNA library is a valuable tool for identifying DENV-2 interacting proteins. The positive outcomes of the three selected proteins validated supported the quality of the cDNA library and the robustness of the Y2H mechanisms.

240) Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Circadian Clock Timeless Gene in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; de Lourdes Garza-Rodriguez, Maria; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elia Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura; Canales del Castillo, Ricardo; Favela-Lara, Susana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Lugo-Trampe, Angel; del Carmen Trujillo-Murillo, Karina; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ignacio Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Species Complex; Genome Sequence; Flies; Transcription; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 53-70, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In eukaryotes, the timeless (TIM) gene plays a fundamental role in the control of the circadian clock by regulating several biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. RT-PCR was used to amplify TIM mRNA from larval southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, from three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. The 3062 bp TIM cDNA was assembled from three overlapping PCRs that were cloned and Sequenced. DNA Sequence analysis used amplified cDNA fragments to complete coding the DNA Sequence (2991 bp). Tim ORF consisting of 996 codons was shorter than the orthologous genes from other mosquito species. A series of deletions in the core Sequence of TIM were detected. No other amplification products were visualized, and thus, the possibility of alternative spliced mRNA species was discarded. Because TIM is a widely conserved gene in eukaryotes, and maintaining colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus is easy, determining the Sequence of the TIM gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of its use as a model for circadian clock experimentation.

241) Chromosome-directed PCR-based detection and quantification of bacillus cereus group members with focus on B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis active against nematoceran larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schneider, Salome; Hendriksen, Niels B.; Melin, Petter; Lundstrom, Jan O.; Sundh, Ingvar
Assunto: Long - Lasting persistence; Tidal flat sediment; Subsp Israelensis; Sp nov.; Larvicidal activity; Mosquito - Control; Term survival; Aedes aegypti; Group strains; Field trial
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 15, p. 4894-4903, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment.

242) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

243) Candidate biomarkers for mosquito age-grading identified by label-free quantitative analysis of protein expression in Aedes albopictus females
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Iovinella, I.; Caputo, B.; Michelucci, E.; Dani, F. R.; della Torre, A.
Assunto: Longevity; Proteomics; Hexamerin; Glutathione-S transferase; Pyruvate carboxylase; Insect cuticle protein
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 128, p. 272-279, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: We applied a "shotgun" approach based on nanoliquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry associated to label free quantification (LFQ) to identify proteins varying with age, independently from the physiological state, in Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species which in the last decades invaded temperate regions in North America and Europe, creating concerns for associated high nuisance and risk of arbovirus transmission. The combined "shotgun" and LFQ approach was shown to be highly suitable to simultaneously compare several biological samples, as needed in a study aimed to analyze different age-groups and physiological states of adult mosquito females. The results obtained represent the first wide-scale analysis of protein expression in Ae. albopictus females: >1000 and 665 proteins were identified from few micrograms of crude protein extracts of mosquito heads and thoraxes, respectively. Six of these proteins were shown to significantly vary from 2- to 16-day-old females, independently from their physiological state (i.e. virgin, mated, host-seeking, blood-fed, and gravid).Biological significance: Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue and other arboviroses, are a persistent cause of global mortality and morbidity, affecting hundreds of thousands of people. Billions of people living in tropical areas are at risk of being bitten every day by an infective mosquito female and the spread of tropical species such as Aedes albopictus to temperate areas is creating alarm in the northern hemisphere. Mosquito longevity is a critical factor affecting mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles and the mosquito capacity to transmit pathogens. However, large scale analyses of the age structure of mosquito field populations is hampered by the lack of optimal age-grading approaches. Our findings open new perspectives for the development of reliable, simple and cheap protein-based assays to age-grade Ae. albopictus females and, most likely, other mosquito species of higher medical relevance, such as the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and the major Afrotropical malaria vectors. These assays would greatly contribute to epidemiological studies aimed at defining the actual vectorial capacity of a given mosquito species. Moreover, they would be very valuable in assessing the effectiveness of mosquito control interventions based on the relative ratio between young and old individuals before and after the intervention. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

244) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

245) De novo assembly and sex-specific transcriptome profiling in the sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera, Phlebotominae), a major Old World vector of Leishmania infantum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petrella, V.; Aceto, S.; Musacchia, F.; Colonna, V.; Robinson, M.; Benes, V.; Cicotti, G.; Bongiorno, G.; Gradoni, L.; Volf, P.; Salvemini, M.
Assunto: Nematocera; Sand fly; Transcriptome de novo assembly; RNA-seq; Differential expression analysis; Sex-specific gene expression; Sex-biased genes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 847, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: The phlebotomine sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) is a major Old World vector of the protozoan Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases in humans and dogs, a worldwide re-emerging diseases of great public health concern, affecting 101 countries. Despite the growing interest in the study of this sand fly species in the last years, the development of genomic resources has been limited so far. To increase the available sequence data for P. perniciosus and to start studying the molecular basis of the sexual differentiation in sand flies, we performed whole transcriptome Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of adult males and females and de novo transcriptome assembly.Results: We assembled 55,393 high quality transcripts, of which 29,292 were unique, starting from adult whole body male and female pools. 11,736 transcripts had at least one functional annotation, including full-length low abundance salivary transcripts, 981 transcripts were classified as putative long non-coding RNAs and 244 transcripts encoded for putative novel proteins specific of the Phlebotominae sub-family. Differential expression analysis identified 8590 transcripts significantly biased between sexes. Among them, some show relaxation of selective constraints when compared to their orthologs of the New World sand fly species Lutzomyia longipalpis.Conclusions: In this paper, we present a comprehensive transcriptome resource for the sand fly species P. perniciosus built from short-read RNA-seq and we provide insights into sex-specific gene expression at adult stage. Our analysis represents a first step towards the identification of sex-specific genes and pathways and a foundation for forthcoming investigations into this important vector species, including the study of the evolution of sex-biased genes and of the sexual differentiation in phlebotomine sand flies.

246) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Population genetics; Insecticides; Allelles; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Heredity; Vectors; Vaccines; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ;
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

247) Proteomic analysis of immunogenic proteins from salivary glands of Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oktarianti, Rike; Senjarini, Kartika; Hayano, Toshiya; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Aulanni'am
Assunto: Proteomic analysis; Immunogenic proteins; Salivary gland; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 8, n. 6, p. 575-582, 2015
ISSN: 1876-0341
Resumo: Humans develop anti-salivary proteins after arthropod bites or exposure to insect salivary proteins. This reaction indicates that vector bites have a positive effect on the host immune response, which can be used as epidemiological markers of exposure to the vector. Our previous study identified two immunogenic proteins with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 56 kDa from salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti that cross-reacted with serum samples from Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) patients and healthy people in an endemic area (Indonesia). Serum samples from individuals living in non-endemic area (sub-tropical country) and infants did not show the immunogenic reactions. The objective of this research was to identify two immunogenic proteins, i.e., 31 and 56 kDa by using proteomic analysis. In this study, proteomic analysis resulted in identification of 13 proteins and 7 proteins from the 31 kDa- and 56 kDa-immunogenic protein bands, respectively. Among those proteins, the D7 protein (Arthropode Odorant-Binding Protein, AOBP) was the most abundant in 31-kDa band, and apyrase was the major protein of the 56-kDa band. (C) 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

248) Zika: Another sexually transmitted infection?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Patiño-Barbosa A.M., Medina I., Gil-Restrepo A.F., Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: sexually transmitted disease, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sexually Transmitted Infections, v. 91, n. 5, p. 359, aug. 2015
ISSN: 1472-3263 (electronic),1368-4973
Resumo:

249) Biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, an iron chelator from the gut of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pesek, Jelena; Svoboda, Jiri; Sattler, Martina; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm
Assunto: Major Branch Pathway; Xanthurenic acid; Drosophila melanogaster; 6-Hydroxykynurenic acid; Aedes aegypti; 3-Hydroxykynurenine; Mosquito; Streptomyces; Noctuidae; Oxidation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, v. 13, n. 1, p. 178-184, 2015
ISSN: 1477-0520
Resumo: In the regurgitate (foregut content) of Spodoptera larvae we found high concentrations (0.5-5 mM) of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid (8-HQA). In a survey of different lepidopteran species, this compound was only detected in species belonging to the family of Noctuidae. 8-HQA was shown to derive from tryptophan metabolism. The amount of 8-HQA in the regurgitate was strongly dependent on the tryptophan content of the diet. In the insect 8-HQA is generated from tryptophan via kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. 8-HQA is produced by the larvae and not by their commensal gut bacteria. Analysis of different life stages of Spodoptera larvae revealed that 8-HQA is formed during the larval stage, probably acting as an iron chelator to control the gut microbiome.

250) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 911-913, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

251) Silencing of end-joining repair for efficient site-specific gene insertion after TALEN/CRISPR mutagenesis in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Basu, Sanjay; Aryan, Azadeh; Overcash, Justin M.; Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Dahlem, Timothy J.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Aedes; CRISPR; TALEN; Transgenic; Recombination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 13, p. 4038-4043, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Conventional control strategies for mosquito-borne pathogens such as malaria and dengue are now being complemented by the development of transgenic mosquito strains reprogrammed to generate beneficial phenotypes such as conditional sterility or pathogen resistance. The widespread success of site-specific nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in model organisms also suggests that reprogrammable gene drive systems based on these nucleases may be capable of spreading such beneficial phenotypes in wild mosquito populations. Using the mosquito Aedes aegypti, we determined that mutations in the FokI domain used in TALENs to generate obligate heterodimeric complexes substantially and significantly reduce gene editing rates. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-based editing in the mosquito Ae. aegypti is also highly variable, with the majority of guide RNAs unable to generate detectable editing. By first evaluating candidate guide RNAs using a transient embryo assay, we were able to rapidly identify highly effective guide RNAs; focusing germ line-based experiments only on this cohort resulted in consistently high editing rates of 24-90%. Microinjection of double-stranded RNAs targeting ku70 or lig4, both essential components of the end-joining response, increased recombination-based repair in early embryos as determined by plasmid-based reporters. RNAi-based suppression of Ku70 concurrent with embryonic microinjection of site-specific nucleases yielded consistent gene insertion frequencies of 2-3%, similar to traditional transposon- or ...C31-based integration methods but without the requirement for an initial docking step. These studies should greatly accelerate investigations into mosquito biology, streamline development of transgenic strains for field releases, and simplify the evaluation of novel Cas9-based gene drive systems. (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae/symbols omitted.)

252) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

253) Mitotic-Chromosome-Based Physical Mapping of the Culex quinquefasciatus Genome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Kinney, Nicholas A.; Kokhanenko, Alina A.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Lovin, Diane D.; Stegniy, Vladimir N.; Severson, David W.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.
Assunto: Quantitative Trait Loci; Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Malaria Parasite Susceptibility; Tubule Polytene Chromosomes; Anopheles-Gambiae; Pipiens Complex; Linkage Map; Diptera; Culicidae; Sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The genome assembly of southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus is represented by a high number of supercontigs with no order or orientation on the chromosomes. Although cytogenetic maps for the polytene chromosomes of this mosquito have been developed, their utilization for the genome mapping remains difficult because of the low number of high-quality spreads in chromosome preparations. Therefore, a simple and robust mitotic-chromosome-based approach for the genome mapping of Cx. quinquefasciatus still needs to be developed. In this study, we performed physical mapping of 37 genomic supercontigs using fluorescent in situ hybridization on mitotic chromosomes from imaginal discs of 4th instar larvae. The genetic linkage map nomenclature was adopted for the chromosome numbering based on the direct positioning of 58 markers that were previously Genetically mapped. The smallest, largest, and intermediate chromosomes were numbered as 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For idiogram development, we analyzed and described in detail the morphology and proportions of the mitotic chromosomes. Chromosomes were subdivided into 19 divisions and 72 bands of four different intensities. These idiograms were used for mapping the genomic supercontigs/genetic markers. We also determined the presence of length polymorphism in the q arm of sex-determining chromosome 1 in Cx. quinquefasciatus related to the size of ribosomal locus. Our physical mapping and previous genetic linkage mapping resulted in the chromosomal assignment of 13% of the total genome assembly to the chromosome bands. We provided the first detailed description, nomenclature, and idiograms for the mitotic chromosomes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Further application of the approach developed in this study will help to improve the quality of the southern house mosquito genome.

254) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

255) Clip-domain serine proteases as immune factors in insect hemolymph
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo
Assunto: Prophenoloxidase propo activation; Vector anopheles - Gambiae; Manduca - Sexta hemolymph; Mosquito Aedes aegypti; Toll pathway; Proteinase homologs; Phylogenetic - Relationships; Invertebrate immunity; Sequence conservation; Embryonic - Development
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 11, p. 47-55, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: CLIP proteases are non-digestive serine proteases present in hemolymph of insects and other arthropods. They are composed of one or more amino-terminal clip domains followed by a linker sequence and a carboxyl-terminal S1A family serine protease domain. The genes for CLIP proteases have evolved as four clades (CLIPA, CLIPB, CLIPC, CLIPD), each present as multigene families in insect genomes. CLIP proteases in hemolymph function in innate immune responses. These include proteolytic activation of the cytokine Spatzle, to form an active Toll ligand leading to synthesis of antimicrobial peptides, and specific activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO), required for the melanization response. CLIP proteases act in cascade pathways. In the immune pathways that have been characterized, microbial surface molecules stimulate activation of an initiating modular serine protease, which then activates a CLIPC, which in turn activates a CLIPB. The active CLIPB then cleaves and activates an effector molecule (proSpatzle or prophenoloxidase). CLIPA proteins are pseudoproteases, lacking proteolytic activity, but some can function as regulators of the activity of other CLIP proteases and form high molecular weight immune complexes. A few three dimensional structures for CLIP proteases are now available for structure-function analysis of these immune factors, revealing structural features that may act in specific activation or in formation of immune complexes. The functions of most CLIP proteases are unknown, even in well studied insect species. It is very likely that additional proteins activated by CLIP proteases and acting in immunity remain to be discovered.

256) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Public health; Dengue; Control programs; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The authors carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-olymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. They report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitan in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

257) Phylogenomic and functional analyses of salmon lice aquaporins uncover the molecular diversity of the superfamily in Arthropoda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stavang, Jon Anders; Chauvigne, Francois; Kongshaug, Heidi; Cerda, Joan; Nilsen, Frank; Finn, Roderick Nigel
Assunto: Aquaporin; Aquaglyceroporin; Arthropod; Crustacea; Copepod; Salmon louse; Lepeoptheirus; Parasite; Atlantic salmon; Evolution; Osmoregulation; Fluid homeostasis; Permeability; Selectivity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: An emerging field in biomedical research is focusing on the roles of aquaporin water channels in parasites that cause debilitating or lethal diseases to their vertebrate hosts. The primary vectorial agents are hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, flies, ticks and lice, however very little is known concerning the functional diversity of aquaporins in non-insect members of the Arthropoda. Here we conducted phylogenomic and functional analyses of aquaporins in the salmon louse, a marine ectoparasitic copepod that feeds on the skin and body fluids of salmonids, and used the primary structures of the isolated channels to uncover the genomic repertoires in Arthropoda. Genomic screening identified 7 aquaporin paralogs in the louse in contrast to 42 in its host the Atlantic salmon. Phylogenetic inference of the louse nucleotides and proteins in relation to orthologs identified in Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda revealed that the arthropod aquaporin superfamily can be classified into three major grades (1) classical aquaporins including Big brain (Bib) and Prip-like (PripL) channels (2) aquaglyceroporins (Glp) and (3) unorthodox aquaporins (Aqp12-like). In Hexapoda, two additional subfamilies exist as Drip and a recently classified entomoglyceroporin (Eglp) group. Cloning and remapping the louse cDNAs to the genomic DNA revealed that they are encoded by 1-7 exons, with two of the Glps being expressed as N-terminal splice variants (Glp1_v1, -1_v2, -3_v1, -3_v2). Heterologous expression of the cRNAs in amphibian oocytes demonstrated that PripL transports water and urea, while Bib does not. Glp1_v1, -2, -3_v1 and -3_v2 each transport water, glycerol and urea, while Glp1_v2 and the Aqp12-like channels were retained intracellularly. Transcript abundance analyses revealed expression of each louse paralog at all developmental stages, except for glp1_v1, which is specific to preadult and adult males. Our data suggest that the aquaporin repertoires of extant arthropods have expanded independently in the different lineages, but can be phylogenetically classified into three major grades as opposed to four present in deuterostome animals. While the aquaporin repertoire of Atlantic salmon represents a 6-fold redundancy compared to the louse, the functional assays reveal that the permeation properties of the different crustacean grades of aquaporin are largely conserved to the vertebrate counterparts.

258) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Edillo, Frances E.; Sarcos, Janet R.; Sayson, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Aedes; Culicidae; Dengue; Arbovirus; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 282-291, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We attempted to determine the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Mosquito sub-adults were collected monthly from households and the field during the wet-dry-wet season from November, 2011 to July, 2012 and were laboratory-reared to adults. Viral RNA extracts in mosquitoes were assayed by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Results showed that 62 (36.26%; n=679) out of 171 mosquito pools (n=2,871) were DENV+. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of DENV ranged from 0 in wet months to 48.22/1,000 mosquitoes in April, 2012 (mid-dry). DENVs were detected in larvae, pupae, and male and female adults, with DENV-4, DENV-3, and DENV-1, in that rank of prevalence. DENV-1 co-infected with either DENV-3 or -4 or with both in April, 2012; DENV-3 and -4 were present in both seasons. More DENV+ mosquitoes were collected from households than in field premises (p<0.001) and in the dry than in the wet season (p<0.05), with significant interaction (p<0.05) between sites and premises but no interaction between sites and seasons (p>0.05). By Generalized Linear Mixed models, the type of premises nested in sites and monthly total rainfall were significant predictors of monthly dengue cases (p<0.05) and not MIR, season, temperature, and relative humidity. Surveillance of DENV prevalence in Ae. aegypti and detecting their natural foci in the dry season provide an early warning signal of dengue outbreak.

259) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

260) Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Correa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Flight-Muscle Mitochondria; Hydrogen-Peroxide Release; Oxygen Species Generation; Brown Adipose-Tissue; Reactive Oxygen; Insect Flight; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Oxidative-Metabolism; Amino-Acids; Complex I
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

261) ProtoBug: functional families from the complete proteomes of insects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal
Assunto: Hierarchical classification; Protein Sequences; Annotation; Database; Genome; Protonet; Prediction; Insights; Space
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteome
Fonte: Database-The Journal Of Biological Databases And Curation, 2015
ISSN: 1758-0463
Resumo: ProtoBug (http://www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il) is a database and resource of protein families in Arthropod genomes. ProtoBug platform presents the relatedness of complete proteomes from 17 insects as well as a proteome of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. The represented proteomes from insects include louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes. Based on an unsupervised clustering method, protein sequences were clustered into a hierarchical tree, called ProtoBug. ProtoBug covers about 300 000 sequences that are partitioned to families. At the default setting, all sequences are partitioned to similar to 20 000 families (excluding singletons). From the species perspective, each of the 18 analysed proteomes is composed of 5000-8000 families. In the regime of the advanced operational mode, the ProtoBug provides rich navigation capabilities for touring the hierarchy of the families at any selected resolution. A proteome viewer shows the composition of sequences from any of the 18 analysed proteomes. Using functional annotation from an expert system (Pfam) we assigned domains, families and repeats by 4400 keywords that cover 73% of the sequences. A strict inference protocol is applied for expanding the functional knowledge. Consequently, secured annotations were associated with 81% of the proteins, and with 70% of the families (>= 10 proteins each). ProtoBug is a database and webtool with rich visualization and navigation tools. The properties of each family in relation to other families in the ProtoBug tree, and in view of the taxonomy composition are reported. Furthermore, the user can paste its own sequences to find relatedness to any of the ProtoBug families. The database and the navigation tools are the basis for functional discoveries that span 350 million years of evolution of Arthropods. ProtoBug is available with no restriction at: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il.

262) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

263) Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Van Ekert, Evelien; Shatters, Robert G., Jr.; Rouge, Pierre; Powell, Charles A.; Smagghe, Guy; Borovsky, Dov
Assunto: Diaphorina citri; Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase; Farnesoic acid methyltransferase; 3D modeling; Gene expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: FEBS Open Bio, v. 5, n. 1, p. 264-275, 2015
ISSN: 2211-5463
Resumo: The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus 'Liberibacter' asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in JH biosynthesis in D. citri. A putative JH acid methyltransferase ortholog gene (jmtD) and its cognate cDNA were identified by searching D. citri genome database. Expression analysis shows expression in all life stages. In adults, it is expressed in the head-thorax, (containing the corpora allata), and the abdomen (containing ovaries and male accessory glands). A 3D protein model identified the catalytic groove with catalytically active amino acids and the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-binding loop. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the purified enzyme showed high preference for farnesoic acid (FA) and homoFA (k(cat) of 0.752 x 10(-3) and 0.217 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively) as compared to JH acid I (JHA I) (cis/trans/cis; 2Z, 6E, 10cis), JHA III (2E, 6E, 10cis), and JHA I (trans/cis/cis; 2E, 2Z, 10cis) (k(cat) of 0.081 x 10(-3), 0.013 x 10(-3), and 0.003 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively). This suggests that this ortholog is a DcFA-o-methyl transferase gene (fmtD), not a jmtD, and that JH biosynthesis in D. citri proceeds from FA to JH III through methyl farnesoate (MF). DcFA-o-MT does not require Ca2+, Mg2+ or Zn2+, however, Zn2+ (1 mM) completely inhibits the enzyme probably by binding H115 at the active groove. This represents the first purified FA-o-MT from Hemiptera with preferred biological activity for FA and not JHA. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

264) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

265) Chikungunya risk for Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: da Silva Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus infections, epidemiology; Disease outbreaks; Risk factors; Epidemiological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Saúde Pública, v. 49, n. 58, 2015
ISSN: 0034-8910
Resumo: This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

266) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

267) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Silva Farias, Kleber Juvenal; Lima Machado, Paula Renata; Pereira Carneiro Muniz, Jose Augusto; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Lopes da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio
Assunto: Borne encephalitis-virus; Human dendritic cells; DNA vaccine; Heterologous Infections; Nancymae Monkeys; Hiv Patients; Acidic Ph; Tnf-Alpha; Fever; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

268) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane ; Diallo, Diawo ; Faye, Oumar ; Ba, Yamar ; Gaye, Alioune
Assunto: Diseases and conditions; Infectious diseases; Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 492, 2015
ISSN:
Resumo:

269) Real-time PCR tests in dutch exotic mosquito surveys; implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus identification tests, and the development of tests for the identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Vossenberg, B. T. L. H. Van De; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Metz-Verschure, E.; Veen, E. J. Van; Bruil-Dieters, M. L.; Scholte, E. J.
Assunto: Cytochromes; Specificity; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Introduced species; Environmental factors; DNA fragmentation; Cytochrome-c oxidase; Environmental conditions; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 336-350, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

270) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

271) Wolbachia reduces the transmission potential of dengue-infected Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ye, Yixin H.; Carrasco, Alison M.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Beebe, Nigel W.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Simmons, Cameron P.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Virus transmission; Mosquito; Host; Populations; Time; Susceptibility; Establishment; Inhibition; Plasmodium; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV) are the causative agents of dengue, the world's most prevalent arthropod-borne disease with around 40% of the world's population at risk of infection annually. Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is being developed as a bio-control strategy against dengue because it limits replication of the virus in the mosquito. The Wolbachia strain wMel, which has been introduced into the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, has been shown to invade and spread to near fixation in field releases. Standard measures of Wolbachia's efficacy for blocking virus replication focus on the detection and quantification of virus in mosquito tissues. Examining the saliva provides a more accurate measure of transmission potential and can reveal the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), that is, the time it takes virus to arrive in the saliva following the consumption of DENV viremic blood. EIP is a key determinant of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENVs, as the earlier the virus appears in the saliva the more opportunities the mosquito will have to infect humans on subsequent bites.Methodology/Principal Findings We used a non-destructive assay to repeatedly quantify DENV in saliva from wMel-infected and Wolbachia-free wild-type control mosquitoes following the consumption of a DENV-infected blood meal. We show that wMel lengthens the EIP, reduces the frequency at which the virus is expectorated and decreases the dengue copy number in mosquito saliva as compared to wild-type mosquitoes. These observations can at least be partially explained by an overall reduction in saliva produced by wMel mosquitoes. More generally, we found that the concentration of DENV in a blood meal is a determinant of the length of EIP, saliva virus titer and mosquito survival.Conclusions/Significance The saliva-based traits reported here offer more disease-relevant measures of Wolbachia's effects on the vector and the virus. The lengthening of EIP highlights another means, in addition to the reduction of infection frequencies and DENV titers in mosquitoes, by which Wolbachia should operate to reduce DENV transmission in the field.

272) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

273) Phylogeny of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) based on ITS1 and ITS2
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sadder, Monther T.; Vidyasagar, Polana S. P. V.; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Abdel-Azim, Mahmoud M.; Al-Doss, Abdullah A.
Assunto: 5.8S; ITS1; ITS2; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus; R.vulneratus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Oriental Insects, v. 49, n. 3-4, p. 198-211, 2015
ISSN: 0030-5316
Resumo: Red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) populations were collected from several regions in Saudi Arabia. Insects were graded based on different patterns of pronotum markings. The entire ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was cloned and sequenced for both R. ferrugineus and its related species R. vulneratus (Panzer). The novel ITS1 sequence form Rhynchophorus was found to be unique in the current Genbank database. Discrimination power of ITS1 region was shown to be much higher than ITS2 region. Penetrance of different pronotum markings varied from one region to another. The pronotum-based clustering diverged from that revealed by ribosomal sequence. Several Indels and nucleotide substitutions were detected along the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region between R. ferrugineus and R. vulneratus. The data support a two-species classification rather than considering them colour morphs of the same species.

274) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

275) Characterization of a novel RXR receptor in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda) regulating growth and female reproduction
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Eichner, Christiane; Dalvin, Sussie; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Malde, Ketil; Kongshaug, Heidi; Nilsen, Frank
Assunto: Ultraspiracle; Retinoid X receptor; Sea louse; Copepod; Atlantic salmon; RNAi; Microarray
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 81, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Nuclear receptors have crucial roles in all metazoan animals as regulators of gene transcription. A wide range of studies have elucidated molecular and biological significance of nuclear receptors but there are still a large number of animals where the knowledge is very limited. In the present study we have identified an RXR type of nuclear receptor in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (i.e. LsRXR). RXR is one of the two partners of the Ecdysteroid receptor in arthropods, the receptor for the main molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (E20) with a wide array of effects in arthropods.Results: Five different LsRXR transcripts were identified by RACE showing large differences in domain structure. The largest isoforms contained complete DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD), whereas some variants had incomplete or no DBD. LsRXR is transcribed in several tissues in the salmon louse including ovary, subcuticular tissue, intestine and glands. By using Q-PCR it is evident that the LsRXR mRNA levels vary throughout the L. salmonis life cycle. We also show that the truncated LsRXR transcript comprise about 50% in all examined samples. We used RNAi to knock-down the transcription in adult reproducing female lice. This resulted in close to zero viable offspring. We also assessed the LsRXR RNAi effects using a L. salmonis microarray and saw significant effects on transcription in the female lice. Transcription of the major yolk proteins was strongly reduced by knock-down of LsRXR. Genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport were also down regulated. Furthermore, different types of growth processes were up regulated and many cuticle proteins were present in this group.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the significance of LsRXR in adult female L. salmonis and discusses the functional aspects in relation to other arthropods. LsRXR has a unique structure that should be elucidated in the future.

276) Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M.; Filipovic, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Maspero, Renato C.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Genetic structure; Microsatellites; Mito-nuclear discordance; RAD-seq; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 8, n. 9, p. 901-915, 2015.
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300 million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing, as well as traditional microsatellite markers in Ae. aegypti from Rio. We found four divergent mitochondrial lineages and a strong spatial structuring of mitochondrial variation, in contrast to the overall nuclear homogeneity across Rio. Despite a low overall differentiation in the nuclear genome, we detected strong spatial structure for variation in over 20 genes that have a significantly altered expression in response to insecticides, xenobiotics, and pathogens, including the novel biocontrol agent Wolbachia. Our results indicate that high genetic diversity, spatially unconstrained admixing likely mediated by male dispersal, along with locally heterogeneous genetic variation that could affect insecticide resistance and mosquito vectorial capacity, set limits to the effectiveness of measures to control dengue fever in Rio.

277) Characterization of anopheles gambiae (African Malaria Mosquito) ferritin and the effect of iron on intracellular localization in mosquito cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Geiser, Dawn L.; Conley, Zachary R.; Elliott, Jamie L.; Mayo, Jonathan J.; Winzerling, Joy J.
Assunto: 4a3b; Aedes aegypti; CCL-125; Deconvolution microscopy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science, v. 15, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: Ferritin is a 24-subunit molecule, made up of heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) subunits, which stores and controls the release of dietary iron in mammals, plants, and insects. In mosquitoes, dietary iron taken in a bloodmeal is stored inside ferritin. Our previous work has demonstrated the transport of dietary iron to the ovaries via ferritin during oogenesis. We evaluated the localization of ferritin subunits inside CCL-125 [Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae), yellow fever mosquito] and 4a3b [Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae), African malaria mosquito] cells under various iron treatment conditions to further elucidate the regulation of iron metabolism in these important disease vectors and to observe the dynamics of the intracellular ferritin subunits following iron administration. Deconvolution microscopy captured 3D fluorescent images of iron-treated mosquito cells to visualize the ferritin HC and LC homologue subunits (HCH and LCH, respectively) in multiple focal planes. Fluorescent probes were used to illuminate cell organelles (i.e., Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and nuclei) while secondary probes for specific ferritin subunits demonstrated abundance and co-localization within organelles. These images will help to develop a model for the biochemical regulation of ferritin under conditions of iron exposure, and to advance novel hypotheses for the crucial role of iron in mosquito vectors.

278) Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Odorant-Binding Proteins in Apolygus lucorum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yuan, Hai-Bin; Ding, Yu-Xiao; Gu, Shao-Hua; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hang-Wei; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan
Assunto: Bug Adelphocoris-Lineolatus; Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Plant Bug; Chemosensory Proteins; Hemiptera-Miridae; Pheromone-Binding; Olfactory Genes; Meyer-Dur; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Genome Annotation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important agricultural pests, with broad host range and cryptic feeding habits in China. Chemosensory behavior plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of A. lucorum, such as the detection of sex pheromone cues during mate pursuit and fragrant odorants during flowering host plant localization. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. In the present study, a transcriptomics-based approach was used to identify potential OBPs in A. lucorum. In total, 38 putative OBP genes were identified, corresponding to 26 'classic' OBPs and 12 'Plus-C' OBPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. lucorum OBP proteins are more closely related to the OBP proteins of other mirid bugs as the same family OBP clustering together. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis for the first reported 23 AlucOBPs revealed that the expression level of 11 AlucOBP genes were significantly higher in antennae of both sexes than in other tissues. Three of them were male antennae-biased and six were female antennae-biased, suggesting their putative roles in the detection of female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. In addition, three, four, two and one AlucOBPs had the highest degree of enrichment in the stylet, head, leg, and in abdomen tissues, respectively. Two other OBPs were ubiquitously expressed in the main tissues, including antennae, stylets, heads, legs and wings. Most orthologs had similar expression patterns, strongly indicating that these genes have the same function in olfaction and gustation.

279) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Ali, Souand Mohamed; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Public health; Albopictus; Outbreak; Aegypti; Arbovirus; Infection; Surveillance; Reemergence; Competence; Emergence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mainly transmitted in urban areas by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, constitutes a major public health problem. In late 2013, CHIKV emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean and spread throughout the region reaching more than 40 countries. Thus far, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes have been implicated as the sole vector in the outbreaks, leading to the hypothesis that CHIKV spread could be limited only to regions where this mosquito species is dominant.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe determined the ability of local populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from the Americas and Europe to transmit the CHIKV strain of the Asian genotype isolated from Saint-Martin Island (CHIKV_SM) during the recent epidemic, and an East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype CHIKV strain isolated from La Reunion Island (CHIKV_LR) as a well-characterized control virus. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus. We found that (i) Aedes aegypti from Saint-Martin Island transmit CHIKV_SM and CHIKV_LR with similar efficiency, (ii) Ae. aegypti from the Americas display similar transmission efficiency for CHIKV_SM, (iii) American and European populations of the alternative vector species Ae. albopictus were as competent as Ae. aegypti populations with respect to transmission of CHIKV_SM and (iv) exposure of European Ae. albopictus to low temperatures (20 degrees C) significantly reduced the transmission potential for CHIKV_SM.Conclusions/SignificanceCHIKV strains belonging to the ECSA genotype could also have initiated local transmission in the new world. Additionally, the ongoing CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti-and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas with possible imported cases of CHIKV to Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. Colder temperatures may decrease the local transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus, potentially explaining the lack of autochthonous transmission of CHIKV_SM in Europe despite the hundreds of imported CHIKV cases returning from the Caribbean.

280) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

281) Chitin is a necessary component to maintain the barrier function of the peritrophic matrix in the insect midgut
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelkenberg, Marco; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chitin; Diflubenzuron; Peritrophic matrix; Permeability; Red flour beetle; RNA interference; Tribolium castaneum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 56, p. 21-28, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: In most insects, the peritrophic matrix (PM) partitions the midgut into different digestive compartments, and functions as a protective barrier against abrasive particles and microbial infections. In a previous study we demonstrated that certain PM proteins are essential in maintaining the PM's barrier function and establishing a gradient of PM permeability from the anterior to the posterior part of the midgut which facilitates digestion (Agrawal et al., 2014). In this study, we focused on the effects of a reduction in chitin content on PM permeability in larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Oral administration of the chitin synthesis inhibitor diflubenzuron (DFB) only partially reduced chitin content of the larval PM even at high concentrations. We observed no nutritional effects, as larval growth was unaffected and neutral lipids were not depleted from the fat body. However, the metamorphic molt was disrupted and the insects died at the pharate pupal stage, presumably due to DFB's effect on cuticle formation. RNAi to knock-down expression of the gene encoding chitin synthase 2 in T. castaneum (TcCHS-2) caused a complete loss of chitin in the PM. Larval growth was significantly reduced, and the fat body was depleted of neutral lipids. In situ PM permeability assays monitoring the distribution of FITC dextrans after DFB exposure or RNAi for TcCHS-2 revealed that PM permeability was increased in both cases. RNAi for TcCHS-2, however, led to a higher permeation of the PM by FITC dextrans than DFB treatment even at high doses. Similar effects were observed when the chitin content was reduced by feeding DFB to adult yellow fever mosquitos, Aedes aegypti. We demonstrate that the presence of chitin is necessary for maintaining the PM's barrier function in insects. It seems that the insecticidal effects of DFB are mediated by the disruption of cuticle synthesis during the metamorphic molt rather than by interfering with larval nutrition. However, as DFB clearly affects PM permeability, it may be suitable to increase the efficiency of pesticides targeting the midgut. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

282) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

283) Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W.; Zhu, Kun Yan; Duman-Scheel, Molly
Assunto: Molecular Biology; Issue 97; Vector biology; RNA interference; Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; DsRNA; SiRNA; Knockdown; Ingestion; Mosquito; Larvae; Development; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Visualized Experiments, v. 97, 2015
ISSN: 1940-087X
Resumo: Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism-and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference-(RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field.

284) Emergence of the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Émergence du virus Zika
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anarthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

285) Heritable CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dong, Shengzhang; Lin, Jingyi; Held, Nicole L.; Clem, Rollie J.; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Guided Cas9 Nuclease; Targeted Mutagenesis; Bombyx-Mori; Rna Interference; Drosophila; Efficient; Gene; System; Prokaryotes; Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In vivo targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool to study gene function. Thus far, two tools for genome editing in Aedes aegypti have been applied, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN). As a promising alternative to ZFN and TALEN, which are difficult to produce and validate using standard molecular biological techniques, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated Sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has recently been discovered as a "do-it-yourself" genome editing tool. Here, we describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In a transgenic mosquito line expressing both Dsred and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) from the eye tissue-specific 3xP3 promoter in separated but tightly linked expression cassettes, we targeted the ECFP nucleotide Sequence for disruption. When supplying the Cas9 enzyme and two sgRNAs targeting different regions of the ECFP gene as in vitro transcribed mRNAs for germline transformation, we recovered four different G1 pools (5.5% knockout efficiency) where individuals still expressed DsRed but no longer ECFP. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed indels in the ECFP target gene ranging from 2-27 nucleotides. These results show for the first time that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing is achievable in Ae. aegypti, paving the way for further functional Genomics related studies in this mosquito species.

286) Co-infection with zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dupont-Rouzeyrol M., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Daures M., John M., Grangeon J.-P., Gourinat A.-C.
Assunto: Dengue virus, mixed infection, virus, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 381-382, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

287) Quantitative proteomic analyses of molecular mechanisms associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in Drosophila melanogaster induced by Wolbachia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yuan, Lin-Ling; Chen, Xiulan; Zong, Qiong; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zailong; Brownlie, Jeremy C.; Yang, Fuquan; Wang, Yu-Feng
Assunto: Drosophila melanogaster; iTRAQ; Quantitative proteomics; Seminal receptacle; Spermatheca; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Journal of Proteome Research, v. 14, n. 9, p. 3835-3847, 2015
ISSN: 1535-3893
Resumo: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster, we applied an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic assay to identify differentially expressed proteins extracted from spermathecae and seminal receptacles (SSR) of uninfected females mated with either 1-day-old Wolbachia-uninfected (1T) or infected males (1W) or 5-day-old infected males (SW). In total, 1317 proteins were quantified; 83 proteins were identified as having at least a 1.5-fold change in expression when 1W was compared with 1T. Differentially expressed proteins were related to metabolism, immunity, and reproduction. Wolbachia changed the expression of seminal fluid proteins (Sfps). Wolbachia may disrupt the abundance of proteins in SSR by affecting ubiquitin proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Knocking down two Sfp genes (CG9334 and CG2668) in Wolbachia-free males resulted in significantly lower embryonic hatch rates with a phenotype of chromatin bridges. Wolbachia-infected females may rescue the hatch rates. This suggests that the changed expression of some Sfps may be one of the mechanisms of CI induced by Wolbachia. This study provides a panel of candidate proteins that may be involved in the interaction between Wolbachia and their insect hosts and, through future functional studies, may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Wolbachia-induced CI.

288) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

289) Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M.; Filipovic, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Maspero, Renato C.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Genetic structure; Microsatellites; Mito - Nuclear discordance; RAD-seq; Rio de Janeiro; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 8, n. 9, p. 901-915, 2015
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedesaegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing, as well as traditional microsatellite markers in Ae.aegypti from Rio. We found four divergent mitochondrial lineages and a strong spatial structuring of mitochondrial variation, in contrast to the overall nuclear homogeneity across Rio. Despite a low overall differentiation in the nuclear genome, we detected strong spatial structure for variation in over 20 genes that have a significantly altered expression in response to insecticides, xenobiotics, and pathogens, including the novel biocontrol agent Wolbachia. Our results indicate that high genetic diversity, spatially unconstrained admixing likely mediated by male dispersal, along with locally heterogeneous genetic variation that could affect insecticide resistance and mosquito vectorial capacity, set limits to the effectiveness of measures to control dengue fever in Rio.

290) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

291) Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hernandez-Martinez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Juvenile hormone; Mosquito; Hemolymph; Biosynthesis; Corpora allata
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 72, p. 22-27, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance ofAedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

292) New and Common Haplotypes Shape Genetic Diversity in Asian Tiger Mosquito Populations from Costa Rica and Panama
Autor: Futami, K.; Valderrama, A.; Baldi, M.; Minakawa, N.; Marin Rodriguez, R.; Chaves, L. F.
Assunto: Mitochodrial COI; ND5; Aedes albopictus ; Invasive species; Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of Economic Entomology, v. 108, n. 2, p. 761-768, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0493
Resumo: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panama and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (similar to 558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panama'. In contrast, a long COI sequence (similar to 1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (+/- SD) was relatively high in CR (0.72 +/- 0.04) when compared with Panama' (0.33 +/- 0.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.89 +/- 0.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panama'. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panama' belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panama' and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (K-st = 1.33; P < 0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panama

293) Dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Guzman, Maria G.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: Antibody - Dependent enhancement; Randomized controlled - Trial; Placebo - Controlled trial; Original antigenic sin; Cd8(+) T-Cells; Hemorrhagic - Fever; Virus - Infection; Aedes aegypti; Vascular leakage; Protective efficacy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 385, n. 9966, p. 453-465, 2015
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Dengue viruses have spread rapidly within countries and across regions in the past few decades, resulting in an increased frequency of epidemics and severe dengue disease, hyperendemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many tropical countries, and autochthonous transmission in Europe and the USA. Today, dengue is regarded as the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease of human beings. Importantly, the past decade has also seen an upsurge in research on dengue virology, pathogenesis, and immunology and in development of antivirals, vaccines, and new vector-control strategies that can positively impact dengue control and prevention.

294) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

295) De novo assembly and annotation of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) repeatome with dnaPipeTE from raw genomic reads and comparative analysis with the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goubert, Clement; Modolo, Laurent; Vieira, Cristina; ValienteMoro, Claire; Mavingui, Patrick; Boulesteix, Matthieu
Assunto: Transposable elements; Repeated DNA; TE analysis; Aedes albopictus; Trinity; Bioinformatic pipeline
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Genome Biology and Evolution, v. 7, n. 4, p. 1192-1205, 2015
ISSN: 1759-6653
Resumo: Repetitive DNA, including transposable elements (TEs), is found throughout eukaryotic genomes. Annotating and assembling the "repeatome" during genome-wide analysis often poses a challenge. To address this problem, we present dnaPipeTE-a new bioinformatics pipeline that uses a sample of raw genomic reads. It produces precise estimates of repeated DNA content and TE consensus sequences, as well as the relative ages of TE families. We shows that dnaPipeTE performs well using very low coverage sequencing in different genomes, losing accuracy only with old TE families. We applied this pipeline to the genome of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive species of human health interest, for which the genome size is estimated to be over 1 Gbp. Using dnaPipeTE, we showed that this species harbors a large (50% of the genome) and potentially active repeatome with an overall TE class and order composition similar to that of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito. However, intraorder dynamics show clear distinctions between the two species, with differences at the TE family level. Our pipeline's ability to manage the repeatome annotation problem will make it helpful for new or ongoing assembly projects, and our results will benefit future genomic studies of A. albopictus.

296) Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses
Autor: Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina
Assunto: Phlebotomus perniciosus; Phlebovirus; Toscana virus; CDC light trap; Sticky trap; Viral isolation; RNA amplification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 576, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an interception method suitable to collect dead specimens in high numbers, with a risk for virus viability or integrity. Sand flies storage requires a "deep cold chain" or specimen preservation in ethanol. In the present study the influence of sand fly collection and storage methods on viral isolation and RNA detection performances was evaluated experimentally.Methods: Specimens of laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus were artificially fed with blood containing Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Various collection and storage conditions of blood-fed females were evaluated to mimic field procedures using single and pool samples. Isolation on VERO cell cultures, quantitative Real time-Retro-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Nested-RT-PCR were performed according to techniques commonly used in surveillance studies.Results: Live engorged sand flies stored immediately at -80 degrees C were the most suitable sample for phlebovirus identification by both virus isolation and RNA detection. The viral isolation rate remained very high (26/28) for single dead engorged females frozen after 1 day, while it was moderate (10/30) for specimens collected by sticky traps maintained up to 3 days at room temperature and then stored frozen without ethanol. Opposed to viral isolation, molecular RNA detection kept very high on dead sand flies collected by sticky traps when left at room temperature up to 6 days post blood meal and then stored frozen in presence (88/95) or absence (87/88) of ethanol. Data were confirmed using sand fly pools.Conclusions: While the collection and storage methods investigated had not much impact on the ability to detect viral RNA by molecular methods, they affected the capacity to recover viable viruses. Consequently, sand fly collection and handling procedures should be established in advance depending on the goal of the surveillance studies.

297) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Ousmane; Gaye, Alioune; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Oral infection; Senegal; Vector competence; West Africa; Zika virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

298) Heritable CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Dong, Shengzhang; Lin, Jingyi; Held, Nicole L.; Clem, Rollie J.; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Genomes; Promoters; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Transcription; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Nucleotides; Transformation; Gene disruption; Eye; Yellow fever; Enzymes; Nuclease; Genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: In vivo targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool to study gene function. Thus far, two tools for genome editing in Aedes aegypti have been applied, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN). As a promising alternative to ZFN and TALEN, which are difficult to produce and validate using standard molecular biological techniques, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated sequence 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has recently been discovered as a "do-it-yourself" genome editing tool. Here, we describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. In a transgenic mosquito line expressing both Dsred and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) from the eye tissue-specific 3xP3 promoter in separated but tightly linked expression cassettes, we targeted the ECFP nucleotide sequence for disruption. When supplying the Cas9 enzyme and two sgRNAs targeting different regions of the ECFP gene as in vitro transcribed mRNAs for germline transformation, we recovered four different G1 pools (5.5% knockout efficiency) where individuals still expressed DsRed but no longer ECFP. PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed indels in the ECFP target gene ranging from 2-27 nucleotides. These results show for the first time that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing is achievable in Ae. aegypti, paving the way for further functional genomics related studies in this mosquito species.

299) Potential Prepore Trimer Formation by the Bacillus thuringiensis Mosquito-specific Toxin MOLECULAR INSIGHTS INTO A CRITICAL PREREQUISITE OF MEMBRANE-BOUND MONOMERS
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sriwimol, Wilaiwan; Aroonkesorn, Aratee; Sakdee, Somsri; Kanchanawarin, Chalermpol; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Ando, Toshio; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan
Assunto: Pore forming domain; Atomic force microscopy; Cry4Ba delta endotoxin; Aedes aegypti larvae; Crystal structure; Toxicity; Binding; Proteins; Oligomerization; Resolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Journal of Biological Chemistry, v. 290, n. 34, p. 20793-20803, 2015
ISSN: 0021-9258
Resumo: The insecticidal feature of the three-domain Cry delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis is generally attributed to their capability to form oligomeric pores, causing lysis of target larval midgut cells. However, the molecular description of their oligomerization process has not been clearly defined. Here a stable prepore of the 65-kDa trypsin-activated Cry4Ba mosquito-specific toxin was established through membrane-mimetic environments by forming an similar to 200-kDa octyl-beta-D-glucoside micelle-induced trimer. The SDS-resistant trimer caused cytolysis to Sf9 insect cells expressing Aedes-mALP (a Cry4Ba receptor) and was more effective than a toxin monomer in membrane perturbation of calcein-loaded liposomes. A three-dimensional model of toxin trimer obtained by negative-stain EM in combination with single-particle reconstruction at similar to 5 nm resolution showed a propeller-shaped structure with 3-fold symmetry. Fitting the three-dimensional reconstructed EM map with a 100-ns molecular dynamics-simulated Cry4Ba structure interacting with an octyl-beta-D-glucoside micelle showed relative positioning of individual domains in the context of the trimeric complex with a major protrusion from the pore-forming domain. Moreover, high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging at nanometer resolution and a subsecond frame rate demonstrated conformational transitions from a propeller-like to a globularly shaped trimer upon lipid membrane interactions, implying prepore-to-pore conversion. Real-time trimeric arrangement of monomers associated with L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy1-propanesulfonic acid bicelle membranes was also envisaged by successive high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging, depicting interactions among three individual subunits toward trimer formation. Together, our data provide the first pivotal insights into the structural requirement of membrane-induced conformational changes of Cry4Ba toxin monomers for the molecular assembly of a prepore trimer capable of inserting into target membranes to generate a lytic pore.

300) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

301) Proteomic changes occurring in the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi during aging
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikulu, Maggy T.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Hastie, Marcus L.; Dale, Patricia E.; Kitching, Roger L.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Kay, Brian H.; Gorman, Jeffery J.; Hugo, Leon E.
Assunto: Age associated protein biomarkers; Anopheles gambiae s.s; A. stephensi; 2D-DIGE; Mass spectrometry; Semi quantitative Western blot analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 126, p. 234-244, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: The age of mosquitoes is a crucial determinant of their ability to transmit pathogens and their resistance to insecticides. We investigated changes to the abundance of proteins found in heads and thoraces of the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi as they aged. Protein expression changes were assessed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and the identity of differentially expressed proteins was determined by using either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry or capillary high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion-trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL hybrid mass spectrometer. Protein biomarkers were validated by semi quantitative Western blot analysis.Nineteen and nine age dependent protein spots were identified for A. stephensi and A. gambiae, respectively. Among the proteins down-regulated with age were homologs of ADF/Cofilin, cytochome c1, heat shock protein-70 and eukalyotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5a). Proteins up-regulated with age included probable methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, voltage-dependent anion-selective channel and fructose bisphosphate aldolase. Semi quantitative Western blot analysis confirmed expression patterns observed by 2D DIGE for eIF5a and ADF/Cofilin. Further work is recommended to determine whether these biomarkers are robust to infection, blood feeding and insecticide resistance. Robust biomarkers could then be incorporated into rapid diagnostic assays for ecological and epidemiological studies.Biological significance: In this study, we have identified several proteins with characteristic changes in abundance in both A gambiae and A. stephensi during their aging process. These changes may highlight underlying mechanisms beneath the relationship between mosquito age and factors affecting Plasmodium transmission and mosquito control. The similarity of changes in protein abundance between these species and the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, has revealed conserved patterns of aging-specific protein regulation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

302) Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens
Autor: Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.
Assunto: West Nile Virus; Arbovirus; Microbiome; Culex Mosquitoes; Invertebrate Immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Viruses Basel, v. 7, n. 10, p. 5619-5631, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia.

303) Plasmodium falciparum suppresses the host immune response by inducing the synthesis of insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pietri, Jose E.; Pietri, Eduardo J.; Potts, Rashaun; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley
Assunto: Mosquito; Anopheles; Immunity; Insulin; Insulin-like peptide; Malaria; Plasmodium; NF-kappa B
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 134-144, 2015
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: The insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and their respective signaling and regulatory pathways are highly conserved across phyla. In invertebrates, ILPs regulate diverse physiological processes, including metabolism, reproduction, behavior, and immunity. We previously reported that blood feeding alone induced minimal changes in ILP expression in Anopheles stephensi. However, ingestion of a blood meal containing human insulin or Plasmodium falciparum, which can mimic insulin signaling, leads to significant increases in ILP expression in the head and midgut, suggesting a potential role for AsILPs in the regulation of P. falciparum sporogonic development. Here, we show that soluble P. falciparum products, but not LPS or zymosan, directly induced AsILP expression in immortalized A. stephensi cells in vitro. Further, AsILP expression is dependent on signaling by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt branches of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IS) pathway. Inhibition of P. falciparum-induced ILPs in vivo decreased parasite development through kinetically distinct effects on mosquito innate immune responses. Specifically, knockdown of AsILP4 induced early expression of immune effector genes (1-6 h after infection), a pattern associated with significantly reduced parasite abundance prior to invasion of the midgut epithelium. In contrast, knockdown of AsILP3 increased later expression of the same genes (24 h after infection), a pattern that was associated with significantly reduced oocyst development. These data suggest that P. falciparum parasites alter the expression of mosquito AsILPs to dampen the immune response and facilitate their development in the mosquito vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

304) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

305) Production of Infectious Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti Is Dependent on the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: RNA Seq; Hemorrhagic fever; Unfolded protein; Gene expression; Stress response; Translation; Vector; Cells; Replication; Inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed upregulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector.

306) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

307) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

308) Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?
Autor: Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan
Assunto: Aquatic organisms; Culicidae; Green nano-synthesis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnology; Plant-borne mosquitocidals
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1519-1529, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10xLC(50)) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in medical entomology and parasitology, allowing us to propose A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles as effective candidates to develop newer and safer mosquitocidal control tools.

309) Chikungunya Virus and Its Mosquito Vectors
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus ; Aedes (Ae.) Aegypti (Ae.) albopictus ; Geographic expansion ; Mosquito ; Vector interactions ; RNA strategies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 231-240, 2015
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

310) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

311) Molecular cloning and characterization of the allatotropin precursor and receptor in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lismont, Els; Vleugels, Rut; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Zels, Sven; Tobe, Stephen S.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Verlinden, Heleen
Assunto: GPCR; Insect; Juvenile Hormone; Neuropeptide; Orexin; Peptide; Motility
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Frontiers in Neuroscience, v. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1662-453X
Resumo: Allatotropins (ATs) are pleiotropic neuroPeptides initially isolated from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. In 2008, the first receptor for AT-like Peptides (ATR) was characterized in Bombyx mori. Since then, ATRs have also been characterized in M. sexta, Tribolium castaneum, Aedes aegypti and Bombus terrestris. These receptors show Sequence similarity to vertebrate orexin (ORX) receptors. When generating an EST-database of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) central nervous system, we found cDNA Sequences encoding the Schgr-AT precursor and a fragment of its putative receptor. This receptor cDNA has now been completed and functionally expressed in mammalian cell lines. Activation of this receptor, designated as Schgr-ATR, by Schgr-AT caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP), with an EC50 value in the nanomolar range. In addition, the transcript distribution of both the Schgr-AT precursor and Schgr-ATR was investigated by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, we found more evidence for the myotropic and allatostimulatory actions of Schgr-AT in the desert locust. These data are discussed and situated in a broader context by comparison with literature data on AT and ATR in insects.

312) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

313) Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gonzales, Kristina K.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Hansen, Immo A.
Assunto: Artificial blood meal; Aedes aegypti; Vitellogenesis; Egg development; Mosquito culture; Mass rearing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PEERJ, v. 3, 2015
ISSN: 2167-8359
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hemoglobin). We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing.

314) New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans
Autor: Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet
Assunto: Nuclear hormone receptor; Caenorhabditis elegans; Life span; Reproductive development; Vitellogenin receptors; Larval development; RNA interference; Homeobox genes; Aedes aegypti; Pest control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success.

315) Arbovirus-mosquito interactions: RNAi pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Olson, Ken E.; Blair, Carol D.
Assunto: West Nile - Virus; Disease - Vector mosquitos; Double stranded - RNA; Aedes aegypti; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Culex – Quinque fasciatus; Genetic interference; Comparative genomics; Antiviral immunity; Mutant spectrum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 119-126, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses infect hematophagous arthropods (vectors) to maintain virus transmission between vertebrate hosts. The mosquito vector actively controls arbovirus infection to minimize its fitness costs. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is the major antiviral response vectors use to restrict arbovirus infections. We know this because depleting RNAi gene products profoundly impacts arbovirus replication, the antiviral RNAi pathway genes undergo positive, diversifying selection and arboviruses have evolved strategies to evade the vector's RNAi responses. The vector's RNAi defense and arbovirus countermeasures lead to an arms race that prevents potential virus-induced fitness costs yet maintains arbovirus infections needed for transmission. This review will discuss the latest findings in RNAi-arbovirus interactions in the model insect (Drosophila melanogaster) and in specific mosquito vectors.

316) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

317) Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Muturi, Ephantus J.; Gardner, Allison M.; Bara, Jeffrey J.
Assunto: Invasive Honeysuckle; Native Mosquito Species; Invasive Mosquito Species
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Environmental Entomology, v. 44, n. 5, p. 1308-1315, 2015
ISSN: 0046-225X
Resumo: We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species.

318) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I.
Assunto: virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

319) Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Overcash, Justin M.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Gene editing; TALEN; CRISPR; DNA repair
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Chromosome Research, v. 23, n. 1, p. 31-42, 2015
ISSN: 0967-3849
Resumo: Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes.

320) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

321) Knockdown of a putative alanine aminotransferase gene affects amino acid content and flight capacity in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wan, Pin-Jun; Fu, Kai-Yun; Lu, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing
Assunto: Leptinotarsa decemlineata; Alanine aminotransferase; RNA interference; Enzyme activity; Flight; Mortality
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Amino Acids, v. 47, n. 7, p. 1445-1454, 2015
ISSN: 0939-4451
Resumo: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays important physiological and biochemical roles in insect. In this study, a full-length Ldalt cDNA was cloned from Leptinotarsa decemlineata. It was ubiquitously expressed in the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. In the adults, Ldalt mRNA was widely distributed in thorax muscles, fat body, midgut, foregut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, ventral ganglion and epidermis, with the expression levels from the highest to the lowest. Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2) targeting Ldalt were constructed and bacterially expressed. After adults fed on dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-immersed foliage for 3 day, Ldalt mRNA abundance was significantly decreased by 79.5 and 71.1 %, and ALT activities were significantly reduced by 64.5 and 67.6 %, respectively. Moreover, silencing Ldalt affected free amino acid contents. Lysine was decreased by 100.0 and 100.0 %, and arginine was reduced by 87.5 and 89.4 %, respectively, in the hemolymph from dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-ingested beetles, compared with control ones. In contrast, proline was increased by 88.7 and 96.4 %. Furthermore, ingestion of dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2 significantly decreased flight speed, shortened flight duration time and flight distance. In addition, knocking down Ldalt significantly increased adult mortality. These data imply that LdALT plays important roles in amino acid metabolism and in flight in L. decemlineata.

322) Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sasaki, Naniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antonio Pancracio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Ligia
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Digestive enzyme; Kunitz-type inhibitor; Molecular docking; Molecular modeling
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biochimie, v. 112, p. 172-186, 2015
ISSN: 0300-9084
Resumo: Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated :a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects adapt to them. (C) (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

323) Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F-1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traore, Sekou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frederic
Assunto: Hybrid Vigor; Heterosis; Inbreeding; Colonization; Mating Competitiveness
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 12, p. 2693-2709, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or Genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health.

324) Effects of the P20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on insecticidal crystal protein Cry4Ba
Autor: Elleuch, Jihen; Zghal, Raida Zribi; Ben Fguira, Ines; Lacroix, Marie Noel; Suissi, Jihed; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir
Assunto: 20-kDa chaperone-like protein; Cry4BLB larvicidal activity; Toxin solubilization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 79, p. 174-179, 2015
ISSN: 0141-8130
Resumo: The accessory protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis has been defined as an important molecular chaperone for forming crystal Cyt1Aa, and enhancing Cry11Aa and Cry4Aa expression. To investigate its putative role in Cry4Ba delta-endotoxin production and toxicity, a p20 gene was cloned and introduced into B. thuringiensis recombinant strain expressing cry4Ba type gene (cry4BLB). The delta-endotoxin synthesis was enhanced by 262%. The generated inclusions were assayed against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The combination of P20 protein with Cry4BLB delta-endotoxin led to a stable mortality rate of 25% with doses ranging from 0.2 mg l(-1) to 0.6 mg l(-1). Cry4BLB crystals produced in the presence of P20 were much less soluble than those produced by the control strain lacking P20 at pH lower than or equal to 10.5. The observed toxicity perturbation correlates with a decrease of Cry4BLB inclusions solubility. The presence of P20 protein has affected Cry4BLB crystallization and altered greatly its solubility properties. Cry4Ba effectiveness against A. aegypti larvae is related to the solubilization step in larval guts environment. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

325) Unravelling the evolution of the allatostatin-type A, KISS and galanin peptide-receptor gene families in Bilaterians: insights from Anopheles mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Felix, Rute C.; Trindade, Marlene; Pires, Isa R. P.; Fonseca, Vera G.; Martins, Rute S.; Silveira, Henrique; Power, Deborah M.; Cardoso, Joao C. R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A) peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system. To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. Phylogeny and gene synteny suggested that invertebrate AST-A receptors and peptide genes shared a common evolutionary origin with KISS/GAL receptors and ligands. AST-ARs and KISSR emerged from a common gene ancestor after the divergence of GALRs in the bilaterian genome. In arthropods, the AST-A system evolved through lineage-specific events and the maintenance of two receptors in the flies and mosquitoes (Diptera) was the result of a gene duplication event. Speciation of Anophelesmosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2) revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa(2+)-signalling pathway was stimulated. GPRALS1 and 2 were expressed mainly in mosquito midgut and ovaries and transcript abundance of both receptors was modified by feeding. A blood meal strongly up-regulated expression of both GPRALS in the midgut (p < 0.05) compared to glucose fed females. Based on the results we hypothesise that the AST-A system in insects shared a common origin with the vertebrate KISS system and may also share a common function as an integrator of metabolism and reproduction. Highlights: AST-A and KISS/GAL receptors and ligands shared common ancestry prior to the protostome-deuterostome divergence. Phylogeny and gene synteny revealed that AST-AR and KISSR emerged after GALR gene divergence. AST-AR genes were present in the hemichordates but were lost from the chordates. In protostomes, AST-ARs persisted and evolved through lineage-specific events and duplicated in the arthropod radiation. Diptera acquired and maintained functionally divergent duplicate AST-AR genes.

326) Efficacy of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum against Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae and adults
Autor: Rocha, L. F. N.; Sousa, N. A.; Rodrigues, J.; Catao, A. M. L.; Marques, C. S.; Fernandes, E. K. K.; Luz, C.
Assunto: Biological control; Entomopathogenic fungus; Hypocreales; Isolate; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of applied microbiology, v. 119, n. 5, p. 1412-1419, 2015
ISSN: 1364-5072
Resumo: AimsThe aim of this study was to test the activity of seven Tolypocladium cylindrosporum isolates against different developmental stages of Aedes aegypti.Methods and ResultsOvicidal activity (30% of eclosion; at a 84% eclosion of control eggs) and lowest cumulative emergence of adults (30%; at a 663% control emergence) originating from eclosing larvae was found 15 and 30days, respectively, after applying conidia of ARSEF 962 or 1580 onto the eggs. All isolates induced larval mortality when third-instar larvae were treated with conidia (5% control mortality); the lowest lethal concentration (LC50) at 5days after treatment was found with ARSEF 1580 (92x10(5)conidiaml(-1)), and the shortest lethal time (LT50) with ARSEF 2912 (28days at 33x10(6)conidiaml(-1)). The pathogenicity of T.cylindrosporum to A.aegypti adults is corroborated. ARSEF 1027, 1580 and 2912 induced the highest cumulative mortality in adults (90%) 15days after application (5% control mortality).ConclusionsFindings emphasized an isolate- and developmental stage-related virulence of T.cylindrosporum.Significance and Impact of the StudyARSEF 1580, in the group of tested isolates, is the most promising isolate for use against terrestrial eggs, aquatic larvae and adults of this important vector.

327) Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, S.; Beerntsen, B. T.
Assunto: Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins; RNA Interference; Bacterial Challenge; Survival; Antimicrobial Peptides; Toll And Immunodeficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 293-310, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP Sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial Peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.coli and M.luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.aegypti.

328) Eilat virus induces both homologous and heterologous interference
Autor: Nasar, Farooq; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Haddow, Andrew D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Superinfection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 484, p. 51-58, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, and humans. Occasionally, alphaviruses can spill over into the human population and cause disease characterized by debilitating arthralgia or fatal encephalitis. Recently, a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described that readily infects mosquito but not vertebrate cell lines. Here, we investigated the ability of EILV to induce superinfection exclusion. Prior infection of C7/10 (Aedes albopictus) cells with EILV induced homologous and heterologous interference, reducing the virus titers of heterologous superinfecting viruses (SINV, VEEV, EEEV, WEEV, and CHIKV) by similar to 10-10,000 fold and delaying replication kinetics by 12-48 h. Similar to in vitro infection, prior in vivo EILV infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes delayed dissemination of chikungunya virus for 3 days. This is the first evidence of heterologous interference induced by a mosquito-specific alphavirus in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights. reserved.

329) Wolbachia influences the production of Octopamine and affects Drosophila male aggression
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rohrscheib, Chelsie E.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W., II; Brownlie, Jeremy C.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-aegypti; Behavior; Melanogaster; Infection; Strain; Populations; Manipulate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 14, p. 4573-4580, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine beta-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

330) Elizabethkingia anophelis: Molecular Manipulation and Interactions with Mosquito Hosts
Autor: Chen, Shicheng; Bagdasarian, Michael; Walker, Edward D.
Assunto: 16s ribosomal-rna; Green fluorescent protein; Mariner-based transposon; Aedes-aegypti; Bacteroides-fragilis; Gliding motility; Salivary-glands; Gut microbiota; Vector; Identification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Applied and environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 6, p. 2233-2243, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Flavobacteria (members of the family Flavobacteriaceae) dominate the bacterial community in the Anopheles mosquito midgut. One such commensal, Elizabethkingia anophelis, is closely associated with Anopheles mosquitoes through transstadial persistence (i.e., from one life stage to the next); these and other properties favor its development for paratransgenic applications in control of malaria parasite transmission. However, the physiological requirements of E. anophelis have not been investigated, nor has its capacity to perpetuate despite digestion pressure in the gut been quantified. To this end, we first developed techniques for genetic manipulation of E. anophelis, including selectable markers, reporter systems (green fluorescent protein [GFP] and NanoLuc), and transposons that function in E. anophelis. A flavobacterial expression system based on the promoter PompA was integrated into the E. anophelis chromosome and showed strong promoter activity to drive GFP and NanoLuc reporter production. Introduced, GFP-tagged E. anophelis associated with mosquitoes at successive developmental stages and propagated in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi but not in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Feeding NanoLuc-tagged cells to A. gambiae and A. stephensi in the larval stage led to infection rates of 71% and 82%, respectively. In contrast, a very low infection rate (3%) was detected in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes under the same conditions. Of the initial E. anophelis cells provided to larvae, 23%, 71%, and 85% were digested in A. stephensi, A. gambiae, and Aedes triseriatus, respectively, demonstrating that E. anophelis adapted to various mosquito midgut environments differently. Bacterial cell growth increased up to 3-fold when arginine was supplemented in the defined medium. Furthermore, the number of NanoLuc-tagged cells in A. stephensi significantly increased when arginine was added to a sugar diet, showing it to be an important amino acid for E. anophelis. Animal erythrocytes promoted E. anophelis growth in vivo and in vitro, indicating that this bacterium could obtain nutrients by participating in erythrocyte lysis in the mosquito midgut.

331) Genome Sequence of Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T), a symbiotic bacterium from entomopathogenic nematode
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwak, Yunyoung; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho
Assunto: Serratia nematodiphila; Symbiont; Single molecule real-time sequencing; Whole genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Journal Of Biotechnology, v. 193, p. 1-2, 2015
ISSN: 0168-1656
Resumo: Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) (=CGMCC 1.6853(T), DZ0503SBS1(T)), isolated from the intestine of Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis, has been known to have symbiotic-pathogenic life cycle, on the multilateral relationships with entomopathogenic nematode and insect pest. In order to better understanding of this rare feature in Serratia species, we present here the genome Sequence of S. nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) with the significance of first genome Sequence in this species. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

332) Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil
Autor: Teixeira Nunes, Marcio Roberto; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Golding, Nick; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro; Andrade da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Carvalho, Valeria Lima; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Ribeiro Cruz, Ana Cecilia; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; da Silva Goncalves Vianez, Joao Lidio, Jr.; Diniz Nunes, Bruno Tardelli; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Tesh, Robert B.; Hay, Simon I.; Pybus, Oliver G.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; National surveillance; Public health; Spatial prediction; Statistical methods
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 13, n. 102, 2015
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: Background: In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil.Methods: We compiled epidemiological and clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil and polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April and September 2014. Two imported and four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities.Results: We detected 41 CHIKV importations and 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola and developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country and provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil.Conclusions: The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian and ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance and vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

333) Heterogeneity in symbiotic effects facilitates Wolbachia establishment in insect populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souto-Maior, Caetano; Lopes, Joao S.; Gjini, Erida; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Teixeira, Luis; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.
Assunto: Wolbachia; Symbiont; Heterogeneity; Invasion threshold; Bistable dynamics; Mathematical model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Theoretical Ecology, v. 8, n. 1, p. 53-65, 2015
ISSN: 1874-1738
Resumo: Facultative vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts often manipulate its host's reproductive biology and thus facilitate their persistence. Wolbachia is one such symbiont where frequency-dependent reproductive benefits are opposed by frequency-independent fitness costs leading to bistable dynamics. Introduction of carriers does not assure invasion unless the initial frequency is above a threshold determined by the balance of costs and benefits. Recent laboratory experiments have uncovered that Wolbachia also protects their hosts from pathogens. The expected conSequence of this phenotype in natural environments is to lower the invasion threshold by a factor that increases with the extent of pathogen exposure. Here, we introduce a series of mathematical models to address how pathogen protection affects Wolbachia invasion. First, under homogeneous symbiotic effects, we obtain an analytical expression for the invasion threshold in terms of pathogen exposure, and find a regime where symbiont releases may result in elimination of the entire host population provided that abundance of virulent pathogens is high. Second, we distribute Wolbachia effects such that some carriers are totally protected and others not at all, and explore how this interplays with different pathogen intensities, to conclude that heterogeneity further lowers the threshold for Wolbachia invasion. Third, we replicate the analysis using a realistic distribution of protective effects and confirm that heterogeneity increases system resilience by reducing the odds of population collapse.

334) Emergence of de novo proteins from 'dark genomic matter' by 'grow slow and moult'
Autor: Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Schmitz, Jonathan; Heberlein, Magdalena
Assunto: Domain rearrangements; Orphan genes; Protein disorder; Protein evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Biochemical Society Transactions, v. 43, n. 5, p. 867-873, 2015
ISSN: 0300-5127
Resumo: Proteins are the workhorses of the cell and, over billions of years, they have evolved an amazing plethora of extremely diverse and versatile structures with equally diverse functions. Evolutionary emergence of new proteins and transitions between existing ones are believed to be rare or even impossible. However, recent advances in comparative genomics have repeatedly called some 10%-30% of all genes without any detectable similarity to existing proteins. Even after careful scrutiny, some of those orphan genes contain protein coding reading frames with detectable transcription and translation. Thus some proteins seem to have emerged from previously non-coding 'dark genomic matter'. These 'de novo' proteins tend to be disordered, fast evolving, weakly expressed but also rapidly assuming novel and physiologically important functions. Here we review mechanisms by which 'de novo' proteins might be created, under which circumstances they may become fixed and why they are elusive. We propose a 'grow slow and moult' model in which first a reading frame is extended, coding for an initially disordered and non-globular appendage which, over time, becomes more structured and may also become associated with other proteins.

335) Identification of genes associated with blood feeding in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Greene, Wayne K.; Macnish, Marion G.; Rice, Kim L.; Thompson, R. C. Andrew
Assunto: Cat flea; Ctenocephalides felis; Blood feeding; cDNA; Suppression subtractive hybridization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a blood-feeding ectoparasitic insect and particular nuisance pest of companion animals worldwide. Identification of genes that are differentially expressed in response to feeding is important for understanding flea biology and discovering targets for their control.Methods: C. felis fleas were maintained and fed for 24 h using an artificial rearing system. The technique of suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to screen for mRNAs specifically expressed in fed fleas.Results: We characterized nine distinct full-length flea transcripts that exhibited modulated or de novo expression during feeding. Among the predicted protein Sequences were two serine proteases, a serine protease inhibitor, two mucin-like molecules, a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme associated with GPI-mediated cell membrane attachment of proteins and a component of the insect innate immune response.Conclusions: Our results provide a molecular insight into the physiology of flea feeding. The protein products of the genes identified may play important roles during flea feeding in terms of blood meal digestion, cellular growth/repair and protection from feeding-associated stresses.

336) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

337) Frizzled 2 is a key component in the regulation of TOR signaling-mediated egg production in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weng, Shih-Che; Shiao, Shin-Hong
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vitellogenesis; TOR; Wnt; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 61, n. , p. 17-24, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: The Wnt signaling pathway was first discovered as a key event in embryonic development and cell polarity in Drosophila. Recently, several reports have shown that Wnt stimulates translation and cell growth by activating the mTOR pathway in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway plays an important role in mosquito vitellogenesis. However, the interactions between these two pathways are poorly understood in the mosquito. In this study, we hypothesized that factors from the TOR and Wnt signaling pathways interacted synergistically in mosquito vitellogenesis. Our results showed that silencing Aedes aegypti Frizzled 2 (AaFz2), a transmembrane receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, decreased the fecundity of mosquitoes. We showed that AaFz2 was highly expressed at the transcriptional and translational levels in the female mosquito 6 h after a blood meal, indicating amino acid-stimulated expression of AaFz2. Notably, the phosphorylation of S6K, a downstream target of the TOR pathway, and the expression of vitellogenin were inhibited in the absence of AaFz2. A direct link was found in this study between Wnt and TOR signaling in the regulation of mosquito reproduction. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

338) A standard cytogenetic map of Culex quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes in application for fine-scale physical mapping
Autor: Unger, Maria F.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Harshbarger, Adam J.; Glass, Patrick; Collins, Frank H.
Assunto: Physical mapping; Culex fatigans; Culex pipiens; Culex quinquefasciatus; Polytene chromosomes; Gene mapping; Chromosomal map; FISH; Assembly; Misassembly; Cytogenetic map
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 307, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus belongs to the C. pipiens cryptic species complex, with global distribution and unclear taxonomy. Mosquitoes of the complex can transmit human and animal pathogens, such as filarial worm, West Nile virus and avian malarial Plasmodium. Physical gene mapping is crucial to understanding genome organization, function, and systematic relationships of cryptic species, and is a basis for developing new vector control strategies. However, physical mapping was not established previously for Culex due to the lack of well-structured polytene chromosomes. Inbreeding was used to diminish inversion polymorphism and asynapsis of chromosomal homologs. Identification of larvae of the same developmental stage using the shape of imaginal discs allowed achievement of uniformity in chromosomal banding pattern. This together with high-resolution phase-contrast photography enabled the development of a cytogenetic map. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used for gene mapping. A detailed cytogenetic map of C. quinquefasciatus polytene chromosomes was produced. Landmarks for chromosome recognition and cytological boundaries for two inversions were identified. Locations of 23 genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs, and 2 cDNA were established. Six supercontigs were oriented and one was found putatively misassembled. The cytogenetic map was linked to the previously developed genetic linkage groups by corresponding positions of 2 genetic markers and 10 supercontigs carrying genetic markers. Polytene chromosomes were numbered according to the genetic linkage groups. This study developed a new standard cytogenetic photomap of the polytene chromosomes for C. quinquefasciatus and was applied for the fine-scale physical mapping. It allowed us to infer chromosomal position of 1333 of annotated genes belonging to 16 genomic supercontigs and find orientation of 6 of these supercontigs; the new cytogenetic and previously developed genetic linkage maps were integrated based on 12 matches. The map will further assist in finding chromosomal position of the medically important and other genes, contributing into improvement of the genome assembly. Better assembled C. quinquefasciatus genome can serve as a reference for studying other vector species of C. pipiens complex and will help to resolve their taxonomic relationships. This, in turn, will contribute into future development of vector and disease control strategies.

339) Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Vector Anopheles-Funestus; Major Malaria Vector; Pyrethroid Resistance; Molecular-Basis; Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Detoxification Genes; Lucilia-Cuprina; Metabolism; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Research, v. 25, n. 9, p. 1347-1359, 2015
ISSN: 1088-9051
Resumo: The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep Sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations.

340) Endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs derived from transposable elements and genes in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Biryukova, Inna; Ye, Tao
Assunto: Endo-siRNAs; Endo-piRNAs; Anopheles gambiae; Transposable elements
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 247, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: The siRNA and piRNA pathways have been shown in insects to be essential for regulation of gene expression and defence against exogenous and endogenous genetic elements (viruses and transposable elements). The vast majority of endogenous small RNAs produced by the siRNA and piRNA pathways originate from repetitive or transposable elements (TE). In D. melanogaster, TE-derived endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs are involved in genome surveillance and maintenance of genome integrity. In the medically relevant malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae TEs constitute 12-16% of the genome size. Genetic variations induced by TE activities are known to shape the genome landscape and to alter the fitness in An. gambiae.Results: Here, using bioinformatics approaches we analyzed the small RNA data sets from 6 libraries formally reported in a previous study and examined the expression of the mixed germline/somatic siRNAs and piRNAs produced in adult An. gambiae females. We characterized a large population of TE-derived endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs, which constitutes 56-60% of the total siRNA and piRNA reads in the analysed libraries. Moreover, we identified a number of protein coding genes producing gene-specific siRNAs and piRNAs that were generally expressed at much lower levels than the TE-associated small RNAs. Detailed sequence analysis revealed that An. gambiae piRNAs were produced by both "ping-pong" dependent (TE-associated piRNAs) and independent mechanisms (genic piRNAs). Similarly to D. melanogaster, more than 90% of the detected piRNAs were produced from TE-associated clusters in An. gambiae. We also found that biotic stress as blood feeding and infection with Plasmodium parasite, the etiological agent of malaria, modulated the expression levels of the endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs in An. gambiae.Conclusions: We identified a large and diverse set of the endogenously derived siRNAs and piRNAs that share common and distinct aspects of small RNA expression across insect species, and inferred their impact on TE and gene activity in An. gambiae. The TE-specific small RNAs produced by both the siRNA and piRNA pathways represent an important aspect of genome stability and genetic variation, which might have a strong impact on the evolution of the genome and vector competence in the malaria mosquitoes.

341) Localization and role of inward rectifier K+ channels in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Piermarini, Peter M.; Dunemann, Sonja M.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Calkins, Travis L.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Beyenbach, Klaus W.
Assunto: Potassium channels; Pharmacology; Small molecules; Immunolocalization; Electrophysiology; Transepithelial fluid secretion
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 67, p. 59-73, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti express three inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel subunits: AeKir1, AeKir2B and AeKir3. Here we 1) elucidate the cellular and membrane localization of these three channels in the Malpighian tubules, and 2) characterize the effects of small molecule inhibitors of AeKir1 and AeKir2B channels (VU compounds) on the transepithelial secretion of fluid and electrolytes and the electrophysiology of isolated Malpighian tubules. Using subunit-specific antibodies, we found that AeKir1 and AeKir2B localize exclusively to the basolateral membranes of stellate cells and principal cells, respectively; AeKir3 localizes within intracellular compartments of both principal and stellate cells. In isolated tubules bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. the peritubular application of VU590 (10 mu M), a selective inhibitor of AeKir1, inhibited transepithelial fluid secretion 120 min later. The inhibition brings rates of transepithelial KCI and fluid secretion to 54% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. VU590 had no effect on the basolateral membrane voltage (VIA) of principal cells, but it significantly reduced the cell input conductance (gin) to values 63% of the control within similar to 90 min. In contrast, the peritubular application of VU625 (10 mu M), an inhibitor of both AeKir1 and AeKir2B, started to inhibit transepithelial fluid secretion as early as 60 min later. At 120 min after treatment, VU625 was more efficacious than VU590, inhibiting transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to similar to 35% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. Moreover, VU625 caused the V-bl and g(in) of principal cells to respectively drop to values 62% and 56% of the control values within only similar to 30 min. Comparing the effects of VU590 with those of VU625 allowed us to estimate that AeKir1 and AeKir2B respectively contribute to 46% and 20% of the transepithelial K+ secretion when the tubules are bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. Thus, we uncover an important role of AeKir1 and stellate cells in transepithelial K+ transport under conditions of peritubular K+ challenge. The physiological role of AeKir3 in intracellular membranes of both stellate and principal cells remains to be determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

342) A serine protease inhibitor from the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons, exhibits antimicrobial activities
Autor: Lee, Kyeong Yong; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jin, Byung Rae
Assunto: Osmia cornifrons; Hornfaced bee; Serine protease inhibitor; Antimicrobial activity; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 18, n. 3, p. 489-495, 2015
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Serine protease inhibitors play a critical role in physiological processes and immune responses by regulating serine protease activities. Here we describe the molecular cloning and antimicrobial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from the hornfaced bee, Osmia cornifrons (OcSPI). OcSPI consists of 405 amino acid residues and contains a potential reactive center loop (RCL) region in its C-terminus. Recombinant OcSPI was produced as a 64-kDa glycoprotein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin. Additionally, OcSPI demonstrated inhibitory activity against microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against tissue plasminogen activator, thrombin, or plasmin. Recombinant OcSPI bound directly to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Beauveria bassiana and exhibited antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Our results demonstrated the antimicrobial functions of OcSPI and suggest a role for OcSPI in the immune response of O. cornifrons bees. (C) 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

343) Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Glutathione-S-Transferase; Cytochrome-P450 Gene Superfamily; Red Flour Beetle; Insecticide-Resistance; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Malaria Vector; Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Diptera-Culicidae; Aedes-Aegypti; Molecular Characterization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

344) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

345) Insect-pathogen interactions: contribution of viral adaptation to the emergence of vector-borne diseases, the example of chikungunya
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zouache, Karima; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Southeastern Senegal; Adaptive Landscape; Mosquito Vectors; Virus Evolution; Dengue Viruses; Public-Health; Aegypti; Transmission; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 14-21, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: The emergence or re-emergence of vector borne diseases represents a major public health problem. In general, therapeutic or prophylactic treatments along with Vaccines are missing or inefficient, emphasizing the need for increased control of vector populations. Understanding the interactions of human pathogens with their insect vectors will aid us in our understanding of viral emergence and the dynamics of these events. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that typically causes incapacitating arthralgia, rash, and fever. It is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti and secondarily by Aedes albopictus. Since its emergence in 2004, CHIKV has continued to spread globally due in large part to an enhanced transmission of the virus by the vector Ae. albopictus. Ae. albopictus-adaptive mutations modulated by epistatic interactions have modified CHIKV transmission and thus the global spread and dynamics of this disease.

346) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

347) Genetic divergence between populations of feral and domestic forms of a mosquito disease vector assessed by transcriptomics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Price, Dana C.; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Culex pipiens complex; Molestus; Cx. quinquefasciatus; Mosquito; Natural selection; Ka/Ks; Cryptic species; Domestication; Arthropod vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteome
Fonte: Peerj, v. 3, n. e807, 2015
ISSN: 2167-8359
Resumo: Culex pipiens, an invasive mosquito and vector of West Nile virus in the US, has two morphologically indistinguishable forms that differ dramatically in behavior and physiology. Cx. pipiens form pipiens is primarily a bird-feeding temperate mosquito, while the sub-tropical Cx. pipiens form molestus thrives in sewers and feeds on mammals. Because the feral form can diapause during the cold winters but the domestic form cannot, the two Cx. pipiens forms are allopatric in northern Europe and, although viable, hybrids are rare. Cx. pipiens form molestus has spread across all inhabited continents and hybrids of the two forms are common in the US. Here we elucidate the genes and gene families with the greatest divergence rates between these phenotypically diverged mosquito populations, and discuss them in light of their potential biological and ecological effects. After generating and assembling novel transcriptome data for each population, we performed pairwise tests for nonsynonymous divergence (Ka) of homologous coding Sequences and examined gene ontology terms that were statistically over-represented in those Sequences with the greatest divergence rates. We identified genes involved in digestion (serine endopeptidases), innate immunity (fibrinogens and alpha-macroglobulins), hemostasis (D7 salivary proteins), olfaction (odorant binding proteins) and chitin binding (peritrophic matrix proteins). By examining molecular divergence between closely related yet phenotypically divergent forms of the same species, our results provide insights into the identity of rapidly-evolving genes between incipient species. Additionally, we found that families of signal transducers, ATP synthases and transcription regulators remained identical at the amino acid level, thus constituting conserved components of the Cx. pipiens proteome. We provide a reference with which to gauge the divergence reported in this analysis by performing a comparison of transcriptome Sequences from conspecific (yet allopatric) populations of another member of the Cx. pipiens complex, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

348) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

349) In-depth characterization of trypsin-like serine peptidases in the midgut of the sugar fed Culex quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Borges-Veloso, Andre; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Domont, Gilberto B.; Britto, Constanca; Cuervo, Patricia; De Jesus, Jose B.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Trypsin-like serine peptidases; Zymography; Mass spectrometry
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Culex quinquefasciatus is a hematophagous insect from the Culicidae family that feeds on the blood of humans, dogs, birds and livestock. This species transmits a wide variety of pathogens between humans and animals. The midgut environment is the first location of pathogen-vector interactions for blood-feeding mosquitoes and the expression of specific peptidases in the early stages of feeding could influence the outcome of the infection. Trypsin-like serine peptidases belong to a multi-gene family that can be expressed in different isoforms under distinct physiological conditions. However, the confident assignment of the trypsin genes that are expressed under each condition is still a challenge due to the large number of trypsin-coding genes in the Culicidae family and most likely because they are low abundance proteins.Methods: We used zymography for the biochemical characterization of the peptidase profile of the midgut from C. quinquefasciatus females fed on sugar. Protein samples were also submitted to SDS-PAGE followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for peptidase identification. The peptidases Sequences were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to assess their distinct features.Results: Zymography revealed that trypsin-like serine peptidases were responsible for the proteolytic activity in the midgut of females fed on sugar diet. After denaturation in SDS-PAGE, eight trypsin-like serine peptidases were identified by LC-MS/MS. These peptidases have structural features typical of invertebrate digestive trypsin peptidases but exhibited singularities at the protein Sequence level such as: the presence of different amino acids at the autocatalytic motif and substrate binding regions as well as different number of disulfide bounds. Data mining revealed a group of trypsin-like serine peptidases that are specific to C. quinquefasciatus when compared to the culicids genomes Sequenced so far.Conclusion: We demonstrated that proteomics approaches combined with bioinformatics tools and zymographic analysis can lead to the functional annotation of trypsin-like serine peptidases coding genes and aid in the understanding of the complexity of peptidase expression in mosquitoes.

350) A transferrin gene associated with development and 2-tridecanone tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera
Autor: Zhang, L.; Shang, Q.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Gao, X.
Assunto: Transferrin; Helicoverpa armigera; RNA interference; 2-tridecanone
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 155-166, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: The full-length cDNA (2320bp) encoding a putative iron-binding transferrin protein from Helicoverpa armigera was cloned and named HaTrf. The putative HaTrf sequence included 670 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 76kDa. Quantitative PCR results demonstrated that the transcriptional level of HaTrf was significantly higher in the sixth instar and pupa stages as compared with other developmental stages. HaTrf transcripts were more abundant in fat bodies and in the epidermis than in malpighian tubules. Compared with the control, the expression of HaTrf increased dramatically 24h after treatment with 2-tridecanone. Apparent growth inhibition with a dramatic body weight decrease was observed in larvae fed with HaTrf double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), as compared with those fed with green fluorescent protein dsRNA. RNA interference of HaTrf also significantly increased the susceptibility of larvae to 2-tridecanone. These results indicate the possible involvement of HaTrf in tolerance to plant secondary chemicals.

351) In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Rasgon, Jason L.
Assunto: Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis; Aedes-Aegypti Mosquitos; Infection; Malaria; Virus; Pathogenesis; Trafficking; Parvovirus; Expression; Nucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential Biological Control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a Biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects.

352) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

353) Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Alba Lorono-Pino, Maria; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Detoxification Genes; Mitochondrial-Dna; Dengue Vector; Yellow-Fever; Populations; Genome; Transcription; Selection; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and Evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

354) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus Zika: Um Novo Capítulo na História da Medicina
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Flaviviridae, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 679-680, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo:

355) Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma
Assunto: Setaria cervi; Protein tyrosine phosphatase; MALDI-MS/MS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4267-4279, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its Peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 A degrees C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-l-tyrosine and O-P-l-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis.

356) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

357) Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zou, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Quantitative Trait Loci; Vector Anopheles-Funestus; Insecticide Resistance; Malaria Vector; Linkage Map; Permethrin Resistance; Pyrethroid Resistance; Genetic-Linkage; Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F-2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker Sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome Sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait.

358) Accelerated evolution of constraint elements for hematophagic adaptation in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Ming-Shan; Adeola, Adeniyi C.; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Wu, Dong-Dong
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Constraint elements; Accelerated elements; Hematophagyÿ
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Zoological Research, v. 36, n. 6, p. 320-327, 2015
ISSN: 0254-5853
Resumo: Comparative genomics is a powerful approach that comprehensively interprets the genome. Herein, we performed whole genome comparative analysis of 16 Diptera genomes, including four mosquitoes and 12 Drosophilae. We found more than 540 000 constraint elements (CEs) in the Diptera genome, with the majority found in the intergenic, coding and intronic regions. Accelerated elements (AEs) identified in mosquitoes were mostly in the protein-coding regions (>93%), which differs from vertebrates in genomic distribution. Some genes functionally enriched in blood digestion, body temperature regulation and insecticide resistance showed rapid evolution not only in the lineage of the recent common ancestor of mosquitoes (RCAM), but also in some mosquito lineages. This may be associated with lineage-specific traits and/or adaptations in comparison with other insects. Our findings revealed that although universally fast evolution acted on biological systems in RCAM, such as hematophagy, same adaptations also appear to have occurred through distinct degrees of evolution in different mosquito species, enabling them to be successful blood feeders in different environments.

359) Flavivirus sfRNA suppresses antiviral RNA interference in cultured cells and mosquitoes and directly interacts with the RNAi machinery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moon, Stephanie L.; Dodd, Benjamin J. T.; Brackney, Doug E.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Assunto: Flavivirus; Dengue virus; Kunjin virus; RNA interference; SfRNA; Mosquito; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 485, p. 322-329, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Productive arbovirus infections require mechanisms to suppress or circumvent the cellular RNA interference (RNA pathway, a major antiviral response in mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate that two flaviviruses, Dengue virus and Kunjin virus, significantly repress siRNA-mediated RNAi in infected human cells as well as during infection of the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses generate a small structured non-coding RNA from the viral 3' UTR referred to as sfRNA. Analysis of infections with a mutant Kunjin virus that is unable to generate appreciable amounts of the major sfRNA species indicated that RNAi suppression was associated with the generation of the non-coding sfRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation of sfRNA with RNAi mediators Dicer and Ago2 suggest a model for RNAi suppression. Collectively, these data help to establish a clear role for sfRNA in RNAi suppression and adds to the emerging impact of viral long non-coding RNAs in modulating aspects of anti-viral immune processes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

360) Acetylcholinesterases from the disease vectors aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae: functional characterization and comparisons with vertebrate orthologues
Autor: Engdahl, Cecilia; Knutsson, Sofie; Fredriksson, Sten-Ake; Linusson, Anna; Bucht, Goran; Ekstrom, Fredrik
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Torpedo - Californica; Mass - Spectrometry; Malaria mosquito; Target site; Inhibitors; Butyrylcholinesterase; Identification; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquitoes of the Anopheles (An.) and Aedes (Ae.) genus are principal vectors of human diseases including malaria, dengue and yellow fever. Insecticide-based vector control is an established and important way of preventing transmission of such infections. Currently used insecticides can efficiently control mosquito populations, but there are growing concerns about emerging resistance, off-target toxicity and their ability to alter ecosystems. A potential target for the development of insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity is the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Herein, we report cloning, baculoviral expression and functional characterization of the wild-type AChE genes (ace-1) from An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, including a naturally occurring insecticide-resistant (G119S) mutant of An. gambiae. Using enzymatic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we found that the secreted proteins were post-translationally modified. The Michaelis-Menten constants and turnover numbers of the mosquito enzymes were lower than those of the orthologous AChEs from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. We also found that the G119S substitution reduced the turnover rate of substrates and the potency of selected covalent inhibitors. Furthermore, non-covalent inhibitors were less sensitive to the G119S substitution and differentiate the mosquito enzymes from corresponding vertebrate enzymes. Our findings indicate that it may be possible to develop selective non-covalent inhibitors that effectively target both the wild-type and insecticide resistant mutants of mosquito AChE.

361) Increase in tolerance of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) to the insecticide temephos after exposure to atrazine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacquet, M.; Tilquin, M.; Ravanel, P.; Boyer, S.
Assunto: Mosquito; Temephos; Atrazine; Aedes Aegypti; Resistance; Pesticide Interactions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 110-119, 2015
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya viruses. Pre-exposure of Ae. aegypti larvae to the herbicide atrazine significantly reduced their sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide temephos. Mosquito larvae pre-exposed for 48 h to non-lethal concentrations of atrazine ranging from 1 to 10 mu g/l commonly encountered in the field, appeared slightly less sensitive to temephos than non-pre-exposed larvae. The effect of a pre-exposure to atrazine on larval tolerance to temephos did not seem to be related to an induction of detoxification processes by this herbicide. Noimportant increase in glutathione transferase, or alpha- and beta-esterase activities was observed in pre-exposed larvae, while P450 monooxygenase activities increased.

362) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

363) Juvenile hormone-activated phospholipase C pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the methoprene-tolerant protein
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Pengcheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Jinsong
Assunto: Insect Hormone; Development; Phospholipase C; Protein Kinase; Transcription
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 15, p. E1871-E1879, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of a wide diversity of developmental and physiological events in insects. Although the intracellular JH receptor methoprene-tolerant protein (MET) functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for specific JH-regulated genes, some JH responses are mediated by signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins associated with plasma membrane. It is unknown whether the JH-regulated gene expression depends on the membrane-mediated signal transduction. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we found that JH activated the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway and quickly increased the levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and intracellular calcium, leading to activation and autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). When abdomens from newly emerged mosquitoes were cultured in vitro, the JH-activated gene expression was repressed substantially if specific inhibitors of PLC or CaMKII were added to the medium together with JH. In newly emerged female mosquitoes, RNAi-mediated depletion of PLC or CaMKII considerably reduced the expression of JH-responsive genes, including the Keppel homolog 1 gene (AaKr-h1) and the early trypsin gene (AaET). JH-induced loading of MET to the promoters of AaKr-h1 and AaET was weakened drastically when either PLC or CaMKII was inactivated in the cultured tissues. Therefore, the results suggest that the membraneinitiated signaling pathway modifies the DNA-binding activity of MET via phosphorylation and thus facilitates the genomic responses to JH. In summary, this study reveals an interplay of genomic and nongenomic signaling mechanisms of JH.

364) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

365) IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Qian, Cen; Fu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Bombyx Mandarina; Vitellogenin Receptor; Expression; Tissue Distribution; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 89, n. 4, p. 181-192, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid Sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain Sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni-NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1: 12,800 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR-related genes (Vg, egg-specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

366) (E)-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil
Autor: Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patricia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique
Assunto: Chemical composition; Insecticide resistance; Acaricidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Pyrethroid resistance; Diptera culicidae; Medicinal plants; Aromatic plants; Vector control; Oleogum resin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with a-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and beta-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and a-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

367) TSS seq based core promoter architecture in blood feeding Tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans) vector of Trypanosomiasis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mwangi, Sarah; Attardo, Geoffrey; Suzuki, Yutaka; Aksoy, Serap; Christoffels, Alan
Assunto: Glossina morsitans morsitans; Transcription start site; Core promoters; TSS seq
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Transcription initiation regulation is mediated by sequence-specific interactions between DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors) and cis-elements, where BRE, TATA, INR, DPE and MTE motifs constitute canonical core motifs for basal transcription initiation of genes. Accurate identification of transcription start site (TSS) and their corresponding promoter regions is critical for delineation of these motifs. To this end, the genome scale analysis of core promoter architecture in insects has been confined to Drosophila. The recently sequenced Tsetse fly genome provides a unique opportunity to analyze transcription initiation regulation machinery in blood-feeding insects.Results: A computational method for identification of TSS in newly sequenced Tsetse fly genome was evaluated, using TSS seq tags sampled from two developmental stages namely; larvae and pupae. There were 3134 tag clusters among which 45.4 % (1424) of the tag clusters mapped to first coding exons or their proximal predicted 5'UTR regions and 1.0 % (31) tag clusters mapping to transposons, within a threshold of 100 tags per cluster. These 1393 non transposon-derived core promoters had propensity for AT nucleotides. The -1/+1 and 1/+1 positions in D. melanogaster, and G. m. morsitans had propensity for CA and AA dinucleotides respectively. The 1393 tag clusters comprised narrow promoters (5 %), broad with peak promoters (23 %) and broad without peak promoters (72 %). Two-way motif co-occurrence analysis showed that the MTE-DPE pair is overrepresented in broad core promoters. The frequently occurring triplet motifs in all promoter classes are the INR-MTEDPE, TATA-MTE-DPE and TATA-INR-DPE. Promoters without the TATA motif had higher frequency of the MTE and INR motifs than those observed in Drosophila, where the DPE motif occur more frequently in promoters without TATA motif. Gene ontology terms associated with developmental processes were overrepresented in the narrow and broad with peak promoters.Conclusions: The study has identified different motif combinations associated with broad promoters in a blood-feeding insect. In the case of TATA-less core promoters, G. m. morsitans uses the MTE to compensate for the lack of a TATA motif. The increasing availability of TSS seq data allows for revision of existing gene annotation datasets with the potential of identifying new transcriptional units.

368) AealRACK1 expression and localization in response to stress in C6/36 HT mosquito cells
Autor: Gonzalez-Calixto, Cecilia; Cazares-Raga, Febe E.; Cortes-Martinez, Leticia; Maria del Angel, Rosa; Medina-Ramirez, Fernando; Mosso, Clemente; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Henry Rodriguez, Mario; de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel
Assunto: C6/36 HT cells; Receptor for activated C; Kinase (RACK1); Scaffold protein; Stress conditions; Aedes mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 119, p. 45-60, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: The Receptor for Activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffold protein member of the tryptophanaspartate (WD) repeat family, folds in a seven-bladed 3-propeller structure that permits the association of proteins to form active complexes. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes sp., are vectors of virus producing important diseases such as: dengue, chilcungunya and yellow fever. Based on the highly conserved gene sequence of AeaeRACK1 of the mosquito Aedes aegypti we characterized the mRNA and protein of the homologous AealRACK1 from the Ae. alloopictusderived cell line C6/36 HT. Two protein species differing in MW/pI values were observed at 35 kDa/8.0 and 36 IrDa/6.5. The behavior of AealRACK1 was studied inducing stress with serum deprivation and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Both stressors induced increase of the expression of AealRACK1 mRNA and proteins. In serum-deprived cells AealRACK1 protein was located cortically near the plasma membrane in contrast to dexamethasone-treated cells where the protein formed a dotted pattern in the cytoplasm. In addition, 33 protein partners were identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Most of the identified proteins were ribosomal, involved in signaling pathways and stress responses. Our results suggest that AealRACK1 in C6/36 FIT cells respond to stress increasing its synthesis and producing phosphorylated activated form.Biological significanceInsect cells adapt to numerous environmental stressors, including chemicals and invasion of pathogenic microorganisms among others, coordinating cellular and organismal responses. Individual cells sense the environment using receptors that trigger signaling pathways that regulate expression of specific effector proteins and/or cellular responses as movement or secretion. In the coordination of responses to stress, scaffold proteins are pivotal molecules that recruit other proteins forming active complexes. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is the best studied member of the conserved tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family. RACK1 folds in a seven-bladed p-propeller structure and it could be activated during stress, participating in different signaling pathways. The presence and activities of RACK1 in mosquitoes had not been documented before, in this work the molecule is demonstrated in an Aedes albopictus-derived cell line and its reaction to stress is observed under the effect of serum deprivation and the presence of glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone, a chemical used to cause stress in vitro. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

369) GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and synthesis of gold nanoparticle using Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract and its larvicidal activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Antimicrobial Activity; Silver Nanoparticles; Green Synthesis; Aqueous Extract; Aedes-Aegypti;Biosynthesis; Leaves; Chemistry; Efficacy; Larvae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal Of Photochemistry And Photobiology B-Biology, v. 148, p. 1-8, 2015
ISSN: 1011-1344
Resumo: A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C29H58O2) attributes highest peak Area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC50) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

370) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in mauritania: first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott
Autor: Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Ould Ahmedou Salem; Brahim, Khyarhoum Ould; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Brengues, Cecile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frederic; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius; Emergence; Larval habitat; Climate change
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 730-733, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

371) Highly evolvable malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arca, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L. M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K. N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simao, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.
Assunto: Antennal Transcriptome Profiles; Sex-Chromosome Evolution; Cuticular Protein Genes; Aedes-Aegypti; R Consensus; Gambiae; Drosophila; Expression; Annotation; Family
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 347, n. 6217, 2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we Sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning similar to 100 million years of Evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-Sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts.

372) 20-hydroxyecdysone stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the mosquito corpora allata
Autor: Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Juvenile hormone ; Mosquito ; Biosynthesis ; Corpora allata ; 20-Hydroxyecdysone
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 100-105, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. JH titer decreases in the last instar larvae allowing pupation and metamorphosis to progress. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again "competent" to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) prepares the pupae for ecdysis, and would be an ideal candidate to direct a developmental program in the CA of the pharate adult mosquito. In this study, we provide evidence that 20E acts as an age-linked hormonal signal, directing CA activation in the mosquito pupae. Stimulation of the inactive brain-corpora allata-corpora cardiaca complex (Br-CA-CC) of the early pupa (24 h before adult eclosion or -24 h) in vitro with 20E resulted in a remarkable increase in JH biosynthesis, as well as increase in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). Addition of methyl farnesoate but not farnesoic acid also stimulated JH synthesis by the Br-CA-CC of the -24 h pupae, proving that epoxidase activity is present, but not JHAMT activity. Separation of the CACC complex from the brain (denervation) in the -24 h pupae also activated JH synthesis. Our results suggest that an increase in 20E titer might override an inhibitory effect of the brain on JH synthesis, phenocopying denervation. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that 20E acts as a developmental signal that ensures proper reactivation of JH synthesis in the mosquito pupae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

373) High Rate of Subclinical Chikungunya Virus Infection and Association of Neutralizing Antibody with Protection in a Prospective Cohort in The Philippines
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yoon, In-Kyu; Alera, Maria Theresa; Lago, Catherine B.; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Villa, Daisy; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Levy, Jens W.; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G., Jr.; Salje, Henrik; Macareo, Louis R.; Hermann, Laura L.; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti; Indian-Ocean; Vaccine; Dengue; Seroprevalence; Outbreak; Fever; Epidemic; Disease; Spread
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.Methods/FindingsA prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects >= 6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by >= 8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer < 10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation and envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) and 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2: 1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12: 1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer >= 10 was associated with 100% (95% CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.ConclusionsSubclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting Vaccine development.

374) Aedes aegypti has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Goundar, Anjali; White, Vanessa; Yang, Qiong; Filipovic, Igor; Johnson, Petrina; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Arguni, Eggi
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Indonesia; Genetic structure; RADseq; Microsatellites; mtDNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 610, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue fever, the most prevalent global arboviral disease, represents an important public health problem in Indonesia. Control of dengue relies on the control of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, yet nothing is known about the population history and genetic structure of this insect in Indonesia. Our aim was to assess the spatio-temporal population genetic structure of Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta, a densely populated region on Java with common dengue outbreaks. We used multiple marker systems (microsatellites, nuclear and mitochondrial genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) to analyze 979 Ae. aegypti individuals collected from the Yogyakarta city and the surrounding hamlets during the wet season in 2011 and the following dry season in 2012. We employed individual-and group-based approaches for inferring genetic structure. We found that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations. The spatial structuring was significant for the nuclear and mitochondrial markers, while the temporal structuring was non-significant. Nuclear markers identified three main genetic clusters, showing that hamlets have greater genetic isolation from each other and from the inner city sites. However, one hamlet experienced unrestricted mosquito interbreeding with the inner city, forming a single genetic cluster. Genetic distance was poorly correlated with the spatial distance among mosquito samples, suggesting stronger influence of human-assisted gene flow than active mosquito movement on spatial genetic structure. A star-shaped mitochondrial haplotype network and a significant R-2 test statistic (R-2 = 0.0187, P = 0.001) support the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta originated from a small or homogeneous source and has undergone a relatively recent demographic expansion. We report the first insights into the spatio-temporal genetic structure and the underlying processes in the dengue fever mosquito from Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Our results provide valuable information on the effectiveness of local control measures as well as guidelines for the implementation of novel biocontrol strategies such as release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes

375) Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Terezinha M.; Bezerra Menezes, Erika S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo V.; Filho, Luiz Carlos P. Almeida; Martins, Jorge M.; Moreno, Frederico B.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O.; Araripe Moura, Arlindo A.; Urano Carvalho, Ana F.
Assunto: Comparative proteomics; Detoxification; Natural insecticide; m-Pentadecadienyl-phenol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteome ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 152, p. 49-55, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24 h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

376) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

377) High throughput profiling of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera immunotranscriptome during the fungal and bacterial infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Xiong, Guang-Hua; Xing, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zhe; Saha, Tusar T.; Wang, Chengshu; Jiang, Haobo; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Helicoverpa armigera; Fungal infection; Bacterial challenge; Innate immunity; RNA-seq; Fat body; Hemocytes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Innate immunity is essential in defending against invading pathogens in invertebrates. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of the most destructive lepidopteran pests, which causes enormous economic losses in agricultural production worldwide. The components of the immune system are largely unknown in this insect. The application of entomopathogens is considered as an alternative to the chemical insecticides for its control. However, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions between pest insects and their pathogens. Here, we investigated the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae and examined gene expression changes after pathogen infections. This study provided insights into the potential immunity-related genes and pathways in H. armigera larvae.Results: Here, we adopted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to determine the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae injected with buffer, fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana, or Gram-negative bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. Based on Sequence similarity to those homologs known to participate in immune responses in other insects, we identified immunity-related genes encoding pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, immune effectors, and nearly all members of the Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways. The RNA-seq data indicated that some immunity-related genes were activated in fungus-and bacterium-challenged fat body while others were suppressed in B. bassiana challenged hemocytes, including the putative IMD and JAK-STAT pathway members. Bacterial infection elevated the expression of recognition and modulator genes in the fat body and signal pathway genes in hemocytes. Although fat body and hemocytes both are important organs involved in the immune response, our transcriptome analysis revealed that more immunity-related genes were induced in the fat body than that hemocytes. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that, consistent with the RNA-seq data, the transcript abundances of putative PGRP-SA1, Serpin1, Toll-14, and Spz2 genes were elevated in fat body upon B. bassiana infection, while the mRNA levels of defensin, moricin1, and gloverin1 were up-regulated in hemocytes.Conclusions: In this study, a global survey of the host defense against fungal and bacterial infection was performed on the non-model lepidopteran pest species. The comprehensive Sequence resource and expression profiles of the immunity-related genes in H. armigera are acquired. This study provided valuable information for future functional investigations as well as development of specific and effective agents to control this pest.

378) Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals
Autor: Seaman, Jonathan A.; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Dabire, Roch K.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A.; Kuklinski, Wojtek S.; Black, William C.; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Ivermectin; Vector control; Malaria transmission; RNA-seq
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, n. 797, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and comparing phylogeny to transcriptional patterns revealed that NPCs have rapidly evolved and separate members respond to either blood meals or to ivermectin.Conclusion: We present evidence of increased ivermectin susceptibility in older An. gambiae mosquitoes that had previously bloodfed. Differential expression analysis suggests complex midgut interactions resulting from ivermectin ingestion that likely involve blood meal digestion physiological responses, midgut microflora, and innate immune responses. Thus, the transcription of certain gene families is consistently affected by ivermectin ingestion, and may provide important clues to ivermectin's broad effects on malaria vectors. These findings contribute to the growing understanding of ivermectin's potential as a transmission control tool

379) Vector competence of the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Island, Cape Verde, to different serotypes of dengue virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fernandes da Moura, Aires Janurio; Varjal de Melo Santos, Maria Alice; Fontes Oliveira, Claudia Maria; Duarte Guedes, Duschinka Ribeiro; de Carvalho-Leandro, Danilo; da Cruz Brito, Maria Lidia; Ribeiro Rocha, Helio Daniel; Gomez, Lara Ferrero; Junqueira Ayres, Constancia Flavia
Assunto: Dengue; RT-PCR; Vector; NS1 antigen; Cape Verde
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), whose main vectors are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Aedes aegypti is the only DENV vector in Cape Verde, an African country that suffered its first outbreak of dengue in 2009. However, little is known about the variation in the level of vector competence of this mosquito population to the different DENV serotypes. This study aimed to evaluate the vector competence of Aedes aegypti from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, to four DENV serotypes and to detect DENV vertical transmission.Methods: Mosquitoes were fed on blood containing DENV serotypes and were dissected at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to detect the virus in the midgut, head and salivary glands (SG) using RT-PCR. Additionally, the number of copies of viral RNA present in the SG was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, eggs were collected in the field and adult mosquitoes obtained were analyzed by RT-PCR and the platelia dengue NS1 antigen kit to detect transovarial transmission.Results: High rates of SG infection were observed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 whereas for DENV-1, viral RNA was only detected in the midgut and head. DENV-4 did not spread to the head or SG, maintaining the infection only in the midgut. The number of viral RNA copies in the SG did not vary significantly between DENV-2 and DENV-3 or among the different periods of incubation and the various titers of DENV tested. With respect to DENV surveillance in mosquitoes obtained from the eggs collected in the field, no samples were positive.Conclusion: Although no DENV positive samples were collected from the field in 2014, it is important to highlight that the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Islands exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to DENV serotypes. This population showed a high vector competence for DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains and a low susceptibility to DENV-1 and DENV-4. Viral RNA copies in the SG remained constant for at least 21 dpi, which may enhance the vector capacity of Aedes aegypti and suggests the presence of a mechanism modulating virus replication in the SG.

380) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

381) Knickkopf and retroactive proteins are required for formation of laminar serosal procuticle during embryonic development of Tribolium castaneum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Noh, Mi Young; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A.; Kramer, Karl J.; Beeman, Richard W.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam
Assunto: Chitin; Knickkopf; Retroactive; Chitin synthase; RNA interference (RNAi); Serosal cuticle
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 60, n. , p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Chitin, a homopolymer of beta-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine synthesized by chitin synthase A (Chs-A), is organized in the procuticle of the postembryonic cuticle or exoskeleton, which is composed of laminae stacked parallel to the cell surface to give stability and integrity to the underlying insect epidermal and other tissues. Our previous work has revealed an important role for two proteins from Tribolium castaneum named Knickkopf (TcKnk) and Retroactive (TcRtv) in postembryonic cuticular chitin maintenance. TcKnk and TcRtv were shown to be required for protection and organization of newly synthesized procuticular chitin. To study the functions of TcKnk and TcRtv in serosal and larval cuticles produced during embryogenesis in T castaneum, dsRNAs specific for these two genes were injected into two week-old adult females. The effects of dsRNA treatment on ovarial integrity, oviposition, egg hatching and adult survival were determined. Insects treated with dsRNA for chitin synthase-A (TcChs-A) and tryptophan oxygenase (TcVer) were used as positive and negative controls for these experiments, respectively. Like TcChs-A RNAi, injection of dsRNA for TcKnk or TcRtv into adult females exhibited no adult lethality and oviposition was normal. However, a vast majority of the embryos did not hatch. The remaining (similar to 10%) of the embryos hatched into first instar larvae that died without molting to the second instar. Chitin content analysis following TcKnk and TcRtv parental RNAi revealed approximately 50% reduction in chitin content of eggs in comparison with control TcVer RNAi, whereas TcChs-A dsRNA-treatment led to >90% loss of chitin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of serosal cuticle from TcChs-A, TcKnk and TcRtv dsRNA-treated insects revealed a complete absence of laminar organization of serosal (and larval) procuticle in comparison with TcVer dsRNA-treated controls, which exhibited normal laminar organization of procuticular chitin. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to their essential roles in maintenance and organization of chitin in epidermal cuticle in larval and later stages of insect development, TcKnk and TcRtv also are required for egg hatch, chitin maintenance and laminar organization of both serosal and larval cuticle during embryonic development of T. castaneum. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

382) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

383) Isolation and Characterization of New Bacillus thuringiensis Strains with Insecticidal Activity to Difficult to Control Lepidopteran Pests
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lee, You Kyoung; Jin, Na Young; Lee, Bo Ram; Seo, Mi Ja; Youn, Young Nam; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa; Yu, Yong Man
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Plutella xylostella; Spodoptera exigua; Spodoptera litura
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of The Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, v. 60, n. 1, p. 103-112, 2015
ISSN: 0023-6152
Resumo: Strains were isolated from soil samples collected from mountains and fields of Yeong-Dong and Ok-cheon, ChungBuk province in order to select B. thuringiensis strains with high insecticidal activities against lepidopteran pests. Eight B. thuringiensis strains producing spores and endotoxin proteins were selected from a total of 26 soil samples. Tests of biological activities in Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, and Aedes aegypti were performed with 8 isolates of B. thuringiensis. CAB565 and CAB566 strains were selected, because such strains showed more than 80% of insecticidal activities against four kinds of pests. Selected two strains formed endotoxin proteins in a typical bipyramidal type. CAB565 and CAB566 strains were identified as thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, respectively. LC50 of CAB566 strain against larvae of S. litura at the fourth stage was 7.7x10(3) (cfu/ml), which was the highest activity. LC50 value of CAB565 strain against larvae of S. exigua at the fifth stage was 3.0x10(6) (cfu/ml), which was high activity. Through SDS PAGE, CAB565 and CAB566 strains showed a band at 130 kDa. After it reacted with midgut juice of S. litura and S. exigua, a band of toxin protein was shown at 65 kDa. According to results of PCR analysis, it was found that cry1Aa, cry1Ac and cry1I genes were present in CAB565 strain and it was different from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. cry1Aa, cry1C, cry1D and cry1I genes were present in CAB566 strain and it was different from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. As a result of plasmid DNA patterns, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki 103099 strain and CAB565 strain had 5 and 10 plasmid DNAs, respectively. B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai KB098 strain and CAB566 strain had 9 and 7 plasmid DNAs, respectively.

384) A cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide with anti-inflammatory activity from the black fly salivary glands
Autor: Wu, Jing; Mu, Lixian; Zhuang, Li; Han, Yi; Liu, Tong; Li, Jun; Yang, Yuan; Yang, Hailong; Wei, Lin
Assunto: Cecropin, Antimicrobial peptide, Anti-inflammation, Black fly, Simulium bannaense
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 2-13, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belonging to the cecropin family have been identified from the salivary glands of different black fly species, however, the immunological functions for these molecules were poorly understood. A novel cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide (SibaCec) was purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium bannaense. The amino acid sequence of SibaCec was determined by a combination method of automated Edman degradation and cDNA sequencing. The morphologic changes of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli treated with SibaCec were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to analyze the mRNA expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) generation was examined using a Griess assay and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappa B) were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was performed to evaluate the secondary structure of SibaCec in solvent environment. Interaction of SibaCec with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated LPS aggregates. Neutralization of LPS by SibaCec was assayed with the chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. qPCR was also used to analyze the expression of SibaCec mRNA in the salivary glands of insects after oral infection with the bacteria E. coli. SibaCec possessed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and showed low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. SEM analysis indicated that SibaCec killed bacteria through the disruption of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, SibaCec significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interferon-6 (IL-6) by blocking the activation of MAPKs and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. It mainly adopted an alpha-helix conformation in membrane-mimetic environments. SibaCec could interact and neutralize LPS. Infection of black flies with bacteria caused an upregulation of the expression of SibaCec. These results demonstrated that in addition to the bactericidal capacity, SibaCec can function as immune regulator, inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors.

385) Highly efficient Cas9-mediated gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gantz, Valentino M.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Tatarenkova, Olga; Fazekas, Aniko; Macias, Vanessa M.; Bier, Ethan; James, Anthony A.
Assunto: Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Aedes-Aegypti; Plasmodium-Falciparum; Promoter; Transmission; Expression; Repair; Mutagenesis; Antibodies; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 49, p. E6736-E6743, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Genetic engineering technologies can be used both to create transgenic mosquitoes carrying antipathogen effector genes targeting human malaria parasites and to generate gene-drive systems capable of introgressing the genes throughout wild vector populations. We developed a highly effective autonomous Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated gene-drive system in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, adapted from the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR). This specific system results in progeny of males and females derived from transgenic males exhibiting a high frequency of germ-line gene conversion consistent with homology-directed repair (HDR). This system copies an similar to 17-kb construct from its site of insertion to its homologous chromosome in a faithful, site-specific manner. Dual anti-Plasmodium falciparum effector genes, a marker gene, and the autonomous gene-drive components are introgressed into similar to 99.5% of the progeny following outcrosses of transgenic lines to wild-type mosquitoes. The effector genes remain transcriptionally inducible upon blood feeding. In contrast to the efficient conversion in individuals expressing Cas9 only in the germ line, males and females derived from transgenic females, which are expected to have drive component molecules in the egg, produce progeny with a high frequency of mutations in the targeted genome Sequence, resulting in near-Mendelian inheritance ratios of the transgene. Such mutant alleles result presumably from non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) events before the segregation of somatic and germ-line lineages early in development. These data support the design of this system to be active strictly within the germ line. Strains based on this technology could sustain control and elimination as part of the malaria eradication agenda.

386) A comparative analysis of reproductive biology of insect vectors of human disease
Autor: Shaw, W. Robert; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Aksoy, Serap; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Assunto: Fly ; Glossina ? Morsitans ; Aedes Aegypti ? Mosquitos ; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Tsetse ? Fly ; Juvenile ?Hormone ; Cytoplasmic incompatibility ; Molecular characterization ; African trypanosomiasis ; Wolbachia infections ; Host interactions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 142-148, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: Studying the reproductive strategies of insect species that transmit diseases to humans can identify new exploitable targets for the development of vector control methods. Here we describe shared characteristics and individual features of the reproductive biology of three major disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Glossina morsitans. Current studies are identifying i) species-specific molecular cascades that determine female monandrous behavior, ii) core aspects of egg development that could be disrupted for controlling natural populations, and iii) the increasingly apparent role of resident microbiota in shaping reproductive success and disease transmission potential. The recent completion of multiple genome sequencing projects is allowing comparative genomics studies that not only increase our knowledge of reproductive processes but also facilitate the identification of novel targets for vector control.

387) Transcriptome profiling and genetic study reveal amplified carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance, in the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grigoraki, Linda; Lagnel, Jacques; Kioulos, Ilias; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Morou, Evangelia; Labbe, Pierrick; Weill, Mylene; Vontas, John
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Esterase gene; Small portions; Culex pipiens; Amplification; Mechanisms; Expression; Microassay; Culicidae; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Principal findingsTemephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.SignificanceThe identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.

388) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

389) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

390) A corpora allata farnesyl diphosphate synthase in mosquitoes displaying a metal ion dependent substrate specificity
Autor: Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nyati, Pratik; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Prenyltranferases; Metal dependence; Substrate specificity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 44-50, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate famesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg2+ ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co2+ ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg2+ the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP > DMAPP > IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays "catalytic promiscuity", changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

391) Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meng, Qian; Yu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Meng-Long; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Zhou, Gui-Ling; Li, Xuan; Qin, Qi-Lian; Hu, Song-Nian; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Hepialus xiaojinensis; Ophiocordyceps sinensis; Transcriptome; Insect immunity; Phylogenetic analysis; Expression profiling; Fat body
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 1-15, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. However, little sequence information is available for this insect. A time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to O. sinensis infection. In total, 50,164 unigenes were obtained by assembling the reads from two high-throughput approaches: 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Hiseq2000. Hierarchical clustering and functional examination revealed four major gene clusters. Clusters 1-3 included transcripts markedly induced by the fungal infection within 72 h. Cluster 4, with a lower number of transcripts, was suppressed during the early phase of infection but returned to normal expression levels sometime before 1 year. Based on sequence similarity to orthologs known to participate in immune defenses, 258 candidate immunity-related transcripts were identified, and their functions were hypothesized. The genes were more primitive than those in other Lepidopteran insects. In addition, lineage-specific family expansion of the clip-domain serine proteases and C-type lectins were apparent and likely caused by selection pressures. Global expression profiles of immunity-related genes indicated that H. xiaojinensis was capable of a rapid response to an O. sinensis challenge; however, the larvae developed tolerance to the fungus after prolonged infection, probably due to immune suppression. Specifically, antimicrobial peptide mRNAs could not be detected after chronic infection, because key components of the Toll pathway (MyD88, Pelle and Cactus) were downregulated. Taken together, this study provides insights into the defense system of H. xiaojinensis, and a basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the interaction between the host and the entomopathogen. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

392) Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?
Autor: Reavey, Catherine E.; Warnock, Neil D.; Garbett, Amy P.; Cotter, Sheena C.
Assunto: Aging; defensin; Ecological immunology; Insect; Lifespan; Lysozyme; Nicrophorus; Parental care; Phenoloxidase; Wounding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Ecology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 19, p. 4365-4375, 2015
ISSN: 2045-7758
Resumo: How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in staying alive in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

393) Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mills, M. K.; Nayduch, D.; Michel, K.
Assunto: Biting Midge; Vector-Borne Disease; Orbivirus; Reverse Genetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 105-114, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a Sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C.sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C.sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C.sonorensis.

394) A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue Prevention
Autor: Achee, Nicole L.; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C., Jr.; Morrison, Amy C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Gubler, Duane J.; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Aedes - Aegypti diptera ; Cluster ? Randomized ?Trial ; Bancroftian filariasis ; Developing ?Countries ; Mosquito population ; Sustained ? Release ; RNA interference ; Field ? Evaluation ; Lethal ovitrap ; Key container
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations.

395) Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.
Assunto: Water Channel; Molecular Characterization; Trehalose Transporter; Clinical Medicine; Anopheles-Gambiae; Bombyx-Mori; Big-Brain; Fat-Body; Glycerol; Insect
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. 7795, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an Evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24 hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions.

396) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

397) Functional characterization of five different PRXamide receptors of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with peptidomimetics and identification of agonists and antagonists
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Park, Yoonseong
Assunto: GPCR; Pyrokinin; CAPA; PBAN; ETH; pharmacology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Peptides, v. 68, p. 246-252, 2015
ISSN: 0196-9781
Resumo: The neuropeptidergic system in insects is an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized five different G protein-coupled receptors in a phylogenetic cluster, containing receptors for PRXamide in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, by evaluating a series of 70 different Peptides and peptidomimetics. Three pyrokinin receptors (TcPKr-A, -B, and -C), cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (TcCAPAr) and ecdysis triggering hormone receptor (TcETHr) were included in the study. Strong agonistic or antagonistic peptidomimetics were identified, and included beta-proline (beta P-3) modification of the core amino acid residue proline and also a cyclo-peptide. It is common for a ligand to act on multiple receptors. In a number of cases, a ligand acting as an agonist on one receptor was an efficient antagonist on another receptor, suggesting complex outcomes of a peptidomimetic in a biological system. Interestingly, TcPK-A was highly promiscuous with a high number of agonists, while TcPK-C and TcCAPAr had a lower number of agonists, but a higher number of compounds acting as an antagonist. This observation suggests that a target GPCR with more promiscuity will provide better success for peptidomimetic approaches. This study is the first description of peptidomimetics on a CAPA receptor and resulted in the identification of peptidomimetic analogs that demonstrate antagonism of CAPA ligands. The PRXamide receptor assays with peptidomimetics provide useful insights into the biochemical properties of receptors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

398) Allatostatin-C reversibly blocks the transport of citrate out of the mitochondria and inhibits juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes
Autor: Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Allatostatin; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Membrane citrate transport
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 57, p. 20-26, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti allatostatin-C (AeaAST-C or PISCF-AST) is a strong and fast reversible inhibitor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) synthesis by the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. AeaAST-C showed no inhibitory activity in the presence of any of the intermediate precursors of JH III indicating that the AeaAST-C target is located before the entry of acetylCoA in the pathway. Stimulation experiments using different sources of carbon (glucose, pyruvate, acetate and citrate) suggest that AST-C acts after pyruvate is transformed to citrate in the mitochondria. In vitro inhibition of the citrate mitochondrial carrier (CIC) mimicked the effect of AeaAST-C, and was overridden by addition of citrate or acetate. Our results provide compelling evidence that AeaAST-C inhibits JH III synthesis by blocking the CIC carrier that transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, obstructing the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA that sustains JH III synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

399) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

400) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

401) Tree holes as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in urban, suburban and forest habitats in a dengue affected area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mangudo, C.; Aparicio, J. P.; Gleiser, R. M.
Assunto: Culicidae; Landscape; Phytotelmata; Population ecology; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 679-684, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue and urban yellow fever in the world, is highly adapted to the human environment. Artificial containers are the most common larval habitat for the species, but it may develop in tree holes and other phytotelmata. This study assessed whether tree holes in San Ramon de la Nueva Oran, a city located in subtropical montane moist forest where dengue outbreaks occur, are relevant as larval habitat for Ae. aegypti and if the species may be found in natural areas far from human habitations. Water holding tree holes were sampled during 3 years once a month along the rainy season using a siphon bottle, in urban and suburban sites within the city and in adjacent forested areas. Larvae and pupae were collected and the presence and volume of water in each tree hole were recorded. Finding Ae. aegypti in forested areas was an isolated event; however, the species was frequently collected from tree holes throughout the city and along the sampling period. Moreover, larvae were collected in considerably high numbers, stressing the importance of taking into account these natural cavities as potential reinfestation foci within dengue control framework.

402) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

403) Induction of defensin response to dengue infection in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Misse, Dorothee; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Antimicrobial Peptides; Antivirus Defense Mechanisms; Innate Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomological Science, v. 18, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1343-8786
Resumo: Innate immune-related defensin peptide expression, the major antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, was analyzed following infection by dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) (DENV-2). In vitro, the mosquito cell line C6/36 was exposed to dengue virus at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) in an hour; it was found that the expression level of defensin transcripts was dependent upon viral dose. In addition, using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting assays to determine defensin transcription and translation at a series of times post-inoculation, we found that the time course of defensin transcripts correlated with the expression of defensin peptide post-infection. In vitro, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed different meals (DENV-2 infected blood, non-infectious blood and sugar) at 14 days post-feeding, to determine defensin transcription in response to dengue infection, by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) assay. The results showed that a peak of 4.25kDa peptide, composed of defensin, was predominantly induced by DENV-2 infected blood-fed mosquitoes. We observed that DENV-2 could trigger the defensin peptide, defined molecularly as an innate immune response. Therefore, this peptide may be involved in dengue infection and/or transmission. Improved understanding of the mosquito's responses to dengue virus should strengthen our understanding of this vector's innate immune system.

404) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

405) Innate Antiviral Immunity against Dengue Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Makhluf, Huda; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Interferon; STAT1; STAT2; IRF; ISG
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Critical Reviews in Immunology, v. 35, n. 3, p. 253-260, 2015
ISSN: 1040-8401
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans worldwide, causes dengue fever, a mild form of the disease, as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, a more severe form which can be life-threatening. The four serotypes of DENV (DENV1-4) are positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Together, they are estimated to cause almost 100 million symptomatic cases, 2.1 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, and 21,000 deaths per year worldwide. There are currently no effective Vaccines or antiviral treatment for DENV. Innate immune defenses play a key role in controlling DENV infection in the early stages. Herein we review the innate antiviral immunity against DENV by delineating the intracellular mechanisms of the immune response and the evasion mechanisms evolved by the virus. A better understanding of the innate immune response will impact the development of novel animal models, antiviral drugs as well as potential targeted adjuvants for DENV Vaccines.

406) A draft genome sequence of an invasive mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus
Autor: Dritsou, Vicky; Topalis, Pantelis; Windbichler, Nikolai; Simoni, Alekos; Hall, Ann; Lawson, Daniel; Hinsley, Malcolm; Hughes, Daniel; Napolioni, Valerio; Crucianelli, Francesca; Deligianni, Elena; Gasperi, Giuliano; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Savini, Grazia; Manni, Mose; Scolari, Francesca; Malacrida, Anna R.; Arca, Bruno; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Moretti, Riccardo; Aprea, Giuseppe; Calvitti, Maurizio; Picciolini, Matteo; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Favia, Guido; Crisanti, Andrea; Louis, Christos
Assunto: NGS; WGS; BUSCO; Repetitive DNA; Transposable elements; Invasive species; Disease vector; Dengue fever; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 5, p. 207-220, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo: The draft genome sequence of Italian specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined using a standard NGS (next generation sequencing) approach. The size of the assembled genome is comparable to that of Aedes aegypti; the two mosquitoes are also similar as far as the high content of repetitive DNA is concerned, most of which is made up of transposable elements. Although, based on BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues) analysis, the genome assembly reported here contains more than 99% of protein-coding genes, several of those are expected to be represented in the assembly in a fragmented state. We also present here the annotation of several families of genes (tRNA genes, miRNA genes, the sialome, genes involved in chromatin condensation, sex determination genes, odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors). These analyses confirm that the assembly can be used for the study of the biology of this invasive vector of disease.

407) Horizontal transmission of an R4 clade non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon between the divergent Aedes and Anopheles mosquito genera
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Biedler, J. K.; Chen, X.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Horizontal Transfer; Mosquito; Evolution; Transposable Elements; Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 331-337, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: AaegR4_1 and AgamR4_1 are the sole R4 clade non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, two species that diverged approximately 145-200 million years ago. Twelve full-length copies were found in Ae.aegypti and have less than 1% nucleotide (nt) divergence, suggesting recent activity on an Evolutionary time scale. Five of these copies have intact open reading frames and the 3.6kb open reading frame of AaegR4_1.1 has 78% nt identity to AgamR4_1.1. No intact copies were found in An.gambiae. Searches of 25 genomic databases for 22 mosquito species from three genera revealed R4 clade representatives in Aedes and Anopheles genera but not in Culex. Interestingly, these elements are present in all six species of the An.gambiae species complex that were searched but not in 13 other anopheline species. These results combined with divergence vs. age analysis suggest that horizontal transfer is the most likely explanation for the low divergence between R4 clade retrotransposon Sequences of the divergent mosquito species from the Aedes and Anopheles genera. This is the first report of the horizontal transfer of an R4 clade non-LTR retrotransposon and the first report of the horizontal transfer of a non-LTR retrotransposon in mosquitoes.

408) Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Autor: de Toni Aquino da Cruz, Lucineia Claudia; Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Leal-Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini; dos Santos, Marina Atanaka
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Vertical transmission; Entomological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 48, n. 1, p. 18-25, 2015
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. Methods: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriario neighborhood of Cuiaba, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758) were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%). Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3). This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiaba, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

409) Immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in Bombyx mori
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiabin; Lu, Yahong; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang
Assunto: Silkworm; JAK/STAT pathway; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; RNAi pathway; Innate immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 65, n. 2, p. 391-397, 2015
ISSN: 0161-5890
Resumo: The JAK/STAT, Toll, Imd, and RNAi pathways are the major signaling pathways associated with insect innate immunity. To explore the different immune signaling pathways triggered in response to pathogenic micro-organism infections in the silkworm, Bombyx mari, the expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (BmSTAT), spatzle-1 (Bmspz-1), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (BmPGRP-LB), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LE (BmPGRP-LE), argonaute 2 (Bmago2), and dicer-2 (Bmdcr2) genes after challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Serratiamarcescens (Sm), Bacillus born-byseptieus (Bab), Beauveriabassiana (Beb), nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), cypovirus (BmCPV), bidensovirus (BmBDV), or Nosemabombycis (Nb) were determined using real-time PCR. We found that the JAK/STAT pathway could be activated by challenge with BmNPV and BmBDV, the Toll pathway could be most robustly induced by challenge with Beb, the Imd pathway was mainly activated in response to infection by E. coli and Sm, and the RNAi pathway was not activated by viral infection, but could be triggered by some bacterial infections. These findings yield insights into the immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in the silkworm. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved:

410) An investigation on the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and its relationship with incidence of vector borne diseases
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, R. L. J.; Thirugnanasambantham, K.; Ragul, K.; Mani, C.; Balagangadharan, K.
Assunto: Thuringiensis subsp Israelensis; Rapid larvicidal activity; Bacillus - Thuringiensis; Culex -Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Whole - Cell; Sphaericus; Proteins; Identification; Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 84-97, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Control of mosquitoes is the most important aspect of public health, as mosquitoes transmit many human diseases, including the fatal infection, Japanese encephalitis. This paper addresses the isolation of new mosquitocidal bacteria from soil samples in the Union Territory of Pondicherry, India, where, no clinical cases of vector borne infections have been reported. Bacterial isolates from soil samples were screened for potential mosquitocidal strains and bioassays against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) were carried out. Genomic DNA of potential mosquitocidal isolates was amplified and species identification was carried out using BLASTn program (NCBI). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of mosquitocidal bacteria revealed seven potential isolates. SDS-PAGE results have shown that there was considerable difference in the protein profiles. Numerical analysis revealed 4 distinct groups at similarity level 25%. The relationship between VBDs and prevalence of soil mosquitocidal bacteria in the study sites has elicited considerable interest in the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and their application for mosquito borne diseases control.

411) Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Aging; Anopheles Stephensi; Insulin Signaling; Vitellogenin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Faseb Journal, v. 29, n. 4, p. 1404-1413, 2015
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.

412) An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors
Autor: Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Orfano, Alessandra S.; Bahia, Ana C.; Duarte, Ana P. M.; Rios-Velasquez, Claudia M.; Melo, Fabricio F.; Pessoa, Felipe A. C.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Campos, Keillen M. M.; Villegas, Luis Martinez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabe; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simoes, Rejane C.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M.; Lima, Jose B. P.; Barbosa, Maria G. V.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Tadei, Wanderli P.; Secundino, Nagila F. C.
Assunto: Anopheles; Plasmodium; Transmission; Amazon vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 1, p. 23-47, 2015
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Anopheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

413) Increased production of piRNAs from euchromatic clusters and genes in Anopheles gambiae compared with Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: George, Phillip; Jensen, Silke; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Lee, Jiyoung; Xing, Yi; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal; Sharakhov, Igor V.
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Development; Drosophila melanogaster; Euchromatin; Germline; Heterochromatin; piRNA clusters; Reproduction; Small RNAs; Transposable element
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Epigenetics & Chromatin, v. 8, n. 50, 2015
ISSN: 1756-8935
Resumo: Specific genomic loci, termed Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters, manufacture piRNAs that serve as guides for the inactivation of complementary transposable elements (TEs). The piRNA pathway has been accurately detailed in Drosophila melanogaster, while it remains poorly examined in other insects. This pathway is increasingly recognized as critical for germline development and reproduction. Understanding of the piRNA functions in mosquitoes could offer an opportunity for disease vector control by the reduction of their reproductive potential.Results: To analyze the similarities and differences in this pathway between Drosophila and mosquito, we performed an in-depth analysis of the genomic loci producing piRNAs and their targets in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. We identified 187 piRNA clusters in the An. gambiae genome and 155 piRNA clusters in the D. melanogaster genome. We demonstrate that many more piRNA clusters in the mosquito compared with the fruit fly are uni-directionally transcribed and are located outside pericentromeric heterochromatin. About 11 % of the An. gambiae piRNA population map to gene transcripts. This is a noticeable increase compared with the similar to 6 % of the piRNA population mapped to genes in D. melanogaster. A subset of the piRNA-enriched genes in An. gambiae has functions related to reproduction and development. At least 24 and 65 % of the mapped piRNAs correspond to genomic TE Sequences in An. gambiae and D. melanogaster, respectively. DNA transposons and non-LTR retrotransposons are more abundant in An. gambiae, while LTR retrotransposons are more abundant in D. melanogaster. Yet, piRNAs predominantly target LTR retrotransposons in both species, which may point to a distinct feature of these elements compared to the other classes of TEs concerning their silencing by the piRNA pathway.Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate that piRNA-producing loci have more ubiquitous distribution in the An. gambiae genome than in the genome of D. melanogaster. Also, protein-coding genes have an increased role in production of piRNAs in the germline of this mosquito. Genes involved in germline and embryonic development of An. gambiae generate a substantial portion of piRNAs, suggesting a role of the piRNA pathway in the epigenetic regulation of the reproductive processes in the African malaria vector.

414) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

415) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Newton, Irene L. G.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr; Sheehan, Kathy B.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221)/+ and chic(1320)/+) or villin (qua(6-396)/+) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic221 heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.

416) An. gambiae gSG6-P1 evaluation as a proxy for human-vector contact in the Americas: a pilot study
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Drame, Papa M.; Weitzel, Thomas; Rosas, Reinaldo; Gripping, Crystal; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Alvares, Marcela; Wesson, Dawn M.; Poinsignon, Anne; Remoue, Franck; Colpitts, Tonya M.
Assunto: Salivary protein GSG6; Anopheles - Gambiae; Antibody - Response; Human exposure; Aedes aegypti; Malaria transmission; Tropical Africa; Mosquito; Peptide; Bites
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 533, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: During blood meal, the female mosquito injects saliva able to elicit an immune response in the vertebrate. This immune response has been proven to reflect the intensity of exposure to mosquito bites and risk of infection for vector transmitted pathogens such as malaria. The peptide gSG6-P1 of An. gambiae saliva has been demonstrated to be antigenic and highly specific to Anopheles as a genus. However, the applicability of gSG6-P1 to measure exposure to different Anopheles species endemic in the Americas has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether human participants living in American countries present antibodies able to recognize the gSG6-P1, and whether these antibodies are useful as a proxy for mosquito bite exposure and malaria risk.Methods: We tested human serum samples from Colombia, Chile, and the United States for the presence of IgG antibodies against gSG6-P1 by ELISA. Antibody concentrations were expressed as delta optical density (Delta OD) of each sera tested in duplicates. The difference in the antibody concentrations between groups was tested using the nonparametric Mann Whitney test (independent groups) and the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (dependent groups). All differences were considered significant with a P < 0.05. We found that the concentration of gSG6-P1 antibodies was significantly correlated with malaria infection status and mosquito bite exposure history. People with clinical malaria presented significantly higher concentrations of IgG anti-gSG6-P1 antibodies than healthy controls. Additionally, a significant raise in antibody concentrations was observed in subjects returning from malaria endemic areas. Our data shows that gSG6-P1 is a suitable candidate for the evaluation of exposure to Anopheles mosquito bites, risk of malaria transmission, and effectiveness of protection measures against mosquito bites in the Americas

417) Immune challenges trigger cellular and humoral responses in adults of Pterostichus melas italicus (Coleoptera, Carabidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Pasqua, Teresa; Angelone, Tommaso; Battistella, Silvia; Giulianini, Piero G.
Assunto: Carabid beetle; Cellular immunity; Microscopy; Nitric oxide synthase; Phenoloxidase; Phagocytosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Arthropod Structure & Development, v. 44, n. 3, p. 209-217, 2015
ISSN: 1467-8039
Resumo: The present study focuses on the ability of Pterostichus melas italicus Dejean to mount cellular and humoral immune responses against invading pathogens. Ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of five morphologically distinct types of hemocytes: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids and macrophage-like cells. Differential hemocyte counts showed that plasmatocytes and granulocytes were the most abundant circulating cell types and plasmatocytes exhibited phagocytic activity following the latex bead immune challenge. Macrophage-like cells were recruited after the immune challenge to remove exhausted phagocytizing cells, apoptotic cells and melanotic capsules formed to immobilize the latex beads. Total hemocyte counts showed a significant reduction of hemocytes after latex bead treatment. Phenoloxidase (PO) assays revealed an increase of total PO in hemolymph after immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, the LPS-stimulated hemocytes showed increased protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, indicating that the cytotoxic action of nitric oxide was engaged in this antimicrobial collaborative response. These results provide a knowledge base for further studies on the sensitivity of the P. melas italicus immune system to the environmental perturbation in order to evaluate the effect of chemicals on non-target species in agroecosystems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

418) Analysis of dengue virus genetic diversity during human and mosquito infection reveals genetic constraints
Autor: Sessions, October M.; Wilm, Andreas; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Choy, Milly M.; Chow, Angelia; Chong, Yuwen; Ong, Xin Mei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Cook, Alex R.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Strong purifying selection; Influenza-A virus; West nile - Virus; RNA viruses; Global distribution; Genome cyclization; Interfering RNA; Type-3 virus; Intra - Host; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV) cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening acute disease throughout the tropical world. While drug development efforts are underway, there are concerns that resistant strains will emerge rapidly. Indeed, antiviral drugs that target even conserved regions in other RNA viruses lose efficacy over time as the virus mutates. Here, we sought to determine if there are regions in the DENV genome that are not only evolutionarily conserved but genetically constrained in their ability to mutate and could hence serve as better antiviral targets. High-throughput sequencing of DENV-1 genome directly from twelve, paired dengue patients' sera and then passaging these sera into the two primary mosquito vectors showed consistent and distinct sequence changes during infection. In particular, two residues in the NS5 protein coding sequence appear to be specifically acquired during infection in Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Importantly, we identified a region within the NS3 protein coding sequence that is refractory to mutation during human and mosquito infection. Collectively, these findings provide fresh insights into antiviral targets and could serve as an approach to defining evolutionarily constrained regions for therapeutic targeting in other RNA viruses.

419) Heat shock cognate protein 70 isoform D is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Japanese encephalitis virus in C6136 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chuang, Ching-Kai; Yang, Tsong-Han; Chen, Tien-Huang; Yang, Chao-Fu; Chen, Wei-June
Assunto: C6/36 Mosquito Cells; Mediated Endocytosis; Vero Cells; Molecular Evolution; Bafilomycin A1; Aedes-Aegypti; Entry; Hsc70; Infection; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 96, p. 793-803, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1317
Resumo: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), one of encephalitic flaviviruses, is naturally transmitted by mosquitoes. During infection, JEV generally enters host cells via receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis that requires the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70). Heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) is one member of the Hsp70 family and is constitutively expressed; thus, it may be expressed under physiological conditions. In C6/36 cells, Hsc70 is upregulated in response to JEV infection. Since Hsc70 shows no relationship with viruses attaching to the cell surface, it probably does not serve as the receptor according to our results in the present study. In contrast, Hsc70 is evidently associated with virus penetration into the cell and resultant acidification of intracellular vesicles. It suggests that Hsc70 is highly involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, particularly at the late stage of viral entry into host cells. Furthermore, we found that Hsc70 is composed of at least three isoforms, including B, C and D; of these, isoform D helps JEV to penetrate C6/36 cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This study provides relevant evidence that sheds light on the regulatory mechanisms of JEV infection in host cells, especially on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

420) Zika virus ,2015
Autor: Shapshak P., Somboonwit C., Foley B.T., Alrabaa S.F., Wills T., Sinnott J.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus; Dengue Virus; Emerging Virus; Flavivirus; Global Warming; Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Mosquito; Social Mobility; Tick; Urbanization; Vector; West Nile Virus; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 477-500,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Zika virus is an arbovirus in the Flavivirus family that includes yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was discovered in a sentinel monkey in Uganda in 1947. Subsequently, this virus was detected over the years in Africa and Asia. Human-to-human transmission of Zika virus was described in the USA, from a scientist who contracted the infection in Senegal in2008. Zika virus is an emerging pathogen and the point of this review is to highlight its epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular biology. The detection of Zika virus demonstrates association with the other related viruses that are more pathogenic. Although Zika virus is a relatively non-lethal virus, it is potentially dangerous as it is genetically related to more virulent and perilous viruses: e.g., yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. It could conceivably mutate into a more pathogenic form. Under the current conditions of emergent viruses, human behaviors, modern technology, mobile society, urbanization, and global climate changes, we suggest continued monitoring of Zika virus because of the dangers posed by the members of the virulent virus group to which it is related. © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

421) Insect Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins Are Negatively Regulated by Signal-Induced N-Terminal Degrons Absent within Viral IAP Proteins
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vandergaast, Rianna; Mitchell, Jonathan K.; Byers, Nathaniel M.; Friesen, Paul D.
Assunto: Dna-Damage Response; Nuclear Polyhedrosis-Virus; Cell-Lines; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Dominant Interference; Caspase Inhibitors; Promotes Apoptosis; Ubiquitin Ligase; Effector Caspase; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4481-4493, 2015
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key regulators of the innate antiviral response by virtue of their capacity to respond to signals affecting cell survival. In insects, wherein the host IAP provides a primary restriction to apoptosis, diverse viruses trigger rapid IAP depletion that initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis, thereby limiting virus multiplication. We report here that the N-terminal leader of two insect IAPs, Spodoptera frugiperda SfIAP and Drosophila melanogaster DIAP1, contain distinct instability motifs that regulate IAP turnover and apoptotic conSequences. Functioning as a protein degron, the cellular IAP leader dramatically shortened the life span of a long-lived viral IAP (Op-IAP3) when fused to its N terminus. The SfIAP degron contains mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK)-like regulatory sites, responsible for MAPK inhibitor-sensitive phosphorylation of SfIAP. Hyperphosphorylation correlated with increased SfIAP turnover independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of the SfIAP RING, which also regulated IAP stability. Together, our findings suggest that the SfIAP phospho-degron responds rapidly to a signal-activated kinase cascade, which regulates SfIAP levels and thus apoptosis. The N-terminal leader of dipteran DIAP1 also conferred virus-induced IAP depletion by a caspase-independent mechanism. DIAP1 instability mapped to previously unrecognized motifs that are not found in lepidopteran IAPs. Thus, the leaders of cellular IAPs from diverse insects carry unique signal-responsive degrons that control IAP turnover. Rapid response pathways that trigger IAP degradation and initiate apoptosis independent of canonical prodeath gene (Reaper-Grim-Hid) expression may provide important innate immune advantages. Furthermore, the elimination of these response motifs within viral IAPs, including those of baculoviruses, explains their unusual stability and their potent antiapoptotic activity.IMPORTANCEApoptosis is an effective means by which a host controls virus infection. In insects, inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins act as regulatory sentinels by responding to cellular signals that determine the fate of infected cells. We discovered that lepidopteran (moth and butterfly) IAPs, which are degraded upon baculovirus infection, are controlled by a conserved phosphorylation-sensitive degron within the IAP N-terminal leader. The degron likely responds to virus-induced kinase-specific signals for degradation through SKP1/Cullin/F-box complex-mediated ubiquitination. Such signal-induced destruction of cellular IAPs is distinct from degradation caused by well-known IAP antagonists, which act to expel IAP-bound caspases. The major implication of this study is that insects have multiple signal-responsive mechanisms by which the sentinel IAPs are actively degraded to initiate host apoptosis. Such diversity of pathways likely provides insects with rapid and efficient strategies for pathogen control. Furthermore, the absence of analogous degrons in virus-encoded IAPs explains their relative stability and antiapoptotic potency.

422) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Article; Brazil; Congenital Infection; Disease Association; Encephalomyelitis; Flaviviridae; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Human; Meningoencephalitis; Microcephaly; Neurotropism; Pregnancy; Virus Infection; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 679-680,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: [No abstract available]

423) Genome mining offers a new starting point for Parasitology Research
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao
Assunto: Genomics; Parasite; Host; Drug; Vaccine; Diagnosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 399-409, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical Vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and Vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

424) A multipurpose, high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism chip for the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti
Autor: Evans, Benjamin R.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Genomics; Population genetics; Aedes aegypti; SNP; Vector biology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 5, p. 711-718, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease.

425) How do hosts react to endosymbionts? A new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the Wolbachia-host association
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhang, Y. -K.; Ding, X. -L.; Rong, X.; Hong, X. -Y.
Assunto: Two-Spotted Spider Mite; Wolbachia; Transcriptome Sequencing; Gene Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 1-12, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Wolbachia is an intracellular bacterium that has aroused intense interest because of its ability to alter the biology of its host in diverse ways. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, Wolbachia can induce complex cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenotypes and fitness changes, although little is known about the mechanisms. In the present study, we selected a strain of T.urticae, in which Wolbachia infection was associated with strong CI and enhanced female fecundity, to investigate changes in the transcriptome of T.urticae in Wolbachia-infected vs. uninfected lines. The responses were found to be sex-specific, with the transcription of 251 genes being affected in females and 171 genes being affected in males. Some of the more profoundly affected genes in both sexes were lipocalin genes and genes involved in oxidation reduction, digestion and detoxification. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential roles in reproduction. Interestingly, unlike certain Wolbachia transinfections in novel hosts, the Wolbachia-host association in the present study showed no clear evidence of host immune priming by Wolbachia, although a few potential immune genes were affected.

426) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

427) Heme Signaling Impacts Global Gene Expression, Immunity and Dengue Virus Infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Drosophila-Melanogaster; Bloodsucking Insect; Rhodnius-Prolixus; Anopheles-Gambiae; Oxidative Stress; Binding Protein; Genome-Wide; Blood Meal; Mosquito; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron-and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

428) A Mutation in the intracellular loop III/IV of mosquito sodium channel synergizes the effect of mutations in helix IIS6 on pyrethroid resistance
Autor: Wang, Lingxin; Nomura, Yoshiko; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Nannan; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke
Assunto: Knockdown resistance; Anopheles - Gambiae; Widespread distribution; Molecular evidence; Crystal - structure; Point mutation; Aedes aegypti; 1st Detection; Ion channels; Drug binding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Pharmacology, v. 87, n. 3, p. 421-429, 2015
ISSN: 0026-895X
Resumo: Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for proper electrical signaling in excitable cells. Pyrethroid insecticides promote activation and inhibit inactivation of sodium channels, resulting in prolonged opening of sodium channels. They preferably bind to the open state of the sodium channel by interacting with two distinct receptor sites, pyrethroid receptor sites PyR1 and PyR2, formed by the interfaces of domains II/III and I/II, respectively. Specific mutations in PyR1 or PyR2 confer pyrethroid resistance in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Recently, a unique mutation, (NY)-Y-1575, in the cytoplasmic loop linking domains III and IV (LIII/IV) was found to coexist with a PyR2 mutation, (LF)-F-1014 in IIS6, in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae. To ex-amine the role of this mutation in pyrethroid resistance, (NY)-Y-1575 alone or (NY)-Y-1575 1 (LF)-F-1014 were introduced into an Aedes aegypti sodium channel, AaNa(v)1-1, and the mutants were functionally examined in Xenopus oocytes. (NY)-Y-1575 did not alter AaNa(v)1-1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. However, the (NY)-Y-1575 + (LF)-F-1014 double mutant was more resistant to pyrethroids than the (LF)-F-1014 mutant channel. Further mutational analysis showed that (NY)-Y-1575 could also synergize the effect of (LS)-S-1014/W, but not L(1014)G or other pyrethroid-resistant mutations in IS6 or IIS6. Computer modeling predicts that (NY)-Y-1575 allosterically alters PyR2 via a small shift of IIS6. Our findings provide the molecular basis for the coexistence of (NY)-Y-1575 with (LF)-F-1014 in pyrethroid resistance, and suggest an allosteric interaction between IIS6 and LIII/IV in the sodium channel.

429) Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kistler, Kathryn E.; Vosshall, Leslie B.; Matthews, Benjamin J.
Assunto: Germ-Line Transformation; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Zinc-Finger Nucleases; Homing Endonucleases; Drosophila; Vector; Cas9; Specificity; Discovery; Sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Cell Reports, v. 11, n. 1, p. 51-60, 2015
ISSN: 2211-1247
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a potent vector of the chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, responsible for hundreds of millions of infections and over 50,000 human deaths per year. Mutagenesis in Ae. aegypti has been established with TALENs, ZFNs, and homing endonucleases, which require the engineering of DNA-binding protein domains to provide genomic target Sequence specificity. Here, we describe the use of the CRISPRCas9 system to generate site-specific mutations in Ae. aegypti. This system relies on RNA-DNA basepairing to generate targeting specificity, resulting in efficient and flexible genome-editing reagents. We investigate the efficiency of injection mix compositions, demonstrate the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate different types of mutations via disparate repair mechanisms, and report stable germline mutations in several genomic loci. This work offers a detailed exploration into the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in Ae. aegypti that should be applicable to nonmodel organisms previously out of reach of genetic modification.

430) Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand
Autor: Champakaew, D.; Junkum, A.; Chaithong, U.; Jitpakdi, A.; Riyong, D.; Sanghong, R.; Intirach, J.; Muangmoon, R.; Chansang, A.; Tuetun, B.; Pitasawat, B.
Assunto: Repellent; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Angelica sinensis; DEET; Phthalides; Phthalates
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 6, p. 2187-2198, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations.

431) Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pinheiro-Silva, Renato; Borges, Lara; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdes, James J.; do Rosario, Virgilio; de la Fuente, Jose; Domingos, Ana
Assunto: Anopheles Coluzzii; Salivary Glands; Plasmodium Berghei; Sporozoite; RNA-Seq; Glucose Transporter; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 485, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria is a devastating infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Salivary glands are the only mosquito tissue invaded by Plasmodium sporozoites, being a key stage for the effective parasite transmission, making the study of Anopheles sialome highly relevant.Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to compare differential gene expression in salivary glands of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. RNA-seq results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The transmembrane glucose transporter gene AGAP007752 was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The effect of gene silencing on infection level was evaluated. The putative function and tertiary structure of the protein was assessed.Results: RNA-seq data showed that 2588 genes were differentially expressed in mosquitoes salivary glands in response to P. berghei infection, being 1578 upregulated and 1010 downregulated. Metabolism, Immunity, Replication/Transcription/Translation, Proteolysis and Transport were the mosquito gene functional classes more affected by parasite infection. Endopeptidase coding genes were the most abundant within the differentially expressed genes in infected salivary glands (P < 0.001). Based on its putative function and expression level, the transmembrane glucose transporter gene, AGAP007752, was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The results demonstrated that the number of sporozoites was 44.3 % lower in mosquitoes fed on infected mice after AGAPP007752 gene knockdown when compared to control (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the protein encoded by the gene AGAPP007752 may play a role on An. coluzzii salivary glands infection by Plasmodium parasite, working as a sporozoite receptor and/or promoting a favorable environment for the capacity of sporozoites.

432) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

433) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

434) Anopheles gambiae blood feeding initiates an anticipatory defense response to plasmodium berghei
Autor: Upton, Leanna M.; Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Innate immunity; Ecdysone; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Innate Immunity, v. 7, n. 1, p. 74-86, 2015
ISSN: 1662-811X
Resumo: Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, the function of most family members is largely unknown. We screened Anopheles gambiae LRIMs by RNAi for effects on mosquito infection by rodent malaria and found that LRIM9 is a Plasmodium berghei antagonist with phenotypes distinct from family members LRIM1 and APL1C, which are key components of the mosquito complement-like pathway. LRIM9 transcript and protein levels are significantly increased after blood feeding but are unaffected by Plasmodium or midgut microbiota. Interestingly, LRIM9 in the hemolymph is strongly upregulated by direct injection of the ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Our data suggest that LRIM9 may define a novel anti-Plasmodium immune defense mechanism triggered by blood feeding and that hormonal changes may alert the mosquito to bolster its defenses in anticipation of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

435) The potential threat to blood transfusion safety of emerging infectious disease agents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, communicable disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, v. 13, n. 7, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1543-0790
Resumo:

436) Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia
Autor: Lima, V. S.; Pinto, A. C.; Rafael, M. S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Isodillapiole; qRT-PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 14, n. 4, p. 16728-16735, 2015
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 mu g/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G(1), G(2), G(3), and G(4)). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 mu g/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

437) Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori
Assunto: Cell line; Mosquito; Armigeres subalbatus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, v. 51, n. 7, p. 672-679, 2015
ISSN: 1071-2690
Resumo: Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

438) Effect of repeat human blood feeding on Wolbachia density and dengue virus infection in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Amuzu, Hilaria E.; Simmons, Cameron P.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Wolbachia; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 246, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti populations is a novel approach to reduce disease transmission. The presence of Wolbachia limits the ability of the mosquito to transmit dengue virus (DENV) and the strength of this effect appears to correlate with Wolbachia densities in the mosquito. There is also some evidence that Wolbachia densities may increase following the consumption of a bloodmeal. Here we have examined whether multiple blood feeds lead to increases in density or associated changes in Wolbachia-mediated blocking of DENV. The Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti mosquito line was used for the study. There were three treatment groups; a non-blood fed control, a second group fed once and a third group fed twice on human blood. All groups were orally infected with DENV-2 and then their midguts and salivary glands were dissected 10-11 days post infection. RNA/DNA was simultaneously extracted from each tissue and subsequently used for DENV RNA copies and Wolbachia density quantification, respectively. We found variation between replicate vector competence experiments and no clear evidence that Wolbachia numbers increased in either the salivary glands or remainder of the body with feeding and hence saw no corresponding improvements in DENV blocking.Conclusions: Aedes aegypti are "sip" feeders returning often to obtain bloodmeals and hence it is important to assess whether repeat blood feeding improved the efficacy of Wolbachia-based DENV blocking. Our work suggests in the laboratory context when Wolbachia densities are high that repeat feeding does not improve blocking and hence this ability should likely be stable with respect to feeding cycle in the field

439) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

440) Effect of salinity on the behavior of Aedes aegypti populations from the coast and plateau of southeastern Brazil
Autor: de Brito-Arduino, Marylene; Mucci, Luis Filipe; Nunes Serpa, Ligia Leandro; Rodrigues, Marianni de Moura
Assunto: Adaptation; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Biological cycle; Breeding sites; Salinity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 1, p. 79-87, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Mosquito larvae can develop in fresh, salty and brackish water. The larvae of Aedes aegypti develop in fresh water. However, in laboratory studies, tolerance of this species for oviposition and hatching in brackish water was observed. Immature forms of Ae. aegypti have also been found developing in brackish water in coastal areas. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of salt on the biological cycle of Ae. aegypti populations from coastal and plateau areas of southeastern Brazil. Aedes aegypti were collected from plateau (Taubate) and coastal (Sao Sebastiao) municipalities to establish colonies. Specimens of the F-1 generation were exposed to five salt concentrations (3.5, 7, 10.5, 14 and 17.5 parts per thousand) to assess the oviposition and cycle development from egg hatching to adult eclosion. Deionized water was used in the control groups. Both Taubate and Sao Sebastian populations oviposited in all salt concentrations tested; however, development occurred in all except in the 17.5% concentration. Significant differences in development and adult size were observed at intermediate concentrations (Sao Sebastiao from 10.5 parts per thousand and Taubate from 7 parts per thousand, for both variables) between the two populations.Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed different response patterns to salinity between the two populations, suggesting better adaptive adjustment of the coastal population to the metabolic constraints exerted by salt. The implications of this adaptation are discussed, and additional studies are suggested to evaluate the mechanisms that determinate the adaptive processes of Ae. aegypti in brackish water and the implications to its vectorial capacity

441) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

442) Peroxiredoxin 5 from common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) acts as a potent antioxidant enzyme
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wan, Hu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; You, Hong; Zhu, Fuxing; Lee, Kwang Sik; Zhao, Haigang; Jin, Byung Rae; Li, Jianhong
Assunto: Antioxidant enzyme; Spodoptera litura; Common cutworm; Oxidative stress; Peroxiredoxin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, v. 175, n. , p. 53-61, 2014
ISSN: 1096-4959
Resumo: In this study, we describe the cloning and characterization of a Prx from the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (SlPrx5). The SlPrx5 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 477 bp encoding a predicted protein of 159 amino acid residues, 16.902 kDa, and an isoelectric point of 7.68. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of the SlPrx5 cDNA showed 86% identity to Papilio xuthus Prx5, 72% to Aedes aegypti Prx5, and 64-67% to other insect Prxs. A phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of SlPrx5 groups within the atypical 2-Cys Prx cluster. Recombinant SlPrx5 (20 kDa) purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells was found to reduce H2O2 in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol and protect super-coiled DNA from damage by metal-catalyzed oxidation in vitro. During S. litura development, SlPrx5 is constitutively expressed in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut, with the highest expression occurring in the sixth-instar larval stage in the fat body and midgut. Additionally, SlPrx5 mRNA expression was up-regulated after injection with H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, indoxacarb, and metaflumizone. A disc diffusion assay indicated that recombinant SlPrx5 can play a functional role in protecting cells from oxidative stress in vivo. These results provide insight into the role of SlPrx5 during development and the oxidative stress response of S. litura. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

443) Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions
Autor: Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Pereira Lima, Jose Bento; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Physiology; Locomotor activity; Laboratory
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 304, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25 degrees C.Methods: Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes.Results: Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females.Conclusions: This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus

444) miR-281, an abundant midgut-specific miRNA of the vector mosquito Aedes albopictus enhances dengue virus replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhou, Yanhe; Liu, Yanxia; Yan, Hui; Li, Yiji; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jiabao; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Chen, Xiaoguang
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; miRNA; Dengue virus; Pathogen-host interaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-virus interaction. We previously reported that some miRNAs were differentially expressed in sugar-fed and blood-fed females of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Here, we analysis the role in the host-virus system of an abundant midgut-specific miRNA in the mosquito Ae. albopictus.Methods: The expression profiles of miR-281 in different body parts of Ae. albopictus and following dengue virus infection were determined using RT-qPCR and Northern blot. miR-281 mimics, antagomiRs and corresponding negative controls were designed and their overexpression and knock-down efficiency were analyzed by qRT-PCR after transfecting the mosquito cell lines C6/36, and also by injecting female mosquitoes. Dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2) viral genomic RNA abundance was determined by RT-qPCR. The levels of DENV-2 E protein were detected using Western blot. Virus titers were tested using TCID50. RNAhybrid was used to predict targets of miR-281 in the DENV-2 genome. The EGFP plasmid-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction between miR-281 and the predicted binding site in the C6/36 cell line.Results: miR-281 is specifically expressed in the female midgut where dengue virus first invades. After DENV-2 infection, this miRNA is up-regulated in response to viral infection. Functional intervention analyses in vitro with specifically designed miR-281 mimics and corresponding antagomiRs indicated that miR-281 enhances DENV-2 viral replication. Further depletion of miR-281 in female mosquitoes by injection of its specific antagomiRs led to a significant reduction in DENV-2 abundance. The interaction between miR-281 and its predicted target Sequence, the DENV-2 genomic 5'-untranslated region (UTR), is confirmed in the context of a plasmid-based reporter system.Conclusion: These findings confirm that miR-281, an abundant midgut-specific miRNA, facilitates DENV-2 replication.

445) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

446) Metabolic analysis reveals changes in the mevalonate and juvenile hormone synthesis pathways linked to the mosquito reproductive physiology
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Lamboglia, Ivanna; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Juvenile hormone; Mosquito; Biosynthesis; Corpora allata; Metabolomics; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 51, p. 1-9, 2014
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates reproductive maturation in insects; therefore interruption of JH biosynthesis has been considered as a strategy for the development of target-specific insecticides. The corpora allata (CA) from mosquitoes is highly specialized to supply variable levels of JH, which are linked to ovarian developmental stages and influenced by nutritional signals. However, very little is known about how changes in JH synthesis relate to reproductive physiology and how JH synthesis regulation is translated into changes in the CA machinery. With the advent of new methods that facilitate the analysis of transcripts, enzymes and metabolites in the minuscule CA, we were able to provide comprehensive descriptions of the mevalonic (MVA) and JH synthesis pathways by integrating information on changes in the basic components of those pathways. Our results revealed remarkable dynamic changes in JH synthesis and exposed part of a complex mechanism that regulates CA activity. Principal component (PC) analyses validated that both pathways (MVAP and JH-branch) are transcriptionally co-regulated as a single unit, and catalytic activities for the enzymes of the MVAP and JH-branch also changed in a coordinate fashion. Metabolite studies showed that global fluctuations in the intermediate pool sizes in the MVAP and JH-branch were often inversely related. PC analyses suggest that in female mosquitoes, there are at least 4 developmental switches that alter JH synthesis by modulating the flux at distinctive points in both pathways. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

447) Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Blázquez A.-B., Escribano-Romero E., Merino-Ramos T., Saiz J.-C., Martín-Acebes M.A.
Assunto: autophagy, cellular stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Flavivirus infection, unfolded protein response
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 5, jun. 2014
ISSN: 1664-302X (electronic)
Resumo: The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. © 2014 Blázquez, Escribano-Romero, Merino-Ramos, Saiz and Martín-Acebes.

448) Population genetics of neotropical Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bruno Wilke, Andre Barretto; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo
Assunto: West Nile virus; Southern house mosquito; Microsatellite markers; Pipiens complex; Ribosomal DNA; Aedes aegypti; United States; Brazil; Software; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes can be found in almost every major city of Brazil and are vectors of filariasis and several arboviruses. Microsatellite markers have been widely used to uncover the genetic structure of various groups of insect populations. The aim of this study was to glimpse the genetic structure of Cx. quinquefasciatus in Brazil. Nine populations were sampled across Brazil (one of them from a laboratory colony - COL) and another one from Argentina and process regarding the variability of six microsatellite loci. The analyzed loci revealed moderate population genetic structure (mean F-st = 0.12). Dendrograms of genetic distances evidenced two major population clusters, respectively corresponding to the northern and southern populations. The hybrid population Cx. pipiens/quinquefasciatus (from La Plata, Argentina) and the colony population fell outside the major clusters. Those clusters were substructured and there was a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances and environmental variables (r = 0.51; p > 0.001 and r = 0.46; p > 0.004). Multilocus cluster Bayesian analysis confirmed that populations are mutually distinct, and the set of results point to genetic differences among populations. The presumable low gene flow among them may be due to the large geographic distances (> 1000 km) and to the environmental heterogeneity of the sampled areas. The genetic structure observed in this study may lead to the best understanding of Cx. quinquefasciatus demographical diversity as well as their genetic variations patterns in Brazil so far unknown.

449) Two cases of zika fever imported from french polynesia to Japan, December to January 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kutsuna S., Kato Y., Takasaki T., Moi M.L., Kotaki A., Uemura H., Matono T., Fujiya Y., Mawatari M., Takeshita N., Hayakawa K., Kanagawa S., Ohmagari N.
Assunto: import disease (epidemiology), virus infection (epidemiology), zika fever (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: We present two cases of imported Zika fever to Japan, in travellers returning from French Polynesia, where an outbreak due to Zika virus (ZIKV) is ongoing since week 41 of 2013. This report serves to raise awareness among healthcare professionals, that the differential diagnosis of febrile and subfebrile patients with rash should include ZIKV infection, especially in patients returning from areas affected by this virus.

450) Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Nanoparticles; Leucas aspera; Plant extracts; AgNPs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1673-1679, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) Ca center dot O group. The band 1,383 developed for Ca center dot C and Ca center dot N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated, and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l) and (LC90 values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l), respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti.

451) Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nilles E.J., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, virus infection, zika virus, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 20, n. 10, p. O595-O596, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo:

452) Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A.; Shatters, Robert G., Jr.; Borovsky, Dov
Assunto: Corpora allata; Aedes aegypti; Ovary; Juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase; RNAi; Inhibition of larval growth and egg developmenttransferase; RNAi; Inhibition of larval growth and egg development
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 70, p. 143-150, 2014
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeajHAmT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

453) Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range
Autor: Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Host range
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 595, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Most alphaviruses are arthropod-borne and utilize mosquitoes as vectors for transmission to susceptible vertebrate hosts. This ability to infect both mosquitoes and vertebrates is essential for maintenance of most alphaviruses in nature. A recently characterized alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani s.I. is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. The EILV host range restriction occurs at both attachment/entry as well as genomic RNA replication levels. Here we investigated the mosquito vector range of EILV in species encompassing three genera that are responsible for maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.Methods: Susceptibility studies were performed in four mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus via intrathoracic and oral routes utilizing EILV and EILV expressing red fluorescent protein (-eRFP) clones. EILV-eRFP was injected at 107 PFU/mL to visualize replication in various mosquito organs at 7 days post-infection. Mosquitoes were also injected with EILV at 104-101 PFU/mosquito and virus replication was measured via plaque assays at day 7 post-infection. Lastly, mosquitoes were provided bloodmeals containing EILV-eRFP at doses of 109, 107, 105 PFU/mL, and infection and dissemination rates were determined at 14 days post-infection.Results: All four species were susceptible via the intrathoracic route; however, replication was 10-100 fold less than typical for most alphaviruses, and infection was limited to midgut-associated muscle tissue and salivary glands. A. albopictus was refractory to oral infection, while A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus were susceptible only at 109 PFU/mL dose. In contrast, A. aegypti was susceptible at both 109 and 107 PFU/mL doses, with body infection rates of 78% and 63%, and dissemination rates of 26% and 8%, respectively.Conclusions: The exclusion of vertebrates in its maintenance cycle may have facilitated the adaptation of EILV to a single mosquito host. As a consequence, EILV displays a narrow vector range in mosquito species responsible for the maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.

454) Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Leucas aspera leaf extract against mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sivapriyajothi, S.; Kumar, P. Mahesh; Kovendan, K.; Subramaniam, J.; Murugan, K.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, v. 46, n. 2, p. 77-84, 2014
ISSN: 2038-324X
Resumo: Mosquitoes are one of the most medically significant groups of vectors, having an ability to transmit parasites and pathogens that can have devastating impacts on humans. The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. In this study, we address the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Leucas aspera leaf extract, and evaluate its lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis. Larvae and pupae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed from synthesized AgNPs, with LC50 values for I-IV instars and pupae ranging from 13.06 to 25.54, and LC90 values ranging from 24.11 to 47.34 for Ae. aegypti; for An, stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 12.45 to 22.26, and the LC90 values ranged from 23.50 to 42.95. With methanol leaf extract of L. aspera against Ae. aegypti, the LC50 values ranged from 174.89 to 462.96 and the LC90 values ranged from 488.16 to 963.74; for An. stephensi, the corresponding LC50 values ranged from 148.93 to 417.07 and the LC90 values ranged from 449.72 to 912.94. The study suggests that nanoparticles could be a preferred alternative to the most hazardous existing chemical pesticides, contributing to a more healthy environment by providing an ideal ecological and user-friendly vector control strategy for managing malaria and dengue, and contributing to their eventual elimination in the near future.

455) Electrophysiological and behavioural response of Aedes albopictus to n-heinecosane, an ovipositional pheromone of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Gonzalez, Paula V.; Gonzalez Audino, Paola A.; Masuh, Hector M.
Assunto: Hydrocarbon; Diptera; Cuticular; Culicidae; Electroantennogram; Attractant; Repellent; EAD; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, v. 151, n. 3, p. 191-197, 2014
ISSN: 0013-8703
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are highly anthropophilic mosquito species and potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever. The location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influence females before they lay their eggs. In this study, the effect of n-heneicosane, a recognized oviposition pheromone of Ae.aegypti, on the olfactory receptors of the antennae of Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus was studied using electroantennographic detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC-EAD). A significant electroantennographic response to n-heneicosane in adult females of both mosquito species was observed. In addition, gravid Ae.albopictus females laid more eggs in substrate treated with n-heneicosane at 0.1, 1, or 10p.p.m. than in the control, denoting oviposition attractancy. Conversely, at 30, 50, 100, and 200p.p.m., more eggs were laid in the control substrate, indicating oviposition repellency. Analysis of the larval cuticle by GC and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of n-heneicosane in the cuticles of Ae.albopictus larvae. The species-specific role of n-heneicosane as an oviposition pheromone in Ae.aegypti and its significance as a behaviour modifier of Ae.albopictus in breeding sites is discussed.

456) Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Abreu Narciso, Juliana Oliveira; de Araujo Soares, Renata Oliveira; dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Guimaraes, Anthony Erico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Celia; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Maleck, Marise
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti (L.); Neolignan burchellin; Ocotea cymbarum(Lauraceae); Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 172, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti.Methods: Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed.Results: The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations >= 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/ c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut.Conclusion: The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

457) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections ? An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific2012?2014
Autor: Roth A., Mercier A., Lepers C., Hoy D., Duituturaga S., Benyon E., Guillaumot L., Souarès Y.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya Alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue Virus; Disease Surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic Distribution; Infection Risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public Health; Serotype; Virus Infection; Virus Transmission; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41,2014.
ISSN: 1025496X
Resumo: Since January2012, the Pacific Region has experienced28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. ©2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

458) Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frederic; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurelie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane
Assunto: RNA sequencing; RNA-seq; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito; Dengue; Detoxification enzymes; Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP; Cuticle; Transporters
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, n. 174, 2014
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur.Results: After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin selection strongly affected the polymorphism of several transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases likely involved in insecticide biodegradation.Conclusions: The present study confirmed the power of RNA-seq for identifying concomitantly quantitative and qualitative transcriptome changes associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Our results suggest that transcriptome modifications can be selected rapidly by insecticides and affect multiple biological functions. Previously neglected by molecular screenings, polymorphism variations of detoxification enzymes may play an important role in the adaptive response of mosquitoes to insecticides.

459) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the20th Century
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36-,2014.
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/" xlink:type="simple" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/</ext-link>) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. ©2014 Faye et al.

460) Next generation sequencing reveals regulation of distinct Aedes microRNAs during chikungunya virus development
Autor: Shrinet, Jatin; Jain, Shanu; Jain, Jaspreet; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Sunil, Sujatha
Assunto: Sexual maturity; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Public health; Disease transmission; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Small, non-coding, RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNA) of length 18-24 nucleotide are reported in wide range of organisms and known to play a determinative role in regulation of various cellular processes. They have also reported to have regulatory roles during pathogen infection, maturation and transmission. Chikungunya virus is an important alphavirus transmitted through two important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. While Ae. aegypti has been the preferred vector for transmission of this virus, recently, Ae. albopictus has gained notoriety for disease transmission. Using Illumina platform, we sequenced the small RNA population an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with chikungunya virus. We studied the expression modulation of miRNAs upon CHIKV infection and found distinct set of miRNAs regulated in Aedes upon CHIKV infection. We further predicted the targets of these miRNAs and performed pathway analysis of these targets. The cellular functional targets of some of these miRNAs overlapped suggesting aggressive participation of the targeted pathways in establishing CHIKV infection.

461) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo D., Sall A.A., Diagne C.T., Faye O., Faye O., Ba Y., Hanley K.A., Buenemann M., Weaver S.C., Diallo M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti , Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

462) De novo transcriptome sequencing and sequence analysis of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chen, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Juan; He, Zhengbo; Li, Wanshun; Si, Fengling; Tang, Yao; He, Qiyi; Qiao, Liang; Yan, Zhentian; Fu, Wenbo; Che, Yanfei
Assunto: Anopheles sinensis; Transcriptome; RNA-Seq; Codon usage bias; Simple sequence repeat; Malaria; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 314, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Anopheles sinensis is the major malaria vector in China and Southeast Asia. Vector control is one of the most effective measures to prevent malaria transmission. However, there is little transcriptome information available for the malaria vector. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq).Methods: To provide a more comprehensive and complete transcriptome of An. sinensis, eggs, larvae, pupae, male adults and female adults RNA were pooled together for cDNA preparation, sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into unigenes. These unigenes were then analyzed in their genome mapping, functional annotation, homology, codon usage bias and simple sequence repeats (SSRs).Results: Approximately 51.6 million clean reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 38,504 unigenes with an average length of 571 bp, an N50 of 711 bp, and an average GC content 51.26%. Among them, 98.4% of unigenes could be mapped onto the reference genome, and 69% of unigenes could be annotated with known biological functions. Homology analysis identified certain numbers of An. sinensis unigenes that showed homology or being putative 1: 1 orthologues with genomes of other Dipteran species. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 1,904 SSRs were detected, which will provide effective molecular markers for the population genetics of this species.Conclusions: Our data and analysis provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource and characteristics currently available for An. sinensis, and will facilitate genetic, genomic studies, and further vector control of An. sinensis.

463) A single-amino-acid polymorphism in chikungunya virus E2 glycoprotein influences glycosaminoglycan utilization
Autor: Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Dermody, Terence S.
Assunto: Surface heparin - Sulfate; Herpes simplex -Virus; Ross river virus; Sindbis - Virus; Encephalitis -Virus; Reunion Island; Aedes aegypti; Virulence attenuation; Japanese encephalitis; Attachment receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 5, p. 2385-2397, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Pre-incubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.IMPORTANCEChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection.

464) CPB1 of Aedes aegypti interacts with DENV2 e protein and regulates intracellular viral accumulation and release from midgut cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Carboxypeptidase; Yeast two - Hybrid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses-Basel, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5028-5046, 2014
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network.

465) Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus, Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, feb. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Methodology/Principal Findings:Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.Conclusions/Significance:We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. © 2014 Grard et al.

466) Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua
Assunto: Dengue virus (DENV); Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV); Chimeric virus; Neurotropism; Neurovirulence; Immunogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Neurovirulence ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virus Research, v. 191, p. 10-20, 2014
ISSN: 0168-1702
Resumo: For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

467) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ioos S., Mallet H.-P., Leparc Goffart I., Gauthier V., Cardoso T., Herida M.
Assunto: epidemic, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, v. 44, n. 7, p. 302-307, jul. 2014
ISSN: 1769-6690 (electronic),0399-077X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (Aedes), similar to other arboviruses, first identified in Uganda in 1947. Few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika outbreak occurred in Yap, Micronesia, even though ZIKV activity had been reported in Africa and in Asia through virological surveillance and entomological studies. French Polynesia has recorded a large outbreak since October 2013. A great number of cases and some with neurological and autoimmune complications have been reported in a context of concurrent circulation of dengue viruses. The clinical presentation is a "dengue-like syndrome". Until the epidemic in French Polynesia, no severe ZIKV disease had been described so far. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral genome detection by genomic amplification (RT- PCR) and viral isolation. These two large outbreaks occurred in a previously unaffected area in less than a decade. They should raise awareness as to the potential for ZIKV to spread especially since this emergent disease is not well known and that some questions remain on potential reservoirs and transmission modes as well as on clinical presentations and complications. ZIKV has the potential to spread to new areas where the Aedes mosquito vector is present and could be a risk for Southern Europe. Strategies for the prevention and control of ZIKV disease should include the use of insect repellent and mosquito vector eradication. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

468) Field Evaluation of Picaridin Repellents Reveals Differences in Repellent Sensitivity between Southeast Asian Vectors of Malaria and Arboviruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies
Assunto: Dominant Anopheles Vectors; Insect Odorant Receptor; Aedes-Albopictus; Tropical Environment; Mosquito Repellents; Chikungunya Virus; Distribution Maps; Gambiae Complex; Bionomic Precis; Deet
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95% CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological impact of large scale use of topical repellents on arthropod borne diseases.

469) Zika virus, French polynesia, South pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thane Hancock W., Marfel M., Bel M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

470) Coexistence of Philodina roseola (Rotifera: Bdelloidea) with larvae of Aedes aegypti in India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Muniaraj, M.; Babu, Sathish R.
Assunto: Dengue hemorrhagic - Fever; Albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 31, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2014
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: The vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus of dengue and Chikungunya fever are closely associated with human habitations and adapted to feed on human blood. They undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections in the urban and peri-urban environment. Although reports are available about the feeding behaviour of the thriving mosquito larvae, much information is still required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small and temporary water collections. This study was undertaken to determine the co-existence and prevalence of Philodina roseola and other Bdelloid rotifers in the container habitats of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The investigation was conducted in 43 villages which belong to four districts in South India, affected by the epidemic of either dengue or Chikungunya fever. A total of 2093 houses and 12980 containers were examined for Aedes breeding and those containers with Aedes larvae were chosen for further investigation. The investigation showed that, the P. roseola was found associated in 502 (98.2%) containers, P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. in 126 containers (25%) and P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. and other Bdelloid rotifers found in 93 containers (19%). Since the members of the genus Philodina can survive desiccation, reproduce by parthenogenesis, can be transported by wind easily and more importantly, it can incorporate the genome of other organisms including viruses, understanding the coexistence and relationship of Philodina sp. with Aedes larvae would be helpful in the control of Aedes breeding and the control measures can be designed keeping the association of Bdelloids with Aedes in mind.

471) Evidence of lumpy skin disease virus over-wintering by transstadial persistence in Amblyomma hebraeum and transovarial persistence in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks
Autor: Lubinga, J. C.; Tuppurainen, E. S. M.; Coetzer, J. A. W.; Stoltsz, W. H.; Venter, E. H.
Assunto: Amblyomma hebraeum; Rhipicephalus decoloratus; Lumpy skin disease virus; Transstadial transmission; Transovarial transmission; Ixodidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental and Applied Acarology, v. 62, n. 1, p. 77-90, 2014
ISSN: 0168-8162
Resumo: Lumpy skin disease is a debilitating cattle disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus. Epidemics of the disease usually occur in summer, when insect activity is high. Limited information is available on how LSDV persists during inter-epidemic periods. Transmission of LSDV by mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti has been shown to be mechanical, there is no carrier state in cattle and the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of the disease seems to be of minor importance. Recent studies in ticks have shown transstadial persistence of LSDV in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma hebraeum as well as transovarial persistence of the virus in Rhipicephalus decoloratus, R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. The over-wintering of ticks off the host as part of their life cycles is well known: A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus over-winter, for example, on the ground as engorged nymphs/unfed (emergent) adults while R. decoloratus over-winters on the ground as engorged females. In this study, transstadial and transovarial persistence of LSDV from experimentally infected A. hebraeum nymphs and R. decoloratus females after exposure to cold temperatures of 5 degrees C at night and 20 degrees C during the day for 2 months was reported. This observation suggests possible over-wintering of the virus in these tick species.

472) Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Ho, Yung S.; Ariani, Cristina V.; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Anopheles - Gambiae; Recombination rates; Stegomyia aegypti; United States; Mosquito; Susceptibility; Dengue; Populations; Chromosome; Sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait.

473) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waehre, Torgun ; Maagard, Anne , Tappe, Dennis ; Cadar, Daniel ; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo:

474) Larvicidal efficacy screening of Anacardaciae crude extracts on the dengue hemorrhagic vector, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zuharah, W. F.; Fadzly, N.; Ali, Y.; Zakaria, R.; Juperi, S.; Asyraf, M.; Dieng, H.
Assunto: Antibacterial Activity; Diptera-Culicidae; Plant-Extracts; Essential Oils; Thailand; L.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 31, n. 2, p. 297-304, 2014
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of Mangifera indica, Gluta renghas, and Melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti. These plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in Malaysian forests. Leaves of Ma. indica, G. renghas and M. fascculiflora were collected from Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang Malaysia. Fractions of leaves were segregated, air-dried, powdered and extracted using Soxhlet with methanol. The solvent was removed by using rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. Using WHO standard larval bioassay test method, third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to concentration ranging from 200-4500ppm of methanol extract for all plant species. Larval mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. The highest susceptibility and toxicity was recorded by Mangifera indica with the lowest concentration at 800ppm followed by M. fasciculiflora and G. renghas. This indicates that crude plant extract is very effective in killing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This finding may lead to new low cost alternative, environmentally friendly method for mosquito control programs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal bioefficacy from endemic Malaysian plants.

475) A viral over-expression system for the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Niu, Guodong; Hughes, Grant L.; Rasgon, Jason L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti mosquitos; Complement - Like protein; Genome organization; Directed evolution; Symbiotic bacteria; Reverse genetics; Borne disease; Vector; Densovirus; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
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