Epidemiologia, imunologia e repercussões clínicas

1) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

2) Exploiting intimate relationships: controlling mosquito-transmitted disease with Wolbachia
Autor: Caragata, Eric P.; Dutra, Heverton L. C.; Moreira, Luciano A.
Assunto: Human diseases; Disease control; Malaria; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Reproduction; Infection; Tides; Wolbachia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, p. 207-218, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Mosquito-transmitted diseases impose a growing burden on human health, and current control strategies have proven insufficient to stem the tide. The bacterium Wolbachia is a novel and promising form of control for mosquito-transmitted disease. It manipulates host biology, restricts infection with dengue and other pathogens, and alters host reproduction to promote rapid spread in the field. In this review, we examine how the intimate and diverse relationships formed between Wolbachia and their mosquito hosts can be exploited for disease control purposes. We consider these relationships in the context of recent developments, including successful field trials with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to combat dengue, and new Wolbachia infections in key malaria vectors, which have enhanced the disease control prospects of this unique bacterium.

3) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango A., Abílio A.P.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo City; Mozambique; New Record
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites and Vectors, v. 9, n. 76,2016.
ISSN: 17563305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December,2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors. ©2016 Kampango and Abílio.

4) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

5) Zika virus in the dock.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, null, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Molecular diagnosis, Cross reactions (Immunology), Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n.3, p. 265, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

6) Development of a larvicidal nanoemulsion with Pterodon emarginatus vogel oil
Autor: Oliveira, M. F. M.; Duarte, Jonatas L.; Amado, Jesus R. R.; Cruz, Rodrigo A. S.; Rocha, Clarice F.; Souto, Raimundo N. P.; Ferreira, Ricardo M. A.; Santos, Karen; Conceicao, Edemilson C. da; Oliveira, A. R. de
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Hosts; Toxicity; Disease transmission; Public health; Oil; Acetylcholinesterase; Dengue; Vectors; Natural products; Developing countries; Emulsions; Lipophilic; Aedes aegypti; Fabaceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Pterodon emarginatus Vogel is a Brazilian species that belongs to the family Fabaceae, popularly known as sucupira. Its oil has several biological activities, including potent larvicidal property against Aedes aegypti. This insect is the vector of dengue, a tropical disease that has been considered a critical health problem in developing countries, such as Brazil. Most of dengue control methods involve larvicidal agents suspended or diluted in water and making active lipophilic natural products available is therefore considered a technological challenge. In this context, nanoemulsions appear as viable alternatives to solve this major problem. The present study describes the development of a novel nanoemulsion with larvicidal activity against A. aegypti along with the required Hydrophile Lipophile Balance determination of this oil. It was suggested that the mechanism of action might involve reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and our results also suggest that the P. emarginatus nanoemulsion is not toxic for mammals. Thus, it contributes significantly to alternative integrative practices of dengue control, as well as to develop sucupira based nanoproducts for application in aqueous media.

7) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

8) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

9) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

10) Publishers And Funders Back Sharing Of Zika Data.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Widener, Andrea
Assunto: Zika virus, Science publishing
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 7, p. 53, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article offers information on the initiatives taken by scientific publishers and funders including Science "Nature"

11) Tears and Bewilderment At Center of Zika Crisis.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcepahly, Zika virus infections, Medical care, Public health, Transmission, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57127, p. A1-A8, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses an investigation by health officials of the mosquito-borne Zika virus epidemic in Brazil and other areas of the Western Hemisphere. Topics include the declaration of a health emergency by Brazil's Health Ministry due to the significant increase in babies born with microcephaly, researchers' belief that the virus was spread from Polynesia to Brazil during the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament, and challenges of Brazil's public health system.

12) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

13) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

14) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

15) The race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen, Jon
Assunto: Vaccines - Research, Zika virus infections, Public health, Management, Pregnant women, Safety measures
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article focuses on the research for the development of a Zika vaccine. Topics mentioned include the complications of Zika virus such as microcephaly and neurological complications, the insights of virologist Thomas Monath on the development of Zika vaccine, and the importance of public health management. Also mentioned are the flavivirus vaccines development and the safety measures for pregnant women on the planned use of Zika vaccine.

16) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth.
Autor: Tang Hengli,Hammack Christy,Ogden Sarah C,Wen Zhexing,Qian Xuyu,Li Yujing,Yao Bing,Shin Jaehoon,Zhang Feiran,Lee Emily M,Christian Kimberly M,Didier Ruth A,Jin Peng,Song Hongjun,Ming Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

17) The Potential Hidden Toll of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Infants, Mental health, Zika virus infections, Schizophrenia in children, Mother & infant, Autism in children, Children, Bipolar disorder in children, Viral diseases in children, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57151, p. D1-D5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the possibility that infants born to mothers who were infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy may suffer from various mental health issues later in life, and it mentions how the Zika virus resembles infectious agents that have been linked to the development of medical and mental conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In utero illnesses and viral infections are examined, along with the health of children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

18) Zika Virus and Global Implications for Reproductive Health Reforms.
Autor: Hodge James G,Corbett Alicia,Repka Ashley,Judd P J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, v. 1, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1938-744X
Resumo:

19) The next steps on Zika
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: NULL
Assunto: congenital malformation, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

20) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

21) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly -- Brazil, 2015.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Ribeiro, Erlane M., Feitosa, Ian M. L., Horovitz, Dafne D. G., Cavalcanti, Denise P., Pessoa, André, Doriqui, Maria Juliana R., Neri, Joao Ivanildo, de Pina Neto, Joao Monteiro, Wanderley, Hector Y. C., Cernach, Mirlene, El-Husny, Antonette S., Pone, Marcos V. S., Serao, Cassio L. C., Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Nervous system - Diseases, Cerebral arterial diseases, Mosquito control, Brazil. Ministry of Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about relationship between Zika virus outbreak and microcephaly in Brazil. Topics include organization of task force by Brazil Ministry of Health, development of case definition for microcephaly-related Zika virus, occurrence of neurological abnormalities in infants at neuroimaging studies, increase in microcephaly combined with cerebral damage, and preventive measures such as mosquito control.

22) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

23) Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Casey, Nicholas, Abad, Susan
Assunto: ZIKA virus, DILEMMA, PREGNANCY complications, ZIKA Virus Epidemic, 2015-, AEDES aegypti, ABORTION -- Law & legislation, BARRIOS, Margarita Rosa
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, p. A4, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the terrible dilemma faced by pregnant women in Colombia in relation to the outbreak of Zika virus, an infection transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. Topics discussed include the Zika epidemic in Brazil, the consideration of Colombian women on abortion, and the legality of abortion in the country. Comments from Margarita Rosa Barrios, a Colombian pregnant who feel the symptoms of Zika virus disease, are included.

24) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

25) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

26) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

27) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

28) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

29) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

30) Severe eye damage in infants with microcephaly is presumed to be due to Zika virus.
Autor: McCarthy Michael
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, p. i855, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

31) Pro-abortionists and the Zika virus: never let a crisis, real or unproven, go to waste.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Andrusko, Dave
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Reproductive rights, Abortion - Law & legislation
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: National Right to Life News, p. 21-32, 2016
ISSN: 1647415
Resumo: The author discusses the opportunity for pro-abortionists to investigate the possible link between the Zika virus and an increase in reports of babies born with microcephaly. He mentions that abortion advocates are already ginning up the propaganda even in the absence of a clear connection between the Zika virus and microcephaly. He reflects on an article published in Washington Post" on the momentum gained by Latin America on the most restrictive abortion laws in the face of the Zika virus."

32) Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase
Autor: Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Ammonia; Gene silencing; Protein expression; Uric acid; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: FASEB Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 111-120, 2016
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose-and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected controlmosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. FASEB J. 30, 111-120 (2016). www.fasebj.org

33) Officials Try to Ease Concerns Facing Rio.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz, Rebecca R.
Assunto: Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Zika Virus Epidemic, Sports facilities, Transportation, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57160, p. B11-B12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: Information on several topics discussed at the closed-door meetings of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) held at the Lausanne Palace Hote in Lausanne, Switzerland on March 2, 2016 is presented. Topics include the potential impact of the Zika virus to the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2016, venue logistics, and transportation projects. The event featured IOC officials including Carlos Arthur Nuzman, Mario Andrada, and Thomas Bach.

34) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

35) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

36) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

37) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

38) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland
Autor: Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko
Assunto: Zika virus; Dengue virus; False positive NS1 antigen; Traveller; Epidemic; Antibody; IGM
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, n. w14296 , 2016.
ISSN: 1424-7860
Resumo: We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceara state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG-antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture, an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG-antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

39) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno M., Sacramento G.A., Khouri R., do Rosário M.S., Costa F., Archanjo G., Santos L.A., Nery N., Vasilakis N., Ko A.I., de Almeida A.R.P.
Assunto: fetus death, fetus hydrops, hydranencephaly, stillbirth, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18(th) gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32(nd) gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

40) Resources and latest news about zika virus disease available from ECDC
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

41) One Mother's Story my son has Microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Free, Cathy, Minutaglio, Rose
Assunto: Microcephaly, Zika virus, Human abnormalities
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: People, v. 85, n. 9, p. 83-84, 2016
ISSN: 937673
Resumo: The article profiles Lisa Koltay, mother of 18-year-old Daryle Koltay who suffers from the birth defect microcephaly which she believes may have been caused by the Zika virus. Information is provided on Daryle Koltay's symptoms, which include juvenile diabetes, dizziness, and balance difficulties. Comments from Lisa Koltay are included in which she suggests that a fever and join pain she suffered following mosquito bites in Florida may have resulted in contracting the Zika virus.

42) Benefits of sharing
Autor: [No author name available]
Assunto: Brazil; Dna Sequence; Epidemic; Evidence Based Medicine; Factual Database; Genetics; Human; Information Dissemination; Microcephaly; Open Access Publishing; Pathogenicity; Statistics And Numerical Data; Time; Utilization; Virology; World Health Organization; Zika Virus; Zika Virus Infection; Brazil; Databases, Factual; Disease Outbreaks; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Information Dissemination; Microcephaly; Open Access Publishing; Sequence Analysis, Dna; Time Factors; World Health Organization; Zika Virus; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v.530, n. 7589, p. 129-,2016.
ISSN: 14764687
Resumo: [No abstract available]

43) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

44) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2016
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

45) Plane Speaking.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: O'Connell, Gerard
Assunto: Press conferences, Catholics, Political correctness, Zika Virus Epidemic, Faith
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: America, v. 214, n. 9, p. 22, 2016
ISSN: 27049
Resumo: The article talks about why Pope Francis' should continue holding candid press conferences. Despite suggestions that the pope abandon the practice, he continues to hold media interviews for what the naysayers fail to recognize is that he is reaching a global audience far beyond the Catholic faithfuls, that he is dong it in a totally free, credible way with not a care for political correctness, and that he comes across as a humble, normal person.

46) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

47) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

48) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

49) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

50) Zika virus infection: new threat in global health
Autor: Lee, Jacob
Assunto: French Polynesia; Outbreak; Transmission; States
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Korean Medical Science, v. 31, n. 3, p. 331-332, 2016
ISSN: 1011-8934
Resumo:

51) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

52) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

53) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor, Gil
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Rubella, Fetal development, Autism spectrum disorders
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, 2016
ISSN: 10467408
Resumo: The author discusses a study conducted by researchers in Brazil on link between Zika infection of pregnant women and microcephaly developmental abnormality of the brain cortex. He mentions the risk of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. He also mentions that the risk of fetal developmental problems such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be increased due to Maternal immune activation (MIA) as a result of microbial infections.

54) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

55) Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Simkiss, D.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Aedes aegypti, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, v. 62, n. 1, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 1426338
Resumo:

56) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study
Autor: Cauchemez Simon,Besnard Marianne,Bompard Priscillia,Dub Timothée,Guillemette-Artur Prisca,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique,Salje Henrik,Van Kerkhove Maria D,Abadie Véronique,Garel Catherine,Fontanet Arnaud,Mallet Henri-Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has coincided with increased reports of babies born with microcephaly. On Feb 1, 2016, WHO declared the suspected link between Zika virus and microcephaly to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This association, however, has not been precisely quantified. We retrospectively analysed data from a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, which was the largest documented outbreak before that in the Americas. We used serological and surveillance data to estimate the probability of infection with Zika virus for each week of the epidemic and searched medical records to identify all cases of microcephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were used to assess periods of risk in pregnancy when Zika virus might increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. The Zika virus outbreak began in October, 2013, and ended in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62-70) of the general population were infected. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the 4-month period March 1 to July 10, 2014. The timing of these cases was best explained by a period of risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the baseline prevalence of microcephaly was two cases (95% CI 0-8) per 10 000 neonates, and the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection was 95 cases (34-191) per 10 000 women infected in the first trimester. We could not rule out an increased risk of microcephaly from infection in other trimesters, but models that excluded the first trimester were not supported by the data. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and neonates whose mothers are infected with Zika virus. Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund, EU-PREDEMICS.

57) Infected with Dogma: How South America's Response to the Zika Virus Fails Women.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miller, Merrill
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Humanist, v. 76, n. 2, p. 9-11, 2016
ISSN: 187399
Resumo: The article highlights Zika virus, an infection caused by a bite from a mosquito carrying the virus, which has been spreading in countries including Africa, Caribbean and South America. Zika virus is noted to cause a mild fever and rash, and is noted to be associated with serious birth defects in newborns in South America. The increase of Brazilian infants born with microcephaly birth defect is also mentioned.

58) Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy — Brazil, 2015.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, Cortez-Escalante, Juan, Gonçalves Holanda De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório, Ikeda do Carmo, Greice Madeleine, Pessanha Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch, Coelho, Giovanini Evelim, Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto: Micorcephaly, Diagnosis, Disease prevalence, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Public health, Transmission, Risk factors, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article focuses on the prevalence of microcephaly among infants born in women affected by Zika virus transmission in their first trimester pregnancy in Brazil in 2015. Topics discussed include an overview of the outbreak of Zika virus disease, the registration of the identified congenital anomalies, and the implications for public health practice.

59) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

60) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

61) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Human abnormalities, Mecial care, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnacy complications, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article discusses the impact that the Zika virus has on development of the birth defect microcephaly in newborn infants in Brazil, including the fetal medicine specialist Manoel Sarno's diagnoses of microcephaly and the Zika virus outbreak. The risks that the Zika virus poses to pregnant women are discussed.

62) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

63) Mosquito Experts in U.S. Call for Guerrilla War Against Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquito control, Public health - United States, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Zika Virus Epidemic, Aedes aegypti, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57141, p. A1-A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at mosquito control in the U.S. in the context of the spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which it says is spreading northward from Brazil, where it is has been associated with causing birth defects in the babies of pregnant women who become infected with it. It says spraying of pesticides is not very effective against the Aedes aegypti mosquito which carries the virus and discusses other mosquito control approaches.

64) 14 New Reports of Sexual Transmission of Zika in U.S.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Transmisson
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57152, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the health authorities in the U.S. regarding the transmission of the Zika virus by sex.

65) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

66) Bello
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Medical care, Zika Virus Epidemic, Epidemics, Medical policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 418, p. 32, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article offers information on the health systems in Latin America. Topics discussed include the effect of mosquito-borne virus Zika to babies of infected mothers, need for Latin Americans of treatment for ailments such as cancer and diabetes, and suggestion of Daniel Cotlear, health specialist at the World Bank, Latin America, regarding the improvements of benefits packages for poor people.

67) Medical Mystery With a Global Reach.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Romero, Simon, Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Microcephaly, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57135, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses increasing incidences of the birth defect microcephaly in Brazil caused by the Zika virus, and the declaration of a public health emergency concerning the Zika virus epidemic by the group the World Health Organization in early 2016.

68) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

69) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

70) Another emerging pathogen - Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Zika virus - još jedan novoiskrsli patogen
Autor: Lazi?, Srdjan
Assunto: Zika virus, Flaviviruses, Research, Pathogenic microorganisms, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, v. 73, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016
ISSN: 428450
Resumo:

71) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

72) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

73) How to contain the Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Micorcephaly, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 49-52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus and the effort to prevent it from spreading in the U.S. Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that is suspected to be linked with microcephaly. It explores the use of chemical strategies to avoid mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, such as treating water with larvicides to control mosquitoes before they mature. The spread of the Zika virus in Brazil is also discussed.

74) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

75) How Zika became a threat.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mackenzie, Debora
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Disease complications, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Fetus - Abnormalities, Brain abnormalities, Virus diseases - Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3058, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika pandemic in 2016. It states the Zika virus emerged in Brazil early in 2015 and is now present in 27 countries, including 12 nations in the Americas from December 2015 through January 2016. It mentions the virus had not been previously known to be widespread among humans or cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome or stunted brain development in fetuses. It reports the virus originated in Africa and initially spread into parts of South-East Asia.

76) Microcephaly in Brazil: How to interpret reported numbers?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Victora C.G., Schuler-Faccini L., Matijasevich A., Ribeiro E., Pessoa A., Barros F.C.
Assunto: head circumference, microcephaly (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 621-624, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

77) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

78) Zika virus infection Among U.S. pregnant travelers - august 2015-february 2016.
Autor: Meaney-Delman Dana,Hills Susan L,Williams Charnetta,Galang Romeo R,Iyengar Preetha,Hennenfent Andrew K,Rabe Ingrid B,Panella Amanda,Oduyebo Titilope,Honein Margaret A,Zaki Sherif,Lindsey Nicole,Lehman Jennifer A,Kwit Natalie,Bertolli Jeanne,Ellington Sascha,Igbinosa Irogue,Minta Anna A,Petersen Emily E,Mead Paul,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

79) In Zika Epidemic, a Warning on Climate Change.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gillis, Justin, Romero, Simon
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Dengue, Climatic changes, Pandemics, Urbanization, Population
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57149, p. 6-11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the association of the emergence of Zika epidemic as well as the related spread of a disease called dengue on global climate change. The consideration of climate change as a factor in a string of disease outbreaks afflicting both people and animals is outlined. According to experts, a main reason for the disease outbreaks was most likely the expansion of the number of people at risk, through urbanization, population growth and international travel.

80) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J,Bandeira Antonio Carlos,Franco-Paredes Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, n. 1, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

81) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

82) Ailment Linked to Zika Epidemic Has Long Afflicted and Mystified.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saint Louis, Catherine
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57129, p. A1-A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the connection between the deformity microcephaly and an outbreak of the virus known as Zika in early 2015.

83) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

84) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

85) Data sharing.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNutt, Marcia
Assunto: Public health research, Zika virus, Information sharing, Action research in public health
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6277, p. 1007, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article offers information on data sharing in public health and discusses the work of the journal to allow best available research evidence in response to public health emergencies. It informs that the journal signatories will make freely available all the content related to Zika virus. It also mentions the organizations associated with the journal including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the U.S. and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India.

86) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Zika virus, congenital abnormalities, travel medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

87) A puzzling path from infection to Guillain-Barré syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang T.T.
Assunto: Guillain Barre syndrome
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science Translational Medicine, 2016, v. 8, n. 326, p. 326-328, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1946-6242 (electronic),1946-6234
Resumo:

88) Infección intrauterina por virus zika y microcefalia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cofré, Fernanda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Revista Chilena de Infectologia, v. 33, n. 1, p. 96, 2016.
ISSN: 0716-1018
Resumo:

89) Monsanto fighting yet another battle against misinformation.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Laws, Forrest
Assunto: Common fallacies, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Southwest Farm Press, v. 43, n. 7, p. 4, 2016
ISSN: 1940945
Resumo: The author talks about the misinformation facing U.S. agriculture company Monsanto of March 2016 that its products have connection with the Zika virus or the outbreak of microcephaly that has affected families in Brazil.

90) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.
Autor: Gyurech Danielle,Schilling Julian,Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas,Cassinotti Pascal,Kaeppeli Franz,Dobec Marinko
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, 2016
ISSN: 1424-3997
Resumo:

91) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

92) Will Zika Virus and Microcephaly Epidemics Emerge After Ebola in West Africa? The Need for Prospective Studies Now.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Health Security, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5108
Resumo:

93) Monkey study reveals zika damage in developing brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Showing the closest link yet between Zika virus and fetal brain injury in an animal model that closely resembles humans, researchers today described brain abnormalities in the fetus of a macaque experimentally infected during the late stage of her pregnancy. In other developments, Thailand reported several more Zika cases, many of them linked to a cluster in Bangkok, as the number of infections in Singapore grew steadily. In Florida, health officials denied a newspaper report charging problems with Zika reporting, and Broward County began aerial spraying withan organic pesticide as a prevention step

94) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects : Evidence points toward the fast-spreading Zika virus as the cause of microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel G.
Assunto: Brazil, congenital malformation, race, spike, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

95) Going Viral.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wolff, Alexander, Keith, Ted
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), International relations, Public health - International cooperation, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Brazil - Social conditions
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sports Illustrated, v. 124, n. 6, p. 14-15, 2016
ISSN: 0038822X
Resumo: The article discusses the mosquito-borne Zika virus which is spreading through Brazil and other parts of the Americas less than six months before the start of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it mentions how the Zika virus will do more to bring the world together than the Olympic games. Public health emergencies and the birth defect microcephaly are examined, along with the association between the Zika virus and the autoimmune condition Guillain-Barré syndrome.

96) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

97) Dallas Reports A Case of Zika Spread by Sex.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission, Texas
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57131, p. A1-A17, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at a report from the county of Dallas, Texas, of a case in which the Zika virus was transmitted by sexual contact, which it notes is in contrast with the virus's usual transmission by mosquitoes. Topics include the advice issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for precautions people should take when visiting world regions where Zika is prevalent and an association between Zika infections in pregnant women and birth defects in their babies.

98) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

99) El Salvador’s Advice on Zika: Don’t Have Babies.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ahmed, Azam, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Childbirth, Government policy, Pregnancy, Advice, Social aspects, EL Salvador - Politics & government - 21st century, EL Salvador - Social conditions - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57123, p. A1-A6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the El Salvadorian government's advice to women on refraining from having children and postponing pregnancy for two years to avoid the complications from Zika virus infections, within the context of the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America.

100) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

101) Delaying Pregnancy Until Zika Moves On.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr, Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnancy, Governmet policy, Pregnant women - Health, Public health, Brazil, Ecuador
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57137, p. D1-D6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that health officials in several countries with cases of the Zika virus have warned women to avoid pregnancy in an effort to avoid infection and prevent further development of the epidemic. Noted countries that have issued such warnings include Brazil, Ecuador, and Colombia. The article goes on to note that the World Health Organization has not endorsed the precaution.

102) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola, Habida, Gozzer, Ernesto, Jiatong Zhuo, Memish, Ziad A.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Special events, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Muslim pilgrims & pilgrimages, Mosquitoes, Diseases, Social aspects, Saudi Arabia, Mecca
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet , v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses how to be prepared against Zika virus while participating at several international events including 2016 Rio Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj. It states the need to use personal mosquito bite protection including insect repellents, protective clothing, and long-sleeved shirts. It mentions that health-care providers are encouraged to use travel health visits to emphasize personal protection against mosquito bites and sexual transmission.

103) Letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives Transmitting a Supplemental Budget Request To Respond to the Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Obama, Barack
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 19466986
Resumo: A letter is presented from U.S. President Barack Obama to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, which focuses on the transmission of a supplemental budget in response to the Zika virus epidemic.

104) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach J., Alencar C.H., Kelvin A.A., de Oliveira W.K., de Góes Cavalcanti L.P.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil’s Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil’s Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

105) False Mercy.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alvaré, Helen
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Abortion - Moral & ethical aspects, Poor women, Abortion - Religious aspects - Catholic Church, Women, People with disabilities - Social conditions, Contraception - Social aspects, Social conditions, Colombia
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: America, v. 214, n. 8, p. 14, 2016
ISSN: 27049
Resumo: The article discusses the relation between the Zika virus and a Roman Catholic ethical view of abortion. Topics include arguments that tie abortion legalization to the social conditions of poor women, conditions facing poor women in Colombia, and the purported impacts of contraception as a preventive service on poor women. Supposed impacts of abortion on people with disabilities are noted.

106) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Brazil is facing a disturbing spike in a severe birth defect called microcephaly. Babies are born with heads that are far too small, a sign that the brain failed to fully develop. Doctors there have reported nearly 3000 cases since July 2015--more than 20 times the usual rate. Scientists are scrambling to understand what is going on. The leading theory so far is that the condition is caused by a little known mosquito-borne virus called Zika that surfaced in Brazil in March and is quickly spreading through Latin America. The news has prompted the government to declare a public health emergency; some doctors are recommending women not get pregnant until more is known. Researchers are trying to develop better diagnostic tests for the virus so they can track whether mothers of affected babies were infected during their pregnancies, and other groups are hoping to use stem cell models of the developing human brain to understand how the virus might affect fetal growth. Meanwhile, the virus is advancing fast. It surfaced in Colombia, Suriname, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico in October and November; Puerto Rico reported its first cases in late December. Researchers warn that countries across the Americas should be prepared for a similar wave of birth defects in coming months.

107) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

108) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

109) Beyond Ebola.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Currie, Janet
Assunto: Public health - International cooperation, Emergency management, Pandemics, Prevention, Ebola virus disease - Transmission, Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article discusses the creation of Center for Health Emergency Preparedness and Response within the World Health Organization (WHO) which help the international community to prepare for and respond to a global epidemic, citing the Ebola virus. It mentions the declaration of Zika virus as a public health emergency which is a disease caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.

110) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

111) Companies Confront Zika Virus And Safety.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Creswell, Julie, Segal, David
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Women employees, Health, Employees, Travel
Descritores: Zika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. B1-B2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean region, focusing on the efforts of multinational corporations and other employers to protect employees from possible infection by the Zika virus, including employees in the affected areas and U.S.-based employees whose jobs involve travel. Companies cited include Delta Air Lines and paper products company Kimberly-Clark, and special concerns for women who are or may become pregnant are noted.

112) The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East.
Autor: Tridane Abdessamad,El Khajah Abdelmajid,Ali Bassam R
Assunto: Congenital microcephaly, Middle East, Travel warning, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo:

113) Spectre of ebola haunts zika response
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Check Hayden, Erika
Assunto: Ebola hemorrhagic fever; Epidemic; Health; Human; Microcephaly; Nonhuman; Note; Priority journal; Public health problem; Virus infection; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

114) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor G.
Assunto: brain development, fetal brain, inflammation, placenta, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1600-0897 (electronic),1046-7408
Resumo:

115) Biting Habits.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pennington, Hugh
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Public health, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: London Review of Books, v. 38, n. 4, p. 19-20, 2016
ISSN: 2609592
Resumo: The article focuses on increment in cases related to Zika virus infection as international concern. Topics include association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome that include microcephaly infection, detection of Zika virus by pathologist George Dick and epidemiologist Alexander Haddow by observing mosquitoes biting habits, identification of Aedes albopictus as transmission vector in laboratory experiments and eradication of Zika virus in Brazil by prevention of mosquitoes breeding.

116) Beyond Ebola
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Currie, Janet; Grenfell, Bryan; Farrar, Jeremy
Assunto: Ebola virus, Public health, Zika virus, Liberia
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: On 14 January 2016, Liberia was declared Ebola-free. A new case was identified shortly after the announcement, but it is nevertheless clear that the West African epidemic has moved on to a more hopeful phase. What lessons can be drawn from the Ebola crisis to help the international community to prepare for and respond to the next global epidemic? This question is particularly pertinent given the recent declaration of the Zika virus as a public health emergency.

117) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

118) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

119) Zika virus: Brazil's surge in small-headed babies questioned by report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Butler D.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 13-14, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

120) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Autor: Roa Mónica
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

121) Zika virus and neurological disease-approaches to the unknown
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solomon T., Baylis M., Brown D.
Assunto: neurologic disease, virus, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

122) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

123) ZIKA virus circulates in new regions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Attar N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 62, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1740-1534 (electronic),1740-1526
Resumo:

124) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Autor: Hills Susan L,Russell Kate,Hennessey Morgan,Williams Charnetta,Oster Alexandra M,Fischer Marc,Mead Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

125) Avoid Travel To Olympics If Pregnant, U.S. Warns
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57155, p. D2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the warning of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 26, 2016 regarding the need for pregnant women to avoid travel to the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil due to the risk of Zika virus infection.

126) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

127) WHO declares ?public health emergency? for microcephaly linked to Zika virus
Autor: Lappin R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emergency Medicine, v. 48, n.2, p.55-57,2016.
ISSN: 136654
Resumo: [No abstract available]

128) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

129) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

130) Preventing Zika Virus Infections in Pregnant Women: An Urgent Public Health Priority.
Autor: Bell Beth P,Boyle Coleen A,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 589-590, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo:

131) Zika virus: management of infection and risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ahmad, Shazaad S.Y.; Amin, Tejal N.; Ustianowski, Andrew
Assunto: Adult; Aedes; Article; Brain ventricle dilatation; Case report; Chromosome aberration; Colombia; Congenital infection; Contraception; Contracture; Dengue; Disease transmission; Female; Fetus echography; Flaviviridae; Flaviviridae infection; General practitioner; Genetic disorder; Gestational age; Human; Malaria; Male; Maternal welfare; Metabolic disorder; Microcephaly; Midwife; Newborn death; Nonhuman; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Risk factor; Rubella; Stillbirth; Teratogenicity; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i1062, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

132) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ryo,Mizumoto Kenji,Yasuda Yohei,Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number, Epidemic, Statistical estimation, Transmissibility, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

133) Brazil struggles to cope with Zika epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennigan, Tom
Assunto: Insect repellent; Aedes aegypti; Brazil; Diagnostic test; Fever; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Government; Human; Maternal care; Microcephaly; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnancy; Priority journal; Public health; Rash; Risk; Sewage; World Health Organization; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British medical journal, v. 352, n. I1226 , 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

134) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report.
Autor: Brasil Patrícia,Pereira Jose P,Raja Gabaglia Claudia,Damasceno Luana,Wakimoto Mayumi,Ribeiro Nogueira Rita M,Carvalho de Sequeira Patrícia,Machado Siqueira André,Abreu de Carvalho Liege M,Cotrim da Cunha Denise,Calvet Guilherme A,Neves Elizabeth S,Moreira Maria E,Rodrigues Baião Ana E,Nassar de Carvalho Paulo R,Janzen Carla,Valderramos Stephanie G,Cherry James D,Bispo de Filippis Ana M,Nielsen-Saines Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

135) Corrections.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Uterus - Surgery
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57167, p. A2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: Corrections to several articles on topics including the relation of Zika virus and health defects in the March 6, 2016 issue, the first uterus transplant surgery in the U.S. in the March 8, 2016 issue, and the obituary for conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt in the March 7, 2016 issue.

136) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

137) Zika virus: a little less speculation, a little more action.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Neurology, null, The Lancet Neurology
Assunto: Neurology - Research, Zika virus infections, Speculation, Publishers & publishing, Medical publishing
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Neurology, v. 15, n. 4, p. 343, 2016
ISSN: 14744422
Resumo:

138) Zika virus: A previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gatherer D., Kohl A.
Assunto: pandemic, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099 (electronic),0022-1317
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

139) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against zika
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maurice, John
Assunto: Unclassified drug; Virus vaccine; Virus vector; Zika virus vaccine; Aedes aegypti; Antiviral therapy; Dengue; Diagnostic test; Disease carrier; Ebola hemorrhagic fever; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Human; Japanese encephalitis; National health organization; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; World Health Organization; Yellow fever; Zika test; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016.
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

140) Zika virus and microcephaly: Why is this situation a PHEIC?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heymann D.L., Hodgson A., Sall A.A., Freedman D.O., Staples J.E., Althabe F., Baruah K., Mahmud G., Kandun N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Bino S., Menon K.U.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 719-721, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

141) Zika virus infection among U.S. pregnant travelers - August 2015-February 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L.; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R.; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K.; Rabe, Ingrid B.; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A.; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A.; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A.; Petersen, Emily E.; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? Because of the risk for Zika virus infection and its possible association with adverse pregnancy outcomes, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus. CDC also released guidelines for Zika virus testing for pregnant women with a history of travel while pregnant to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. What is added by this report? This report provides preliminary information on testing for Zika virus infection of U.S. pregnant women who had traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission. As of February 17, 2016, nine U.S. pregnant travelers with Zika virus infection had been identified. No Zika virusrelated hospitalizations or deaths were reported among pregnant women. Pregnancy outcomes included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (18 weeks and 34 weeks gestation) are continuing without known complications. What are the implications for public health practice? In this small case series, Zika virus infection during pregnancy was associated with a range of outcomes, including early pregnancy losses, congenital microcephaly, and apparently healthy infants. Additional information will be available in the future from a newly established CDC registry for U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants.

142) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

143) Zika - a pandemic in progress?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mohamad Idris, Fauziah
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Countermeasures; Pandemic; Zika virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Alphavirus infection; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Dengue; Dengue virus; Epidemic; Guillain Barre syndrome; Human; Infection control; Infection risk; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Risk factor; Sexual transmission; Vector control; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, v. 23, n. 2, p. 70-72, 2016.
ISSN: 2180-4303
Resumo: The emerging threat of Zika virus outbreak with associated neurological abnormalities needs to be assessed in perspective in terms of its ability to cause a pandemic. This article attempts to throw some light on the issue.

144) Waging war on Zika mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson, Clare
Assunto: Viruses, Mosquitoes, Disease transmission, Epidemics, Global health, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3059, p. 8-9, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Zika is officially a global public health emergency. The declaration, by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday, means that it can now take the lead in coordinating the global response to a virus it has estimated could infect up to 4 million people in the Americas over the next year. Zika, which was first detected in the region in May, has now spread "explosively" to at least 25 countries. The emergency designation will help the WHO to ramp up research and organize international efforts to combat the Aedes mosquitoes that spread the disease. Here, Wilson discusses the tactics that countries could consider in the war on mosquitoes.

145) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

146) Partnerships, Not Parachutists, for Zika Research.
Autor: Heymann David L,Liu Joanne,Lillywhite Louis
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: When the director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders represent a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), she called for increased research into their cause, including the question of whether the Zika virus is the source of the problem.(1) The declaration provides an opportunity to step up the pace of research in order to find the answer to some important questions more quickly. It could not only facilitate the accumulation of knowledge about the relationship between the Zika virus and microcephaly, but also accelerate the study of . . .

147) Zika virus: A new global threat for 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

148) Time for global action on Zika virus epidemic.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: British Medical Association ,v. 352, p. 1781, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

149) Zika virus infection, the recent menace of the Aedes mosquito
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bajpai, Smrati; Nadkar, Milind Y.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, v. 64, p. 42-45, 2016.
ISSN: 0004-5772
Resumo: Mosquito-borne infections and viral outbreaks have bewildered physicians and population at large from time to time, there seems to be a constant cat and mouse race between the medical fraternity and these mosquito menaces. Zika virus and its vector Aedes aegyti are currently bothering the world population, this infection has affected pregnant women causing microcephaly in their new-borns and also has caused GBS-like manifestations in affected individuals. Currently the outbreak is concentrated in the countries of South American continent, but the omnipresence of its vector has made the world community cautious about the potential of its spread; thus the great emphasis is on prevention and vector control strategies to counter Zika virus attack. Consequently, Ministry of Health, Government of India has also taken cognizance of this and issued guidelines to tackle this problem.

150) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

151) The emerging zika pandemic: enhancing preparedness
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lucey, Daniel R.; Gostin, Lawrence O.
Assunto: Insect repellent; Insecticide; Aedes; Africa; Bed net; Brain malformation; Brazil; Disease surveillance; Ebola hemorrhagic fever; El Salvador; Epidemic; Europe; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Guillain Barre syndrome; Health care organization; Health care personnel; High risk population; Human; Infection risk; Laboratory test; Medical information; Mexico; Microcephaly; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; National health service; Nonhuman; Pacific islands; Pandemic; Pesticide spraying; Philippines; Practice guideline; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Protective clothing; Public health service; Puerto Rico; Short survey; Southeast Asia; Travel; United States; Vector control; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016.
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

152) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

153) Severe eye damage in infants with microcephaly is presumed to be due to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McCarthy, Michael
Assunto: Arthralgia; Awareness; Brazil; Chorioretinal atrophy; Chorioretinopathy; Congenital infection; Conjunctivitis; Disease association; Disease severity; Epidemic; Eye disease; Eye examination; Eye injury; Fever; Focal pigment mottling; Head circumference; Headache; Human; Infant; Iris coloboma; Lens subluxation; Microcephaly; Note; Optic disc cupping; Optic nerve hypoplasia; Priority journal; Rash; Retina macula lutea; Screening test; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i855, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

154) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

155) World Birth Defects Day — March 3, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Disability Awareness Day, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 190-191, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the celebration of the World Birth Defects Day on March 3, 2016 in response to the Zika virus infection in which infants are born with serious birth defects.

156) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

157) El Niño and climate change--contributing factors in the dispersal of Zika virus in the Americas?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Paz, Shlomit, Semenza, Jan C.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika virus, Medical climatology
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 745, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article on the contribution of climate change and El Niño in Zika virus dispersal in the Americas in the January 23, 2016 issue.

158) ZIKAtracker: A mobile app for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin A.A., Banner D., Pamplona L., Alencar C., Rubino S., Heukelbach J.
Assunto: mobile application
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

159) Zika virus associated with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej; Korva, Misa; Tul, Nataa; Popovi, Mara; Poljak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Mraz, Jerica; Kolenc, Marko; Rus, Katarina Resman; Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver; Voduek, Vesna Fabjan; Vizjak, Alenka; Piem, Joe; Petrovec, Miroslav; Zupanc, Tatjana Avic
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reversetranscriptase- polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

160) Zika virus outbreak: 'a perfect storm'.
Autor: Ai Jing-Wen,Zhang Ying,Zhang Wenhong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo:

161) The asian tiger hunts in Maputo city - the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kampango, Ayubo; Ablio, Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo city; Mozambique; New record ; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya virus; Disease carrier; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Invasive species; Mosquito bite; Nonhuman; Population abundance; Taxonomic identification; Urban area; Vector control; Virus transmission; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 76, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

162) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

163) Transmission of zika virus through sexual contact with travelers to areas of ongoing transmission - Continental United States, 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L.; Russell, Kate; Hennessey, Morgan; Williams, Charnetta; Oster, Alexandra M.; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? Zika virus is spread primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, though recent reports have described two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. CDC released interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016. What is added by this report? This report provides information on six confirmed and probable cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from male travelers to female nontravelers. This suggests that sexual transmission of Zika virus might be more common than previously reported. What are the implications for public health practice? Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission who have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

164) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

165) The American epidemic of zika, or medicine facing religion
Titulo Alternativo: L’épidémie américaine de Zika, ou la médecine face à la religion
Autor: Nau, Jean-Yves
Assunto: Religion; Short Survey; Virus infection; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Revue Medicale Suisse, v. 12, n. 504, p. 282-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1660-9379
Resumo:

166) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

167) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

168) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

169) Once a Scientific Curiosity, Zika First Emerged in Force on a Remote Pacific Island.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramzy, Austin
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika outbreak in Yap Island in the Western Pacific, the discovery of the Zika virus in Uganda, and the spread of the disease in people in countries including the Philippines, India, and Thailand.

170) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

171) Pregnancies Shadowed by Fears of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Beil, Laura, Weintraub, Karen
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57172, p. D3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the fears of pregnant women in the U.S. for the Zika virus, noting the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to receive blood tests weeks after traveling to an affected area.

172) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

173) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed Zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy Brazil, 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenrio Gonalves Holanda; Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda Do; Henriques, Cludio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; De Frana, Giovanny Vincius Arajo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? An outbreak of Zika virus disease, caused by a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, occurred in Brazil in early 2015. An increase in the prevalence of infants born with microcephaly has been reported in Brazil since October 2015, in association with clusters of febrile rash illness in pregnant women. What is added by this report? The birth prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil increased sharply during 20152016. The largest increase occurred in the Northeast region, where Zika virus transmission was first reported in Brazil. This analysis of 574 cases of microcephaly, detected through a newly established ad hoc microcephaly surveillance system, identified temporal and geospatial evidence linking the occurrence of febrile rash illness consistent with Zika virus disease during the first trimester of pregnancy with the increased birth prevalence of microcephaly. The prevalence of microcephaly in 15 states with laboratoryconfirmed Zika virus transmission (2.8 cases per 10,000 live births) significantly exceeded that in four states without confirmed Zika virus transmission (0.6 per 10,000). What are the implications for public health practice? The suggested link between maternal exposure to Zika virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy and the increased birth prevalence of microcephaly provide additional evidence for congenital infection with Zika virus. Ongoing surveillance is needed to identify additional cases and to fully elucidate the clinical spectrum of illness. Pregnant women should protect themselves from mosquito bites by wearing protective clothing, applying insect repellents, and when indoors, ensuring that rooms are protected with screens or mosquito nets.

174) Pope Urges More Reliance on Individual Conscience.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rocca, Francis X.
Assunto: Conscience, Zika virus infections, Contraception - Law & legislation, Condoms
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

175) Officials Ask For Funding To Study Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Steinhauer, Jennifer
Assunto: Zika virus, Research, Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57168, p. A21, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of director Thomas R. Frieden of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding the need for the country to fund a study to fight the outbreak of the Zika virus in the country.

176) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N,O'Connor Catherine,Kirkbride Hilary,Brooks Tim,Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

177) Brazil Public Told It Must Undertake Zika Battle.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew, Sreeharsha, Vinod, Perpetua, Sofia
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes, Diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. A4-A8, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that soldiers, sailors and other military personnel have told public regarding the campaign to combat the mosquitoes that are spreading Zika virus which surge in infants born with severe brain damage.

178) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

179) Zika and a Woman’s Right to Choose.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diniz, Debora
Assunto: Zika virus, Pregnancy, Brazil. Ministry of Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57136, p. A25, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The author mentions of increased threat of Zika virus in Brazil since October 2015 and mentions that the Health Ministry of Brazil has urged women to avoid pregnancy until the epidemic is passed and also mentions that low-paid women and domestic workers are more prone to the Zika virus.

180) Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Bravo-Filho V., Góis A.L., Belfort R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), macular degeneration, macular neuroretinal atrophy, microcephaly (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

181) Zika: hazing could halt spread.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Universities & colleges, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Times Higher Education, n. 2242, p. 17-18, 2016
ISSN: 493929
Resumo: The article reports that Brazilian universities have signed the Brazilian Education Pact against Zika virus, which was introduced by Brazil's education minister Aloízio Mercadante; and mentions that the minister has suggested students to use hazing rituals to raise awareness of the virus.

182) U.S. Watch.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Parasitic diseases, Epidemics, Medical emergencies, Zika virus infections, Florida, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

183) Infection disease surveillance update.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zwizwai, Ruth
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Communicable diseases, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Public health, Vaccination
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 299, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

184) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M,Brooks John T,Stryker Jo Ellen,Kachur Rachel E,Mead Paul,Pesik Nicki T,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

185) Feedback
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Quantum superposition, Zika Virus Epidemic, Antibiotics - Physiological effect
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3062, p. 64, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: Several letters to the editor are presented in response to articles in previous issues including quantum superposition in the February 13, 2016 issue, pesticides responsible for the microcephaly associated with Zika virus, and antibiotic resistance.

186) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

187) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown C.
Assunto: epidemic (epidemiology, etiology), virus infection (epidemiology, etiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ, v. 188, n. 2, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329 (electronic),0820-3946
Resumo:

188) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola H., Gozzer E., Zhuo J., Memish Z.A.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

189) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

190) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Autor: Roze, B.; Najioullah, F.; Ferge, J.; Apetse, K.; Brouste, Y.; Cesaire, R.; Fagour, C.; Fagour, L.; Hochedez, P.; Jeannin, S.; Joux, J.; Mehdaoui, H.; Valentino, R.; Signate, A.; Cabie, A.
Assunto: Dengue virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, p. 8-11, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

191) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno, Manoel, Sacramento, Gielson A., Khouri, Ricardo, do Rosário, Mateus S., Costa, Federico, Archanjo, Gracinda, Santos, Luciane A., Jr.Nery, Nivison, Vasilakis, Nikos, Ko, Albert I., de Almeida, Antonio R. P.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Hydrops fetalis, Microcephaly, Fetal growth retardation, Ultrasonic imaging, Case studies
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

192) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

193) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roa, Mónica
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Public health, Pregnancy, Government policy, Reproductive health, Sex education, Contraceptives, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 842-843, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the author's views on the move of health ministers from Latin American countries to recommend to women to postpone pregnancy in the face of the Zika virus outbreak. She thinks that the recommendation solely targets a specific issue rather than address general concerns over women reproductive health in the region. The author refers the women's health issues to barriers including poor quality sex education, poor access to contraceptives, high prevalence of rape, and culture.

194) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

195) NIH hopes funding increases will continue.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Government aid to research, Zika Virus Epidemic, Medical research - Economic aspects, Budget, Endowment of research, Government aid, Economics, United States - Politics & government - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the move of the U.S Congress to approve the funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2016 budget. It states that the funding for several (NIH) initiatives includes $200 million for precision medicine, personalized treatments for targeted disease, and preventing antibiotic resistance. It mentions that the NIH supporters worry about the 2017 budget and the threat of zika virus.

196) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K,Cherpillod P,Kaiser L,Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya, Zika, dengue, diagnostic algorithm, outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

197) The Antidote to Travel Anxiety: Information.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kugel, Seth
Assunto: Americans, Travel, Travelers - Attitudes, Accuracy of information, Travel - Research, Zika Virus Epidemic, Fear
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57156, p. 1-3
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: An essay is presented which discusses how Americans can stay safe while traveling. It suggests that an intake of accurate information about travel destinations and the associated risks can reduce fear among travelers. Particular attention is given to concerns over the Zika virus and its potential harm to pregnant women.

198) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

199) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

200) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

201) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

202) New Study Links Zika Virus to Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Betsy
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus, Public health, Immunology
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

203) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maurice, John
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Epidemics - Research, Research & development, Medical research
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article reports on the weapons of the World Health Organization (WHO) against mosquito-borne Zika virus. Topics discussed include the efforts of WHO to address Zika virus across the globe, the initiative to mitigate fake Zika tests, research and development for the epidemic, and the R&D Blueprint roadmap of WHO.

204) Zika virus: an unfolding epidemic.
Autor: Todd Betsy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Nursing, v. 116, n. 4 p. 59-60, 2016
ISSN: 1538-7488
Resumo: What we know now about this emerging global threat.

205) World Briefs
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Priests, Bishops, Installation (Clergy), Refugees, Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, Catholic Church - News briefs
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: National Catholic Reporter, v. 52, n. 9, p. 3-4, 2016
ISSN: 278939
Resumo: The article offers world news briefs related to the Catholic Church as of February 12, 2016. Topics include the refusal by priests for appointment as bishop, Catholic bishops in Germany and Austria urging their countries to continue accept refugees, and the recommendation by El Salvador government for two women to delay their pregnancy due to Zika virus.

206) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

207) Your Questions Answered the Zika Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dunlap, Tiare
Assunto: Women physicians, Zika virus, Pregnant women - Health, Interviews, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (U.S.) - Officials & employees
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: People, v. 85, n. 7, p. 69, 2016
ISSN: 937673
Resumo: An interview is presented with Denise Jamieson, a medical officer for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She discusses the Zika virus, covering its treatment, risk for pregnant women, and the likelihood of an outbreak in the U.S. Suggestions for virus prevention are also mentioned.

208) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

209) Zika? Partying Brazilians Offer Collective Shrug.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew
Assunto: Carnival, Brazilians, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Insect baits & repellents, Mosquitoes, Brazil, Brazil - Social life & customs, Attitudes, Social aspects, Salvador (Brazil) - Social life & customs
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A1-A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the celebration of the Carnival festival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Salvador, Brazil within the context of the Zika Virus Epidemic, including Brazilians' attitudes towards the epidemic. An overview of those participating in the Carnival's wearing of mosquito repellent to prevent Zika virus transmission is provided.

210) Rate of Zika-Related Birth Defects in Brazil Uncertain.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lyons, John
Assunto: Zika virus, Human abnormalities, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Epidemics, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

211) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

212) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.
Autor: Paixão Enny S,Barreto Florisneide,da Glória Teixeira Maria,da Conceição N Costa Maria,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 606-612, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge."

213) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Byass, Peter, Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Assunto: Microcephaly, Research, Zika virus infections, Public health research, Zika virus, Epidemiology - Research
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses sources of data which may contain important information about microcephaly which is being linked to Zika virus infection. Topics discussed include the World Health Organization's (WHO) call for increased research about microcephaly and its association with Zika virus, a study by the Paediatric Cardiology and Perinatology Network in Brazil about the incidence of microcephaly in Paraíba, and datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC).

214) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016.
Autor: Staples J Erin,Dziuban Eric J,Fischer Marc,Cragan Janet D,Rasmussen Sonja A,Cannon Michael J,Frey Meghan T,Renquist Christina M,Lanciotti Robert S,Muñoz Jorge L,Powers Ann M,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

215) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi, Ouafae, Goorhuis, Abraham, Schinkel, Janke, Codrington, John, Vreden, Stephen Gerold S., Vermaat, Joost S., Stijnis, Cornelis, Grobusch, Martin Peter
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhage, Travel - Health aspects, Polymerase chain reaction - Diagnostic use, Intravenous immunoglobulins
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939-940, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the case of a Netherlands-based patient with Zika virus infection who presented with thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleeding. Topics discussed include complaints reported by the patient several days after traveling to Suriname, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and the management of thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulins.

216) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

217) Brazil Health Researchers Say Zika Virus Is Active in Saliva, Urine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pregnancy complications, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Blood transfusion, Transmission, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal (Online), p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: The article reports that according to a study conducted by medical-research institute Oswaldo Cruz Foundation which reveals that Zika virus is active in saliva and urine. Topics discussed include precautions for pregnant women for Zika virus, genetic sequence of the virus, microcephaly where babies are born with small skulls and underdeveloped brains, transmission through blood transfusions, and mosquito as the transmission pathway of the disease.

218) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

219) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

220) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

221) Zika Trial Tentatively Approved By F.D.A.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pollack, Andrew
Assunto: Zika virus, Research, Field work (Research), Transgenic insects, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes - Genetics - Research, Insect genes, Dengue - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57169, p. B1-B2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval of a field trial research program involving genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) in America in association with a global effort to stop the spread of the Zika virus as of 2016. It states that the GEMs, which contain a gene that kills their offspring, have been effective in suppressing the populations of mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus and dengue fever in Brazil and other nations.

222) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

223) Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: Tip of the iceberg?
Autor: Oliveira Melo A.S., Malinger G., Ximenes R., Szejnfeld P.O., Alves Sampaio S., Bispo De Filippis A.M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, v. 47, n. 1, p. 6-7,2016.
ISSN: 9607692
Resumo: [No abstract available]

224) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

225) Zika Prompts Pleas for DDT.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Terrell, Rebecca
Assunto: Zika virus infections, DDT (Insecticide), Joint pain, Microcephaly, Pollutants
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New American, v. 32, n. 5, p. 22-26, 2016
ISSN: 8856540
Resumo: The article reports that due to increment of infection by Zika virus globally , need of the insecticide DDT is also increased. Topics discussed include symptoms of the infection such as fever and joint pain; conditions in infants known as microcephaly which lead to poor brain development; lack of availability of medicine to prevent infection and role of DDT to prevent the infection even its persistent organic pollutant nature.

226) Zika virus infection.
Autor: MacFadden Derek R,Bogoch Isaac I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329
Resumo:

227) Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana, Hills, Susan L., Williams, Charnetta, Galang, Romeo R., Iyengar, Preetha, Hennenfent, Andrew K., Rabe, Ingrid B., Panella, Amanda, Oduyebo, Titilope, Honein, Margaret A., Zaki, Sherif, Lindsey, Nicole, Lehman, Jennifer A., Kwit, Natalie, Bertolli, Jeanne, Ellington, Sascha, Igbinosa, Irogue, Minta, Anna A., Petersen, Emily E., Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Pregnant women - Travel, Pregnancy, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Miscarriage
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

228) Intrauterine zika virus infection and microcephaly: correlation of perinatal imaging and three-dimensional virtual physical models.
Autor: Werner Heron,Fazecas Tatiana,Guedes Bianca,Dos Santos Jorge Lopes,Daltro Pedro,Tonni Gabriele,Campbell Stuart,Araujo Júnior Edward
Assunto: 3D virtual physical model, Computed tomography, Intrauterine infection, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microcephaly, Ultrasound, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2016
ISSN: 1469-0705
Resumo:

229) Proof on Virus and Defects Is Expected to Take Months.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Infant diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57148, p. A5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 19, 2016 that the public health officials are not expecting to have proof concerning the surge of Zika virus in Brazilian babies born with damaged brains and tiny heads.

230) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

231) F.D.A. Issues Protocols to Screen Zika Virus From Blood Supply.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Louis, Catherine Saint
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57145, p. A16, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on protocols for screening Zika virus infection issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as of February 2016, and mentions that the guidelines intent to prevent the infection at blood banks.

232) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

233) Cover.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Genome editing, Government policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Time International (Atlantic Edition), v. 187, n. 5, p. C1, 2016
ISSN: 9288430
Resumo: The cover page of the journal is presented which includes information on a conversation with U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, the associated between the mosquito-borne Zika virus and microcephaly in bewborn infants, and the approval of human embryos gene editing in Great Britain.

234) Fighting the ‘Cockroach of Mosquitoes’.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Betsy McKay, Reed Johnson, Rogerio Jelmayer
Assunto: Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Mosquitoes
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

235) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: The need for novel mosquito control methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yakob L., Walker T.
Assunto: disease control, virus infection (epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Global Health, v. 4, n. 3, p. e148-e149, mar. 2016
ISSN: 2214-109X (electronic)
Resumo:

236) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

237) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown, Carolyn
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Disease prevalence, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Mosquito nets, Public health, Asia
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n.2, p. E34, 2016
ISSN: 8203946
Resumo: The article reports on the prevalence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia and South America which can cause microcephaly in newborns. It highlights several symptoms of Zika virus including fever, muscle soreness and rash as well as microcephaly in newborns. It also cites the effort of the governments to encourage people to take basic mosquito protection such as insect repellent, clothing, screens on windows and mosquito nets.

238) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

239) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

240) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.
Autor: Adibi Jennifer J,Marques Ernesto T A,Cartus Abigail,Beigi Richard H
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1587–1590, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

241) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

242) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

243) Offline: Brazil - The unexpected opportunity that Zika presents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Horton R.
Assunto: epidemic, virus infection, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 633, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

244) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

245) Zika declared international public health emergency in wake of spread.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Late, Michele
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Zika virus, Viral transmission, Public health, America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nation's Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 12-13, 2016
ISSN: 280496
Resumo: The article reports on the declaration of mosquito-borne virus Zika as an international public health emergency amidst its transmission in the Americas. Topics discussed include an overview of Zika, its association with serious birth defects, the recommendations for action on the virus such as risk communication and vector control, and the education on Zika.

246) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

247) Conspiracy Theories About Zika Spread Through Brazil With the Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew, Perpetua, Sofia, Sreeharsha, Vinod, McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Rumor, Social media - Social aspects, Social aspects
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57145, p. A6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the spreading of rumors regarding the Zika virus in Brazil, following an outbreak of the virus in the country, as of February 2016, and mentions that rumors and pseudoscience on social media has annoyed the health officials in the country.

248) Zika virus infection and microcephaly.
Autor: Millichap J Gordon
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Brazil, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Pediatric Neurology Briefs, v. 30, n. 1 p. 8, 2016
ISSN: 1043-3155
Resumo: A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

249) As Zika Concerns Grow, the Travel Industry Reacts.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vora, Shivani, Wirtz, Nic, Matos, Rafael, Lauria, Sol
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, v. 165, n. 57135, p. 3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article focuses on response from the U.S. tourism industry to the Zika virus epidemics by warning pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant to avoid travel to affected areas, and refunding flight tickets to women, and mentions views of travel agent Paul Irvine, on the same.

250) How to contain the zika virus
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 29-30, 2016.
ISSN: 0009-2347
Resumo: For most people who catch it, the Zika virus isn't so bad. Symptoms include achy joints, a rash, headache, and a slight fever. After a few days, the symptoms are gone. But for pregnant women, Zika is a horror. The virus is the suspect behind an epidemic of more than 4,000 cases of children born in Brazil in the past year with abnormally small heads and brains, a rare condition known as microcephaly.

251) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubin, Eric J., Greene, Michael F., Baden, Lindsey R.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Infants - Health, Pregnancy complications, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working . . .

252) Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Martines Roosecelis Brasil,Bhatnagar Julu,Keating M Kelly,Silva-Flannery Luciana,Muehlenbachs Atis,Gary Joy,Goldsmith Cynthia,Hale Gillian,Ritter Jana,Rollin Dominique,Shieh Wun-Ju,Luz Kleber G,Ramos Ana Maria de Oliveira,Davi Helaine Pompeia Freire,Kleber de Oliveria Wanderson,Lanciotti Robert,Lambert Amy,Zaki Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

253) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

254) Applying to Zika the Forgotten Lessons of Ebola
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gottlieb, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Ebola virus disease, Pandemics, Olympic Games
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

255) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas -- Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan, Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Flaviviral diseases, Prevention, Mosquito control, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n.3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about transmission of Zika virus among several regions of the U.S. in January 2016, is presented. Topics include identification of disease as mosquito-borne flavivirus in Uganda in 1947, observation of infection among travelers of the U.S., prevention of the disease including restriction of mosquito breeding areas, and suspension of travel plans by pregnant woman to avoid transmission.

256) Zika virus and microcephaly: is the correlation, causal or coincidental?
Autor: Liuzzi Giuseppina,Puro Vincenzo,Vairo Francesco,Nicastri Emanuele,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Di Caro Antonino,Piacentini Mauro,Zumla Alimuddin,Ippolito Giuseppe
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The New Microbiologica, v. 39, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1121-7138
Resumo:

257) Zika Reignites Battle in Brazil Over Abortion.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon
Assunto: Abortion - Law & legislation, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Abortion - Government policy, Social aspects, Brazil - Social conditions - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57132, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the impact that the Zika Virus Epidemic has on the legality and government policy towards abortion in Brazil, including in regard to the government's policy towards abortion for fetuses with microcephaly.

258) Zika Fears Imperil Brazil’s Tourism Push.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Tourism, Public health, Virus diseases, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

259) Upfront
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Lead in water, Mental depression - Diagnosis, Zika Virus Epidemic, Flint (Mich.) - Environmental conditions
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3058, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article presents science-related topics including lead-tainted water, screening for mental depression, and the spread of the Zika virus. It states after the city of Flint, Michigan switched to water from the Flint river, lead levels have significantly exceeded advised limits. It mentions the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended blanket screening for depression. It reports the World Health Organization warned the Zika virus will likely reach most countries in the Americas.

260) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

261) ZIKATracker: A mobile App for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin, Alyson A., Banner, David, Pamplona, Luciano, Alencar, Carlos, Rubino, Salvatore, Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika virus, Mobile apps, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

262) Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia
Autor: Choi, Youngjo; Tang, Choon Siang; McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Chan, Vibol; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra Romauld; Iddings, Steven; Huy, Rekol
Assunto: Weather; Dengue; Temperature; Rainfall; Cambodia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 16, n. 241, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Background: Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country.Methods: We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period.Results: Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom.Conclusions: The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control measures to be better targeted, timed and implemented.

263) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

264) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

265) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

266) Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a zika virus outbreak - United States, 2016.
Autor: Petersen Emily E,Staples J Erin,Meaney-Delman Dana,Fischer Marc,Ellington Sascha R,Callaghan William M,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 2, p. 30-33, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

267) Virus in Brazil May Be Linked To a 2nd Illness.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Physicians - Attitudes, Infant diseases, Brain-damaged children, Chikungunya virus, Paralytics, Brazil - Social conditions - 1985
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57119, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses several Brazilian physicians and health officials who claim that the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which has been associated with brain damage in infants, may also be linked to hundreds of cases of the rare condition Guillain-Barré (GB) syndrome which can cause patients to become nearly completely paralyzed for weeks. According to the article, the Zika virus is spreading throughout Brazil and other nations in Latin America. The Chikungunya virus is assessed.

268) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

269) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

270) Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control
Autor: Leftwich, Philip T.; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey
Assunto: Fitness; Genetic Modification; Release Of Insects Carrying A Dominant Lethal; Resistance; Selection; Sterile Insect Technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 9, n. 1, p. 212-230, 2016
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

271) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, Jose P; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Machado Siqueira, André; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Calvet, Guilherme A; Neves, Elizabeth S; Moreira, Maria E; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Janzen, Carla; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

272) Neurological expertise is essential for Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakir, Raad
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Neurology, Neurosciences, Medical publishing, Medical research
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Neurology, v. 15, n. 4, p. 353-354, 2016
ISSN: 14744422
Resumo:

273) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

274) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

275) Zika Afflicts an Already Weak Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bremmer, Ian
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Public health, Olympic Games - Management, Tourism, Political corruption, Gross domestic product, Brazil - Economic conditions - 1985, Social aspects, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Time, v. 187, n. 6-7, p. 14, 2016
ISSN: 0040781X
Resumo: The article discusses the potential social, economic, and political impacts that a Zika virus outbreak could have on the nation of Brazil, and it mentions the economic conditions in the country and the possibility that the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, which are scheduled to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, could be canceled. According to the article, the Zika virus threatens Brazil's public health and tourism revenue. Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) and political corruption are examined.

276) Maintaining a safe blood supply in an era of emerging pathogens.
Autor: Marks Peter W,Epstein Jay S,Borio Luciana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

277) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope, Petersen, Emily E., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Mead, Paul S., Meaney-Delman, Dana, Renquist, Christina M., Ellington, Sascha R., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Powers, Ann M., Villanueva, Julie, Galang, Romeo R., Dieke, Ada, Muñoz, Jorge L., Honein, Margaret A., Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Prenatal care, Medical care - United States, Serodiagnosis, Health boards, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and recommendation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for care providers to contact with health department for assistance with test interpretation.

278) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

279) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

280) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

281) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

282) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

283) Virus chequers.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Pregnant women - Health, Mosquito control, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 8973, p. 72-73, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus outbreak in the Americas in 2015-2016. It states in October 2015 physicians in Pernambuco saw a significant increase in infants born with microcephaly, with over 3,500 cases reported in the four months following. It mentions scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control announced that Zika can pass from the mother to the fetus. It reports that Zika can be transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and talks about mosquito eradication efforts.

284) Causal or not: applying the Bradford Hill aspects of evidence to the association between Zika virus and microcephaly
Autor: Frank Christina,Faber Mirko,Stark Klaus
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: EMBO Molecular Medicine, v. 8, n. 4, p. 305-307, 2016
ISSN: 1757-4684
Resumo:

285) W.H.O. Declares an Emergency Over Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Emergencies, Epidemics, Human abnormalities - Etiology, Public health, Microcephaly, Brain-damaged children, Social aspects, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57130, p. A1-A11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the World Health Organization's (W.H.O.'s) decision to declare the Zika virus and its potential link to birth defects as a global public health emergency as of 2016, and it mentions how a Zika virus outbreak is impacting several Latin American countries including Brazil, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. The medical abnormality microcephaly is addressed, along with brain damage in infants and research regarding the Zika virus.

286) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

287) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

288) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvez E., Guillaumot L., Millet L., Marie J., Bossin H., Rama V., Faamoe A., Kilama S., Teurlai M., Mathieu-Daudé F., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, insect genetics
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding: We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (F(ST) = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

289) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

290) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

291) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

292) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

293) The U.S. Is Botching the Zika Fight.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohrssen, John J., Miller, Henry I.
Assunto: Zika virus, Virus diseases - Transmission, Immunization
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

294) Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China
Autor: Deng Yichu,Zeng Liping,Bao Wen,Xu Pinghua,Zhong Gongrong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing ji jiu yi xue, v. 28, n. 2, p. 106-109, 2016
ISSN: 2095-4352
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged lymph nodes were found. Bilateral conjunctival congestion was obvious, physiological reflex existed and pathological reflex was not found. (3) Auxiliary lab test and examination: no abnormal finding were revealed throughout examination and laboratory tests, including routine blood test, liver function, renal function, serum myocardial enzyme, electrolyte, blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin I (TnI), and procalcitonin (PCT), except slight prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 38.6 s) on February 6th; and slightly dense shadow in left lung in lung CT scan, considering inflammatory changes and slight emphysema (especially in the left lower lung) as well as bilateral renal calculus on February 8th. No significant abnormalities were found in electrocardiogram and B ultrasound test of liver, spleen, and pancreas. (4) Virus confirmation: Zika virus nucleic acid was positive reported by Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 7th and Chinese CDC on February 9th, respectively, though Dengue virus were negative reported by Ganzhou CDC on February 6th. Right after the first diagnosis, anyone who had been in close contact with the patient received medical monitoring. (5)Treatment process: on February 6th, symptomatic treatment was prescribed since admitted into the infectious isolation wards and daily intravenous drip of Xiyanping injection 250 mg was prescribed for antiviral therapy. On February 7th, the patient had no fever, with occasional chills, neck rash was disappeared, orbital pain relieved and bilateral conjunctival hyperemia range was paler and narrowed, and his condition improved. Ibuprofen was administered for defervesce 3 times a day when his temperature reached to 37.5?centigrade at 16:00. On February 8th, the patient had no fever, times of chills was significantly reduced, without myalgia and rash, orbital pain and conjunctival hyperemia further recovered. On February 9th, bilateral eyes slightly tingling, mild conjunctival congestion, no fever chills or other discomfort was found. The chloramphenicol eye drops was prescribed for relieving sting pain with conjunctival congestion twice a day as recombinant human interferon alpha eye drops was out of store. The patient was comfortable from February 11th to February 13th. Blood and urine test for Zika were reported negative by the Chinese CDC and Jiangxi Province CDC. Because all the discharge criteria were satisfied, the patient was discharged on February 14th. At present, there is no specific effective drug to prevent and treat Zika virus disease effectually. After receiving symptomatic treatment and antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection, the patient's symptoms were relieved. Zika virus nucleic acid in blood and urine was negative. The patient was discharged. Combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine maybe a good method to prevent and treat Zika virus disease.

295) W.H.O. Sounds a Global Alarm Over Zika Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Taverinise, Sabrina, Cumming-Bruce, Nick
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Public health - International cooperation, Emergencies, Forecasting, Human abnormalities, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Social aspects
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57126, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the World Health Organization's (W.H.O.'s) decision to issue a global warning regarding the Zika virus, and it mentions the prediction that as many as four million people could be infected with the Zika virus by the end of 2016. According to the article, the W.H.O. is contemplating whether to declare the Zika virus a public health emergency. Zika virus-related birth defects are examined, along with concern about the Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

296) Czechs Announce First Zika Virus Cases, Slovak Hospitalized.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Slovakia
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Transitions Online, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 12141615
Resumo: The article reports that a woman in Slovakia coming back from Latin America got hospitalized with Zika symptoms following the warning by the World Health Organization that Zika epidemic could spread more quickly than initiatives can control it.

297) The world this week.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Caucus, Presidents - United States, Zika virus infections, Human abnormalities, Iowa, Election
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 8975, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article offers world news briefs. U.S. presidential candidate Ted Cruz has won the Republican caucuses in Iowa in February 2016 for the U.S. presidential election. World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the global emergency of mosquito-borne Zika virus due to the increased of birth defects in Brazil. Sumner Redstone has stepped down his position as the chairman of mass media company CBS.

298) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

299) The Zika Hunters
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Braga, Liz
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 10, p. 12-16, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses how a team of Brazilian doctors raised awareness on the danger of Zika virus. It explores the work of doctor Kleber Luz, an infectious disease expert based in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil and his colleague Carlos Brito, a researcher at the Oscaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) in persuading the world to take action against the deadly infection. It mentions congenital microcephaly as a sign of Zika virus infection as confirmed by neuropediatrician Vanessa van der Linden.

300) Zika virus.
Autor: Basarab Marina,Bowman Conor,Aarons Emma J,Cropley Ian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

301) Zika virus - an overview
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus; Flavivirus; Viral emergence; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 18, n. 5, p. 295-301, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

302) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

303) Scientists Scramble To Develop Tools, Treatments For Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Halford, Bethany
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Aedes aegypti, Pests - Control - Equipment & supplies
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n, 8, p. 34-38, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article offers information regarding the challenges faced by scientists in developing treatment and tools to detect and prevent Zika virus. Topics discussed include report from the Pan American Health Organization on the spread of the disease in Brazil in 2016, insight from entomologist Joseph M. Conlon the problem in eliminating Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which bring the virus such as its size and resistance to spraying regimens, and the history of the disease.

304) NIH hopes funding increases will continue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Budgets, Presidents, Public health, Zika virus, Alzheimers disease, Cancer, Antibiotics, Medical research, FDA approval, Biomedical research, Brain research, Funding
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: The US Congress recently approved the largest single increase in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 12 years--a US$2 billion raise that was twice as much as President Barack Obama requested. But almost as soon as NIH supporters stopped cheering, they began to worry about next year's budget, and the challenge of a new public health threat, Zika virus.

305) Soccer a Center of Fear on Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Longman, Jeré
Assunto: Soccer, Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Soccer matches, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Women soccer players, Travel, Brazil, Social aspects, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57134, p. D1-D6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses what the author refers to as the fear that is associated with the potential spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus as a result of the various soccer matches that are going to be played across Brazil as part of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games which are based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. According to the article, Olympic soccer events are scheduled to be held in six cities including Manaus, Brazil. Concerns about women soccer players traveling to Brazil are also examined.

306) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

307) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E., Nelson, Jennifer M., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Karwowski, Mateusz P., Mead, Paul, Villanueva, Julie, Renquist, Christina M., Minta, Anna A., Jamieson, Denise J., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A., Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Flaviviral diseases, Microcephaly, Infants - Health, Children - Health, Viral diseases in children, Viral diseases in pregnancy, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 65, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article discusses the interim guidelines issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016 for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection. Topics include routine care of infants born to mothers who resided in or traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy, evaluation and testing of infants and children with possible congenital Zika virus infection and the steps to prevent Zika virus infection.

308) The Emerging Zika Virus Epidemic in the Americas: Research Priorities.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Stringer Elizabeth M,de Silva Aravinda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

309) Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease
Autor: Li J D,Li D X
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing xue za Zhi, v. 37, n. 3, p. 329-334, 2016
ISSN: 0254-6450
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

310) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

311) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic.
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kisubi Catholic Mission, Microcephaly, Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato, Zika virus, Zika virus and travel, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, p. 1-6, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

312) Argentina Struggles to Control a Major Outbreak of Dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gilbert, Jonathan
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times. v. 165, n. 57146, p. A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the struggle of Argentina government to control Zika virus in which outbreak is said to keep growing until March or April 2016.

313) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

314) Brazil State Bans Pesticide After Zika Claim.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pesticides - Law & legislation, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

315) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

316) Is South Africa at risk for zika virus disease?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Van Vuren P.J., Weyer J., Kemp A., Dermaux-Msimang V., McCarthy K., Blumberg L., Paweska J.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology, etiology), zika virus disease (epidemiology, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: South African Medical Journal, v. 106, n. 3, p. 232-233, mar. 2016
ISSN: 0256-9574
Resumo:

317) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.
Autor: de Paula Freitas Bruno,de Oliveira Dias João Rafael,Prazeres Juliana,Sacramento Gielson Almeida,Ko Albert Icksang,Maia Maurício,Belfort Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ?32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

318) Zika epidemic: countermeasures are starting
Titulo Alternativo: Zika-Epidemie: Gegenmaßnahmen laufen an
Autor: Von Christina, Hohmann-Jedd
Assunto: Epidemic; Human; Nonhuman; Short survey; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Pharmazeutische Zeitung, v. 161, n. 8, 2016.
ISSN: 0031-7136
Resumo:

319) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

320) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

321) Zika virus: a new threat from mosquitoes.
Autor: Li Xiao-Feng,Han Jian-Feng,Shi Pei-Yong,Qin Cheng-Feng
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Science China, 2016
ISSN: 1869-1889
Resumo:

322) Brazil's scientists scramble to solve the Zika puzzle
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, v. 94, n. 3, p. 165-166, 2016
ISSN: 1564-0604
Resumo: The World Health Organization has declared the recent leap in the number of microcephaly cases and their suspected association with Zika virus a public health emergency of international concern. Ana Bispo tells Andréia Azevedo Soares why Brazil should have some scientific answers in coming months.

323) Questions your patients may have about zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kmietowicz, Zosia
Assunto: Guadeloupe; Human; Leisure; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnancy; Priority journal; Sexual intercourse; Symptom; Travel; Vector control; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i649, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

324) Battling Zika in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 794-793, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article reports on the campaign initiated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to limit the Zika outbreak in Brazil by spraying larvicide in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 13, 2016.

325) Villanova Ranked no. 1 for First Time in AP Poll.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: College basketball, NCAA Basketball Tournament, Basketball teams, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

326) Ultrasound screening for fetal microcephaly following Zika virus exposure.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016
ISSN: 1097-6868
Resumo:

327) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

328) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

329) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

330) Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus
Autor: Palacios Ricardo,Poland Gregory A,Kalil Jorge
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo:

331) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

332) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

333) Zika virus - An overview.
Autor: Zanluca Camila,Dos Santos Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus, Flavivirus, Viral emergence, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

334) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

335) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

336) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

337) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

338) Zikavirus - gammalt virus får nytt liv i nytt ekosystem - Mikrocefali och Guillain-Barrés syndrom möjliga följder när bakgrundsimmunitet saknas hos befolkningen
Autor: Olsen Björn,Lundkvist Åke
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: La?kartidningen, v. 113, p. DX9X, 2016
ISSN: 1652-7518
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

339) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

340) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.
Autor: Hamel Rodolphe,Liégeois Florian,Wichit Sineewanlaya,Pompon Julien,Diop Fodé,Talignani Loïc,Thomas Frédéric,Desprès Philippe,Yssel Hans,Missé Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA, arbovirus, epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, vector
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

341) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

342) Obama May Meet Zika Peril Head On.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Harris, Gardiner
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Presidents - United States, Travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. A9-A11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that the danger of Zika virus would be met by the U.S. President Barack Obama on his visit to Cuba in 2016.

343) Drug Industry Starts Race to Develop Zika Vaccine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Noemie Bisserbe And Betsy
Assunto: Pharmaceutical industry, Zika Virus Epidemic, Viral vaccine manufacturing, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

344) Punishing the Cure Makers Won’t End Cancer.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Melanoma, Patients, Tumors - Classification, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

345) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of Rubia cordifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
Autor: Gandhi M R,Reegan A D,Ganesan P,Sivasankaran K,Paulraj M G,Balakrishna K,Ignacimuthu S,Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic filariasis, Mosquito control, Sustainable pest control, Vector control
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

346) World Bank Calculates Zika’s Economic Cost in Latin America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lewis, Jeffrey T., Magalhaes, Luciana
Assunto: Consumption (Economics), Public health, Zika virus, Gross domestic product
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

347) Zika virus association with microcephaly: the power for population statistics to identify public health emergencies.
Autor: Stratton Samuel J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, v. 31 , n. 2 , p. 119-120, 2016
ISSN: 1945-1938
Resumo:

348) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

349) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Kleber de Oliveira Wanderson,Cortez-Escalante Juan,De Oliveira Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda,do Carmo Greice Madeleine Ikeda,Henriques Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,Araújo de França Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

350) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

351) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

352) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

353) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Article; Brazil; Congenital Infection; Disease Association; Encephalomyelitis; Flaviviridae; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Human; Meningoencephalitis; Microcephaly; Neurotropism; Pregnancy; Virus Infection; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 679-680,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: [No abstract available]

354) Evaluation of AaDOP2 Receptor Antagonists Reveals Antidepressants and Antipsychotics as Novel Lead Molecules for Control of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Conley, Jason M.; Meyer, Jason M.; Nuss, Andrew B.; Doyle, Trevor B.; Savinov, Sergey N.; Hill, Catherine A.; Watts, Val J.
Assunto: Muscarinic acetylcholine-receptor; Protein-coupled receptors; Central-nervous-system; Salivary-glands; Dopamine-receptor; Fruit-fly; Drosophila; Discovery; Vector; Gpcrs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Pharmacology and experimental Therapeutics, v. 352, n. 1, p. 53-U271, 2015
ISSN: 0022-3565
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, vectors disease-causing agents that adversely affect human health, most notably the viruses causing dengue and yellow fever. The efficacy of current mosquito control programs is challenged by the emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations, suggesting an urgent need for the development of chemical insecticides with new mechanisms of action. One recently identified potential insecticide target is the A. aegypti D-1-like dopamine receptor, AaDOP2. The focus of the present study was to evaluate AaDOP2 antagonism both in vitro and in vivo using assay technologies with increased throughput. The in vitro assays revealed AaDOP2 antagonism by four distinct chemical scaffolds from tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic chemical classes, and elucidated several structure-activity relationship trends that contributed to enhanced antagonist potency, including lipophilicity, halide substitution on the tricyclic core, and conformational rigidity. Six compounds displayed previously unparalleled potency for in vitro AaDOP2 antagonism, and among these, asenapine, methiothepin, and cis-(Z)-flupenthixol displayed subnanomolar IC50 values and caused rapid toxicity to A. aegypti larvae and/or adults in vivo. Our study revealed a significant correlation between in vitro potency for AaDOP2 antagonism and in vivo toxicity, suggesting viability of AaDOP2 as an insecticidal target. Taken together, this study expanded the repertoire of known AaDOP2 antagonists, enhanced our understanding of AaDOP2 pharmacology, provided further support for rational targeting of AaDOP2, and demonstrated the utility of efficiency-enhancing in vitro and in vivo assay technologies within our genome-to-lead pipeline for the discovery of next-generation insecticides.

355) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

356) Efficacy of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum against Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae and adults
Autor: Rocha, L. F. N.; Sousa, N. A.; Rodrigues, J.; Catao, A. M. L.; Marques, C. S.; Fernandes, E. K. K.; Luz, C.
Assunto: Biological control; Entomopathogenic fungus; Hypocreales; Isolate; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of applied microbiology, v. 119, n. 5, p. 1412-1419, 2015
ISSN: 1364-5072
Resumo: AimsThe aim of this study was to test the activity of seven Tolypocladium cylindrosporum isolates against different developmental stages of Aedes aegypti.Methods and ResultsOvicidal activity (30% of eclosion; at a 84% eclosion of control eggs) and lowest cumulative emergence of adults (30%; at a 663% control emergence) originating from eclosing larvae was found 15 and 30days, respectively, after applying conidia of ARSEF 962 or 1580 onto the eggs. All isolates induced larval mortality when third-instar larvae were treated with conidia (5% control mortality); the lowest lethal concentration (LC50) at 5days after treatment was found with ARSEF 1580 (92x10(5)conidiaml(-1)), and the shortest lethal time (LT50) with ARSEF 2912 (28days at 33x10(6)conidiaml(-1)). The pathogenicity of T.cylindrosporum to A.aegypti adults is corroborated. ARSEF 1027, 1580 and 2912 induced the highest cumulative mortality in adults (90%) 15days after application (5% control mortality).ConclusionsFindings emphasized an isolate- and developmental stage-related virulence of T.cylindrosporum.Significance and Impact of the StudyARSEF 1580, in the group of tested isolates, is the most promising isolate for use against terrestrial eggs, aquatic larvae and adults of this important vector.

357) Analysis of the dengue risk by means of a Takagi-Sugeno-style model
Autor: Silveira, Graciele P.; de Barros, Laecio C.
Assunto: Dengue; Fuzzy logic; Takagi-Sugeno model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Fuzzy Sets and Systems, v. 277, p. 122-137, 2015
ISSN: 0165-0114
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito), which occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. Nowadays it constitutes a major public health problems in the world. This paper proposes analysis of the evolution of dengue risk, from a model of the kind Takagi-Sugeno where the consequence of each fuzzy rule is a partial differential equation - PDE. The uncertainty parameters kappa(i), related to the risk of spread of dengue, are directly linked to the behavior of the mosquito population and they were evaluated by making use of a system based on fuzzy rules and information provided by experts. These parameters depend on the population of humans, which provides blood to the maturation of eggs, and potential mosquito breeding containers and still depend on the rainfall. The amount of rainfall presents stochastic dependence in the sampled values, and for this reason we chose the Markov chain method to model it. Researchers at the Laboratory for Spatial Analysis of Epidemiological Data (epiGeo - UNICAMP) performed studies on the dengue risk in the southern region of the city of Campinas (Sao Paulo state, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007, by means of statistical methods and provided information to begin this study. The numerical solution of differential equation resulting from Takagi-Sugeno inference was obtained using the weighted essentially non-oscillatory schemes, the fifth order (WENO-5) not smooth for regions of the domain and centered finite difference schemes of high order for the smooth regions, in the space discretization. Also a lifting scheme was made to define smoothness in the regions. For the time evolution we have chosen Runge-Kutta TVD (Total Variation Diminishing), of the third order. Simulations corresponding to a period of summer (December, January and February) were performed and the results have showed that an effective action to reduce the risk of dengue is to severely combat the potential mosquito breeding sites. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

358) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

359) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino, Eunice A.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Pirk, Christian; Mbogo, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Attractant; Electrophysiology; Mosquito; Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 253, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Effective surveillance and estimation of the biting fraction of Aedes aegypti is critical for accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks and inter-epidemic periods of dengue and chikungunya fever. Here, we describe the development and use of synthetic human odor baits for improved sampling of adult Ae. aegypti, in two dengue and chikungunya fevers endemic areas in Kenya; Kilifi and Busia counties. We collected volatiles from the feet and trunks of two female and two male volunteers aged between 25 and 45 years. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis to screen for antennally-active components from the volatiles and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the EAD-active components. Using randomized replicated designs, we compared the efficacies of Biogents (BG) sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus either single or blends of the identified compounds against the BG sentinel trap baited with carbon dioxide plus the BG commercial lure in trapping Ae. aegypti. The daily mosquito counts in the different traps were subjected to negative binomial regression following the generalized linear models procedures. A total of ten major EAD-active components identified by GC/MS as mainly aldehydes and carboxylic acids, were consistently isolated from the human feet and trunk volatiles from at least two volunteers. Field assays with synthetic chemicals of the shared EAD-active components identified from the feet and trunk gave varying results. Ae. aegypti were more attracted to carbon dioxide baited BG sentinel traps combined with blends of aldehydes than to similar traps combined with blends of carboxylic acids. When we assessed the efficacy of hexanoic acid detected in odors of the BG commercial lure and volunteers plus carbon dioxide, trap captures of Ae. aegypti doubled over the trap baited with the commercial BG lure. However, dispensing aldehydes and carboxylic acids together in blends, reduced trap captures of Ae. aegypti by similar to 45%-50%.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for roles of carboxylic acids and aldehydes in Ae. aegypti host attraction and also show that of the carboxylic acids, hexanoic acid is a more effective lure for the vector than the BG commercial lure

360) EVALUATION OF HOUSEHOLD BLEACH AS AN OVICIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF AEDES AEGYPTI
Autor: Mackay, Andrew J.; Amador, Manuel; Felix, Gilberto; Acevedo, Veronica; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Control; Ovicide; Vector; Dengue; Sodium hypochlorite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 77-84, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Accumulations of dormant eggs in container habitats allow Aedes aegypti populations to survive harsh environmental conditions and may frustrate control interventions directed at larval and adult life stages. While sodium hypochlorite solutions (NaOCl) have long been recognized as ovicides for use against dengue vectors, the susceptibility of eggs to spray applications has not been robustly evaluated on substrate materials representative of the most frequently utilized artificial container habitats. Experiments were performed under controlled and natural conditions by applying dilutions of household bleach (52.5 ppt NaOCl) as a spray to eggs on plastic, rubber, and concrete surfaces, with and without a smectite clay thickener. Laboratory assays identified the minimum NaOCl concentrations required to eliminate eggs on plastic (10 ppt), rubber (20 ppt) and concrete (20 ppt) surfaces. Addition of smectite clay reduced the minimum effective concentration to 10 ppt NaOCl for all 3 substrates. A minimum exposure period of 24 h was required to completely eliminate egg viability on concrete surfaces, even at the highest NaOCl concentration (52.5 ppt). Field experiments verified that spray application of a 1:3 dilution of household bleach mixed with smectite clay can reduce egg hatching by >= 99% in shaded and sun-exposed plastic containers. Similarly, 4:1 dilution of household bleach (with or without smectite clay) eliminated a >= 98% of eggs from concrete surfaces in outdoor, water-filled drums. In this study, we propose a practical, effective and safe strategy for using household bleach to eliminate Ae. aegypti eggs in a range of artificial container habitats.

361) Analysis of dengue virus genetic diversity during human and mosquito infection reveals genetic constraints
Autor: Sessions, October M.; Wilm, Andreas; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Choy, Milly M.; Chow, Angelia; Chong, Yuwen; Ong, Xin Mei; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Cook, Alex R.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Strong purifying selection; Influenza-A virus; West nile - Virus; RNA viruses; Global distribution; Genome cyclization; Interfering RNA; Type-3 virus; Intra - Host; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV) cause debilitating and potentially life-threatening acute disease throughout the tropical world. While drug development efforts are underway, there are concerns that resistant strains will emerge rapidly. Indeed, antiviral drugs that target even conserved regions in other RNA viruses lose efficacy over time as the virus mutates. Here, we sought to determine if there are regions in the DENV genome that are not only evolutionarily conserved but genetically constrained in their ability to mutate and could hence serve as better antiviral targets. High-throughput sequencing of DENV-1 genome directly from twelve, paired dengue patients' sera and then passaging these sera into the two primary mosquito vectors showed consistent and distinct sequence changes during infection. In particular, two residues in the NS5 protein coding sequence appear to be specifically acquired during infection in Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Importantly, we identified a region within the NS3 protein coding sequence that is refractory to mutation during human and mosquito infection. Collectively, these findings provide fresh insights into antiviral targets and could serve as an approach to defining evolutionarily constrained regions for therapeutic targeting in other RNA viruses.

362) Efficacy of Two Larvasonic? Units Against Culex Larvae and Effects on Common Aquatic Nontarget Organisms in Harris County, Texas
Autor: Fredregill, Chris L.; Motl, Greg C.; Dennett, James A.; Bueno, Rudy, Jr.; Debboun, Mustapha
Assunto: Integrated pest management; Larvasonic; Larvicide; Physical control; Ultrasonic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 366-370, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Larvasonic (TM) Field Arm Mobile Wetlands Unit and SD-Mini were tested for efficacy against Culex larvae, and effects on aquatic nontarget organisms (NTO). The Field Arm provided 84.61% to 100% control of caged Culex larvae out to 0.91-m distance in shallow ditches and 60.45% control of Culex larvae at 0.61-m without any effects to caged NTO. Slow ditch treatment achieved 77.35% control compared to fast treatment (20.42%), whereas 77.65% control was obtained along edges of a neglected swimming pool, compared to near the middle (23.97%). In bucket tests, the SD-Mini provided >97% control of Culex and 85.35% reduction of immature giant water bugs, which decreased slightly (83.45%) over the monitoring period, which was not significantly different from cannibalistic damselflies (62.80%), with reduction of both being significantly higher than other NTO tested. There was a small (0.37%) reduction of dragonflies (naiads), due to cannibalism. Both Larvasonic units could effectively augment conventional larvicide operations in smaller areas without causing resistance within mosquito populations or harming NTO when used properly.

363) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Autor: Medlock, J. M.; Hansford, K. M.; Versteirt, V.; Cull, B.; Kampen, H.; Fontenille, D.; Hendrickx, G.; Zeller, H.; Van Bortel, W.; Schaffner, F.
Assunto: Aedes; Mosquitoes; Europe; Invasives; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

364) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

365) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

366) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

367) An investigation on the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and its relationship with incidence of vector borne diseases
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, R. L. J.; Thirugnanasambantham, K.; Ragul, K.; Mani, C.; Balagangadharan, K.
Assunto: Thuringiensis subsp Israelensis; Rapid larvicidal activity; Bacillus - Thuringiensis; Culex -Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Whole - Cell; Sphaericus; Proteins; Identification; Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 84-97, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Control of mosquitoes is the most important aspect of public health, as mosquitoes transmit many human diseases, including the fatal infection, Japanese encephalitis. This paper addresses the isolation of new mosquitocidal bacteria from soil samples in the Union Territory of Pondicherry, India, where, no clinical cases of vector borne infections have been reported. Bacterial isolates from soil samples were screened for potential mosquitocidal strains and bioassays against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti) were carried out. Genomic DNA of potential mosquitocidal isolates was amplified and species identification was carried out using BLASTn program (NCBI). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of mosquitocidal bacteria revealed seven potential isolates. SDS-PAGE results have shown that there was considerable difference in the protein profiles. Numerical analysis revealed 4 distinct groups at similarity level 25%. The relationship between VBDs and prevalence of soil mosquitocidal bacteria in the study sites has elicited considerable interest in the diversity of mosquitocidal bacteria and their application for mosquito borne diseases control.

368) The larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana against L4 larvae of Aedes aegypti is mediated by internal necrosis and inhibition of nitric oxide production
Autor: Nunes, Fabiola C; Leite, Jacqueline A; Oliveira, Louise HG;Sousa, Patricia APS; Menezes, Marcio C; Moraes, Joao PS;Mascarenhas, Sandra R; Braga, Valdir A
Assunto: Sisal; Mosquito; Nitric oxide; Insecticide; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 543-549, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is a viral disease that affects about 50 million people per year around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana crude extract in order to develop a new insecticide against Aedes aegypti. In larvicidal activity assays, fourth-stage Ae. aegypti larvae were exposed to different concentrations of A. sisalana crude extract for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h for determining the LC sub(50). Next, we explored its cytotoxic activity by flow cytometry. Furthermore, histological alterations were confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the nitric oxide (NO) production by hemocytes was checked after different periods of exposure to A. sisalana crude extract. The LC sub(50) was 4.5 plus or minus 0.07 mg/mL. In addition, flow cytometry revealed an increase of cellular necrosis (21 and 16.5 % after 12 and 24 h, respectively) in larvae that were exposed to A. sisalana crude extract. The histological analysis revealed cell lysis and destruction of the peritrophic membrane. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the concentration of NO in the hemolymph from larvae exposed to A. sisalana crude extract after 3, 6, and 24 h (5.3 plus or minus 4.3 vs. 22.7 plus or minus 5.2 mu M, 4.3 plus or minus 5.5 vs. 25.4 plus or minus 6.6 mu M, and 6 plus or minus 1.7 vs. 37.1 plus or minus 7.8 mu M, respectively). Our findings show that A. sisalana crude extract constitutes an effective larvicidal agent against Ae. aegypti larvae due to its necrotizing activity in hemocytes and inhibition of the NO production.

369) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

370) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

371) Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector
Autor: Santhosh, S. B.; Yuvarajan, R.; Natarajan, D.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Annona muricata; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 8, p. 3087-3096, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 mu g mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 mu g mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 mu g mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 mu g mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 mu g mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was confirmed between the temperatures 20 to 70 A degrees C. The result suggests that green synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata has the potential to be used as a low-cost and eco-friendly approach for the control of selected mosquitoes.

372) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

373) An outbreak of chikungunya in rural Bangladesh, 2011
Autor: Khatun, Selina; Chakraborty, Apurba; Rahman, Mahmudur; Banu, Nuzhat Nasreen; Rahman, Mohammad Mostafizur; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.
Assunto: Virus - Infection; Southeast - Asia; Aedes aegypti; Emergence; Epidemic; India; Reemergence; Diagnosis; Patterns; Diseases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The first identified Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Bangladesh in 2008. In late October 2011, a local health official from Dohar Sub-district, Dhaka District, reported an outbreak of undiagnosed fever and joint pain. We investigated the outbreak to confirm the etiology, describe the clinical presentation, and identify associated vectors. During November 2-21, 2011, we conducted house-to-house surveys to identify suspected cases, defined as any inhabitant of Char Kushai village with fever followed by joint pain in the extremities with onset since August 15, 2011. We collected blood specimens and clinical histories from self-selected suspected cases using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The village was divided into nine segments and we collected mosquito larvae from water containers in seven randomly selected houses in each segment. We calculated the Breteau index for the village and identified the mosquito species. The attack rate was 29% (1105/3840) and 29% of households surveyed had at least one suspected case: 15% had >= 3. The attack rate was 38% (606/1589) in adult women and 25% in adult men (320/1287). Among the 1105 suspected case-patients, 245 self-selected for testing and 80% of those (196/245) had IgM antibodies. In addition to fever and joint pain, 76% (148/196) of confirmed cases had rash and 38%(75/196) had long-lasting joint pain. The village Breteau index was 35 per 100 and 89%(449/504) of hatched mosquitoes were Aedes albopictus. The evidence suggests that this outbreak was due to Chikungunya. The high attack rate suggests that the infection was new to this area, and the increased risk among adult women suggests that risk of transmission may have been higher around households. Chikungunya is an emerging infection in Bangladesh and current surveillance and prevention strategies are insufficient to mount an effective public health response

374) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 911-913, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

375) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

376) No Effect of Insecticide Treated Curtain Deployment on Aedes Infestation in a Cluster Randomized Trial in a Setting of Low Dengue Transmission in Guantanamo, Cuba
Autor: Eugenia Toledo, Maria; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Lambert, Isora; Montada, Domingo; Baly, Alberto; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
Assunto: Vector control; Aegypti control; Thailand; Cost; Prevention; Epidemic; Lessons
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The current study evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Insecticide Treated Curtain (ITC) deployment for reducing dengue vector infestation levels in the Cuban context with intensive routine control activities. A cluster randomized controlled trial took place in Guantanamo city, east Cuba. Twelve neighborhoods (about 500 households each) were selected among the ones with the highest Aedes infestation levels in the previous two years, and were randomly allocated to the intervention and control arms. Long lasting ITC (PermaNet) were distributed in the intervention clusters in March 2009. Routine control activities were continued in the whole study area. In both study arms, we monitored monthly pre-and post-intervention House Index (HI, number of houses with at least 1 container with Aedes immature stages/100 houses inspected), during 12 and 18 months respectively. We evaluated the effect of ITC deployment on HI by fitting a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function to these data. At distribution, the ITC coverage (% of households using >= 1 ITC) reached 98.4%, with a median of 3 ITC distributed/household. After 18 months, the coverage remained 97.4%. The local Aedes species was susceptible to deltamethrin (mosquito mortality rate of 99.7%) and the residual deltamethrin activity in the ITC was within acceptable levels (mosquito mortality rate of 73.1%) after one year of curtain use. Over the 18 month observation period after ITC distribution, the adjusted HI rate ratio, intervention versus control clusters, was 1.15 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.34). The annualized cost per household of ITC implementation was 3.8 USD, against 16.8 USD for all routine ACP activities. Deployment of ITC in a setting with already intensive routine Aedes control actions does not lead to reductions in Aedes infestation levels.

377) Climate change and health in Pacific Island States
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kim R., Costello A., Campbell-Lendrum D.
Assunto: climate change, health care
Descritores: Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, v. 93, n. 12, p. 819, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1564-0604 (electronic),0042-9686
Resumo:

378) Electrostatic coating enhances bioavailability of insecticides and breaks pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes
Autor: Andriessen, Rob; Snetselaar, Janneke; Suer, Remco A.; Osinga, Anne J.; Deschietere, Johan; Lyimo, Issa N.; Mnyone, Ladslaus L.; Brooke, Basil D.; Ranson, Hilary; Knols, Bart G. J.; Farenhorst, Marit
Assunto: Electrostatic coating; Insecticide; Resistance management; Mosquito; Malaria
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 39, p. 12081-12086, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Insecticide resistance poses a significant and increasing threat to the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We present a novel method of insecticide application based on netting treated with an electrostatic coating that binds insecticidal particles through polarity. Electrostatic netting can hold small amounts of insecticides effectively and results in enhanced bioavailability upon contact by the insect. Six pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles mosquito strains from across Africa were exposed to similar concentrations of deltamethrin on electrostatic netting or a standard longlasting deltamethrin-coated bednet (PermaNet 2.0). Standard WHO exposure bioassays showed that electrostatic netting induced significantly higher mortality rates than the PermaNet, thereby effectively breaking mosquito resistance. Electrostatic netting also induced high mortality in resistant mosquito strains when a 15-fold lower dose of deltamethrin was applied and when the exposure time was reduced to only 5 s. Because different types of particles adhere to electrostatic netting, it is also possible to apply nonpyrethroid insecticides. Three insecticide classes were effective against strains of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, demonstrating that electrostatic netting can be used to deploy a wide range of active insecticides against all major groups of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Promising applications include the use of electrostatic coating on walls or eave curtains and in trapping/contamination devices. We conclude that application of electrostatically adhered particles boosts the efficacy of WHO-recommended insecticides even against resistant mosquitoes. This innovative technique has potential to support the use of unconventional insecticide classes or combinations thereof, potentially offering a significant step forward in managing insecticide resistance in vector-control operations.

379) Zika virus ,2015
Autor: Shapshak P., Somboonwit C., Foley B.T., Alrabaa S.F., Wills T., Sinnott J.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus; Dengue Virus; Emerging Virus; Flavivirus; Global Warming; Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Mosquito; Social Mobility; Tick; Urbanization; Vector; West Nile Virus; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 477-500,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Zika virus is an arbovirus in the Flavivirus family that includes yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was discovered in a sentinel monkey in Uganda in 1947. Subsequently, this virus was detected over the years in Africa and Asia. Human-to-human transmission of Zika virus was described in the USA, from a scientist who contracted the infection in Senegal in2008. Zika virus is an emerging pathogen and the point of this review is to highlight its epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular biology. The detection of Zika virus demonstrates association with the other related viruses that are more pathogenic. Although Zika virus is a relatively non-lethal virus, it is potentially dangerous as it is genetically related to more virulent and perilous viruses: e.g., yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. It could conceivably mutate into a more pathogenic form. Under the current conditions of emergent viruses, human behaviors, modern technology, mobile society, urbanization, and global climate changes, we suggest continued monitoring of Zika virus because of the dangers posed by the members of the virulent virus group to which it is related. © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

380) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from brazilian legal Amazon plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patricia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonca do; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto: Chemical composition; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Mass spectroscopy; Dengue; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Vaccines; Plant extracts; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC sub(50) ) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

381) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

382) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

383) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

384) Emergence of dengue in tribal villages of Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh, India
Autor: Barde, P. V.; Shukla, M. K.; Kori, B. K.; Chand, G.; Jain, L.; Varun, B. M.; Dutta, D.; Baruah, K.; Singh, Neeru
Assunto: Dengue; DENV; ELISA; IgM; Madhya Pradesh; nRT-PCR; serotype-2; tribal population
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n.5 , p. 584-590, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Background & objectives: Dengue (DEN) is a rapidly spreading arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Although it is endemic in India, dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported from tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh. Investigations were conducted to establish the aetiology of sudden upsurge of cases with febrile illness in June 2013 from tribal villages of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh, India.Methods: The rapid response team of the National Institute for Research in Tribal Health, Jabalpur, conducted clinical investigations and field surveys to collect the samples from suspected cases. Samples were tested using molecular and serological tools. Collected mosquitoes were identified and tested for the presence of virus using semi nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). The sequences were analysed to identify serotype and genotype of the virus.Results: Of the 648 samples collected from 18 villages of Mandla, 321 (49.53%) were found to be positive for dengue. The nRT-PCR and sequencing confirmed the aetiology as dengue virus type 2. Eighteen per cent of patients needed hospitalization and five deaths were attributed to dengue. The virus was also detected from Aedes aegypti mosquito, which was incriminated as a vector. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the dengue virus 2 detected belonged to cosmopolitan genotype of the virus.Interpretation & conclusions: Dengue virus serotype 2 was detected as the aetiological agent in the outbreak in tribal villages of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. Conducive man-made environment favouring mosquitogenic conditions and seeding of virus could be the probable reasons for this outbreak. Urgent attention is needed to control this new threat to tribal population, which is already overburdened with other vector borne diseases.

385) Of ELIC and evolution
Autor: Adler, Elizabeth M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of General Physiology, v. 145, n. 1, p. 1-2, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1295
Resumo:

386) New baseline environmental assessment of mosquito ecology in northern Haiti during increased urbanization
Autor: Samson, Dayana M.; Archer, Reginald S.; Alimi, Temitope O.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Oscar, Roland; Fuller, Douglas O.; Qualls, Whitney A.
Assunto: Remote sensing; Rapid urbanization; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; Haiti; Earthquake
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 46-58, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The catastrophic 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, led to the large-scale displacement of over 2.3 million people, resulting in rapid and unplanned urbanization in northern Haiti. This study evaluated the impact of this unplanned urbanization on mosquito ecology and vector-borne diseases by assessing land use and change patterns. Land-use classification and change detection were carried out on remotely sensed images of the area for 2010 and 2013. Change detection identified areas that went from agricultural, forest, or bare-land pre-earthquake to newly developed and urbanized areas post-earthquake. Areas to be sampled for mosquito larvae were subsequently identified. Mosquito collections comprised five genera and ten species, with the most abundant species being Culex quinquefasciatus 35% (304/876), Aedes albopictus 27% (238/876), and Aedes aegypti 20% (174/876). All three species were more prevalent in urbanized and newly urbanized areas. Anopheles albimanus, the predominate malaria vector, accounted for less than 1% (8/876) of the collection. A set of spectral indices derived from the recently launched Landsat 8 satellite was used as covariates in a species distribution model. The indices were used to produce probability surfaces maps depicting the likelihood of presence of the three most abundant species within 30 m pixels. Our findings suggest that the rapid urbanization following the 2010 earthquake has increased the amount of area with suitable habitats for urban mosquitoes, likely influencing mosquito ecology and posing a major risk of introducing and establishing emerging vector-borne diseases.

387) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global: After racing through Oceania last year, the Zika virus is now spreading in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink M.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

388) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis ; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lounibos, LPhilip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Biological surveys; Barriers; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Biting; Travellers; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: More than one million chikungunya cases have been reported in the Americas since October 2013, when the Asian genotype of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was imported by a traveller returning from Asia. CHIKV is mainly transmitted in urban areas by the domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the CHIKV circulating in the Caribbean to initiate outbreaks in Aedes-infested regions of continental America and Europe by assessing the ability of local mosquitoes to experimentally transmit the virus. Mosquitoes were exposed to a blood-meal containing the virus which must overcome several barriers to infect various tissues in the vector before being secreted in the mosquito saliva when biting a host. We found that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus transmitted similarly the virus. When exposing Ae. albopictus from Europe at a temperature of 20 degree C after infection, we detect a significant drop of CHIKV transmission potential. Our results suggest that the CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas however with a limited risk of spillovers in Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. These data will be useful for adapting vector control strategies and epidemiological surveillance.

389) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob B., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: dengue (diagnosis), endemic disease, virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145-146, jul. 2015
ISSN: 0974-6005 (electronic),1755-6783
Resumo:

390) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

391) Effects of artesunate treatment on Plasmodium gallinaceum transmission in the vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Pruck-Ngern, Mintra; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Buddhirakkul, Prayute; Saiwichai, Tawee
Assunto: Artesunate; Avian malaria; Gametocytocidal action; Transmission; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Veterinary Parasitology, v. 207, n. 1-2, p. 161-165, 2015
ISSN: 0304-4017
Resumo: In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy is an effective and economical way for controlling malaria. Development of anti-malarial drugs that target pathogenic blood stage parasites and gametocytes is preferable for the treatment as it can alleviate the host's morbidity and mortality and block transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. Recently, our laboratory has developed an in vivo transmission blocking assay that involves administration of 7 consecutive daily doses of a test compound into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. To compromise the cost and time for artesunate (ATN) treatment, this study aimed to investigate effects of a 5-day consecutive administration of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) ATN on P. gallinaceum infection in chickens and transmission to two natural vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Our study showed that the treatment with 10 mg/kg ATM for 7 days, but not 5 days, completely eliminated blood stage infections, prevented recrudescence and blocked gametocyte production and transmission of P. gallinaceum to its vectors, thereby confirming the potent schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activities of ATN. This regimen should be further evaluated in field trials. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

392) (E)-Caryophyllene and [alpha]-Humulene: Aedes aegypti oviposition deterrents elucidated by gas chromatography-electrophysiological assay of Commiphora leptophloeos leaf oil
Autor: Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos da; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Silva, Patrícia Cristina Bezerra da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Marcia Vanusa da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Silva, Nicácio Henrique da
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with [alpha] -phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and [Beta]-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and [alpha] -humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

393) A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Estimation of Abundance and Spatial Density of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Villela, Daniel A. M.; Codeco, Claudia T.; Figueiredo, Felipe; Garcia, Gabriela A.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Struchiner, Claudio J.
Assunto: Mark ? Release - Recapture; Daily Survival Rates; Population - Size; Dengue Vector; Dispersal; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Strategies to minimize dengue transmission commonly rely on vector control, which aims to maintain Ae. aegypti density below a theoretical threshold. Mosquito abundance is traditionally estimated from mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments, which lack proper analysis regarding accurate vector spatial distribution and population density. Recently proposed strategies to control vector-borne diseases involve replacing the susceptible wild population by genetically modified individuals' refractory to the infection by the pathogen. Accurate measurements of mosquito abundance in time and space are required to optimize the success of such interventions. In this paper, we present a hierarchical probabilistic model for the estimation of population abundance and spatial distribution from typical mosquito MRR experiments, with direct application to the planning of these new control strategies. We perform a Bayesian analysis using the model and data from two MRR experiments performed in a neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during both low-and high-dengue transmission seasons. The hierarchical model indicates that mosquito spatial distribution is clustered during the winter (0.99 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 0.80-1.23) and more homogeneous during the high abundance period (5.2 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 4.3-5.9). The hierarchical model also performed better than the commonly used Fisher-Ford's method, when using simulated data. The proposed model provides a formal treatment of the sources of uncertainty associated with the estimation of mosquito abundance imposed by the sampling design. Our approach is useful in strategies such as population suppression or the displacement of wild vector populations by refractory Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, since the invasion dynamics have been shown to follow threshold conditions dictated by mosquito abundance. The presence of spatially distributed abundance hotspots is also formally addressed under this modeling framework and its knowledge deemed crucial to predict the fate of transmission control strategies based on the replacement of vector populations.

394) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

395) What's new in clinical dermatology?
Titulo Alternativo: Quoi de neuf en dermatologie clinique?
Autor: L. Valeyrie-Allanore
Assunto: Burden; Drug adverse reaction; Emerging infectious agents; Hidradentis suppurativa; IgG4-related disease; Pemphigoid; Psoriasis; Small-fiber neuropathy ; Immunoglobulin G4; Methotrexate; African; Article; Cardiometabolic risk; Chikungunya virus; Clinical practice; Dermatology; DRESS syndrome; Fish; Food intake; Heat sensation; Human; Immunoglobulin G4 related disease; Inflammation; Lymphadenitis; Mucosa; Neuropathy; Paresthesia; Pemphigus; Pruritus; Risk factor; RNA virus; Skin; Skin defect; Spirulina; Suppurative hidradenitis; Symptom; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, v. 142 , Supl. 3 , p. S1-S7, 2015
ISSN: 0151-9638
Resumo: Significant advances have been performed in cutaneous adverse reactions leading to primary prevention strategy and implication of new signaling pathways. Histological features of DRESS and methotrexate toxicity are detailed. New emerging infectious agents are reported including Zika Virus, an arbovirus which can be confused with dengue or chikungunya, a new cowpox virus transmitted by domestic cat leading to lymphadenitis, Spirurina type X larva transmitted in Japan by eating raw squid or fish.Malignancies in pemphigus and pemphigoid are emphasized. Expert recommandations are developped on definitions, diagnosis and disease activity of mucous membrane pemphigoid, bubllous pemphigoid and pemphigus. Psoriasis and cardiometabolic association are discussed. This risk association appears higher in hidradenitis suppurativa, which seems more frequent in patients of African ancestry. IgG4-related disease is an immune mediated entity characterized by fibroinflammatory lesions often misdiagnosed. Pruritus, heat sensations, numbness could be recognized as a small-fiber neuropathy symptoms. Burden impact in common dermatosis is demonstrated and should be integrated in our daily practice.

396) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

397) A comparative analysis of reproductive biology of insect vectors of human disease
Autor: Shaw, W. Robert; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Aksoy, Serap; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Assunto: Fly ; Glossina ? Morsitans ; Aedes Aegypti ? Mosquitos ; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Tsetse ? Fly ; Juvenile ?Hormone ; Cytoplasmic incompatibility ; Molecular characterization ; African trypanosomiasis ; Wolbachia infections ; Host interactions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 142-148, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: Studying the reproductive strategies of insect species that transmit diseases to humans can identify new exploitable targets for the development of vector control methods. Here we describe shared characteristics and individual features of the reproductive biology of three major disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Glossina morsitans. Current studies are identifying i) species-specific molecular cascades that determine female monandrous behavior, ii) core aspects of egg development that could be disrupted for controlling natural populations, and iii) the increasingly apparent role of resident microbiota in shaping reproductive success and disease transmission potential. The recent completion of multiple genome sequencing projects is allowing comparative genomics studies that not only increase our knowledge of reproductive processes but also facilitate the identification of novel targets for vector control.

398) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

399) A corpora allata farnesyl diphosphate synthase in mosquitoes displaying a metal ion dependent substrate specificity
Autor: Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nyati, Pratik; Noriega, Fernando G.
Assunto: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase; Mosquito; Juvenile hormone; Prenyltranferases; Metal dependence; Substrate specificity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 44-50, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate famesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg2+ ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co2+ ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg2+ the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP > DMAPP > IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays "catalytic promiscuity", changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

400) Zika: Another sexually transmitted infection?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Patiño-Barbosa A.M., Medina I., Gil-Restrepo A.F., Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: sexually transmitted disease, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sexually Transmitted Infections, v. 91, n. 5, p. 359, aug. 2015
ISSN: 1472-3263 (electronic),1368-4973
Resumo:

401) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

402) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticle; Bacillus megaterium; Bioreduction; Pathogenicity; LC50 and LC90
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4069-4079, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated chi (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

403) A draft genome sequence of an invasive mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus
Autor: Dritsou, Vicky; Topalis, Pantelis; Windbichler, Nikolai; Simoni, Alekos; Hall, Ann; Lawson, Daniel; Hinsley, Malcolm; Hughes, Daniel; Napolioni, Valerio; Crucianelli, Francesca; Deligianni, Elena; Gasperi, Giuliano; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Savini, Grazia; Manni, Mose; Scolari, Francesca; Malacrida, Anna R.; Arca, Bruno; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Saccone, Giuseppe; Salvemini, Marco; Moretti, Riccardo; Aprea, Giuseppe; Calvitti, Maurizio; Picciolini, Matteo; Papathanos, Philippos Aris; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Favia, Guido; Crisanti, Andrea; Louis, Christos
Assunto: NGS; WGS; BUSCO; Repetitive DNA; Transposable elements; Invasive species; Disease vector; Dengue fever; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 5, p. 207-220, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo: The draft genome sequence of Italian specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined using a standard NGS (next generation sequencing) approach. The size of the assembled genome is comparable to that of Aedes aegypti; the two mosquitoes are also similar as far as the high content of repetitive DNA is concerned, most of which is made up of transposable elements. Although, based on BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologues) analysis, the genome assembly reported here contains more than 99% of protein-coding genes, several of those are expected to be represented in the assembly in a fragmented state. We also present here the annotation of several families of genes (tRNA genes, miRNA genes, the sialome, genes involved in chromatin condensation, sex determination genes, odorant binding proteins and odorant receptors). These analyses confirm that the assembly can be used for the study of the biology of this invasive vector of disease.

404) Global virology I-identifying and investigating viral diseases
Autor: Shapshak P., Sinnott J.T., Somboonwit C., Kuhn J.H.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 1-813,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This book provides trajectories and illustrations of viruses that have catapulted into the global arena (linked to humans, animals, and vectors) due to human behaviors in recent years, as well as viruses that have already shown expansion among humans, animals, and vectors just a few decades ago. Topics in the current book include: vaccines environmental impact emerging virus transmission Filovirus (Ebola) hemorrhagic fevers flaviviruses Dengue evasion papillomaviruses Hepatitis C Nipah virus giant viruses hantaviruses bunyaviruses encephalitides West Nile virus Zika virus XMRV henipaviruses human respiratory syncytial virus influenza A virus several aspects of HIV-1 © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

405) A floral-derived attractant for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: von Oppen, S.; Masuh, H.; Licastro, S.; Zerba, E.; Gonzalez-Audino, P.
Assunto: Lobularia maritima;ÿAcetophenone;ÿImidacloprid;ÿOlfactometer;ÿ1-octanol;Tagetes patula;ÿPlectranthus neochilus;ÿDiptera;ÿCulicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, v. 155, n. 3, p. 184-192, 2015
ISSN: 0013-8703
Resumo: The reproductive success of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is strongly dependent on the availability of carbohydrates in the environment and the ability of the mosquitoes to locate them. The most significant source of carbohydrates for mosquitoes is nectar from flowering plants, which mosquitoes locate by their volatile compounds. The aim of our work was to identify plant volatile compounds that elicit a behavioral response in Ae. aegypti, which may be included in a mosquito trap for surveillance and/or control purposes. Landing-preference bioassays were performed with plants of three species-Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. (Lamiaceae), Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), and Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. (Brassicaceae)-as lures and toxic sugar baits as landing markers. Mosquitoes landed only on L. maritima. Freshly cut inflorescences of L. maritima elicited a positive flight response in both sexes of mosquitoes. The analysis of the compounds in the static head space of L. maritima was performed by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Of the single volatile compounds tested, acetophenone was attractive and 1-octanol caused a flight aversive response. These findings are relevant as there are no reported plant-derived compounds attractive to A. aegypti. As both the male and female mosquitoes sugar feed, traps baited with plant odors are able to lure the whole adult population, making it an interesting option for including in futuremosquito surveillance traps.

406) Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: comparison of house index with four alternative traps
Autor: Codeco, Claudia T; Lima, Arthur WS; Araujo, Simone C; Lima, Jose Bento P; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honorio, Nildimar A; Galardo, Allan KR; Braga, Ima A; Coelho, Giovanini E; Valle, Denise
Assunto: Biological surveys; Infestation; Breeding sites; Embryonic development; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Houses; Egg laying; Dengue; Temporal variations; Population growth; Abundance; Vectors; Traps; Trapping; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue vector surveillance programs regularly use household surveys for searching breeding sites that are positive for Ae. aegypti larvae. Infestation indices are calculated as the percentage of positive houses, or percentage of positive containers, and are used to guide control actions and to issue alerts. However, these indices are costly and prone to error due to variation in searching effort and the sometimes cryptic nature of the mosquito egg laying behavior. In the recent years, many devices for trapping mosquitoes were developed. One problem when deciding which trap to choose for surveillance is the lack of a gold standard to compare trap-based indices with. In this scenario, choice relies on the behavior of the trap indices, that is, how well they inform about mosquito population growth, decline, or spread. Our study compared infestation indices produced by four different trap schemes as well the immature survey. We observed that any trap is more sensitive in detecting the mosquito presence than the immature survey, and they are better in capturing the temporal variation in mosquito abundance as well. However, traps are very different in terms of cost, ease-of-use and sensitivity and trap choice should further consider these factors.

407) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

408) Emergence of the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Émergence du virus Zika
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anarthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

409) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

410) Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi
Autor: Jayaraman, M.; Senthilkumar, A.; Venkatesalu, V.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Aromatic plants; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1511-1518, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50=194.22 and LC90=458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=173.04 and LC90=442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=167.28 and LC90=433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 =94.12 and LC90 =249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=80.58 and LC90=200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=76.24 and LC90=194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata>methanol extract of P. amboinicus>acetone extract of F. limonia>methanol extract of T. erecta>methanol extract of B. mollis> and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

411) Dengue and chikungunya were not enough: Now also Zika arrived
Titulo Alternativo: No era suficiente con dengue y chikungunya: Llegó también Zika
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: virus infection, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Archivos de Medicina, v. 11, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1698-9465 (electronic)
Resumo:

412) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

413) A mosquito survey of the Twin-Island Caribbean Nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2010
Autor: Mohammed, Hamish; Evanson, Jessica; Revan, Floyd; Lee, Elise; Krecek, Rosina C.; Smith, Joshua
Assunto: Aedes tortilis; Anopheles albimanus; Biogents sentineltTrap; Culex nigripalpus; Mosquito survey; Saint kitts and nevis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 360-363, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Adult mosquito surveys of Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) were performed in the dry season (March 16-23, 2010) in Saint Kitts, and the rainy season (October 18-25, 2010) in SKN. Biogents (BG) Sentinel Traps were set with CO2 and BG Lure in urban, rural, mangrove, and dry forest habitats. Mosquitoes were identified to species, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV). The most abundant species during both seasons in St. Kitts were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Aedes aegypti. There were 3 new records for Saint Kitts: Aedes tortilis, Anopheles albimanus, and Culex nigripalpus. Traps were also set in Nevis. No mosquito pool tested positive for DENV, CHIKV, or WNV.

414) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors
Autor: Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Arachis hypogaea; Green synthesis; AgNPs; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Light microscopic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 22, p. 17769-17779, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

415) A multiobjective optimization approach for combating Aedes aegypti using chemical and biological alternated step-size control
Autor: Dias, Weverton O.; Wanner, Elizabeth F.; Cardoso, Rodrigo T. N.
Assunto: Dengue vector control; Aedes aegypti model; Multiobjective optimization; Genetic algorithms
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Mathematical Bioscience, v. 269, p. 37-47, 2015
ISSN: 0025-5564
Resumo: Dengue epidemics, one of the most important viral disease worldwide, can be prevented by combating the transmission vector Aedes aegypti. In support of this aim, this article proposes to analyze the Dengue vector control problem in a multiobjective optimization approach, in which the intention is to minimize both social and economic costs, using a dynamic mathematical model representing the mosquitoes' population. It consists in finding optimal alternated step-size control policies combining chemical (via application of insecticides) and biological control (via insertion of sterile males produced by irradiation). All the optimal policies consists in apply insecticides just at the beginning of the season and, then, keep the mosquitoes in an acceptable level spreading into environment a few amount of sterile males. The optimization model analysis is driven by the use of genetic algorithms. Finally, it performs a statistic test showing that the multiobjective approach is effective in achieving the same effect of variations in the cost parameters. Then, using the.proposed methodology, it is possible to find, in a single run, given a decision maker, the optimal number of days and the respective amounts in which each control strategy must be applied, according to the tradeoff between using more insecticide with less transmission mosquitoes or more sterile males with more transmission mosquitoes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

416) Extract of Bowdichia virgilioides and maackiain as larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Santos, Jefferson C.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santana, Andrea L. B. D.; Maranhao, Claudia A.; Nascimento, Marcia S.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Bieber, Lothar W.
Assunto: Hardwood; Maackiain; Medicarpin; Bowdichia virgilioides; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, n. , p. 160-164, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: The larvicidal activities of extracts of three hardwood species (Hymenaea stigonorcapa, Anadenanthera colubrina and Bowdichia virgilioides) against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were evaluated using WHO guidelines. Extracts of H. stignocarpa and A. colubrina showed weak activity. The highest larvicidal effect was obtained with the cyclohexane extract of the heartwood of B. virgilioides, which caused 100% mortality at concentrations at 50 and 100 mu g/mL. Fraction toluene/EtOAc (8:2) from this extract showed larvicidal activity (LC50 = 34.90 +/- 1.27 mu g/mL). A mixture of two compounds identified as medicarpin and maackiain exhibited a very good larvicidal activity (sub-fraction 2, LC50 = 17.5 +/- 1.87 mu g/mL) and maackiain showed to be a strong larvicidal compound (LC50 = 21.95 +/- 1.34 mu g/mL). This result can be of value in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds from other hardwood plant extracts and presents the first report of B. virgilioides being used to control a mosquito vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

417) A multipurpose, high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism chip for the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti
Autor: Evans, Benjamin R.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Genomics; Population genetics; Aedes aegypti; SNP; Vector biology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 5, p. 711-718, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease.

418) Mosquito vector monitoring system based on optical wingbeat classification
Autor: Ouyang, Tai-Hsien; Yang, En-Cheng; Jiang, Joe-Air; Lin, Ta-Te
Assunto: Mosquito; Disease vector; Population monitoring; Gaussian mixture model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, v. 118, n. , p. 47-55, 2015
ISSN: 0168-1699
Resumo: We developed an automatic mosquito classification system which consists of an infrared recording device for profiling the wingbeat of the in-flight mosquito species and a machine learning model for classifying the gender, genus, and species of the incoming mosquitoes by the signatures of their wingbeats.The recording device is a set of infrared emitters and receivers, which are attached to the wall of an apparatus. When the winged subject enters the apparatus, its flapping wings block the infrared beam from the emitters intermittently such that the receivers convert the wingbeat to the electrical waveform. To classify the incoming subjects, we proposed a machine learning method, which is the Gaussian mixture model trained using the expectation-maximization algorithm (EM-GMM), and compared it with the previously proposed algorithms, including the artificial neuron network model (ANN) and the nearest neighbor model.To assess the performance of the system, we used the living male and female Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The results show that the accuracies of the proposed system are above 80% on identifying the gender and genus of the mosquitoes, with the precisions above 80% and 70%, respectively. The results also suggest that the EM-GMM algorithm outperforms the other two algorithms on the accuracy and precision of the classification of the classes of mosquitoes. In addition to the evaluation of the performance of the system, we also found that certain classes of mosquitoes share similar wingbeat characteristics, which implies that the distinctive wingbeat characteristics should be considered for the optimal accuracy of the classification of the insects of interest. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

419) A Mutation in the intracellular loop III/IV of mosquito sodium channel synergizes the effect of mutations in helix IIS6 on pyrethroid resistance
Autor: Wang, Lingxin; Nomura, Yoshiko; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Nannan; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke
Assunto: Knockdown resistance; Anopheles - Gambiae; Widespread distribution; Molecular evidence; Crystal - structure; Point mutation; Aedes aegypti; 1st Detection; Ion channels; Drug binding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Pharmacology, v. 87, n. 3, p. 421-429, 2015
ISSN: 0026-895X
Resumo: Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for proper electrical signaling in excitable cells. Pyrethroid insecticides promote activation and inhibit inactivation of sodium channels, resulting in prolonged opening of sodium channels. They preferably bind to the open state of the sodium channel by interacting with two distinct receptor sites, pyrethroid receptor sites PyR1 and PyR2, formed by the interfaces of domains II/III and I/II, respectively. Specific mutations in PyR1 or PyR2 confer pyrethroid resistance in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Recently, a unique mutation, (NY)-Y-1575, in the cytoplasmic loop linking domains III and IV (LIII/IV) was found to coexist with a PyR2 mutation, (LF)-F-1014 in IIS6, in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae. To ex-amine the role of this mutation in pyrethroid resistance, (NY)-Y-1575 alone or (NY)-Y-1575 1 (LF)-F-1014 were introduced into an Aedes aegypti sodium channel, AaNa(v)1-1, and the mutants were functionally examined in Xenopus oocytes. (NY)-Y-1575 did not alter AaNa(v)1-1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. However, the (NY)-Y-1575 + (LF)-F-1014 double mutant was more resistant to pyrethroids than the (LF)-F-1014 mutant channel. Further mutational analysis showed that (NY)-Y-1575 could also synergize the effect of (LS)-S-1014/W, but not L(1014)G or other pyrethroid-resistant mutations in IS6 or IIS6. Computer modeling predicts that (NY)-Y-1575 allosterically alters PyR2 via a small shift of IIS6. Our findings provide the molecular basis for the coexistence of (NY)-Y-1575 with (LF)-F-1014 in pyrethroid resistance, and suggest an allosteric interaction between IIS6 and LIII/IV in the sodium channel.

420) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

421) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

422) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

423) Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti
Autor: Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Gill, Sarjeet S.
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry11Aa toxin; Cadherin; Transgenic mosquito; Oligomerization; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Peptides, v. 68, p. 140-147, 2015
ISSN: 0196-9781
Resumo: Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, approximate to 16.7 nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400 nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

424) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

425) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

426) EVALUATION OF THE ATRAEDES (TM) LURE FOR COLLECTION OF CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS IN GRAVID TRAPS
Autor: Irish, S. R.; Batengana, B. M.; Eiras, A. E.; Cameron, M. M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 107-109, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedesr (TM) lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this lure in combination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps was conducted in Tanga, Tanzania. The addition of the lure to traps baited with either grass infusion or tap water did not result in significant increases in trap catch. Grass infusion baited traps (with and without the AtrAedes lure) collected significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, or AtrAedes alone. The catches of the traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, and AtrAedes alone were not significantly different from each other. Although the placement of the lure in the base of the trap may have decreased trap catches, it seems that the AtrAedes is not as effective as grass infusion for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus in Tanzania.

427) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

428) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

429) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

430) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

431) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I.
Assunto: virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

432) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

433) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus Zika: Um Novo Capítulo na História da Medicina
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Flaviviridae, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 679-680, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo:

434) Infectious disease surveillance update.
Autor: Zwizwai Ruth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 12, p. 1385, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

435) Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Babaniyi O., Mwaba P., Mulenga D., Monze M., Songolo P., Mazaba-Liwewe M., Mweene-Ndumba I., Masaninga F., Chizema E., Eshetu-Shibeshi M., Malama C., Rudatsikira E., Siziya S.
Assunto: risk assessment, yellow fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-17, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

436) Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Krtinic, B.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.
Assunto: Diagnostic traits; Larval traits; Sexual dimorphism; Wing trait variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 1, p. 129-138, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens (`rural') and molestus (`urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of `urban' and `rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third-and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

437) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiène du Secrétariat de la Société des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, nov. 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

438) Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bogoch I.I., Brady O.J., Kraemer M.U.G., German M., Creatore M.I., Kulkarni M.A., Brownstein J.S., Mekaru S.R., Hay S.I., Groot E., Watts A., Khan K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10016, p. 335–336, 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

439) Zika virus spreads across Americas as concerns mount over birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dyer O.
Assunto: statistics and numerical data, Zika Virus, Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMJ (Clinical research ed.), v. 351, p. h6983, 2015
ISSN: 1756-1833 (electronic)
Resumo:

440) Entomological impact and social participation in dengue control: a cluster randomized trial in Fortaleza, Brazil
Autor: Caprara, Andrea; De Oliveira Lima, Jose Wellington; Rocha Peixoto, Ana Carolina; Vasconcelos Motta, Cyntia Monteiro; Soares Nobre, Joana Mary; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel
Assunto: Brazil; Cluster randomized trial; Dengue; Intervention study; Social participation; Vector management
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 2, p. 99-105, 2015
ISSN: 0035-9203
Resumo: Background: This study intended to implement a novel intervention strategy, in Brazil, using an ecohealth approach and analyse its effectiveness and costs in reducing Aedes aegypti vector density as well as its acceptance, feasibility and sustainability. The intervention was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the municipality of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil.Methodology: A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed by comparing ten intervention clusters with ten control clusters where routine vector control activities were conducted. The intervention included: community workshops; community involvement in clean-up campaigns; covering the elevated containers and in-house rubbish disposal without larviciding; mobilization of schoolchildren and senior inhabitants; and distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials in the community.Results: Differences in terms of social participation, commitment and leadership were present in the clusters. The results showed the effectiveness of the intervention package in comparison with the routine control programme. Differences regarding the costs of the intervention were reasonable and could be adopted by public health services.Conclusions: Embedding social participation and environmental management for improved dengue vector control was feasible and significantly reduced vector densities. Such a participatory ecohealth approach offers a promising alternative to routine vector control measures.

441) Systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of non-typhoidal Salmonella cases that develop chronic sequelae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: KEITHLIN, J.; Sargeant, J. M.; Thomas, M. K.; Fazil, A.
Assunto: Symptoms; Epidemiology; Anadromous species; Public health; Miller-Fisher syndrome; Data processing; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Complications; Arthritis; Food; Salmonellosis; Reviews; Irritable bowel syndrome; Solitary tract nucleus; Salmonella
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 7, p. 1333-1351, 2015
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) that develop chronic sequelae, and to investigate factors associated with heterogeneity. Articles published in English prior to July 2011 were identified by searching PubMed, Agricola, CabDirect, and Food Safety and Technology Abstracts. Observational studies reporting the number of NTS cases that developed reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects and heterogeneity was assessed using the I super(2) value. Meta-regression was used to explore the influence of study-level variables on heterogeneity. A total of 32 studies were identified; 25 reported on ReA, five reported on RS, seven reported on IBS, two reported on IBD, two reported on GBS, one reported on MFS, and two reported on HUS. There was insufficient data in the literature to calculate a pooled estimate for RS, HUS, IBD, GBS, or MFS. The pooled estimate of the proportion of cases of NTS that developed ReA and IBS had substantive heterogeneity, limiting the applicability of a single estimate. Thus, these estimates should be interpreted with caution and reasons for the high heterogeneity should be further explored.

442) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

443) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

444) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

445) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

446) Evaluating Liquid and Granular Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Broadcast Applications for Controlling Vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses in Artificial Containers and Tree Holes
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T.; Richardson, Alec G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval mosquito control; Backpack sprayer; Ground applications; Stihl SR 450
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 663-671, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation.

447) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

448) Acute viral hemorrhage disease: A summary on new viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wiwanitkit S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: acute disease, acute hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Acute Disease, v. 4, n. 4, p. 277-279, oct. 2015
ISSN: 2221-6189
Resumo: Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as "acute hemorrhagic fever".

449) Aedes aegypti control strategies in Brazil: incorporation of new technologies to overcome the persistence of dengue epidemics
Autor: Araujo, Helena R. C.; Carvalho, Danilo O.; Ioshino, Rafaella S.; Costa-da-Silva, Andre L.; Capurro, Margareth L.
Assunto: Vector control; Brazil; PNCD; Integrated mosquito management
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insects, v. 6, n. 2, p. 576-594, 2015
ISSN: 2075-4450
Resumo: Dengue is considered to be the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The Aedes aegypti mosquito, its vector, is highly anthropophilic and is very well adapted to urban environments. Although several vaccine candidates are in advanced stages of development no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available. As a result, controlling the spread of dengue still requires that mosquitoes be targeted directly. We review the current methods of dengue vector control focusing on recent technical advances. We first examine the history of Brazil's National Dengue Control Plan in effect since 2002, and we describe its establishment and operation. With the persistent recurrence of dengue epidemics, current strategies should be reassessed to bring to the forefront a discussion of the possible implementation of new technologies in Brazil's mosquito control program.

450) Notes on Zika virus : an emerging pathogen now present in the South Pacific
Autor: Derraik, José G. ; Slaney, David
Assunto: Pathogens , Public health , Zika virus , IS, South Pacific , PSE, New Zealand , Australia
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, v. 39, n. 1, p. 5-7, 2015
ISSN: 1326-0200
Resumo:

451) Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cordoba city, Argentina
Autor: Grech, Marta G.; Sartor, Paolo D.; Almiron, Walter R.; Luduena-Almeida, Francisco F.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Immature traits; Temperature developmental threshold; Physiological time; Argentina
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Cordoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2 +/- 1.7 degrees C, 17.9 +/- 1.6 degrees C, 21.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C and 25.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6 +/- 1.7 degrees C, 18.7 +/- 1.7 degrees C and 25.2 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva + pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3 degrees C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2 degrees C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2 degrees C to 92% at 21.6 degrees C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2 degrees C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11 degrees C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96 degrees C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of mosquito management models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

452) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Public health; Dengue; Control programs; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The authors carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-olymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. They report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitan in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

453) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

454) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

455) Acetylcholinesterases from the disease vectors aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae: functional characterization and comparisons with vertebrate orthologues
Autor: Engdahl, Cecilia; Knutsson, Sofie; Fredriksson, Sten-Ake; Linusson, Anna; Bucht, Goran; Ekstrom, Fredrik
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Torpedo - Californica; Mass - Spectrometry; Malaria mosquito; Target site; Inhibitors; Butyrylcholinesterase; Identification; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquitoes of the Anopheles (An.) and Aedes (Ae.) genus are principal vectors of human diseases including malaria, dengue and yellow fever. Insecticide-based vector control is an established and important way of preventing transmission of such infections. Currently used insecticides can efficiently control mosquito populations, but there are growing concerns about emerging resistance, off-target toxicity and their ability to alter ecosystems. A potential target for the development of insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity is the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Herein, we report cloning, baculoviral expression and functional characterization of the wild-type AChE genes (ace-1) from An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, including a naturally occurring insecticide-resistant (G119S) mutant of An. gambiae. Using enzymatic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we found that the secreted proteins were post-translationally modified. The Michaelis-Menten constants and turnover numbers of the mosquito enzymes were lower than those of the orthologous AChEs from Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. We also found that the G119S substitution reduced the turnover rate of substrates and the potency of selected covalent inhibitors. Furthermore, non-covalent inhibitors were less sensitive to the G119S substitution and differentiate the mosquito enzymes from corresponding vertebrate enzymes. Our findings indicate that it may be possible to develop selective non-covalent inhibitors that effectively target both the wild-type and insecticide resistant mutants of mosquito AChE.

456) Zika virus: a new epidemic on our doorstep.
Autor: Galindo-Fraga Arturo,Ochoa-Hein Eric,Sifuentes-Osornio José,Ruiz-Palacios Guillermo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Investigacio?n Cli?nica, v. 67, n. 6, p. 329-332, 2015
ISSN: 0034-8376
Resumo: Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, was first described in humans as isolated cases in Africa. Outbreaks have been reported outside that region since 2007, followed by its gradual introduction to different geographical areas. In 2015, Zika virus was detected in Brazil, from where it is rapidly expanding in the continent; the first case in Mexico was detected in October 2015. Initially deemed as a cause of mild illness, confirmation of microcephaly cases associated with this infection in Brazil have resulted in the World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus infection as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued travel alerts for countries with declared cases. The vector is widely distributed in Mexico and control measures are the most effective means for prevention, not only of Zika virus, but also dengue and chikungunya.

457) Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Adulticidal activity; Botanical extracts; Eco-friendly; Smoke toxicity; Cipadessa baccifera; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 1, p. 167-173, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6 +/- 1.8, 78.2 +/- 0.5, and 77 +/- 1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

458) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

459) Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sasaki, Naniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antonio Pancracio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Ligia
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Digestive enzyme; Kunitz-type inhibitor; Molecular docking; Molecular modeling
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biochimie, v. 112, p. 172-186, 2015
ISSN: 0300-9084
Resumo: Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated :a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects adapt to them. (C) (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

460) Environmental and Genetic Factors Determine Whether the Mosquito Aedes aegypti Lays Eggs without a Blood Meal
Autor: Ariani, Cristina V.; Smith, Sophia C. L.; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Culex-Tarsalis diptera; Juvenile-hormone; Pipiens complex; Life-history; Wing length; Autogeny; Culicidae; Nutrition; Togoi; Taeniorhynchus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 4, p. 715-721, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28 degrees C compared with 22 degrees C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal.

461) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

462) Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes
Autor: Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod
Assunto: Multiple dengue types; Etiology; DHF
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 150, n. , p. 107-110, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

463) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

464) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

465) Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia: a cluster randomised trial
Autor: Quintero, Juliana; Garcia-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortes, Sebastian; Garcia, Diana; Alcala, Lucas; Gonzalez-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel
Assunto: Aedes; Colombia; Dengue; Long-lasting insecticide - Treated nets; Public health; Randomised controlled trial
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 2, p. 116-125, 2015
ISSN: 0035-9203
Resumo: Long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) window and door curtains alone or in combination with LLIN water container covers were analysed regarding effectiveness in reducing dengue vector density, and feasibility of the intervention. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in an urban area of Colombia comparing 10 randomly selected control and 10 intervention clusters. In control clusters, routine vector control activities were performed. The intervention delivered first, LLIN curtains (from July to August 2013) and secondly, water container covers (from October to March 2014). Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out at baseline (February 2013 to June 2013), 9 weeks after the first intervention (August to October 2013), and 4-6 weeks after the second intervention (March to April 2014). Curtains were installed in 922 households and water container covers in 303 households. The Breteau index (BI) fell from 14 to 6 in the intervention group and from 8 to 5 in the control group. The additional intervention with LLIN covers for water containers showed a significant reduction in pupae per person index (PPI) (p=0.01). In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Costs were high but options for cost savings were identified.Conclusions: Short term impact evaluation indicates that the intervention package can reduce dengue vector density but sustained effect will depend on multiple factors

466) Arterial hypertension and skin allergy are risk factors for progression from dengue to dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case control study
Autor: Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Paixao, Enny S.; Costa, Maria da Conceicao N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Pamplona, Luciano; Dias, Juarez P.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Figueiredo, Maria Aparecida A.; Blanton, Ronald; Morato, Vanessa; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Rodrigues, Laura C.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemics; Physicians; Hypertension; Public health; Pathogenesis; Immunology; Risk factors; Hypotheses; Chronic illnesses; Mortality; Diabetes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a virus disease that has already reached more than 100 countries worldwide, transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, mainly Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that annually nearly 96 million symptomatic cases and about 22,000 deaths occur. This virus most often manifests itself in the form of Dengue Fever (DF), which in some cases progresses to severe forms, also called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). However, the current knowledge does not allow early prediction of which cases of DF will progress to DHF. But it is important to know the factors Involved in this process so that physicians may intervene early to prevent progression and avoid deaths. One of the proposed explanations is that preexisting comorbidities would increase the risk of progression from DF to DHF. This study showed that cases of DF associated with hypertension or skin allergy are more likely to progress to DHF. Monitoring and early appropriate clinical management of these cases can save lives.

467) AealRACK1 expression and localization in response to stress in C6/36 HT mosquito cells
Autor: Gonzalez-Calixto, Cecilia; Cazares-Raga, Febe E.; Cortes-Martinez, Leticia; Maria del Angel, Rosa; Medina-Ramirez, Fernando; Mosso, Clemente; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Henry Rodriguez, Mario; de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel
Assunto: C6/36 HT cells; Receptor for activated C; Kinase (RACK1); Scaffold protein; Stress conditions; Aedes mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 119, p. 45-60, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: The Receptor for Activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffold protein member of the tryptophanaspartate (WD) repeat family, folds in a seven-bladed 3-propeller structure that permits the association of proteins to form active complexes. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes sp., are vectors of virus producing important diseases such as: dengue, chilcungunya and yellow fever. Based on the highly conserved gene sequence of AeaeRACK1 of the mosquito Aedes aegypti we characterized the mRNA and protein of the homologous AealRACK1 from the Ae. alloopictusderived cell line C6/36 HT. Two protein species differing in MW/pI values were observed at 35 kDa/8.0 and 36 IrDa/6.5. The behavior of AealRACK1 was studied inducing stress with serum deprivation and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Both stressors induced increase of the expression of AealRACK1 mRNA and proteins. In serum-deprived cells AealRACK1 protein was located cortically near the plasma membrane in contrast to dexamethasone-treated cells where the protein formed a dotted pattern in the cytoplasm. In addition, 33 protein partners were identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Most of the identified proteins were ribosomal, involved in signaling pathways and stress responses. Our results suggest that AealRACK1 in C6/36 FIT cells respond to stress increasing its synthesis and producing phosphorylated activated form.Biological significanceInsect cells adapt to numerous environmental stressors, including chemicals and invasion of pathogenic microorganisms among others, coordinating cellular and organismal responses. Individual cells sense the environment using receptors that trigger signaling pathways that regulate expression of specific effector proteins and/or cellular responses as movement or secretion. In the coordination of responses to stress, scaffold proteins are pivotal molecules that recruit other proteins forming active complexes. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is the best studied member of the conserved tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family. RACK1 folds in a seven-bladed p-propeller structure and it could be activated during stress, participating in different signaling pathways. The presence and activities of RACK1 in mosquitoes had not been documented before, in this work the molecule is demonstrated in an Aedes albopictus-derived cell line and its reaction to stress is observed under the effect of serum deprivation and the presence of glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone, a chemical used to cause stress in vitro. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

468) Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C.; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Oviposition; Boat; Ovitrap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 726-729, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N = 7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N = 4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats.

469) Effect of chlorfenapyr on cypermethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq mosquitoes
Autor: Yuan, J. Z.; Li, Q. F.; Huang, J. B.; Gao, J. F.
Assunto: Culex pipiens pallens ; Chlorfenapyr ; Cypermethrin ; Resistance ; Piperonyl butoxide ; Cross - Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 143, p. 13-17, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. The effect of chlorfenapyr on pyrethorid-resistant Culex pipiens pallens Coq (Diptera: Culicidae) has not been fully investigated under laboratory conditions. In this study, cypermethrin-resistant C. p. pallens exhibited 376.79-fold and 395.40-fold increase in resistance to cypermethrin compared with susceptible strains after exposure for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Larvae and adults were tested for susceptibility using dipping, topical, and impregnated paper methods as recommended by the WHO. No cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr was found. Increased mortality was apparent between 48 and 72 h, indicating a slow rate of toxic activity. Synergism experiments with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) showed an antagonistic effect on chlorfenapyr toxicity. Mixtures of chlorfenapyr and cypermethrin could therefore provide additional benefits over either insecticide used alone. Mixtures of 5 ng/ml chlorfenapyr and 500 ng/ml cypermethrin exhibited a slight synergistic effect on cypermethrin-resistant mosquitoes (3.33, 6.84 and 2.34% after 24,48 and 72 h exposure, respectively. This activity was lost when the chlorfenapyr concentration was increased to 10 or 20 ng/ml. Chlorfenapyr showed quite good results for pyrethroid-resistant C. p. pallens, and could improve public health by reducing the occurrence of mosquito bites and subsequently protecting against transmission of lymphatic filariasis and Japanese encephalitis. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

470) Co-infection with zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dupont-Rouzeyrol M., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Daures M., John M., Grangeon J.-P., Gourinat A.-C.
Assunto: Dengue virus, mixed infection, virus, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 381-382, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

471) Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Polygonum hydropiper; Confertifolin; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Repellent; Oviposition deterrent; Adulticidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 11, p. 8280-8287, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy 1-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P<0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides.

472) Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Chomelia asiatica; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 3, p. 989-999, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.

473) Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source
Autor: Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.
Assunto: To-cell communication; Human skin emanations; Anopheles - Gambiae; Malaria mosquito; Pseudomonas - Aeruginosa; Proteus - Mirabilis; Carbon - Dioxide; Host - Seeking; Bacteria; Microbiota
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr-strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr-strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr-strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr-strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P <= 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites.

474) Assessing dengue infection risk in the southern region of Taiwan: implications for control
Autor: Liao, C. M.; Huang, T. L.; Cheng, Y. H.; Chen, W. Y.; Hsieh, N. H.; Chen, S.C.; Chio, C. P.
Assunto: Dengue; Modelling; Mosquito; Risk assessment; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 5, p. 1059-1072, 2015.
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Dengue, one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, is a major international public health concern. This study aimed to assess potential dengue infection risk from Aedes aegypti in Kaohsiung and the implications for vector control. Here we investigated the impact of dengue transmission on human infection risk using a well-established dengue-mosquito-human transmission dynamics model. A basic reproduction number (R sub(0))-based probabilistic risk model was also developed to estimate dengue infection risk. Our findings confirm that the effect of biting rate plays a crucial role in shaping R sub(0) estimates. We demonstrated that there was 50% risk probability for increased dengue incidence rates exceeding 0.5-0.8 wk super(-1) for temperatures ranging from 26 degree C to 32 degree C. We further demonstrated that the weekly increased dengue incidence rate can be decreased to zero if vector control efficiencies reach 30-80% at temperatures of 19-32 degree C. We conclude that our analysis on dengue infection risk and control implications in Kaohsiung provide crucial information for policy-making on disease control.

475) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in mauritania: first report on the presence of the arbovirus mosquito vector in Nouakchott
Autor: Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Ould Ahmedou Salem; Brahim, Khyarhoum Ould; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Brengues, Cecile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frederic; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius; Emergence; Larval habitat; Climate change
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 730-733, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

476) Assessing carbon dioxide and synthetic lure-baited traps for dengue and chikungunya vector surveillance
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G.; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Carbon dioxide; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Light traps; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, 242 p, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

477) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

478) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

479) Aedes aegypti anti-salivary gland antibody concentration and dengue virus exposure history in healthy individuals living in an endemic area in Colombia
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Giovanni, Jennifer E.; Cardenas, Lucio; Villamizar, Paloma; Rolon, Jennifer; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Carvajal, Daisy J.; Perez, Omar G.; Wesson, Dawn M.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti;ÿDengue;ÿDengue virus;ÿDisease vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Biomedica, v. 35, n. 4, p. 572-581, 2015
ISSN: 0120-4157
Resumo: Mosquito salivary proteins are able to induce an antibody response that reflects the level of human-vector contact. IgG antibodies against dengue virus (DENV-IgG) are indicators of previous exposure. The risk of DENV transmission is not only associated to mosquito or dengue factors, but also to socioeconomic factors that may play an important role in the disease epidemiology. To determine the effect of the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitos in different stages in households and the history of dengue exposure on vector-human contact determined by the level of anti-salivary protein antibodies in people living in a Colombian endemic area. A pilot study of 58 households and 55 human subjects was conducted in Norte de Santander, Colombia. A questionnaire for socioeconomic factors was administered and houses were examined for the presence of Ae. aegypti specimens in the aquatic stages. The level of DENV-IgG antibodies (DENV-IgG), in addition to IgG and IgM anti-Ae. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies (SGE-IgG, SGE-IgM) were evaluated by ELISA using blood collected in filter paper.Results: We found a significant higher level of SGE-IgG antibodies in subjects living in houses with Ae. aegypti in aquatic stages. We also found a higher concentration of SGE-IgG antibodies in, people exposed to DENV, a positive correlation between IgM-SGE and IgG-DENV and a negative correlation with IgG-SGE.Conclusion: Anti-salivary proteins antibodies are consistent with the presence of Ae. aegypti aquatic stages inside houses and DENV-IgG antibodies concentrations.

480) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

481) Aedes aegypti has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Goundar, Anjali; White, Vanessa; Yang, Qiong; Filipovic, Igor; Johnson, Petrina; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Arguni, Eggi
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Indonesia; Genetic structure; RADseq; Microsatellites; mtDNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 610, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue fever, the most prevalent global arboviral disease, represents an important public health problem in Indonesia. Control of dengue relies on the control of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, yet nothing is known about the population history and genetic structure of this insect in Indonesia. Our aim was to assess the spatio-temporal population genetic structure of Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta, a densely populated region on Java with common dengue outbreaks. We used multiple marker systems (microsatellites, nuclear and mitochondrial genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) to analyze 979 Ae. aegypti individuals collected from the Yogyakarta city and the surrounding hamlets during the wet season in 2011 and the following dry season in 2012. We employed individual-and group-based approaches for inferring genetic structure. We found that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations. The spatial structuring was significant for the nuclear and mitochondrial markers, while the temporal structuring was non-significant. Nuclear markers identified three main genetic clusters, showing that hamlets have greater genetic isolation from each other and from the inner city sites. However, one hamlet experienced unrestricted mosquito interbreeding with the inner city, forming a single genetic cluster. Genetic distance was poorly correlated with the spatial distance among mosquito samples, suggesting stronger influence of human-assisted gene flow than active mosquito movement on spatial genetic structure. A star-shaped mitochondrial haplotype network and a significant R-2 test statistic (R-2 = 0.0187, P = 0.001) support the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta originated from a small or homogeneous source and has undergone a relatively recent demographic expansion. We report the first insights into the spatio-temporal genetic structure and the underlying processes in the dengue fever mosquito from Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Our results provide valuable information on the effectiveness of local control measures as well as guidelines for the implementation of novel biocontrol strategies such as release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes

482) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle ; Zorrilla, Pilar ; Guidez, Amandine ; Issaly, Jean ; Girod, Romain ; Guillaumot, Laurent ; Robello, Carlos ; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Insecticides, Mutations, Pest control, Home range, Public health, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

483) Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura
Assunto: Cananga odorata; Aedes aepypti; Anopheles dirus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Oviposition deterrent; Ovicidal; Insecticidal; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4531-4543, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), < 1 % (for An. dirus), and < 1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

484) Evidence of Limited Polyandry in a Natural Population of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Richardson, Joshua B.; Jameson, Samuel B.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Wesson, Dawn M.; Powell, Jeffrey
Assunto: Dengue Vector Mosquito; Female Monogamy; Gland Proteins; Identification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 1, p. 189-193, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya. Control of the insect is crucial to stop the spread of dengue and chikungunya, so it is critically important to understand its mating behavior. Primarily, based on laboratory behavior, it has long been assumed that Ac. aegypti females mate once in their lifetime. However, multiple inseminations have been observed in semi-field and laboratory settings, and in closely related species. Here, we report the first evidence of polyandry in a natural population of Ac. aegypti. Female Ac. aegypti were captured around the New Orleans, LA, metropolitan area. They were offered a blood meal and allowed to lay eggs, which were reared to the third-instar larval stage. A parentage analysis using four microsatellite loci was performed. Out of 48 families, 3 showed evidence of multiple paternity. An expanded analysis of these three families found that one family group included offspring contributed by three fathers, and the other two included offspring from two fathers. This result establishes that polyandry can occur in a small proportion of Ac. aegypti females in a natural setting. This could complicate future genetic control efforts and has implications for sampling for population genetics.

485) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

486) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

487) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

488) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

489) Dengue and chikungunya were not enough: Now also Zika arrived
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Editorial; Virus Infection; Zika Fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Archivos de Medicina, v. 11, n.2,2015.
ISSN: 16989465
Resumo: [No abstract available]

490) Assessment of the impact of potential tetracycline exposure on the phenotype of Aedes aegypti OX513A: implications for field use
Autor: Curtis, Zoe; Matzen, Kelly; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Nimmo, Derric; Gray, Pamela; Winskill, Peter; Locatelli, Marco A. F.; Jardim, Wilson F.; Warner, Simon; Alphey, Luke; Beech, Camilla
Assunto: Tetracyclines; Larvae; Pupae; Blood; Infectious disease control; Surface water; Ingestion; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever is spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the most effective method to limit the spread of dengue is to reduce the mosquito population. We have previously reported a transgenic strain of Ae. aegypti which results in >90% population suppression: males, which do not transmit disease, are released into the field carrying a self-limiting gene to mate with wild females, passing on the self-limiting gene which causes >95% progeny to die before becoming vectors of disease. To be able to breed this mosquito in the laboratory an antidote, tetracycline, is used to suppress the effects of the transgene. Given that tetracyclines are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, it is essential to consider whether sufficient tetracycline could be in the environment to prevent the effective use of this control method by allowing the female's progeny (from a mating between a released OX513A male and a wild female) to survive. Here we have shown that the concentrations of tetracycline to which the mosquitoes will be exposed in the environment, both in breeding sites and in a blood-meal host are not high enough to influence the effectiveness of this control method.

491) Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura; Phasornkusolsill, Siriporn
Assunto: Repellency; Cananga odorata oil; Cymbopogon citratus oil; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, n. , p. 127-130, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(R) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(R)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 mu l/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The Cananga odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7 +/- 10.4 min. In addition, Cymbopogon citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of Culex quinquefasciatus for 170.0 +/- 9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0 +/- 7.1-182.0 +/- 12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against Aedes aegypti than Culex quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that Cananga odorata oil and Cymbopogon citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

492) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

493) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

494) Assessment of the relationship between entomologic indicators of Aedes aegypti and the epidemic occurrence of dengue virus 3 in a susceptible population, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Autor: Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Pereira, Mariza; Favaro, Eliane Aparecida; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Mondini, Adriano; Rodrigues Junior, Antonio Luiz; Chierotti, Ana Patricia; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Entomologic indicator; Spatial analysis; Temporal analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, p. 167-177, 2015.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The aims of this study were to describe the occurrence of dengue in space and time and to assess the relationships between dengue incidence and entomologic indicators. We selected the dengue autochthonous cases that occurred between September 2005 and August 2007 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto to calculate incidence rates by month, year and census tracts. The monthly incidence rates of the city were compared to the monthly Breteau indices (BI) of the Sao Jose do Rio Region. Between December 2006 and February 2007, an entomological survey was conducted to collect immature forms of Aedes aegypti in Jaguare, a Sao Jose do Rio Preto neighborhood, and to obtain entomological indices. These indices were represented using statistical interpolation. To represent the occurrence of dengue in the Jaguare neighborhood in 2006 and 2007, we used the Kernel ratio and to evaluate the relationship between dengue and the entomological indices, we used a generalized additive model in a spatial case-control design. Between September 2005 and August 2007, the occurrence of dengue in Sao Jose do Rio Preto was almost entirely caused by DENV3, and the monthly incidence rates presented high correlation coefficients with the monthly BI. In Jaguare neighborhood, the entomological indices calculated by hectare were better predictors of the spatial distribution of dengue than the indices calculated by properties, but the pupae quantification did not show better prediction qualities than the indices based on the container positivity, in relation to the risk of dengue occurrence. The fact that the municipality's population had a high susceptibility to the serotype DENV3 before the development of this research, along with the almost total predominance of the occurrence of this serotype between 2005 and 2007, facilitated the analysis of the epidemiological situation of the disease and allowed us to connect it to the entomological indicators. Spatial risk map for dengue with odds ratio isolines (left) and container with larvae or pupae of Aedes aegypti per hectare (right): the areas with OR > 1 correspond approximately to areas with higher infestation levels; the areas with OR < 1 correspond approximately to areas with lower infestation levels. Abbreviations * BI, Breteau Index(cis) * GIS, geographic information system * SINAN, notifiable diseases information system

495) Site-specific cassette exchange systems in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and the Plutella xylostella moth
Autor: Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara;John, Oliver St; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke
Assunto: Genomes; Nucleotide sequence; Aquatic insects; Phylogenetics; Public health; Phylogeny; Integration; Recombinase; Genetic engineering; Economics; Pests; Aedes aegypti; Plutella xylostella
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established Phi C31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the Phi C31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests.

496) Association between three mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene and knockdown resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Autor: Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret
Assunto: Population genetics; Pest control; Strains; Control resistance; Dengue; Genotyping; Heterozygotes; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Deltamethrin; Homozygotes; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Insects, v. 6, n. 3, p. 658-685, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations.

497) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

498) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

499) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane
Assunto: Ocean currents; Epidemics; Hosts; Introduced species; Hygiene; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Indigenous species; Islands; Vectors; Infection; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

500) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

501) From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jessica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Assunto: Human diseases; Mathematical models; Sterility; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Spreading; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Landscape; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes, and use this pattern of sterility to facilitate their spread into naive, uninfected host populations. These bacteria were recently introduced into Aedes aegypti, a species naturally free of Wolbachia, and the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia are currently being used as a biological tool to control dengue transmission in many countries, including Brazil. We performed a series of laboratory and field assays and then created mathematical models in order to understand the invasive ability of the wMel Wolbachia strain in Brazilian Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. We show that wMel infection had no detrimental fitness effects on its new Brazilian host, and would theoretically be able to successfully invade the mosquito populations in the five distinct urban landscapes that we studied. We found that Wolbachia spread more easily where the local mosquito population was smaller. The size of the local human population did not overtly influence the likelihood of spread. These findings provide insight into how the nature of different urban landscapes will affect the likelihood of Wolbachia spreading effectively, which will greatly assist future releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Brazil as part of the Eliminate Dengue Program.

502) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

503) Cry4Ba and Cyt1Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis: Interactions and toxicity mechanism against Aedes aegypti
Autor: Elleuch, Jihen; Jaoua, Samir; Darriet, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Zghal, Raida Zribi
Assunto: Biological control; Toxicants; Receptors; Larvae; Pest control; Hosts; Toxicity; Aquatic insects; Public health; Crystal proteins; delta -Endotoxin; Dengue; Oligomerization; Vectors; Toxins; Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Toxicon, v. 104, p. 83-90, 2015.
ISSN: 0041-0101
Resumo: Individual crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis exhibit variable levels of insecticidal activities against mosquito larvae. In all cases, they are much less active compared to the whole crystal proteins due to described complex synergistic interactions among them. In the present study we investigated the effects of Cyt1A98 (a Cyt1Aa type protein) on Cry4BLB (a Cry4Ba type toxin) insecticidal activity toward the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. The bioassay analyses demonstrated the ability of Cyt1A98 protein to enhance Cry4BLB toxin larvicidal activity even at a low proportion in the mixture (1%). In vitro interaction assays showed that Cyt1A98 provides supplementary binding sites for Cry4BLB in A. aegypti BBMVs. Moreover, it enhances the formation of Cry4BLB oligomeric structure. These results support that Cyt1A98 protein could act as a membrane-bound receptor fixing Cry4BLB delta -endotoxins and promoting its oligomerization.

504) Weather variability associated with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Dengue vector) oviposition dynamics in northwestern Argentina
Autor: Estallo, Elizabet L.; Luduena-Almeida, Francisco F.; Introini, Maria V.; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter R.
Assunto: Temperature effects; Relative humidity; Prediction; Photoperiods; Vectors; Spawning; Weather forecasting; Aquatic insects; Oviposition; Weather; Data processing; Rainfall; Water temperature; Eggs; Models; Dengue; Regression analysis; Rain; Pressure; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: This study aims to develop a forecasting model by assessing the weather variability associated with seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti oviposition dynamic at a city level in Oran, in northwestern Argentina. Oviposition dynamics were assessed by weekly monitoring of 90 ovitraps in the urban area during 2005-2007. Correlations were performed between the number of eggs collected weekly and weather variables (rainfall, photoperiod, vapor pressure of water, temperature, and relative humidity) with and without time lags (1 to 6 weeks). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the set of meteorological variables from the first year of study with the variables in the time lags that best correlated with the oviposition. Model validation was conducted using the data from the second year of study (October 2006- 2007). Minimum temperature and rainfall were the most important variables. No eggs were found at temperatures below 10 degree C. The most significant time lags were 3 weeks for minimum temperature and rains, 3 weeks for water vapor pressure, and 6 weeks for maximum temperature. Aedes aegypti could be expected in Oran three weeks after rains with adequate min temperatures. The best-fit forecasting model for the combined meteorological variables explained 70 % of the variance (adj. R2). The correlation between Ae. aegypti oviposition observed and estimated by the forecasting model resulted in rs = 0.80 (P < 0.05). The forecasting model developed would allow prediction of increases and decreases in the Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on meteorological data for Oran city and, according to the meteorological variables, vector activity can be predicted three or four weeks in advance.

505) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

506) Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002-2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Torres Fernandez, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti Diptera; Mayaro-Virus; Transmission; America; Fever; Communication; Productivity; Infections; Containers; Epidemic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: BackgroundIn the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors.Methodology/Principal FindingsData mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28% to 0.95%; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city.Conclusions/SignificanceOver the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

507) Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi;Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou;Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Copepods Lemongrass; Nanotechnology; Mesocyclops aspericorni
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, p. 129-138, 2015.
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC50 of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32ppm to 471.36ppm. LC50 of AuN ranged from 18.80ppm to 41.52ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs.

508) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

509) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

510) Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Ebola virus at low resource settings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Abd El Wahed A., Patel P., Faye O., Nentwich O., Wende A., Piepenburg O., Sall A., Weidmann M.
Assunto: Ebolavirus, European, laboratory, public health, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 20, supl. 1, p. 29-30, set. 2015
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: INTRODUCTION The current outbreak of Ebola has killed over 10 000 people in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Early identification and isolation of the infected Ebola cases are the most important control measures. Detection of the Ebola virus by using the rapid antigen lateral flow tests is an easy to be applied at the point-of-care. Nevertheless, the results must be confirmed by additional laboratory tests. Laboratory diagnosis mainly depends on Ebola RNA detection by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is available in central laboratories and has a turnaround time of more than 3 h. For decentralized low resource settings, there is a need for a simple molecular point-of-need test. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, a mobile suitcase laboratory (62× 49× 30 cm) containing all reagents and equipment for the detection of Ebola RNA was developed. Moreover, it was operated by a solar power battery. All reagents were cold-chain independent in order to ease the use at poor resource settings. RNA extraction was performed by a magnetic bead based method, in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. In one reaction tube, the reverse transcription step as well as the DNA amplification and detection by the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was achieved. RESULTS Using spiked plasma samples, as few as 15 Ebola RNA copies were detected in less than 30 min, while samples containing Crimean-Congo-Hemorrhagic-Fever, Yellow Fever, Lassa, Marburg, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses and Plasmodium falciparum were negative. CONCLUSION The mobile suitcase laboratory is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Ebola virus especially at low resource settings. Currently, two mobile suitcase laboratories are being used in Guinea.

511) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology In Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015.
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

512) Mosquito Surveillance Program Using Ovitraps Detected Aedes aegypti at the Honolulu International Airport in 2012
Autor: Hasty, Jeomhee M.; Yang, Pingjun; Oshiro, Peter; Nakasone, Lynn; Whelen, Christian
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Ovitrap; Invasive pest surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, v. 47, n. , p. 1-11, 2015
ISSN: 0073-134X
Resumo: A mosquito surveillance program using ovitraps at the Honolulu International Airport (HIA), Hawaii, USA May 2010 to June 2012 revealed that A. albopictus egg counts fluctuated over time during the surveillance program and the highest oviposition was observed from February to May 2011 and the lowest was from September to November 2011. Positive correlations found between a given week's rainfall and egg counts 1 and 2 weeks later suggested that rainfall triggered the hatching of eggs which were laid before the rainfall, rather than directly stimulating adult oviposition. In January and June 2012, Aedes aegypti was discovered from a small vegetated area located between terminals for out-of-state and within-state flights. This species had not been confirmed present on Oahu at least since 1948. This finding has led us to intensify our surveillance program at the airport, with the hope that we would improve our understanding of the nature of mosquito introductions at this important port of entry for the Hawaiian Islands.

513) Silencing of end-joining repair for efficient site-specific gene insertion after TALEN/CRISPR mutagenesis in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Basu, Sanjay; Aryan, Azadeh; Overcash, Justin M.; Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Dahlem, Timothy J.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Aedes; CRISPR; TALEN; Transgenic; Recombination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 13, p. 4038-4043, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Conventional control strategies for mosquito-borne pathogens such as malaria and dengue are now being complemented by the development of transgenic mosquito strains reprogrammed to generate beneficial phenotypes such as conditional sterility or pathogen resistance. The widespread success of site-specific nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in model organisms also suggests that reprogrammable gene drive systems based on these nucleases may be capable of spreading such beneficial phenotypes in wild mosquito populations. Using the mosquito Aedes aegypti, we determined that mutations in the FokI domain used in TALENs to generate obligate heterodimeric complexes substantially and significantly reduce gene editing rates. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-based editing in the mosquito Ae. aegypti is also highly variable, with the majority of guide RNAs unable to generate detectable editing. By first evaluating candidate guide RNAs using a transient embryo assay, we were able to rapidly identify highly effective guide RNAs; focusing germ line-based experiments only on this cohort resulted in consistently high editing rates of 24-90%. Microinjection of double-stranded RNAs targeting ku70 or lig4, both essential components of the end-joining response, increased recombination-based repair in early embryos as determined by plasmid-based reporters. RNAi-based suppression of Ku70 concurrent with embryonic microinjection of site-specific nucleases yielded consistent gene insertion frequencies of 2-3%, similar to traditional transposon- or ...C31-based integration methods but without the requirement for an initial docking step. These studies should greatly accelerate investigations into mosquito biology, streamline development of transgenic strains for field releases, and simplify the evaluation of novel Cas9-based gene drive systems. (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae/symbols omitted.)

514) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

515) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

516) Comparison of bg-sentinel registered trap and oviposition cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Autor: Wright, Jennifer A.; Larson, Ryan T.; Richardson, Alec G.; Cote, Noel M.; Stoops, Craig A.; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Dominant species; Disease control; Nature conservation; Pest control; Population dynamics; Outer continental shelf; Oviposition; Aquatic insects; Reintroduction; Trapping; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 26-31, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The BG-SentinelH (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics.

517) ndices de infestação e os casos de dengue no bairro Cavalhada I Em Cáceres/MT?Brasil
Autor: Fernandes, Rosilainy Surubi; da Souza, Claudio Kleber Juiz; da Silva, Sandra Mara Alves; Motta, Jose Henrique Domingues
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Geotecnologias; Epidemiologia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Hygeia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Medica e da Saude, v. 11, n. 20, p. 20-31, 2015.
ISSN: 1980-1726
Resumo: Original Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar a relacao entre a infestacao predial e os casos de dengue no bairro Cavalhada I em Caceres/MT. Foi realizado levantamento dos casos de dengue notificados, infestacao predial e fatores de infestacao na Vigilancia Epidemiologica e Ambiental do municipio de 2007 a 2009. Os casos notificados de dengue durante o periodo localizaram-se nas quadras com infestacao predial e no entorno das mesmas; os casos de dengue correlacionaram com o indice de infestacao predial e com os recipientes denominados de B, C, D1, D2, e E (r= 0,69% a 0,84%, p=<0,001). Os indices de infestacao apontaram relacao entre quadras nos diferentes ciclos que apresentaram casos de dengue e a presenca do vetor. Os principais depositos encontrados no bairro foram D2, B e A2.

518) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

519) Morbidity rate prediction of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) using the support vector machine and the Aedes aegypti infection rate in similar climates and geographical areas
Autor: Kesorn, Kraisak; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phumee, Atchara; Thavara, Usavadee;Tawatsin, Apiwat; Siriyasatien, Padet
Assunto: Biological surveys; Prediction; Human diseases; Climate change; Larvae; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Integration; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Epidemics; Data processing; Dengue; Climate; Kernels; Vectors; Infection; Morbidity; Models; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In the past few decades, several researchers have proposed highly accurate prediction models that have typically relied on climate parameters. However, climate factors can be unreliable and can lower the effectiveness of prediction when they are applied in locations where climate factors do not differ significantly. The purpose of this study was to improve a dengue surveillance system in areas with similar climate by exploiting the infection rate in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and using the support vector machine (SVM) technique for forecasting the dengue morbidity rate. Methods and Findings Areas with high incidence of dengue outbreaks in central Thailand were studied. The proposed framework consisted of the following three major parts: 1) data integration, 2) model construction, and 3) model evaluation. We discovered that the Ae. aegypti female and larvae mosquito infection rates were significantly positively associated with the morbidity rate. Thus, the increasing infection rate of female mosquitoes and larvae led to a higher number of dengue cases, and the prediction performance increased when those predictors were integrated into a predictive model. In this research, we applied the SVM with the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to forecast the high morbidity rate and take precautions to prevent the development of pervasive dengue epidemics. The experimental results showed that the introduced parameters significantly increased the prediction accuracy to 88.37% when used on the test set data, and these parameters led to the highest performance compared to state-of-the-art forecasting models. Conclusions The infection rates of the Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes and larvae improved the morbidity rate forecasting efficiency better than the climate parameters used in classical frameworks. We demonstrated that the SVM-R-based model has high generalization performance and obtained the highest prediction performance compared to classical models as measured by the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and mean absolute error (MAE).

520) Coevolution of the Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 Mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti in Mexico
Autor: Vera-Maloof, Farah Z.; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando E.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Black IV, William C.
Assunto: Channels; Sodium; Mutations; Viruses; Pest control; Phenylalanine; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Sodium channels (voltage-gated); Coevolution; Vectors; Isoleucine; Linkage disequilibrium; Insecticides; Cysteine; Dengue; Yellow fever; Codons; Sodium channels; Valine; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Constant use of pyrethroid insecticides has driven mosquito populations to develop resistance. In Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue, yellow Fever, and chikungunya viruses, pyrethroid resistance is primarily associated with mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel protein. One mutation occurs in codon 1,016 and involves a replacement of valine with isoleucine (Ile1, 016), and a second located in subunit 6 of domain III in codon 1,534, replaces phenylalanine with cysteine (Cys1,534). In Mexico, we found that Cys1,534 was present in the same mosquito collections that were previously analyzed for Ile1,016. In this study, we performed a linkage disequilibrium analysis on both Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 in Mexican collections from 2000-2012. Our analysis suggests that pyrethroid resistance requires the sequential evolution of the two mutations and that Cys1,534 must occur first and appears to enable the Ile1,016 mutation to survive.

521) Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil
Autor: Cecilio, Samyra Giarola; Silva, Willer Ferreira Junior; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhaes, Jose Carlos
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue virus; Ovitraps; Transovarial transmission; Oviposition; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-74, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools.

522) Retrospective screening of acute undifferentiated fever serum samples with universal flavivirus primers
Autor: Khongwichit, Sarawut; Libsittikul, Sirikwan; Yoksan, Sutee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Smith, Duncan R.
Assunto: Fever; Dengue; Serum; Flavivirus; Phylogeny; RT-PCR; Zika Virus - Infection; Dengue infections; Thailand; Transmission; Encephalitis
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection In Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 7, p. 760-764, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Introduction: Fever is a common symptom of many tropical diseases and in many cases the etiologic agent remains unidentified as a consequence of either the etiologic agent not being part of routine diagnostic screening or as a consequence of false negatives on standard diagnostic tests.Methodology: This study screened a well characterized panel of 274 serum samples collected on day of admission from adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever admitted to a hospital in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand by RT-PCR using pan-flavivirus degenerate primers.Results: Subsequent clinical diagnosis was achieved for 38 of the patients, and included 19 cases of dengue fever. RT-PCR screening identified seven positive samples (2.5%) which were revealed by sequence analysis to be dengue virus 1 (2 cases), dengue virus 2 (2 cases) and dengue virus 3 (3 cases). Only 5 out of 19 (26%) serum samples from patients subsequently diagnosed with dengue were positive, but 2 samples which clinically remained undiagnosed were shown to be positive for dengue virus. Sequence analysis suggested that the dengue virus 3 cases occurred as a result of importation of a strain of dengue from India or China. No other flaviviruses were identified.Conclusions: No evidence was found of other flaviviruses besides dengue circulating in this population. Despite improved diagnostic tests, cases of dengue are still evading correct diagnosis.

523) Household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors: comparison between urban and rural areas of Kolkata, India
Autor: Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K.
Assunto: Human diseases; Biotopes; Wastes; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Epidemics; Abundance; Habitat; Breeding; Dengue; Multivariate analysis; Plastics; Seasonal variations; Degradability; Larvae; Hazardous wastes; Urban areas; Rural areas; Domestic wastes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production.

524) Notes on Zika virus--an emerging pathogen now present in the South Pacific.
Autor: Derraik José G,Slaney David
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, v. 39, n. 1, p.5-7, 2015
ISSN: 1753-6405
Resumo:

525) Introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua
Autor: Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina
Assunto: Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Epidemiology; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Coexistence; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 713-718, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control.

526) A critical role for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha 2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

527) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Pest control; Home range; Hosts; Resistance mechanisms; Public health; Disease transmission; Detoxification; Vectors; Carboxylesterase; Transcription; Territory; Deltamethrin; Dengue; Cytochrome P450; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

528) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Edillo, Frances E.; Sarcos, Janet R.; Sayson, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Aedes; Culicidae; Dengue; Arbovirus; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 282-291, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We attempted to determine the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Mosquito sub-adults were collected monthly from households and the field during the wet-dry-wet season from November, 2011 to July, 2012 and were laboratory-reared to adults. Viral RNA extracts in mosquitoes were assayed by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Results showed that 62 (36.26%; n=679) out of 171 mosquito pools (n=2,871) were DENV+. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of DENV ranged from 0 in wet months to 48.22/1,000 mosquitoes in April, 2012 (mid-dry). DENVs were detected in larvae, pupae, and male and female adults, with DENV-4, DENV-3, and DENV-1, in that rank of prevalence. DENV-1 co-infected with either DENV-3 or -4 or with both in April, 2012; DENV-3 and -4 were present in both seasons. More DENV+ mosquitoes were collected from households than in field premises (p<0.001) and in the dry than in the wet season (p<0.05), with significant interaction (p<0.05) between sites and premises but no interaction between sites and seasons (p>0.05). By Generalized Linear Mixed models, the type of premises nested in sites and monthly total rainfall were significant predictors of monthly dengue cases (p<0.05) and not MIR, season, temperature, and relative humidity. Surveillance of DENV prevalence in Ae. aegypti and detecting their natural foci in the dry season provide an early warning signal of dengue outbreak.

529) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Population genetics; Insecticides; Allelles; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Heredity; Vectors; Vaccines; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ;
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

530) Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella
Autor: Roni, Mathath ; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F.; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Bio-fabrication; Green-synthesis; Nanobiotechnology; Pest control; Seaweed
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 121, p. 31-38, 2015.
ISSN: 0147-6513
Resumo: Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools.

531) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

532) Dengue and other flavivirus infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choumet V., Desprès P.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), v. 34, n. 2, p. 467-478, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0253-1933
Resumo: Flaviviruses are responsible for yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue, all of which are major human diseases found in tropical regions of the globe. They are zoonoses with a transmission cycle that involves primates as reservoirs and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes as vectors. The recent upsurge of urban epidemics of yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue has involved human-to-human transmission with mosquitoes as the vector. This paper is primarily concerned with dengue, which has become the pre-eminent arbovirosis in terms of public health.

533) Genomic analysis of detoxification supergene families in the mosquito Anopheles sinensis
Autor: Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

534) Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Aytac, Zeki; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Baser, K. Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Echinophora lamondiana; Biting deterrent; Repellent; Larvicide; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 1, p. 93-100, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B. Yildiz et Z. Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana were delta-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), alpha-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-delta-3-carene, (R)-(-)-alpha-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than delta-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.

535) Pyrethroid-resistance and presence of two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Indian Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Dykes, Cherry L.; Kapoor, Neera; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.
Assunto: Insecticides; Mutations; DDT; Pest control; Toxicity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Infection; Pyrethroids; Cross-resistance; Mutation; Nets; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue and chikungunya are the two important human arboviral infections in India transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti. In absence of any specific drug or vaccine for these infections, vector control and personal protection are the only control options available. The success of insecticide-based vector control heavily relies upon the knowledge of the status of insecticide resistance in vector populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance, especially in the presence of cross-resistance. Knockdown resistance (kdr) is one of the mechanisms of resistance that confers cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Currently, pyrethroids are the only insecticide class recommended for use in long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN) and have proven superior to all other insecticides used in vector control programme, due to low mammalian toxicity, low residual activity in nature and rapid knockdown action. The present study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti against DDT and pyrethroids, and identification of kdr mutations. Though the presence of kdr mutations in Ae. aegypti has been reported in many countries, such a report is not available from India. This study for the first time reports the presence of two kdr mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in an Indian Ae. aegypti population.

536) Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis
Autor: Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Assunto: Trichoderma atroviride; Culture filtrates; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Dengue; CLSM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 16, p. 12559-12565, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 degree C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC sub(90) and LC sub(99) values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

537) Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas
Autor: Harrison, Genelle F.; Scheirer, Jessica L.; Melanson, Vanessa R.
Assunto: Vector pathogen detection; Nucleic Acid extraction; Biosurveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 83-89, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators.

538) Naturally-Acquired Dengue Virus Infections Do Not Reduce Short-Term Survival of Infected Aedes aegypti from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B.; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Nguyet Minh Nguyen; Duong, T. H. Kien; Trung Vu Tuan; Nguyen Thi Giang; Nhu Vu Tuyet; Dui Le Thi; Long Vo Thi; Tran, Chau N.; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Release recapture; Chikungunya virus; Mosquitos; Culicidae; Diptera; Fluctuations; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 3, p. 492-496, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) from mosquito to human is dependent upon the survival of the mosquito beyond the virus extrinsic incubation period. Previous studies report conflicting results of the effects of DENV on Aedes aegypti survival. Here, we describe the effect of DENV on the short-term survival (up to 12 d) of 4,321 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes blood-fed on 150 NS1-positive dengue patients hospitalized in the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Mosquito survival was not different between cohorts that fed upon blood from which 0% of mosquitoes became DENV infected (N = 88 feeds), or 100% became infected (N = 116 feeds). Subgroup analysis also did not reveal serotype-dependent differences in survival, nor a relationship between survival and human plasma viremia levels. These results suggest that DENV infection adds minimal cost to Ae. aegypti, an important finding when parameterizing the vector competence of this mosquito.

539) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

540) Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale
Autor: Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Goncalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sergio L. B.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue; Chikungunya; Albopictus; Dispersal; Culicidae; Area; Containers; Wolbachia; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: BackgroundMosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 'dissemination stations' (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a > 10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000-3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination.Conclusions/SignificanceBy expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics.

541) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

542) Contrasting genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the dengue fever mosquito from Rio de Janeiro: implications for vector control
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Schama, Renata; Powell, Rosanna; Maciel-de Freitas, Rafael; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M.; Filipovic, Igor; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Maspero, Renato C.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Genetic structure; Microsatellites; Mito-nuclear discordance; RAD-seq; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 8, n. 9, p. 901-915, 2015.
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent global arboviral disease that affects over 300 million people every year. Brazil has the highest number of dengue cases in the world, with the most severe epidemics in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Rio). The effective control of dengue is critically dependent on the knowledge of population genetic structuring in the primary dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism markers generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing, as well as traditional microsatellite markers in Ae. aegypti from Rio. We found four divergent mitochondrial lineages and a strong spatial structuring of mitochondrial variation, in contrast to the overall nuclear homogeneity across Rio. Despite a low overall differentiation in the nuclear genome, we detected strong spatial structure for variation in over 20 genes that have a significantly altered expression in response to insecticides, xenobiotics, and pathogens, including the novel biocontrol agent Wolbachia. Our results indicate that high genetic diversity, spatially unconstrained admixing likely mediated by male dispersal, along with locally heterogeneous genetic variation that could affect insecticide resistance and mosquito vectorial capacity, set limits to the effectiveness of measures to control dengue fever in Rio.

543) Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique;Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernandez, Roberto Torres;Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Pest control; Monitoring systems; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Tires; Vectors; Immunoglobulin M; Evolution; Containers; Gender; Residential areas; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28ppt to 0.95ppt; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

544) Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review
Autor: Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1471-1485. Nov 2015.
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus , Ae. aegypti , Ae. japonicus japonicus , Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus . These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Wolbachia ), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

545) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

546) Zika virus in an american recreational traveler.
Autor: Summers Dyan J,Acosta Rebecca Wolfe,Acosta Alberto M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

547) Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan
Autor: Balasubramani, Govindasamy Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India, perumalarticles@gmail.com Govindasamy Govindasamy Balasubramani Balasubramani Balasubramani, Govindasamy , Ramkumar, Rajendiran Rajendiran Rajendiran Ramkumar Ramkumar Ramkumar, Rajendiran , Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Krishnaveni Krishnaveni Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy , Sowmiya, Rajamani Rajamani Rajamani Sowmiya Sowmiya Sowmiya, Rajamani , Deepak, Paramasivam Paramasivam Paramasivam Deepak Deepak Deepak, Paramasivam , Arul, Dhayalan Dhayalan Dhayalan Arul Arul Arul, Dhayalan , Perumal, Pachiappan Pachiappan Pachiappan Perumal Perumal Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Infrared spectroscopy; Human diseases; Fourier transforms; Leaves; Malaria; Pest control; Diffraction; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Swietenia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, v. 148, p. 1-8, 2015.
ISSN: 1011-1344
Resumo: A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl sub(4)) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C sub(29)H sub(58)O sub(2)) attributes highest peak area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC sub(50)) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors.

548) Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - A 25th symposium
Autor: Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Clark, Gary G.
Assunto: Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Lutzomyia; Mosquitoes; Sand flies; Dengue; Control; Insecticide resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 286-296, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The 25th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 81st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in March 2015. The principal objective, as for the previous 24 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 24 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, operations, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance. Insect vectors included Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes in addition to phlebotomine sand flies and triatomine bugs.

549) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

550) Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti)
Autor: Ruktanonchai, N. W.; Lounibos, L. P.; Smith, D. L.; Allan, S. A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Stegomyia Aegypti; Behavioural Plasticity; Mosquito Behaviour; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 255-262, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

551) Evaluation of the Atraedes(tm) lure for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in gravid traps
Autor: Irish, S. R.; Batengana, B. M.; Eiras, A. E.; Cameron, M. M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Grasses; Attraction; Vectors; Traps; Attractants; Trapping; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 107-109, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedes(TM) lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this lure in combination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps was conducted in Tanga, Tanzania. The addition of the lure to traps baited with either grass infusion or tap water did not result in significant increases in trap catch. Grass infusion-baited traps (with and without the AtrAedes lure) collected significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, or AtrAedes alone. The catches of the traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, and AtrAedes alone were not significantly different from each other. Although the placement of the lure in the base of the trap may have decreased trap catches, it seems that the AtrAedes is not as effective as grass infusion for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus in Tanzania.

552) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil.
Autor: Campos Gubio S,Bandeira Antonio C,Sardi Silvia I
Assunto: Bahia, Brazil, Zika virus, detection, diagnosis, maculopapular rash, outbreak, reverse transcription PCR, viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

553) Phylogenetic analysis reveals genetic variations of densovirus isolated from field mosquitoes in Bangkok and surrounding regions
Autor: Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong;Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Screening; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Phylogenetics; Public health; Capsids; Phylogeny; Dengue; Yellow fever; Restriction fragment length polymorphism; Vectors; Habitat; Culex; Toxorhynchites; Densovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Screening for densoviruses (DNV) from Aedes, Culex and Toxorhynchites mosquitoes collected in Bangkok and surrounding regions identified two clades of Aedes DNV; Ae. aegypti DNV (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus DNV (AalDNV) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). From nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons of a fragment of DNV capsid gene, these DNVs were shown to be new DNV genetic variations similar to AaeDNV. Isolation and identification of densoviruses from indigenous field mosquitoes reside in natural habitat should be helpful in monitoring the distribution of DNVs in important mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses.

554) Dengue outbreaks in Divinopolis, south-eastern Brazil and the geographic and climatic distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in 2011-2012
Autor: da Rocha Taranto, Martinelle Ferreira; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo Marques; dos Santos, Michelli; dos Santos Pereira Andrade, Ana Claudia; Camargos, Vidyleison Neves; Alves, Stenio Nunes; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; dos Santos, Luciana Lara; de Magalhaes, Jose Carlos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Figueiredo, Leandra Barcelos; Drumond, Betania Paiva; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira
Assunto: Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Epidemics; Climate; Population density; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Adaptations; Data processing; Dengue; Developmental stages; Vectors; Pest outbreaks; Hatching; Eggs; Adaptability; Larvae; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 20, n. 1, p. 77-88, 2015.
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: To entomologically monitor Aedes spp. and correlate the presence of these vectors with the recent epidemic of dengue in Divinopolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ovitraps were installed at 44 points in the city, covering six urban areas, from May 2011 to May 2012. After collection, the eggs were incubated until hatching. In the 4th stage of development, the larvae were classified as Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. In total, 25 633 Aedes spp. eggs were collected. February was the month with the highest incidence, with 5635 eggs collected and a hatching rate of 46.7%. Ae. aegypti eggs had the highest hatching rate, at 72.3%, whereas Ae. albopictus eggs had 27.7%. Climate and population density influenced the number of eggs found. Indicators of vector presence were positively correlated with the occurrence of dengue cases. These data reinforce the need for entomological studies, highlight the relevance of Ae. albopictus as a possible disease vector and demonstrate its adaptation. Ae. albopictus, most commonly found in forested areas, comprised a substantial proportion of the urban mosquito population.Original Abstract: Surveiller entomologiquement Aedes spp. et correler la presence de ces vecteurs avec l'epidemie recente de dengue a Divinopolis, dans l'Etat de Minas Gerais, au Bresil. Des pieges a oeufs ont ete installes a 44 points de la ville, couvrant 6 zones urbaines, de mai 2011 a mai 2012. Apres la collecte, les oeufs ont ete incubes jusqu'a l'eclosion. Au 4eme stade de developpement, les larves ont ete classees comme Ae. aegypti ou Ae. albopictus. Au total, 25 633 oeufs d'Aedes spp. ont ete collectes. Fevrier etait le mois avec l'incidence la plus elevee, avec 5635 oeufs collectes et un taux d'eclosion de 46,7%. Les oeufs d'Ae. aegypti avaient le taux d'eclosion le plus eleve de 72,3% par rapport a 27,7% pour les oeufs d'Ae. albopictus. Le climat et la densite de population influencaient le nombre d'oeufs trouves. Les indicateurs de la presence de vecteurs etaient positivement correles a la survenue des cas de dengue. Ces donnees renforcent la necessite d'etudes entomologiques, mettent en evidence la pertinence de Ae. albopictus comme un possible vecteur de la maladie et demontrent son adaptation. Ae. albopictus, plus souvent retrouve dans les zones boisees, comprend une proportion importante de la population de moustiques urbains. Realizar una monitorizacion entomologica de Aedes spp. y correlacionar la presencia de estos vectores con la epidemia reciente de dengue en Divinopolis, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se instalaron ovitrampas en 44 puntos de la ciudad, cubriendo 6 areas urbanas, entre Mayo del 2011 y Mayo del 2012. Tras su recoleccion, los huevos se incubaron hasta que eclosionaron. En el 4to estadio de desarrollo, las larvas se clasificaron como Ae. aegypti o Ae. albopictus. En total se recolectaron 25,633 huevos de Aedes spp. Febrero fue el mes con la mayor incidencia: se recolectaron 5,635 huevos con una tasa de eclosion del 46.7%. Los huevos de Ae. aegypti tenian la mayor tasa de eclosion (72.3%) que los de Ae. albopictus (27.7%). El clima y la densidad poblacional influian sobre el numero de huevos encontrados. Los indicadores de presencia vectorial estaban positivamente correlacionados con los casos de dengue. Estos datos refuerzan la necesidad de estudios entomologicos, subrayan la relevancia de Ae. albopictus como un posible vector de enfermedad y demuestran su adaptacion. Ae. albopictus, comunmente encontrado en areas forestales, es tambien una parte sustancial de la poblacion urbana de mosquitos.

555) Microevolution of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Louise, Caroline; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln
Assunto: Human diseases; Temporal variations; Nucleotide sequence; Wings; Genetic diversity; Genotypes; Biopolymorphism; Aquatic insects; Public health; Reclassification; Epidemiology; Dengue; Microsatellites; Vectors; Introduced species; Natural selection; Evolution; Agglomeration; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic variability of a population of Ae. aegypti from a densely urbanised neighbourhood of Sao Paulo. We tested if allelic patterns could vary over a short term and if wing shape could be a predictor of the genetic variation. Over a period of 14 months, we examined the variation of genetic (microsatellites loci) and morphological (wing geometry) markers in Ae. aegypti. Polymorphisms were detected, as revealed by the variability of 20 microsatellite loci (115 alleles combined; overall Fst = 0.0358) and 18 wing landmarks (quantitative estimator Qst = 0.4732). These levels of polymorphism are higher than typically expected to an exotic species. Allelic frequencies of the loci changed over time and temporal variation in the wing shape was even more pronounced, permitting high reclassification levels of chronological samples. In spite of the fact that both markers underwent temporal variation, no correlation was detected between their dynamics. We concluded that microevolution was detected despite the short observational period, but the intensities of change of the markers were discrepant. Wing shape failed from predicting allelic temporal variation. Possibly, natural selection (Qst>Fst) or variance of expressivity of wing phenotype are involved in this discrepancy. Other possibly influential factors on microevolution of Ae. aegypti are worth searching. Additionally, the implications of the rapid evolution and high polymorphism of this mosquito vector on the efficacy of control methods have yet to be investigated.

556) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

557) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

558) Human-mediated marine dispersal influences the population structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago
Autor: Fonzi, Eugenio; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Futami, Kyoko; Minakawa, Noboru
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Natural populations; Archipelagoes; Pest control; Harbours; Aquatic insects; Marine transportation; Public health; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever threatens the health of millions in the tropics and its causative agent, dengue virus, is mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. To control the spread of the virus, insecticides have been abundantly used but Ae. aegypti has developed a genetic resistance to them. Currently, alternative methods are being tested wherein artificially modified mosquitos are released in the wild to interfere with the mating of natural populations. It is important then to understand how the mosquito spreads in the environment. It is known that Ae. aegytpi can be passively transported for long distances by human vehicles, but it was not clear how common this event is, especially in case of marine transportation. In population genetics, a basic assumption says that if populations frequently exchange migrants, they become genetically more similar than relatively isolated populations. We estimated the genetic similarity between Ae. aegypti collected in the Philippines from 15 seaports of different sizes and ship connectivity. The mosquitos from busy ports, even distant ones, were genetically similar, while in the small ports, even close ones, Ae. aegypti were relatively differentiated. It was also suggested that Ae. aegypti's dispersal is affected by cargo shipments more than passenger ships.

559) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols, J. T.; Huang, Y. J. S.; Higgs, S.; Miller, A. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Spratt, H. M.; Horne, K. M.; Vanlandingham, D. L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 x 10 super(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 x 10 super(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

560) Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C, IV
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Adaptations; Pest control; Hygiene; Biopolymorphism; Nucleotides; Public health; Detoxification; Serotypes; Dengue; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Gene flow; Vectors; Evolutionary genetics; Pyrethroids; Migration; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance, Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

561) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Relative humidity; Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Mountains; Altitude; Epidemics; Dengue; Rainfall; Risk factors; Abundance; Vectors; Tourists; Climate change; Temperature; Humidity; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The local transmission of dengue fever was confirmed in five lowland urban areas in 2006, along with the first report of the primary vectors of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Subsequent studies revealed a wide distribution of Ae. aegypti in 2009, and the first locally acquired dengue fever case in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, during an epidemic in 2010. These records of a rapid expansion of dengue viruses and their primary vector, Ae. aegypti, in the Middle Mountain region and the more pronounced warming of mountains prompted us to investigate the altitudinal distribution and determinants of the abundance of dengue virus vectors in central Nepal. The first local transmission of chikungunya virus was recently reported from central Nepal in 2013. In this study, we document the distribution of Ae. aegypti and the secondary vector of dengue viruses, Aedes albopictus, from the lowlands (80 m) up to 2,100 m altitude in Dhunche, Rasuwa district. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of their abundances. The distribution extension of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

562) River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C.; Barboza, Jose Luis; Requena, Edwin; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel
Assunto: Rivers; Infestation; Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Barges; Public health; Disease transmission; Boats; Dengue; Vectors; Rural areas; Aedes aegypti; Freshwater
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is an invasive mosquito that is currently in the process of expanding geographically from urban to peri-urban and rural sites throughout Latin America. To improve our understanding of Ae. aegypti population mixing and how it is introduced to new areas, we investigated the infestation levels of different aquatic and terrestrial vehicles in the Peruvian Amazon. Our results show that large barges are heavily infested with Ae. aegypti, and therefore are likely to play an important role in Ae. aegypti geographic expansion.

563) Seasonal genetic changes of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) populations in selected sites of Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Sayson, S. L.; Gloria-Soria, A.; Powell, J. R.; Edillo, F. E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Seasonal fluctuation; Temporal genetics; Philippines; Yellow fever mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 638-646, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus in the Philippines, where dengue is endemic. We examined the genetic changes of Ae. aegypti collected from three selected sites in Cebu city, Philippines, during the relatively wet (2011-2012) and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). A total of 493 Ae. aegypti adults, reared in the laboratory from field-collected larvae, were analyzed using 11 microsatellite loci. Seasonal variation was observed in allele frequencies and allelic richness. Average genetic differentiation (DEST = 0.018; FST = 0.029) in both dry seasons was higher, due to reduced Ne, than in the wet season (DEST = 0.006; FST = 0.009). Thus, average gene flow was higher in the wet season than in the dry seasons. However, the overall FST estimate (0.02) inclusive of the two seasons showed little genetic differentiation as supported by Bayesian clustering analysis. Results suggest that during the dry season the intense selection that causes a dramatic reduction of population size favors heterozygotes, leading to small pockets of mosquitoes (refuges) that exhibit random genetic differentiation. During the wet season, the genetic composition of the population is reconstituted by the expansion of the refuges that survived the preceding dry season. Source reduction of mosquitoes during the nonepidemic dry season is thus recommended to prevent dengue re-emergence in the subsequent wet season.

564) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

565) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

566) Screening for mosquito larvicidal activity of thai mushroom extracts with special reference to Steccherinum sp against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Thongwat, Damrongpan; Pimolsri, Urat; Somboon, Pradya
Assunto: Biological control; Viruses; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Fish larvae; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Protozoa; Fungi; Plant extracts; Basidiocarps; Substance P; Ethanol; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Nematoda
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 4, p. 586-595, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: For over 50 years, biological control of mosquito larvae has depended mainly on plant extracts, fish, bacteria, protozoa, filamentous fungi, viruses or nematodes. In this study, the authors screened 143 mushroom samples from 44 confirmed species in Thailand for their mosquito larvicidal activity. One g% (w/v) aqueous extracts of dried powdered mushroom samples were tested against 3rd stage Aedes aegypti larvae. Four mushroom species, namely, Thaeogyroporus porentosus, Xylaria nigripes, Chlorophyllum sp and Steccherinum sp, and two unidentified species showed larvicidal mortality ranging from 10%-70% and 18%-90% for 24- and 48-hour exposure time, respectively. Steccherinum sp aqueous crude extract, after 48-hour exposure, did not show any larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm, whereas that from ethanol, after 24-hour exposure, had 50% and 90% lethal concentration of 203 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively, with higher levels of mortality after 48-hour exposure. This is the first report of mosquito larvicidal properties of Thai mushroom extracts.

567) Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms
Autor: Long, Sharron A.; Jacups, Susan P.; Ritchie, Scott A.
Assunto: Pest control; Environment management; Aquatic insects; Dengue; Vectors; Pest outbreaks; Collembola; Aedes aegypti; Sciaridae; Phoridae; Culicidae; Hymenoptera; Diptera; Apidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 139-145, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93rd percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval.

568) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Quantitative distribution; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Risk factors; Reproduction; Evolution; Sensitivity; Mitigation; Sensitivity analysis; Invasions; Risk taking; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease.

569) Impact of the Argemone mexicana stem extracts on the reproductive fitness and behavior of adult dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Warikoo, Radhika; Kumar, Sarita
Assunto: Fecundity; Petroleum; Vectors; Pest control; Acetone; Oviposition; Mortality causes; Benzene; Mortality; Solvents; Reproductive behavior; Eggs; Deterrents; Dengue; Ethanol; Behavior; Ethers; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Argemone mexicana
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: International Journal of Insect Science, v. 6, p. 71-78, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Present investigations evaluated the impact of Argemone mexicana stem extracts on the reproductive fitness of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, assessed in terms of oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potential. The oviposition deterrent studies of the extracts, prepared using petroleum ether, hexane, benzene, acetone, and ethanol as the solvents, revealed the maximum deterrence potency of the petroleum ether extracts with a significant 15.6% ED at 60 ppm rising by 83.8% at 1000 ppm to 99.4% effective deterrence (ED). Other stem extracts were found to be ineffective at 60 ppm, though resulted in 85.3-96.2% ED and diminished fecundity in A. aegypti at 1000 ppm. Further, A. mexicana stem extracts exhibited moderate ovicidal potential against A. aegypti eggs causing only 42.65-67.85% egg mortality at 1000 ppm, the lowest hatch of 32.15% caused by the benzene extract. Other stem extracts also failed to express effective ovicidal potency with the percent egg hatch ranging between 96.6 and 99.0 at 400 ppm, and 78.8 and 99.0 at 600 ppm. Our results suggest the significant but variable efficacy of A. mexicana stem extracts causing reproductive disadvantage in A. aegypti.

570) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

571) Influence of time of assay on behavioral responses of laboratory and field populations Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: culicidae) to DEET
Autor: Tainchum, Krajana; Ritthison, Wanapa; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Tanasilchayakul, Somchai; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, Michael J.; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: Repellents; Avoidance reactions; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Public health; Agriculture; Daytime; Escape behavior; DEET; Nighttime; Circadian rhythms; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1227-1236, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Knowledge on test conditions that may influence behavioral responses of mosquitoes is critical when excito-repellency tests are conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of test time differences on normal circadian activity and behavioral responses of field and colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) ( = Stegomyia aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to DEET, one of the most common synthetic repellent active ingredients available. Two field populations of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus from Kanchanaburi and Nonthaburi provinces, respectively, and two long-standing laboratory populations, Ae. aegypti obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Cx. quinquefasciatus from the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, were used. Each population was exposed to DEET during two different periods of time (0900-1500 hours) and (2100-0300 hours). Both field and laboratory Cx. quinquefasciatus showed marked differences in spatial repellent escape responses between day and nighttime periods but none in direct contact tests. No significant differences between day and nighttime testing periods were observed with field or laboratory Ae. aegypti, except a higher daytime escape response from noncontact DEET treatment. This study indicates that test time may influence the behavioral avoidance responses and is a potential confounder of excitorepellency evaluations.

572) Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.
Assunto: Reproductive behaviour; Public health; Disease transmission; Expression vectors; Mating; Fluorescence; RNA; Dengue; Secretion; Sperm; Seminal fluid; Accessory gland; Population control; Behavior; Physiology; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 70, p. 117-124, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A . aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control.

573) Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Hurk, Andrew FVan Den; McMahon, Jamie L.; Eiras, Alvaro E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; BGS trap; Surveillance; Sticky ovitrap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 210-219, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7X and 2.4 X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools of Ae. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degree C and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries.

574) Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during winter
Autor: Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru
Assunto: Human diseases; Low temperature; Refuges; Pupae; Carbon 14; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Public health; Winter; Temperature effects; Houses; Dengue; Water temperature; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures 14 degree C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.

575) Genetic control of Aedes aegypti: data-driven modelling to assess the effect of releasing different life stages and the potential for long-term suppression
Autor: Winskill, Peter; Harris, Angela F.; Morgan, Sian A.; Stevenson, Jessica; Raduan, Norzahira; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew R.; Donnelly, Christl A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; RIDL; Transgenic; Sterile insect technique; SIT; Pupae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Control of the world's most important vector-borne viral disease, dengue, is a high priority. A lack of vaccines or effective vector control methods means that novel solutions to disease control are essential. The release of male insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL) is one such approach that could be employed to control Aedes aegypti. To maximise the potential of RIDL control, optimum release strategies for transgenic mosquitoes are needed. The use of field data to parameterise models allowing comparisons of the release of different life-stages is presented together with recommendations for effective long-term suppression of a wild Ae. aegypti population. Methods: A compartmental, deterministic model was designed and fitted to data from large-scale pupal mark release recapture (MRR) field experiments to determine the dynamics of a pupal release. Pulsed releases of adults, pupae or a combination of the two were simulated. The relative ability of different release methods to suppress a simulated wild population was examined and methods to maintain long-term suppression of a population explored. Results: The pupal model produced a good fit to field data from pupal MRR experiments. Simulations using this model indicated that adult-only releases outperform pupal-only or combined releases when releases are frequent. When releases were less frequent pupal-only or combined releases were a more effective method of distributing the insects. The rate at which pupae eclose and emerge from release devices had a large influence on the relative efficacy of pupal releases. The combined release approach allows long-term suppression to be maintained with smaller low-frequency releases than adult- or pupal-only release methods. Conclusions: Maximising the public health benefits of RIDL-based vector control will involve optimising all stages of the control programme. The release strategy can profoundly affect the outcome of a control effort. Adult-only, pupal-only and combined releases all have relative advantages in certain situations. This study successfully integrates field data with mathematical models to provide insight into which release strategies are best suited to different scenarios. Recommendations on effectiv