Estratégias de bloqueio da transmissão e controle do mosquito

1) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

2) Viral load and cytokine response profile does not support antibody-dependent enhancement in dengue-primed Zika Virus-infected patients
Autor: Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Silva, Rafael Alves da; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Rahal, Paula; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Kalil, Jorge; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda
Assunto: ZIKV; DENV; ADE; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - qRTPCR ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases; v. 65, n. 8, p. 1260-1265, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: The pathogenesis of severe dengue disease involves immune components as biomarkers. The mechanism by which some dengue virus (DENV)-infected individuals progress to severe disease is poorly understood. Most studies on the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease focus on the process of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) as a primary risk factor. With the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in DENV-endemic areas, many people infected by ZIKV were likely exposed to DENV. The influence of such exposure on Zika disease outcomes remains unknown. We investigated whether patients previously exposed to DENV exhibited higher viremia when exposed to a subsequent, heterologous dengue or Zika infection than those patients not previously exposed to dengue. We measured viral loads and cytokine profile during patients' acute infections. Neither dengue nor Zika viremia was higher in patients with prior DENV infection, although the power to detect such a difference was only adequate in the ZIKV analysis. Of the 10 cytokines measured, only 1 significant difference was detected: Levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were lower in dengue-infected patients who had experienced a previous dengue infection than patients infected with dengue for the first time. However, power to detect differences between groups was low. In Zika-infected patients, levels of IL-1? showed a significant, positive correlation with viral load. No signs of ADE were observed in vivo in patients with acute ZIKV infection who had prior exposure to DENV.

3) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

4) Practice pointer zika virus: management of infection and risk
Autor: Ahmad, Shazaad S. Y.; Amin, Tejal N.; Ustianowski, Andrew
Assunto: Sexual transmission; Interim guidelines; United-States
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: BMJ-British Medical Journal, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

5) Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: El -Sheikh, Tarek M. Y.; Al-Fifi, Zarrag I. A.; Alabboud, Mohamed A.
Assunto: Ethanolic extract; Acetone extract; Petroleum ether extract; Toxicity; Repellent; Tribulus terrestris; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, v. 20, n. 1, p. 13-19, 2016
ISSN: 1319-6103
Resumo: Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed by acetone extract with LC50 173.2 ppm and finally ethanolic extract with LC50 376.4 ppm. Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was 57.1% and 100% at concentrations 400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract. The most effective plant extract that evoked 100% repellency or biting deterrence was petroleum ether extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm(2) compared with 100% repellency for commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEFT) at the same dose. Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. aegypti. (C) 2012 King Saud University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

7) Genomic approaches for understanding dengue: insights from the virus, vector, and host
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Quantitative Trait Loci; Blood Mononuclear-Cells; Naturally Infected Mosquitos; Gene Transcript Abundance; Life-Shortening Wolbachia; Engineered Male Mosquitos; Placebo-Controlled Trial; West-Nile-Virus; Hemorrhagic-Fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Biology, v. 17, n. 38, 2016
ISSN: 1465-6906
Resumo: The incidence and geographic range of dengue have increased dramatically in recent decades. Climate change, rapid urbanization and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes between population centers. At the same time, significant advances in Genomics approaches have provided insights into host-pathogen interactions, Immunogenetics, and viral Evolution in both humans and mosquitoes. Here, we review these advances and the innovative treatment and control strategies that they are inspiring.

8) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

9) Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elumalai, Devan; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Deepaa, Chandrasekar Vijayalakshmi; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Leucas aspera; Catechin; Larvicidal activity; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1203-1212, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin my serve as an alternative Biocontrol technique in the future. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of fractions and compounds from the whole-plant methanol extracts of Leucas aspera on the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging from 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10, and 20 ppm and isolated compounds. After 24 h exposure, larval mortality was assessed. Among the eight fractions, four from hexane extractions showed potent larvicidal activity against tested mosquito species at 20 ppm concentration. The isolated compound catechin showed pronounced larvicidal activity at very low concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of catechin were 3.05 and 8.25 ppm against Ae. aegypti, 3.44 and 8.89 ppm against An. stephensi, and 3.76 and 9.79 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The isolated compound was subjected to spectral analyses (GC-MS, FTIR, H-1 NMR, and C-13 NMR) to elucidate the structure and to compare with spectral data literature.

10) Zika poses sex risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Viruses , Body fluids , Sexual behavior
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 7, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Last week, it was reported that Zika virus can survive in semen for two months, posing potential risks of sexual transmission long after any symptoms, such as a week-long rash, have vanished. Zika is already known to have been transmitted via sex from men to women.

11) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

12) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M,Brooks John T,Stryker Jo Ellen,Kachur Rachel E,Mead Paul,Pesik Nicki T,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

13) Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sumitha, K. V.; Thoppil, John E.
Assunto: Ocimum gratissimum; Aedes albopictus; GC/MS; Essential oil; Larvicidal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 673-680, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30 %), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82 %), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23 %) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53 %). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90=82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus.

14) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

15) Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martinez-Garcia, P. J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
Assunto: RNA-Seq; Cryptococcus; Phytophthora; Juglans regia; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: AMB EXPRESS, v. 6, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 2191-0855
Resumo: Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of similar to 400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

16) Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus
Autor: Palacios Ricardo,Poland Gregory A,Kalil Jorge
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo:

17) Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)- Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; da Silva Machado, Fernanda Lacerda; Samuels, Richard Ian; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flavia Borges; Silva, Jose Roberto
Assunto: Laurencia Dendroidea; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicide; Sesquiterpenes; (+)-Obtusol; (-)-Elatol; Oxidative Stress
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Marine Drugs, v. 14, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1660-3397
Resumo: Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 mu M CM-H(2)DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

18) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

19) Hydrothermal synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: mosquitocidal potential and anticancer activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kavithaa, Krishnamoorthy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Ponraj, Thondhi; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Apoptosis; Antibacterial activity; Chemotherapy; Cytotoxicity; DAPI; MCF-7 cells; TiO2; Western blot
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1085-1096, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for transmission of serious diseases worldwide. Mosquito control is being enhanced in many Areas, but there are significant challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of alternative, cost-effective, and eco-friendly products. To deal with these crucial issues, recent emphasis has been placed on plant materials with mosquitocidal properties. Furthermore, cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Nanotechnology is a promising field of research and is expected to give major innovation impulses in a variety of industrial sectors. In this study, we synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDX). The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial cells (HBL-100). After 24-h incubation, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 60 and 80 mu g/mL on MCF-7 and normal HBL-100 cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments conducted against the primary dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti, LC50 values of nanoparticles were 4.02 ppm (larva I), 4.962 ppm (larva II), 5.671 ppm (larva III), 6.485 ppm (larva IV), and 7.527 ppm (pupa). Overall, our results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may be considered as a safe tool to build newer and safer mosquitocides and chemotherapeutic agents with little systemic toxicity.

20) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

21) Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Pyrethroids; RNA-seq; CYP6AA9; RNAi; Communicated by Q. Xia.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 291, n. 1, p. 309-321, 2016
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450 s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

22) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

23) Improving the effectiveness of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Auysawasdi, Nutthanun; Chuntranuluck, Sawitri; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Keeratinijakal, Vichien
Assunto: Essential oil; Repellent; Protection time; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles dirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 1, p. 99-106, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Repellency of essential oil extracted from Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus globulus, and Citrus aurantium at various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 %) with and without 5 % vanillin was evaluated against female mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The comparisons were made with a commercial chemical repellent (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) 25 % w/w; KOR YOR 15) by arm in cage method. It was found that the essential oils with 5 % vanillin gave the longest lasting period against two mosquitoes as follows: Curcuma longa gave 150 min for Ae. aegypti, 480 min for An. dirus; Eucalyptus globulus gave 144 min for Ae. aegypti, 390 min for An. dirus; and Citrus aurantium gave 120 min for Ae. aegypti, 360 min for An. dirus. The 25 % Curcuma longa essential oil exhibited the best efficiency as equal as a commercial repellent (480 min against An. dirus). Vanillin can extend the period of time in protection against the two mosquitoes. This study indicates the potential uses of the essential oils (Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus globulus, and Citrus aurantium) with vanillin as natural mosquito repellents.

24) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.
Autor: Adibi Jennifer J,Marques Ernesto T A,Cartus Abigail,Beigi Richard H
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1587–1590, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

25) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

26) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

27) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango A., Abílio A.P.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo City; Mozambique; New Record
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites and Vectors, v. 9, n. 76,2016.
ISSN: 17563305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December,2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors. ©2016 Kampango and Abílio.

28) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

29) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

30) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

31) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

32) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

33) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

34) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

35) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

36) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

37) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola, Habida, Gozzer, Ernesto, Jiatong Zhuo, Memish, Ziad A.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Special events, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Muslim pilgrims & pilgrimages, Mosquitoes, Diseases, Social aspects, Saudi Arabia, Mecca
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet , v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses how to be prepared against Zika virus while participating at several international events including 2016 Rio Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj. It states the need to use personal mosquito bite protection including insect repellents, protective clothing, and long-sleeved shirts. It mentions that health-care providers are encouraged to use travel health visits to emphasize personal protection against mosquito bites and sexual transmission.

38) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic.
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kisubi Catholic Mission, Microcephaly, Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato, Zika virus, Zika virus and travel, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, p. 1-6, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

39) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

40) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

41) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

42) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

43) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

44) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

45) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

46) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

47) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

48) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

49) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

50) Zikavirus - gammalt virus får nytt liv i nytt ekosystem - Mikrocefali och Guillain-Barrés syndrom möjliga följder när bakgrundsimmunitet saknas hos befolkningen
Autor: Olsen Björn,Lundkvist Åke
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: La?kartidningen, v. 113, p. DX9X, 2016
ISSN: 1652-7518
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

51) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

52) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of Rubia cordifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
Autor: Gandhi M R,Reegan A D,Ganesan P,Sivasankaran K,Paulraj M G,Balakrishna K,Ignacimuthu S,Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic filariasis, Mosquito control, Sustainable pest control, Vector control
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

53) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

54) Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease
Autor: Li J D,Li D X
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing xue za Zhi, v. 37, n. 3, p. 329-334, 2016
ISSN: 0254-6450
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

55) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

56) Microcephaly in Brazil: How to interpret reported numbers?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Victora C.G., Schuler-Faccini L., Matijasevich A., Ribeiro E., Pessoa A., Barros F.C.
Assunto: head circumference, microcephaly (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 621-624, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

57) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

58) Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a zika virus outbreak - United States, 2016.
Autor: Petersen Emily E,Staples J Erin,Meaney-Delman Dana,Fischer Marc,Ellington Sascha R,Callaghan William M,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 2, p. 30-33, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

59) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

60) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

61) Eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Anopheles subpictus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Culicidae; GC-MS; Mosquito-borne diseases; Plant-borne larvicides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 807-815, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12 %), alpha-pinene (19.38 %) and beta-caryophyllene (18.42 %). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 mu g/ml and 90 % lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 mu g/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50=25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 mu g/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50=28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 mu g/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 mu g/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

62) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

63) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

64) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

65) Zika poses sex risk.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Sexual intercourse, Diseases - Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article reports on the posed threat of the Zika virus through sexual transmission which survive for two months in semen and the reports by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the lack of evidence that the virus persists in the female genitals.

66) Drug Industry Starts Race to Develop Zika Vaccine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Noemie Bisserbe And Betsy
Assunto: Pharmaceutical industry, Zika Virus Epidemic, Viral vaccine manufacturing, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

67) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J. ;  Bandeira, Antonio Carlos;  Franco-Paredes, Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

68) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Biological control; Genetics; Population genetics; Human diseases; DNA; Natural populations; Public health; Mitochondrial DNA; Immigration; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Haplotypes; Dengue; Population studies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016.
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

69) Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)
Autor: Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y.; Costa Junior, Livio M.; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze
Assunto: Repellent; Essential oil; Lone star tick; Amblyomma americanum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Experimental and Applied Acarology, v. 68, n. 2, p. 241-249, 2016
ISSN: 0168-8162
Resumo: DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50 % of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC(50)s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.

70) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

71) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

72) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

73) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

74) Zika virus infection Among U.S. pregnant travelers - august 2015-february 2016.
Autor: Meaney-Delman Dana,Hills Susan L,Williams Charnetta,Galang Romeo R,Iyengar Preetha,Hennenfent Andrew K,Rabe Ingrid B,Panella Amanda,Oduyebo Titilope,Honein Margaret A,Zaki Sherif,Lindsey Nicole,Lehman Jennifer A,Kwit Natalie,Bertolli Jeanne,Ellington Sascha,Igbinosa Irogue,Minta Anna A,Petersen Emily E,Mead Paul,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

75) Evaluation of the Activity of the Essential Oil from an Ornamental Flower against Aedes aegypti: Electrophysiology, Molecular Dynamics and Behavioral Assays
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Silva, Rayane C. S.; Iulek, Jorge; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue fever has spread worldwide and affects millions of people every year in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Europe and America. Since there is no effective vaccine against the dengue virus, prevention of disease transmission depends entirely on regulating the vector (Aedes aegypti) or interrupting human-vector contact. The aim of this study was to assess the oviposition deterrent activity of essential oils of three cultivars of torch ginger (Etlingera elatior, Zingiberaceae) against the dengue mosquito. Analysis of the oils by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 43 constituents, of which a-pinene, dodecanal and n-dodecanol were the major components in all cultivars. Solutions containing 100 ppm of the oils exhibited oviposition deterrent activities against gravid Ae. aegypti females. GC analysis with electroantennographic detection indicated that the oil constituents n-decanol, 2-undecanone, undecanal, dodecanal, trans-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, alpha-humulene, n-dodecanol, isodaucene and dodecanoic acid were able to trigger antennal depolarization in Ae. aegypti females. Bioassays confirmed that solutions containing 50 ppm of n-dodecanol or dodecanal exhibited oviposition deterrent activities, while a solution containing the alcohol and aldehyde in admixture at concentrations representative of the oil presented an activity similar to that of the 100 ppm oil solution. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations verified that the interaction energies of the long-chain oil components and Ae. aegypti odorant binding protein 1 were quite favorable, indicating that the protein is a possible oviposition deterrent receptor in the antenna of Ae. aegypti.

76) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach J., Alencar C.H., Kelvin A.A., de Oliveira W.K., de Góes Cavalcanti L.P.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil’s Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil’s Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

77) Zika Test Is Near but Vaccine Is Not, Officials Say.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sewell Chan, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika virus, Vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57141, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the scientists are working on the development of a test for the Zika virus that is a mosquito transmitted infection and mentions that the development of vaccine for Zika virus is going to take time.

78) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

79) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

80) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Zika virus, congenital abnormalities, travel medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

81) Zika? Partying Brazilians Offer Collective Shrug.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew
Assunto: Carnival, Brazilians, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Insect baits & repellents, Mosquitoes, Brazil, Brazil - Social life & customs, Attitudes, Social aspects, Salvador (Brazil) - Social life & customs
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A1-A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the celebration of the Carnival festival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Salvador, Brazil within the context of the Zika Virus Epidemic, including Brazilians' attitudes towards the epidemic. An overview of those participating in the Carnival's wearing of mosquito repellent to prevent Zika virus transmission is provided.

82) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

83) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

84) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

85) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown, Carolyn
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Disease prevalence, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Mosquito nets, Public health, Asia
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n.2, p. E34, 2016
ISSN: 8203946
Resumo: The article reports on the prevalence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia and South America which can cause microcephaly in newborns. It highlights several symptoms of Zika virus including fever, muscle soreness and rash as well as microcephaly in newborns. It also cites the effort of the governments to encourage people to take basic mosquito protection such as insect repellent, clothing, screens on windows and mosquito nets.

86) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

87) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

88) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

89) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

90) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

91) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

92) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

93) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: The need for novel mosquito control methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yakob L., Walker T.
Assunto: disease control, virus infection (epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Global Health, v. 4, n. 3, p. e148-e149, mar. 2016
ISSN: 2214-109X (electronic)
Resumo:

94) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

95) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

96) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Autor: Hills Susan L,Russell Kate,Hennessey Morgan,Williams Charnetta,Oster Alexandra M,Fischer Marc,Mead Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

97) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

98) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ryo,Mizumoto Kenji,Yasuda Yohei,Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number, Epidemic, Statistical estimation, Transmissibility, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

99) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

100) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

101) Obama requests $1.8 billion to fight Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Erickson, Britt E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Virus diseases - Vaccination, Virus diseases - Diagnosis, Mosquito control
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 7, p. 52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article discusses the urge from Obama Administration towards Congress reagrding emergency funding to fight against Zika virus. Topics discussed include use of emergency funds in the development of vaccines, diagnostics, testing and mosquito control to prevent from Zika virus, views of Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid regarding the same, and transmission of virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the U.S.

102) Waging war on Zika mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson, Clare
Assunto: Viruses, Mosquitoes, Disease transmission, Epidemics, Global health, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3059, p. 8-9, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Zika is officially a global public health emergency. The declaration, by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday, means that it can now take the lead in coordinating the global response to a virus it has estimated could infect up to 4 million people in the Americas over the next year. Zika, which was first detected in the region in May, has now spread "explosively" to at least 25 countries. The emergency designation will help the WHO to ramp up research and organize international efforts to combat the Aedes mosquitoes that spread the disease. Here, Wilson discusses the tactics that countries could consider in the war on mosquitoes.

103) The race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen, Jon
Assunto: Vaccines - Research, Zika virus infections, Public health, Management, Pregnant women, Safety measures
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article focuses on the research for the development of a Zika vaccine. Topics mentioned include the complications of Zika virus such as microcephaly and neurological complications, the insights of virologist Thomas Monath on the development of Zika vaccine, and the importance of public health management. Also mentioned are the flavivirus vaccines development and the safety measures for pregnant women on the planned use of Zika vaccine.

104) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

105) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

106) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

107) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

108) NIH hopes funding increases will continue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Budgets, Presidents, Public health, Zika virus, Alzheimers disease, Cancer, Antibiotics, Medical research, FDA approval, Biomedical research, Brain research, Funding
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: The US Congress recently approved the largest single increase in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 12 years--a US$2 billion raise that was twice as much as President Barack Obama requested. But almost as soon as NIH supporters stopped cheering, they began to worry about next year's budget, and the challenge of a new public health threat, Zika virus.

109) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

110) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

111) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernández, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika virus; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 percent nt and 100 percent aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

112) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oduyebo Titilope,Petersen Emily E,Rasmussen Sonja A,Mead Paul S,Meaney-Delman Dana,Renquist Christina M,Ellington Sascha R,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Powers Ann M,Villanueva Julie,Galang Romeo R,Dieke Ada,Muñoz Jorge L,Honein Margaret A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

113) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

114) Brazil State Bans Pesticide After Zika Claim.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pesticides - Law & legislation, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

115) How to contain the Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Micorcephaly, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 49-52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus and the effort to prevent it from spreading in the U.S. Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that is suspected to be linked with microcephaly. It explores the use of chemical strategies to avoid mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, such as treating water with larvicides to control mosquitoes before they mature. The spread of the Zika virus in Brazil is also discussed.

116) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

117) Dallas Reports A Case of Zika Spread by Sex.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission, Texas
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57131, p. A1-A17, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at a report from the county of Dallas, Texas, of a case in which the Zika virus was transmitted by sexual contact, which it notes is in contrast with the virus's usual transmission by mosquitoes. Topics include the advice issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for precautions people should take when visiting world regions where Zika is prevalent and an association between Zika infections in pregnant women and birth defects in their babies.

118) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

119) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

120) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

121) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

122) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

123) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

124) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola H., Gozzer E., Zhuo J., Memish Z.A.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

125) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

126) Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Martines Roosecelis Brasil,Bhatnagar Julu,Keating M Kelly,Silva-Flannery Luciana,Muehlenbachs Atis,Gary Joy,Goldsmith Cynthia,Hale Gillian,Ritter Jana,Rollin Dominique,Shieh Wun-Ju,Luz Kleber G,Ramos Ana Maria de Oliveira,Davi Helaine Pompeia Freire,Kleber de Oliveria Wanderson,Lanciotti Robert,Lambert Amy,Zaki Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

127) OFF! Clip-on Repellent Device With Metofluthrin Tested on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Mortality at Different Time Intervals and Distances
Autor: Bibbs, Christopher S.; Xue, Rui-De
Assunto: OFF! Clip-on; Mosquito; Mortality; Repellent; Metofluthrin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 480-483, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The OFF! Clip-on mosquito-repellent device was tested outdoors against Aedes aegypti (L.). A single treatment device was used against batches of caged adult, nonblood fed Ae. aegypti at multiple locations 0.3m from treatment center. Another set of cages was stationed 0.6m from treatment. A final set of cages was placed 0.9m away. Trials ran for durations of 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. Initial knockdown and mortality after 24 h was recorded. The devices had effective knockdown and mortality. This was not sustained at distances greater than 0.3m from the device.

128) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.
Autor: Paixão Enny S,Barreto Florisneide,da Glória Teixeira Maria,da Conceição N Costa Maria,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 606-612, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge."

129) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J,Bandeira Antonio Carlos,Franco-Paredes Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, n. 1, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

130) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

131) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

132) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

133) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

134) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

135) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

136) Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Filariasis; Malaria; Eco-friendly larvicides; Mosquito vectors; Plant-borne mosquitocides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Research in Veterinary Science, v. 104, n. , p. 77-82, 2016
ISSN: 0034-5288
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO as analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 8035 and 84.93 mu g/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50 = 21.15 and 4327 mu g/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50 = 24.06 and 47.73 mu g/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 26.08 and 52.19 mu g/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 27.95 and 54.87 mu g/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

137) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

138) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

139) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

140) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Kleber de Oliveira Wanderson,Cortez-Escalante Juan,De Oliveira Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda,do Carmo Greice Madeleine Ikeda,Henriques Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,Araújo de França Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

141) 14 New Reports of Sexual Transmission of Zika in U.S.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Transmisson
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57152, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the health authorities in the U.S. regarding the transmission of the Zika virus by sex.

142) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

143) Another emerging pathogen - Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Zika virus - još jedan novoiskrsli patogen
Autor: Lazi?, Srdjan
Assunto: Zika virus, Flaviviruses, Research, Pathogenic microorganisms, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, v. 73, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016
ISSN: 428450
Resumo:

144) Battling Zika in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 794-793, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article reports on the campaign initiated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to limit the Zika outbreak in Brazil by spraying larvicide in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 13, 2016.

145) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016.
Autor: Staples J Erin,Dziuban Eric J,Fischer Marc,Cragan Janet D,Rasmussen Sonja A,Cannon Michael J,Frey Meghan T,Renquist Christina M,Lanciotti Robert S,Muñoz Jorge L,Powers Ann M,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

146) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

147) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

148) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

149) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

150) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

151) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

152) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

153) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

154) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

155) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

156) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

157) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

158) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

159) Zika virus as a cause of neurologic disorders.
Autor: Broutet Nathalie,Krauer Fabienne,Riesen Maurane,Khalakdina Asheena,Almiron Maria,Aldighieri Sylvain,Espinal Marcos,Low Nicola,Dye Christopher
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus's geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the western Pacific, but also in Africa and southeast Asia. Zika virus infections acquired by travelers visiting those countries have been discovered at sites worldwide. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vectors, though other mosquito species may contribute to transmission. The virus was found to be neurotropic in animals in experiments conducted in . . .

160) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

161) UK is safe from Zika virus and is helping towards a vaccine, MPs hear.
Autor: O'Dowd Adrian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, p. i692, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

162) Punishing the Cure Makers Won’t End Cancer.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Melanoma, Patients, Tumors - Classification, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

163) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

164) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

165) Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura
Assunto: Cananga odorata; Aedes aepypti; Anopheles dirus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Oviposition deterrent; Ovicidal; Insecticidal; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4531-4543, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), < 1 % (for An. dirus), and < 1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

166) Induction of defensin response to dengue infection in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Misse, Dorothee; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Peptides; Infection; Blood; Defensins; Dengue; Immune response; Antimicrobial peptides; Immune system; Antimicrobial agents; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomological Science, v. 18, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015.
ISSN: 1343-8786
Resumo: Innate immune-related defensin peptide expression, the major antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, was analyzed following infection by dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) (DENV-2). In vitro, the mosquito cell line C6/36 was exposed to dengue virus at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) in an hour; it was found that the expression level of defensin transcripts was dependent upon viral dose. In addition, using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting assays to determine defensin transcription and translation at a series of times post-inoculation, we found that the time course of defensin transcripts correlated with the expression of defensin peptide post-infection. In vitro, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed different meals (DENV-2 infected blood, non-infectious blood and sugar) at 14 days post-feeding, to determine defensin transcription in response to dengue infection, by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) assay. The results showed that a peak of 4.25 kDa peptide, composed of defensin, was predominantly induced by DENV-2 infected blood-fed mosquitoes. We observed that DENV-2 could trigger the defensin peptide, defined molecularly as an innate immune response. Therefore, this peptide may be involved in dengue infection and/or transmission. Improved understanding of the mosquito's responses to dengue virus should strengthen our understanding of this vector's innate immune system.

167) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

168) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from brazilian legal Amazon plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patricia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonca do; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto: Chemical composition; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Mass spectroscopy; Dengue; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Vaccines; Plant extracts; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC sub(50) ) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

169) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

170) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

171) Mosquitocidal and oviposition repellent activities of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

172) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

173) Larvicidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) hexane leaf extract isolated fractions against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: S., Arivoli; R., Raveen; T., Samuel
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 18, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Mosquitoes are significant public health pests and act as a vector of several diseases viz., malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever and chikungunya, which are transmitted by the three genera of mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. Mosquito control strategies have depended primarily on the use of synthetic chemical insecticides but resulted in rebounding vectorial capacity, environmental and human health concerns. Plants may be a source of alternative agents to replace the synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the isolated fractions of Murraya koenigii hexane leaf extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions viz., A, B, C, D, E and F were obtained from the residue of hexane extract by column chromatography. Standard WHO protocol with minor modifications was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity was evaluated against the isolated fractions at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. Larval mortality was observed 24 hours post exposure. Amongst the isolated fractions tested, fraction 'D' showed 100.0, 97.6 and 99.2% mortality against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi at 100 ppm, respectively and LC50 values were 35.06, 27.20 and 42.51 ppm respectively. Further investigations are needed to explore the larvicidal activity of the isolated fraction 'D' of hexane leaf extract of this plant and also the active principle(s) responsible for larvicidal activity.

174) Global virology I-identifying and investigating viral diseases
Autor: Shapshak P., Sinnott J.T., Somboonwit C., Kuhn J.H.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 1-813,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This book provides trajectories and illustrations of viruses that have catapulted into the global arena (linked to humans, animals, and vectors) due to human behaviors in recent years, as well as viruses that have already shown expansion among humans, animals, and vectors just a few decades ago. Topics in the current book include: vaccines environmental impact emerging virus transmission Filovirus (Ebola) hemorrhagic fevers flaviviruses Dengue evasion papillomaviruses Hepatitis C Nipah virus giant viruses hantaviruses bunyaviruses encephalitides West Nile virus Zika virus XMRV henipaviruses human respiratory syncytial virus influenza A virus several aspects of HIV-1 © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

175) Schools as potential risk sites for vector-borne disease transmission: mosquito vectors in rural schools in two municipalities in Colombia
Autor: Olano, Victor Alberto; Matiz, Maria Ines; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucia; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenstrom, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J.
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue; Mosquitoes; Malaria; Primary schools
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 212-222, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus,andLimatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as ''others'' (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

176) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Pest control; Home range; Hosts; Resistance mechanisms; Public health; Disease transmission; Detoxification; Vectors; Carboxylesterase; Transcription; Territory; Deltamethrin; Dengue; Cytochrome P450; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

177) Modification of the suna trap for improved survival and quality of mosquitoes in support of epidemiological studies
Autor: Verhulst, Niels O; Bakker, Julian W; Hiscox, Alexandra
Assunto: Landing statistics; Adaptations; Magnets; Disease control; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Light traps; Vector-borne diseases; Odor; Trapping; Aedes aegypti; Culex pipiens; Anopheles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 223-232, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Monitoring adult mosquito populations provides information that is critical for assessing risk of vector-borne disease transmission. The recently developed Suna trap was found to be a very effective trap when baited with an attractive odor blend. A modification of this trap was tested to improve its function as a tool for monitoring mosquito populations, including Anopheles coluzzii (An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular form M), Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens. The modified Suna trap (Suna-M) was altered by changing the position of the catch bag and the inclusion of a holding chamber in attempts to increase trapping efficacy and enhance the survival of mosquitoes. Each adaptation was tested in a dual-choice setup in a climate-controlled room against the original Suna trap and against 4 standard monitoring methods: the BG-sentinel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap, Mosquito Magnet X trap, and human landing catch. The performance of the Suna-M trap equaled the performance of the original Suna trap and could therefore be used for monitoring purposes.

178) Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis
Autor: Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Assunto: Trichoderma atroviride; Culture filtrates; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Dengue; CLSM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 16, p. 12559-12565, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 degree C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC sub(90) and LC sub(99) values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

179) Two novel bioassays to assess the effects of pyrethroid-treated netting on knockdown-susceptible versus resistant strains of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Denham, Steven; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Meaghan; Beaty, Barry J.; Black, William C.; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Biting inhibition; Insecticide-treated netting; Knockdown resistance; Mortality
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 52-62, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We describe 2 new mosquito bioassays for use with insecticide-treated netting or other textiles. The 1st is a cylinder bioassay in which a mosquito is forced to contact treated material regardless of where it lands within the bioassay construct. The 2nd is a repellency/irritancy and biting-inhibition bioassay (RIBB) in which human arms and breath are used as attractants. Mosquitoes have the choice to pass through holes cut in untreated or treated netting to move from a center release chamber into side chambers to reach arms and potentially bite. Trials were conducted with pyrethroid-susceptible (New Orleans), moderately resistant (Hunucma), and highly resistant (Vergel) strains of Aedes aegypti. Tests with netting treated with different pyrethroids demonstrated the utility of the cylinder bioassay to quantify knockdown and mortality following exposure to treated netting, and of the RIBB to quantify spatial repellency/contact irritancy of the treated netting and biting inhibition after females land on and then pass through holes in the treated netting. Both tested brands of pyrethroid-treated mosquitocidal netting (DuraNet registered and NetProtect registered ) were effective against New Orleans but ineffective against Vergel strains. Mortality in the cylinder bioassay was 100% for New Orleans for all tested brands of treated netting, but only 10-14% for Vergel. Rates of passage through treated netting to reach a human arm in the RIBB were 10-15% for New Orleans versus 24-37% for Vergel. The reduction in biting after passage through treated netting, compared with untreated netting in the same trial replicates, was 12-39% for New Orleans versus less than or equal to 9% for Vergel.

180) Zika virus in an american recreational traveler.
Autor: Summers Dyan J,Acosta Rebecca Wolfe,Acosta Alberto M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

181) Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura; Phasornkusolsill, Siriporn
Assunto: Repellency; Cananga odorata oil; Cymbopogon citratus oil; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, n. , p. 127-130, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(R) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(R)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 mu l/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The Cananga odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7 +/- 10.4 min. In addition, Cymbopogon citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of Culex quinquefasciatus for 170.0 +/- 9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0 +/- 7.1-182.0 +/- 12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against Aedes aegypti than Culex quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that Cananga odorata oil and Cymbopogon citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

182) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

183) A household serosurvey to estimate the magnitude of a dengue outbreak in Mombasa, Kenya, 2013
Autor: Ellis, Esther M.; Neatherlin, John C.; Delorey, Mark; Ochieng, Melvin; Mohamed, Abdinoor Haji; Mogeni, Daniel Ondari; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Patta, Shem; Gikunju, Stella; Waiboic, Lilian; Fields, Barry; Ofula, Victor; Konongoi, Samson Limbaso; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Marano, Nina; Sang, Rosemary; Margolis, Harold S.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Tomashek, Kay M.
Assunto: Linked ? Immunosorbent - Assay; Arboviral infections; Virus - infection; Aedes aegypti; Clinical - Manifestations; Hemorrhagic - Fever; West - Africa; Malaria; Diagnosis; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue appears to be endemic in Africa with a number of reported outbreaks. In February 2013, several individuals with dengue-like illnesses and negative malaria blood smears were identified in Mombasa, Kenya. Dengue was laboratory confirmed and an investigation was conducted to estimate the magnitude of local transmission including a serologic survey to determine incident dengue virus (DENV) infections. Consenting household members provided serum and were questioned regarding exposures and medical history. RTPCR was used to identify current DENV infections and IgM anti-DENV ELISA to identify recent infections. Of 1,500 participants from 701 households, 210 (13%) had evidence of current or recent DENV infection. Among those infected, 93 (44%) reported fever in the past month. Most (68, 73%) febrile infected participants were seen by a clinician and all but one of 32 participants who reportedly received a diagnosis were clinically diagnosed as having malaria. Having open windows at night (OR = 2.3; CI: 1.1-4.8), not using daily mosquito repellent (OR = 1.6; CI: 1.0-2.8), and recent travel outside of Kenya (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.1-5.4) were associated with increased risk of DENV infection. This survey provided a robust measure of incident DENV infections in a setting where cases were often unrecognized and misdiagnosed.

184) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Monroy-Martinez, Veronica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutierrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Dengue fever; West Nile virus; Vector competence; Proteins; Pathogenesis; Infections; Biomedical research
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. Aedes CSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to alpha -2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia- alpha -2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

185) Efficacy of Two Larvasonic? Units Against Culex Larvae and Effects on Common Aquatic Nontarget Organisms in Harris County, Texas
Autor: Fredregill, Chris L.; Motl, Greg C.; Dennett, James A.; Bueno, Rudy, Jr.; Debboun, Mustapha
Assunto: Integrated pest management; Larvasonic; Larvicide; Physical control; Ultrasonic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 366-370, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Larvasonic (TM) Field Arm Mobile Wetlands Unit and SD-Mini were tested for efficacy against Culex larvae, and effects on aquatic nontarget organisms (NTO). The Field Arm provided 84.61% to 100% control of caged Culex larvae out to 0.91-m distance in shallow ditches and 60.45% control of Culex larvae at 0.61-m without any effects to caged NTO. Slow ditch treatment achieved 77.35% control compared to fast treatment (20.42%), whereas 77.65% control was obtained along edges of a neglected swimming pool, compared to near the middle (23.97%). In bucket tests, the SD-Mini provided >97% control of Culex and 85.35% reduction of immature giant water bugs, which decreased slightly (83.45%) over the monitoring period, which was not significantly different from cannibalistic damselflies (62.80%), with reduction of both being significantly higher than other NTO tested. There was a small (0.37%) reduction of dragonflies (naiads), due to cannibalism. Both Larvasonic units could effectively augment conventional larvicide operations in smaller areas without causing resistance within mosquito populations or harming NTO when used properly.

186) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

187) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global: After racing through Oceania last year, the Zika virus is now spreading in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink M.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

188) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Population genetics; Insecticides; Allelles; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Heredity; Vectors; Vaccines; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ;
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

189) A male-determining factor in the mosquito aedes aegypti
Autor: Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Biedler, James K.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Sex determination; Doublesex gene; Drosophila; Differentiation; Chromosome; Pathway; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Science, v. 348, n. 6240, p. 1268-1270, 2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

190) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis ; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lounibos, LPhilip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Biological surveys; Barriers; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Biting; Travellers; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: More than one million chikungunya cases have been reported in the Americas since October 2013, when the Asian genotype of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was imported by a traveller returning from Asia. CHIKV is mainly transmitted in urban areas by the domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the CHIKV circulating in the Caribbean to initiate outbreaks in Aedes-infested regions of continental America and Europe by assessing the ability of local mosquitoes to experimentally transmit the virus. Mosquitoes were exposed to a blood-meal containing the virus which must overcome several barriers to infect various tissues in the vector before being secreted in the mosquito saliva when biting a host. We found that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus transmitted similarly the virus. When exposing Ae. albopictus from Europe at a temperature of 20 degree C after infection, we detect a significant drop of CHIKV transmission potential. Our results suggest that the CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas however with a limited risk of spillovers in Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. These data will be useful for adapting vector control strategies and epidemiological surveillance.

191) Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil fatty acids or their esters and three terpenoids to Stomoxys calcitrans
Autor: Tran Trung Hieu; Choi, Won Sil; Kim, Soon-Il; Wang, Mo; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Stable fly; Calophyllum inophyllum; Natural insect repellent; Fatty acid; Structure-activity relationship; Synergy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 71, n. 9, p. 1213-1218, 2015
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Background: An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm(-2)) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and -phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm(-2)), using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of synthetic repellent DEET (0.25 mg cm(-2)).RESULTSBased upon protection time (PT) (time to first bite of stable fly), oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl oleate or methyl linoleate synergised the repellency of each monoterpenoid and DEET. For example, the binary mixture of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol (PT 2.05 h) resulted in significantly greater repellency than either oleic acid (0.55 h), cuminyl alcohol (0.70 h) or DEET alone (1.50 h). The binary mixtures of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol or DEET (PT 2.10 h) did not differ significantly in repellency. The structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length and the functional group of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid repellency to stable flies.CONCLUSIONMixtures formulated from fatty acid and monoterpenoid could be useful as potential repellents for protecting humans and possibly domestic animals from bites caused by stable fly. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

192) Arterial hypertension and skin allergy are risk factors for progression from dengue to dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case control study
Autor: Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Paixao, Enny S.; Costa, Maria da Conceicao N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Pamplona, Luciano; Dias, Juarez P.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Figueiredo, Maria Aparecida A.; Blanton, Ronald; Morato, Vanessa; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Rodrigues, Laura C.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemics; Physicians; Hypertension; Public health; Pathogenesis; Immunology; Risk factors; Hypotheses; Chronic illnesses; Mortality; Diabetes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a virus disease that has already reached more than 100 countries worldwide, transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, mainly Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that annually nearly 96 million symptomatic cases and about 22,000 deaths occur. This virus most often manifests itself in the form of Dengue Fever (DF), which in some cases progresses to severe forms, also called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). However, the current knowledge does not allow early prediction of which cases of DF will progress to DHF. But it is important to know the factors Involved in this process so that physicians may intervene early to prevent progression and avoid deaths. One of the proposed explanations is that preexisting comorbidities would increase the risk of progression from DF to DHF. This study showed that cases of DF associated with hypertension or skin allergy are more likely to progress to DHF. Monitoring and early appropriate clinical management of these cases can save lives.

193) Susceptibility of indigenous and transplanted mosquito spp. to dengue virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Isawa, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Sawabe, Kyoko
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Interspecific relationships; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Aircraft; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

194) Predation rates of mixed instar Odonata naiads feeding on Aedes aegypti and Armigeres moultoni (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae
Autor: Weterings, Robbie; Umponstira, Chanin; Buckley, Hannah Linda
Assunto: Odonata; Mosquito control; Predation rate; Predator-prey interaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 18, n. 1, p. 1-8, 2015.
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: In Thailand, several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Many vector control programs focus on the reduction of these medically important mosquitoes through the application of pesticides, bed-nets and the introduction of biological control agents. Odonates naiads are important, naturally occurring predators of vector mosquitoes. To estimate the predation rates of odonate species in Thailand, we conducted an experiment in which the predation rates were compared across a range of predator and prey densities. We used seven different predator species from different instars that represented the composition of naiads in our study area. Body sizes ranged between 2.6 mm and 15.9 mm. Two different prey species were used, larvae of the mosquito Armigeres moultoni Edwards, 1914 and Aedes aegypti L. 1762. Predation rates showed a positive non-linear relationship with prey densities and a negative non-linear relationship with predator densities. The mean plus or minus SE predation rates per predator were 6.2 plus or minus 0.8 individuals per 24 h for dragonfly naiads and 5.1 plus or minus 0.7 for damselfly naiads. Predation rates were very low compared to previously recorded rates. However, unlike previous research, we did not focus on single species in a late stage of development but on multiple species in all stages that resembled the natural odonata community composition.

195) Entomological Indicators to Assess Larval Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) Control in Baja California Sur, Mexico
Autor: Tovar-Zamora, Ivonne; Ramos-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Mendez Galvan, Jorge Fernando; Servin-Villegas, Rosala
Assunto: Dengue transmission; North queensland; Vector control; Pupal survey; Culicidae; Mosquito; Indexes; Diptera; Australia; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 81-95, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is the mosquito species responsible for transmission of yellow and dengue fevers. Different strategies are used worldwide to reduce its abundance, but effectiveness is not well understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of larvae of this species using different indices before and after application at three locations in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The presence of Ae. aegypti larvae was evaluated by three larval indices: house index, container index, and Breteau index at three locations at Cabo San Lucas, La Paz, and San Jose del Cabo during 3 years (2011-2013) before and after chemical control and reduction of potential breeding sites by the Secretaria de Salud (health department of Baja California Sur). The data showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) in the relative abundance of Ae. aegypti larvae before and after applying larvicide (Temephos (R)) and by removing water containers where mosquitoes reproduce, regardless of the type of index used for the analysis. In La Paz, the average of the housing index was reduced from 16-83% to 0-5% after control during the 3 years. In Cabo San Lucas, the value was reduced from 2-40% to <1% and in San Jose del Cabo such variation was 4-46% to 0-7%. The index of positive containers before and after management varied in La Paz from 6-34% to 0-4.7%; in Cabo San Lucas from 0.2-23% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 0.6-11% to <1.2%. The Breteau index in La Paz varied from 48-358% to 0-12.5%, in Cabo San Lucas, values decreased from 3-67% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 3-174% to 0-16% after vector-control measures were applied. Our data suggested that controls applied in Baja California Sur on Ae. aegypti larvae were effective enough to reduce the relative abundance of larvae of the species. However, other strategies are necessary to ensure elimination of Ae. aegypti larvae homes, thereby reducing impact on human health in the zone.

196) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

197) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

198) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

199) Essential oil composition and biological/pharmacological properties of Salmea scandens (L.) DC
Autor: Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Pacheco-Hernandez, Yesenia; Rubio-Rosas, Efrain; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Mosso-Gonzalez, Clemente; Ramon-Canul, Lorena G.; Cruz-Duran, Ramiro
Assunto: Salmea scandens; Proximate analysis; Essential oil; Anti-lipase; Antimicrobial; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Food Control, v. 57, p. 177-184, 2015
ISSN: 0956-7135
Resumo: Salmea scandens (L.) DC is an indigenous edible plant whose stem bark is traditionally used as food by people of Oaxaca, Mexico. Proximate analysis of the edible stem bark revealed abundant amounts of fiber (43.67%) and protein (9.27%). GC and GC-MS analyses demonstrated that the essential oil from leaves contained high levels of germacrene D (47.1%) and elemol (15.3%), whereas that of the stem bark contained the alkylamides N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers (39.7%). Levels of these compounds in the essential oil from both organs were in similar concentrations in all seasons except winter. The HPLC purified N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers produced a noncompetitive inhibition on porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic assays with these compounds revealed a modification on V-max (0.0431-0.0533 mM min(-1)) whereas the K-m value (0.880-0.881 mM) was not significantly changed. Essential oil from the stem bark showed a high anti-microbial activity against some phytopathogenic microorganisms. The MIC's in mu g mL(-1) for Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were tabaci 56.1, tomato 91.2 and phaseolitica 196.4, for Clavibacter michiganensis 35.8 and Erwinia carotovora 48.1. The fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans had MIC's in mu g mL(-1) of 3.3 and 2.4 respectively. Same essential oil was highly effective against larvae from Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 0.3 mu g mL(-l)) and Anopheles albimanis (LC50 = 2.5 mu g mL(-1)). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

200) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

201) Essential oils of green and red Perilla frutescens as potential sources of compounds for mosquito management
Autor: Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ali, Abbas; Ali, Zulfiqar; Blythe, Eugene K.; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Perilla frutescens; Aedes aegypti; Perilla aldehyde; Perilla alcohol; Perillic acid; Methyl perillate; Limonene; Caryophyllene oxide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Industrial Crops and Products, v. 65, p. 36-44, 2015
ISSN: 0926-6690
Resumo: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti producing high rates of human morbidity and mortality. In order to find new and effective compounds against A. aegypti with low mammalian and less environmental toxic products, green and red Purilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (perilla) essential oils were investigated for their deterrent and larvicidal activity. Green perilla oil showed more promising deterrent and larvicidal activity than red perilla oil. Therefore, we focused on the principle compound in green perilla oil and, in addition, perilla alcohol and perillic acid were included for the activity relationship on the allylic methyl groups on carbon 7. Chemical composition of green and red perilla essential oils was compared using gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In biting deterrent bioassays, biting deterrence index (BDI) values for compounds methyl perillate (0.73), perillic acid (0.71), perilla alcohol (0.69), perilla aldehyde (0.62), caryophyllene oxide (0.60), and limonene (0.52) indicated good biting deterrent activity but the activity was significantly lower (proportion not biting (PNB) value 0.84) than the positive control N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) at 25 nmol/cm(2). In larval bioassays, methyl perillate was the most toxic compound with LC50 of 16.0 ppm. Methyl perillate was the most active compound against A. aegypti larvae and this compound may offer a new biodegradable mosquito control agent. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

202) Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Correa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Flight-Muscle Mitochondria; Hydrogen-Peroxide Release; Oxygen Species Generation; Brown Adipose-Tissue; Reactive Oxygen; Insect Flight; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Oxidative-Metabolism; Amino-Acids; Complex I
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

203) Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Aytac, Zeki; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Baser, K. Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Echinophora lamondiana; Biting deterrent; Repellent; Larvicide; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 1, p. 93-100, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B. Yildiz et Z. Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana were delta-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), alpha-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-delta-3-carene, (R)-(-)-alpha-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than delta-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.

204) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

205) Evaluating Liquid and Granular Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Broadcast Applications for Controlling Vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses in Artificial Containers and Tree Holes
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T.; Richardson, Alec G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval mosquito control; Backpack sprayer; Ground applications; Stihl SR 450
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 663-671, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation.

206) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

207) Evaluation of a push-pull approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) using a novel dispensing system for spatial repellents in the laboratory and in a semi-field environment (vol 10, e0129878, 2015)
Autor: Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo:

208) Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi;Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou;Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Copepods Lemongrass; Nanotechnology; Mesocyclops aspericorni
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, p. 129-138, 2015.
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC50 of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32ppm to 471.36ppm. LC50 of AuN ranged from 18.80ppm to 41.52ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs.

209) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

210) Assessing carbon dioxide and synthetic lure-baited traps for dengue and chikungunya vector surveillance
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G.; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Carbon dioxide; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Light traps; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, 242 p, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

211) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

212) Assessing dengue infection risk in the southern region of Taiwan: implications for control
Autor: Liao, C. M.; Huang, T. L.; Cheng, Y. H.; Chen, W. Y.; Hsieh, N. H.; Chen, S.C.; Chio, C. P.
Assunto: Dengue; Modelling; Mosquito; Risk assessment; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 5, p. 1059-1072, 2015.
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Dengue, one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, is a major international public health concern. This study aimed to assess potential dengue infection risk from Aedes aegypti in Kaohsiung and the implications for vector control. Here we investigated the impact of dengue transmission on human infection risk using a well-established dengue-mosquito-human transmission dynamics model. A basic reproduction number (R sub(0))-based probabilistic risk model was also developed to estimate dengue infection risk. Our findings confirm that the effect of biting rate plays a crucial role in shaping R sub(0) estimates. We demonstrated that there was 50% risk probability for increased dengue incidence rates exceeding 0.5-0.8 wk super(-1) for temperatures ranging from 26 degree C to 32 degree C. We further demonstrated that the weekly increased dengue incidence rate can be decreased to zero if vector control efficiencies reach 30-80% at temperatures of 19-32 degree C. We conclude that our analysis on dengue infection risk and control implications in Kaohsiung provide crucial information for policy-making on disease control.

213) The potential threat to blood transfusion safety of emerging infectious disease agents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, communicable disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, v. 13, n. 7, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1543-0790
Resumo:

214) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

215) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

216) The hub protein loquacious connects the microRNA and short interfering RNA pathways in mosquitoes
Autor: Haac, Mary Etna; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Eggleston, Heather; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Genomes; Viruses; Proteins; Immunity; Nucleic acids; Disease transmission; Public health; Transposons; siRNA; Dengue; Double-stranded RNA; Gene regulation; miRNA; Vectors; Specialization; RNA-mediated interference; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Nucleic Acids Research, v. 43, n. 7, p. 3688-3700, 2015.
ISSN: 0305-1048
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes vector several arboviruses of global health significance, including dengue viruses and chikungunya virus. RNA interference (RNAi) plays an important role in antiviral immunity, gene regulation and protection from transposable elements. Double-stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs) are important for efficient RNAi; in Drosophila functional specialization of the miRNA, endo-siRNA and exo-siRNA pathway is aided by the dsRBPs Loquacious (Loqs-PB, Loqs-PD) and R2D2, respectively. However, this functional specialization has not been investigated in other dipterans. We were unable to detect Loqs-PD in Ae. aegypti; analysis of other dipteran genomes demonstrated that this isoform is not conserved outside of Drosophila. Overexpression experiments and small RNA sequencing following depletion of each dsRBP revealed that R2D2 and Loqs-PA cooperate non-redundantly in siRNA production, and that these proteins exhibit an inhibitory effect on miRNA levels. Conversely, Loqs-PB alone interacted with mosquito dicer-1 and was essential for full miRNA production. Mosquito Loqs interacted with both argonaute 1 and 2 in a manner independent of its interactions with dicer. We conclude that the functional specialization of Loqs-PD in Drosophila is a recently derived trait, and that in other dipterans, including the medically important mosquitoes, Loqs-PA participates in both the miRNA and endo-siRNA based pathways.

217) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors
Autor: Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Arachis hypogaea; Green synthesis; AgNPs; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Light microscopic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 22, p. 17769-17779, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

218) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

219) Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi
Autor: Jayaraman, M.; Senthilkumar, A.; Venkatesalu, V.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Aromatic plants; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1511-1518, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50=194.22 and LC90=458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=173.04 and LC90=442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=167.28 and LC90=433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 =94.12 and LC90 =249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=80.58 and LC90=200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=76.24 and LC90=194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata>methanol extract of P. amboinicus>acetone extract of F. limonia>methanol extract of T. erecta>methanol extract of B. mollis> and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

220) Dengue and other flavivirus infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choumet V., Desprès P.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), v. 34, n. 2, p. 467-478, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0253-1933
Resumo: Flaviviruses are responsible for yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue, all of which are major human diseases found in tropical regions of the globe. They are zoonoses with a transmission cycle that involves primates as reservoirs and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes as vectors. The recent upsurge of urban epidemics of yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue has involved human-to-human transmission with mosquitoes as the vector. This paper is primarily concerned with dengue, which has become the pre-eminent arbovirosis in terms of public health.

221) Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse
Autor: Loke, S. R.; Sing, K. W.; Teoh, G. N.; Lee, H. L.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Medicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 76-83, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m(3). Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

222) Larvicidal, molluscicidal and nematicidal activities of essential oils and compounds from Foeniculum vulgare
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sousa, Rose Marie O. F.; Rosa, Jose S.; Silva, Claudia A.; Almeida, Maria Teresa M.; Teresa Novo, M.; Cunha, Ana C.; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel
Assunto: Biopesticides; Bitter fennel essential oils; Anopheles atroparvus; Meloidogyne javanica; Radix peregra; Brine shrimp lethality assay
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Pest Science, v. 88, n. 2, p. 413-426, 2015
ISSN: 1612-4758
Resumo: Plant-based products, namely essential oils (EOs), are environmentally friendly alternatives for the control of disease vectors, hosts and/or parasites. Here, we studied the general toxicity and biopesticidal potential of EOs and phenylpropanoids from Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare (bitter fennel), a perennial plant well adapted to temperate climates. EO/compound toxicity was tested against a freshwater snail and potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Radix peregra), a mosquito and former European malaria vector (Anopheles atroparvus) and one of the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica). Lethal concentrations (LC50; LC90) of EOs (infrutescences/stems with leaves) and compounds were calculated by probit analysis. All displayed noteworthy activity against R. peregra adults (LC50 21-39 A mu g ml(-1)) and A. atroparvus larvae (LC50 16-56 A mu g ml(-1)). trans-Anethole revealed acute nematicidal activity after 24 and 48 h (LC50 310 and 249 A mu g ml(-1), respectively), and estragole (1,000 A mu g ml(-1)) showed some effectiveness against M. javanica hatching and juveniles after 15 days. Plant and EO yields were determined to evaluate the bitter fennel productivity. The chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. EOs extracted from whole plants, infrutescences and stems with leaves were characterized by estragole-dominant profiles (28-65 %), considerable amounts of phellandrene (10-34 %) and fenchone (6-16 %), and minor trans-anethole contents (1-4 %). Although additional toxicological studies against nontarget organisms are required, our study demonstrates that bitter fennel is a productive source of molluscicides and larvicides, and thus a potential sustainable biological agent to control particular host species, namely freshwater snails and mosquitoes.

223) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiène du Secrétariat de la Société des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, nov. 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

224) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

225) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

226) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

227) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

228) Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia
Autor: Aguirre-Obando, Oscar A.; Dalla Bona, Ana C.; Duque L., Jonny E.; Navarro-Silva, Mário A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Bioassays; Insecticides; Genetic isolation; Pest control; Public health; Haplotypes; Gene flow; Mitochondria; Genetic diversity; Vaccines; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Zoologia, v. 32, n. 1, p. 14-22, 2015.
ISSN: 1984-4670
Resumo: Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca and Montenegro) were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca, Montenegro and Barcelona). Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% plus or minus 2) and Calarca (62% plus or minus 14), and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% plus or minus 8). The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro) to 6.0 (Calarca). The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val) and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile). The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindio is required.

229) Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae
Autor: Pavela, Roman
Assunto: Synergisms; Antagonisms; Botanical insecticides; Monoterpenes; Larvicides; Essential oils
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3835-3853, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L-1, respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L-1, respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L-1, their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L-1, respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and alpha-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, alpha-pinene and menthone, beta-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, alpha-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2 % mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio > 2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we can choose two pairs that caused mortality higher than 90 % in concentrations lower than 20 mg L-1: limonene and trans-anethole (with the mixing ratio 1:1), and carvone and carvacrol (with the mixing ratio 1:2-3). The information gained can thus be used in the development of new botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) and particularly in the creation of formulations.

230) (E)-Caryophyllene and [alpha]-Humulene: Aedes aegypti oviposition deterrents elucidated by gas chromatography-electrophysiological assay of Commiphora leptophloeos leaf oil
Autor: Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos da; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Silva, Patrícia Cristina Bezerra da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Marcia Vanusa da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Silva, Nicácio Henrique da
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with [alpha] -phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and [Beta]-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and [alpha] -humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

231) Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains
Autor: Uragayala, Sreehari; Verma, Vaishali; Natarajan, Elamathi; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Kamaraju, Raghavendra
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Imidacloprid - Resistance; Thiacloprid; Thiamethoxam
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 142, p. 64-70, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. In this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Laboratory-reared mosquito species were used. Insecticide susceptibility tests were done using standard WHO procedures and using diagnostic dosages of insecticide test papers and larvicides. Adulticidal efficacy of candidate insecticides was assessed using topical application method and larval bioassays were conducted using standard WHO procedure.Results: The results of topical application on 3-5 day old female mosquitoes indicated that resistant strain of An. stephensi registered lower LC50 values than the susceptible strain. Among the three insecticides tested, thiacloprid was found more effective than the other two insecticides. Culex quinquefasciatus registered lowest LC50 for imidacloprid than the other two mosquito species tested. In larval bioassays, the LC50 values registered for imidacloprid were in the order of Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR) < Ae. aegypti. In case of thiacloprid, the order of efficacy (LC50) was Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR), whereas in case of thiamethoxam, the larvicidal efficacy was in the order of An. stephensi (RR) < An. stephensi (SS) < Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present study indicated that insecticide resistant strains of mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes should be explored

232) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

233) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

234) Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil
Autor: Cecilio, Samyra Giarola; Silva, Willer Ferreira Junior; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhaes, Jose Carlos
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue virus; Ovitraps; Transovarial transmission; Oviposition; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-74, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools.

235) Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Adulticidal activity; Botanical extracts; Eco-friendly; Smoke toxicity; Cipadessa baccifera; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 1, p. 167-173, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6 +/- 1.8, 78.2 +/- 0.5, and 77 +/- 1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

236) SIR transmission model of dengue virus taking into account two species of mosquitoes and an age structure in the human population
Autor: Sungchasit, R; Pongsumpun, P; Tang, I M
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Year class; Population structure; Aquatic insects; Modelling; Disease transmission; Public health; Age composition; Age; Bites; Dengue; Vector-borne diseases; Reproduction; Models; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: American Journal of Applied Sciences, v. 12, n. 6, p. 426-444, 2015.
ISSN: 1546-9239
Resumo: Dengue is a vector-borne disease. It is transmitted to humans by the bites of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The human population is separated into two classes, a child class and an adult class, each class being described by a SIR model. The transmission rates of the two mosquito species are different and depend on what class the humans belong to. The authors develop a single model taking into account the presence of two type of mosquitoes and two age classes and apply it to dengue fever. The model shows how it is possible for the maximum level of infected human to be reached in a short time. The nature of stability of the equilibrium state and the trajectories of the individual classes in the model are determined by the values of the basic reproduction number by setting the values of the parameters in the model to different values which reflect the environment in which the epidemic is occurring in the model.

237) Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti)
Autor: Ruktanonchai, N. W.; Lounibos, L. P.; Smith, D. L.; Allan, S. A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Stegomyia Aegypti; Behavioural Plasticity; Mosquito Behaviour; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 255-262, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

238) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

239) Extract of Bowdichia virgilioides and maackiain as larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Santos, Jefferson C.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santana, Andrea L. B. D.; Maranhao, Claudia A.; Nascimento, Marcia S.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Bieber, Lothar W.
Assunto: Hardwood; Maackiain; Medicarpin; Bowdichia virgilioides; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, n. , p. 160-164, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: The larvicidal activities of extracts of three hardwood species (Hymenaea stigonorcapa, Anadenanthera colubrina and Bowdichia virgilioides) against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were evaluated using WHO guidelines. Extracts of H. stignocarpa and A. colubrina showed weak activity. The highest larvicidal effect was obtained with the cyclohexane extract of the heartwood of B. virgilioides, which caused 100% mortality at concentrations at 50 and 100 mu g/mL. Fraction toluene/EtOAc (8:2) from this extract showed larvicidal activity (LC50 = 34.90 +/- 1.27 mu g/mL). A mixture of two compounds identified as medicarpin and maackiain exhibited a very good larvicidal activity (sub-fraction 2, LC50 = 17.5 +/- 1.87 mu g/mL) and maackiain showed to be a strong larvicidal compound (LC50 = 21.95 +/- 1.34 mu g/mL). This result can be of value in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds from other hardwood plant extracts and presents the first report of B. virgilioides being used to control a mosquito vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

240) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols, J. T.; Huang, Y. J. S.; Higgs, S.; Miller, A. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Spratt, H. M.; Horne, K. M.; Vanlandingham, D. L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 x 10 super(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 x 10 super(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

241) Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns
Autor: Santiago, Viviene S.; Grace Alvero, Rita; Villasenor, Irene M.
Assunto: Larvicidal; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Piper nigrum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 29, n. 5, p. 441-443, 2015
ISSN: 1478-6419
Resumo: Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 +/- 0.1304ppm (mean +/- Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 +/- 0.0491ppm and 3.7078ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

242) Evaluation of the Atraedes(tm) lure for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in gravid traps
Autor: Irish, S. R.; Batengana, B. M.; Eiras, A. E.; Cameron, M. M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Grasses; Attraction; Vectors; Traps; Attractants; Trapping; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 107-109, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedes(TM) lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this lure in combination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps was conducted in Tanga, Tanzania. The addition of the lure to traps baited with either grass infusion or tap water did not result in significant increases in trap catch. Grass infusion-baited traps (with and without the AtrAedes lure) collected significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, or AtrAedes alone. The catches of the traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, and AtrAedes alone were not significantly different from each other. Although the placement of the lure in the base of the trap may have decreased trap catches, it seems that the AtrAedes is not as effective as grass infusion for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus in Tanzania.

243) Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Babaniyi O., Mwaba P., Mulenga D., Monze M., Songolo P., Mazaba-Liwewe M., Mweene-Ndumba I., Masaninga F., Chizema E., Eshetu-Shibeshi M., Malama C., Rudatsikira E., Siziya S.
Assunto: risk assessment, yellow fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-17, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

244) Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review
Autor: Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1471-1485. Nov 2015.
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus , Ae. aegypti , Ae. japonicus japonicus , Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus . These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Wolbachia ), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

245) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

246) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

247) Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Chomelia asiatica; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 3, p. 989-999, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.

248) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, 2015.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: A little-known virus called Zika has caused outbreaks in Pacific Ocean islands the past few years and has arrived in South America this year. Scientists predict it will spread far and wide in the Western Hemisphere, and perhaps in southern Europe as well, because the Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus are so widespread. Scientifically speaking, Zika virus is still largely terra incognita. Its symptoms, including rash, fatigue, headaches, muscle pains, and swollen and painful joints, appear to be generally mild, but during an outbreak in French Polynesia that started in 2013, some patients developed a serious neurological condition named Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although it is primarily spread by mosquitoes, some evidence suggests sexual transmission is possible as well.

249) Mosquito Repellent Activity of Delonix Elata (Fabaceae) Leaf and Seed Extracts Against the Primary Dengue Vector Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni; Amsath, A.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Delonix elata; Leaf; Seed; Repellent activity; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: International Journal of Pure And Applied Zoology, v. 3, n. 4, p. 312-317, 2015
ISSN: 2320-9577
Resumo: Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in tropical and subtropical areas. As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. In the present study the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata) leaf and seed against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). One hundred three day old starved female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were kept on a net cage (45 cmx30 cmx45 cm). The repellency was determined against Ae. aegypti mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) under the laboratory conditions. Ae. aegypti were tested during the day time from 07.00 to 17.00 h. In this study, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extracts. The highest concentrations of 5.0 mg/cm(2) provided over 180 and 150 min protection, respectively. Overall, the crude methanol extract of D. elata showed an excellent potential to develop newer and safer control tools the dengue vector mosquito Ae. aegypti.

250) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

251) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

252) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

253) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino, Eunice A.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Pirk, Christian; Mbogo, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Attractant; Electrophysiology; Mosquito; Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 253, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Effective surveillance and estimation of the biting fraction of Aedes aegypti is critical for accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks and inter-epidemic periods of dengue and chikungunya fever. Here, we describe the development and use of synthetic human odor baits for improved sampling of adult Ae. aegypti, in two dengue and chikungunya fevers endemic areas in Kenya; Kilifi and Busia counties. We collected volatiles from the feet and trunks of two female and two male volunteers aged between 25 and 45 years. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis to screen for antennally-active components from the volatiles and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the EAD-active components. Using randomized replicated designs, we compared the efficacies of Biogents (BG) sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus either single or blends of the identified compounds against the BG sentinel trap baited with carbon dioxide plus the BG commercial lure in trapping Ae. aegypti. The daily mosquito counts in the different traps were subjected to negative binomial regression following the generalized linear models procedures. A total of ten major EAD-active components identified by GC/MS as mainly aldehydes and carboxylic acids, were consistently isolated from the human feet and trunk volatiles from at least two volunteers. Field assays with synthetic chemicals of the shared EAD-active components identified from the feet and trunk gave varying results. Ae. aegypti were more attracted to carbon dioxide baited BG sentinel traps combined with blends of aldehydes than to similar traps combined with blends of carboxylic acids. When we assessed the efficacy of hexanoic acid detected in odors of the BG commercial lure and volunteers plus carbon dioxide, trap captures of Ae. aegypti doubled over the trap baited with the commercial BG lure. However, dispensing aldehydes and carboxylic acids together in blends, reduced trap captures of Ae. aegypti by similar to 45%-50%.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for roles of carboxylic acids and aldehydes in Ae. aegypti host attraction and also show that of the carboxylic acids, hexanoic acid is a more effective lure for the vector than the BG commercial lure

254) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

255) An environmentally safe larvicide against Aedes aegypti based on in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems containing an essential oil
Autor: Ferreira, S. G.; Conceicao, Vs; Gouveia, N. S.; Santos, G. S.; Santos, R. L. C.; Lira, A. A. M.; Cavalcanti, S. C. H.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Nunes, R. S.
Assunto: Liquid crystal; Microemulsion; In situ gelling; Citrus sinensis; Dengue; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, v. 456, p. 190-196, 2015
ISSN: 0021-9797
Resumo: Liquid crystalline precursors, which are in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems, can undergo phase transition in aqueous solution and become more structured aggregates, controlling release of larvicides and acting as biotechnology alternatives for dengue control. Such systems can contain bioactive substances as Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) which exhibits biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. The formulations were composed by fixed concentration of CSEO stabilized by Polyoxypropylene (5) Polyoxyethylene (20) Cetyl Ether (PPG-5 CETETH-20): oleic acid (OA) 2:1, increasing water content. The phase diagram was established and systems structure was evaluated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. Median lethal concentration was determined against Ae. aegypti larvae. The phase diagram exhibited four regions: liquid crystal (LC), emulsion, microemulsion (ME) and phase separation. The PLM and SAXS distinguished microemulsions, lamellar and hexagonal LC structures. Flow and oscillatory tests showed that increasing water content increases elasticity from Newtonian to non-newtonian behavior confirming the in situ gelation behavior. The larvicidal activity of formulations indicates that these nanostructured systems improved the oil solubility in aqueous medium and in addition are potential environmental larvicide against Ae. aegypti larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

256) Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique;Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernandez, Roberto Torres;Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Pest control; Monitoring systems; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Tires; Vectors; Immunoglobulin M; Evolution; Containers; Gender; Residential areas; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28ppt to 0.95ppt; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

257) Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015
ISSN: 1420-3049
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

258) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

259) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

260) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

261) An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal
Autor: Huang, T-H.; Tien, N-Y.; Luo, Y-P.
Assunto: Stegomyia aegypti; DEET; In vitro bioassay; Plant compound; Quantitative evaluation; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 238-244, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe invitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St.aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD50 (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 mu g/cm(2), respectively.

262) Is a universal flu vaccine on the horizon?
Titulo Alternativo: Un vaccin anti-grippal à large spectre pour le futur?
Autor: Fourati S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 238-239, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo:

263) Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Ovicidal activity; Pupicidal activity; Repellent activity; Oxystelma esculentum; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 3, n. 4, p. 326-332, 2015
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm(2) under laboratory conditions. The LC50 value of methanol extract of Oxystelma esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Aedes aegypti at 280 mg/L. The present results suggest that the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquito.

264) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

265) Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale
Autor: Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Goncalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sergio L. B.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue; Chikungunya; Albopictus; Dispersal; Culicidae; Area; Containers; Wolbachia; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: BackgroundMosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 'dissemination stations' (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a > 10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000-3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination.Conclusions/SignificanceBy expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics.

266) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

267) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

268) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

269) Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Krtinic, B.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.
Assunto: Diagnostic traits; Larval traits; Sexual dimorphism; Wing trait variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 1, p. 129-138, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens (`rural') and molestus (`urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of `urban' and `rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third-and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

270) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

271) Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector
Autor: Santhosh, S. B.; Yuvarajan, R.; Natarajan, D.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Annona muricata; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 8, p. 3087-3096, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 mu g mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 mu g mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 mu g mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 mu g mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 mu g mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was confirmed between the temperatures 20 to 70 A degrees C. The result suggests that green synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata has the potential to be used as a low-cost and eco-friendly approach for the control of selected mosquitoes.

272) Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu
Assunto: Fractions; Pupicidal; Annona senegalensis; Anopheles gambiae; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, p. 226-237, 2015
ISSN: 2322-1984
Resumo: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50=298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50=418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

273) Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand
Autor: Champakaew, D.; Junkum, A.; Chaithong, U.; Jitpakdi, A.; Riyong, D.; Sanghong, R.; Intirach, J.; Muangmoon, R.; Chansang, A.; Tuetun, B.; Pitasawat, B.
Assunto: Repellent; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Angelica sinensis; DEET; Phthalides; Phthalates
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 6, p. 2187-2198, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations.

274) Laboratory Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of the Essential oil of Allium tuberosum Roots and its Selected Major Constituent Compounds Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Xin Chao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Essential Oil; Larvicidal Activity; Diallyl Trisulfide; Diallyl Disulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 437-441, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The aim of this research was to evaluate larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengle roots and its constituents against larval mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus Skuse). Essential oil of A. tuberosum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were found to be sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (35.19%), diallyl disulfide (28.31%), diallyl trisulfide (20.91%), and dimethyl trisulfide (12.33%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of Ae. albopictus, with an LC50 value of 18 mu g/ml. The constituents compounds-diallyl trisulfide (LC50 = 4 mu g/ml) and diallyl disulfide (LC50 = 6 mu g/ml)-possessed stronger larvicidal activity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LC50 = 27 mu g/ml) and dimethyl trisulfide (LC50 = 35 mu g/ml) against the fourth-instar larvae of Ae. albopictus. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

275) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding
Autor: Choo, Young-Moo; Buss, Garrison K.; Tan, Kaiming; Leal, Walter S.
Assunto: Proboscis; Oviposition attractant; 4-ethylphenol; CquiOR99; Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Frontiers in Physiology, v. 6, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1664-042X
Resumo: Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional "antenna" has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum toward a blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR) from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol), CquiOR99, and a receptorf for the insect repellent DEFT, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated) laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEFT-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated with 4EP, i.e., they engaged more rapidly in continuous blood feeding as compared to untreated blood. The time of engagement for feeding in skatole-containing blood vs untreated blood did not differ significantly. Taken together, these data suggest that 4EP reception by the labrum is important not only for oviposition decisions, but also for reducing probing and initiation of blood feeding.

276) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 A degrees C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 A degrees C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

277) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

278) Larvicidal activity, inhibition effect on development, histopathological alteration and morphological aberration induced by seaweed extracts in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Mosquito Larvicidal Activity; Dengue Vector; Aedes Aegypti; Bryopsis Pennala; Sargassum Binderi; Padina Australis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 8, n. 12, p. 981-986, 2015
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To investigate the larvicidal activity, inhibition effect on development, histopatbological alteration and morphological aberration induced by the extracts derived from seaweeds Bryopsth pennata (B. pennata), Sargassum binderi (S. binder and Padina australis in Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae and to characterize the phytochemical components of the three seaweeds. Methods: Larvicidal activity of the seaweeds towards the larvae of Ae. aegypti was determined according to WHO. The inhibition effect of seaweeds was assessed by determining the mortality, adult emergence rate, larval and pupa duration of the treated larvae. Histopathological effect on midgut epithelium of larvae and morphological aberration induced by the methanol extracts were examined. Phytochemical analysis was done to determine the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids in the seaweeds. Results: Chloroform partition of B. pennata extract exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity (LC50 = 82.55 mu g/mL). followed by methanol extract of B. pennata (LC50 = 160.07 mu g/mL) and chloroform partition of S. binderi extract (LC50 = 192.43 mu g/mL). The methanol extract of S. binderi exhibited the strongest effect on prolongation of larval period (1.5-fold longer as compared to control) and resulted in strongest inhibition effect in adult emergence (98.67 %). The histopathological study showed that larvae treated with seaweed extracts had cytopathological alteration of the midgut epithelium. The morphological observation revealed that the anal papillae and terminal spiracles of larvae were the common sites of aberrations. Conclusions: The study provided information on various effects of seaweed extracts on Ac. aegypti. Further investigation on identifying the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

279) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

280) Pyrethroid-resistance and presence of two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Indian Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Dykes, Cherry L.; Kapoor, Neera; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.
Assunto: Insecticides; Mutations; DDT; Pest control; Toxicity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Infection; Pyrethroids; Cross-resistance; Mutation; Nets; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue and chikungunya are the two important human arboviral infections in India transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti. In absence of any specific drug or vaccine for these infections, vector control and personal protection are the only control options available. The success of insecticide-based vector control heavily relies upon the knowledge of the status of insecticide resistance in vector populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance, especially in the presence of cross-resistance. Knockdown resistance (kdr) is one of the mechanisms of resistance that confers cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Currently, pyrethroids are the only insecticide class recommended for use in long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN) and have proven superior to all other insecticides used in vector control programme, due to low mammalian toxicity, low residual activity in nature and rapid knockdown action. The present study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti against DDT and pyrethroids, and identification of kdr mutations. Though the presence of kdr mutations in Ae. aegypti has been reported in many countries, such a report is not available from India. This study for the first time reports the presence of two kdr mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in an Indian Ae. aegypti population.

281) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

282) Larvicidal activity of Illicium difengpi BN Chang (Schisandraceae) Stem Bark and its Constituent Compounds against Aedes aegypti L
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Ying; Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qi Yong; Niu, Chang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Illicium Difengpi; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicidal Activity; Myristicin; Safrole; 1,8-Cineole; Linalool
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 14, n. 1, p. 103-109, 2015
ISSN: 1596-5996
Resumo: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Illicium difengpi B.N. Chang stem bark (Schisandraceae) and its major constituents against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L.Methods: Essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mas spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its major constituents was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti for 24 h, and larval mortalities recorded at essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 6.0 - 200 mu g/mL.Results: A total of 36 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The principal compounds are safrole (18.21 %), linalool (13.47 %), 1,8-cineole (12.84 %), and myristicin (8.06 %) followed by a-terpineol (4.77 %), beta-pinene (4.45 %) and 4-terpineol (4.38 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal activity against A. aegypti with LC50 (median lethal concentration) of 31.68 mu g/mL. The major constituents, myristicin, safrole, and 1, 8-cineole, exhibited LC50 of 15.26, 39.45, and 72.18 mu g/mL, respectively.Conclusion: The findings obtained indicate that the essential oil of I. difengpi and its major constituents have potentials for use in the control of A. aegypti larvae and may therefore be useful in the search for newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

283) Neolignans and Other Metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar Rain Forest and Their Biological Activities
Autor: Rakotondraibe, L. Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R.; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D.; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasannison, Vincent E.; Cassera, Maria B.; Hahn, Donald R.; Kingston, David G. I.; Fotso, Serge
Assunto: Piper capense; Dry forest; Ocobullenone; Lauraceae; Bullata; Alkaloids
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 78, n. 3, p. 431-440, 2015
ISSN: 0163-3864
Resumo: Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds.

284) Forced egg retention and oviposition behavior of malaria, dengue and filariasis vectors to a topical repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Seenivasagan, T.; Iqbal, S. Thanvir; Guha, Lopamudra
Assunto: Anopheles; Aedes; Culex; DEPA; Gonotrophic cycle; Insect repellent; Skip oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Feve ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 53, n. 7, p. 440-445, 2015
ISSN: 0019-5189
Resumo: Egg retention and oviposition behavior of four species of mosquito vectors viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus to a topical insect repellent diethyl-phenylacetamide (DEPA) at 0.1-1000 mg/L was investigated under laboratory conditions. Based on oviposition activity indices, DEPA demonstrated concentration dependent oviposition deterrent effect to A. stephensi (-0.18 to -0.97), A. aegypti (-0.18 to -0.91) and A. albopictus (-0.50 to -0.98) females. In contrast, positive oviposition response by C. quinquefasciatus (+0.39 and +0.70) was observed respectively at 0.1 and 1 ppm, while 10 ppm of DEPA on water received 50% lesser egg rafts than control. Gravid Culex females laid no egg rafts at 100 and 1000 ppm DEPA treated bowls effecting 100% oviposition deterrence. Test mosquito females deposited most of their eggs (>90%) in the absence of repellent odour, while DEPA odour on water surface forced them to retain huge numbers of eggs. Females of A. aegypti, A. albopictus and A. stephensi retained 49, 67 and 50% of total eggs, respectively throughout the experiment. Egg retention by Culex females due to DEPA on the water surface was ca. 65%, equivalent to 4 egg rafts. Therefore, DEPA at lower concentrations could effectively disturb the oyiposition by these vectors. Application of repellents in small water bodies would help in reducing the population build up of mosquitoes near human households and could be useful in the integrated management of mosquito vectors.

285) Optimization of pyrethroid and repellent on fabrics against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) using a microencapsulation technique
Autor: Yao, T. -T.; Wang, L. -K.; Cheng, J. -L.; Hu, Y. -Z.; Zhao, J. -H.; Zhu, G. -N.
Assunto: Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus); DEET; Deltamethrin; Finishing; Optimized mixing ratio; Synergistic interaction; Washing durability
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 37-43, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: A new approach employing a combination of pyrethroid and repellent is proposed to improve the protective efficacy of conventional pyrethroid-treated fabrics against mosquito vectors. In this context, the insecticidal and repellent efficacies of commonly used pyrethroids and repellents were evaluated by cone tests and arm-in-cage tests against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae). At concentrations of LD50 (estimated for pyrethroid) or ED50 (estimated for repellent), respectively, the knock-down effects of the pyrethroids or repellents were further compared. The results obtained indicated that deltamethrin and DEET were relatively more effective and thus these were selected for further study. Synergistic interaction was observed between deltamethrin and DEET at the ratios of 5:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (but not 1:5). An optimal mixing ratio of 7:5 was then microencapsulated and adhered to fabrics using a fixing agent. Fabrics impregnated by microencapsulated mixtures gained extended washing durability compared with those treated with a conventional dipping method. Results indicated that this approach represents a promising method for the future impregnation of bednet, curtain and combat uniform materials.

286) Larvicidal Activity Of Naturally Occurring Naphthalenedione And Its Structurally Related Analogs Against Three Mosquito Species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Cercis Chinensis; Culex Pipiens Pallens; Mosquito Larvicidal Activity; Ae. Togoi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 71-76, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The objective of this study was to determine the larvicidal activity of an active compound isolated from Cercis chinensis heartwood and its structurally related analogs against 4th-stage Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens pallet's, and Ae. togoi. The larvicidal compound of C. chinensis was isolated with the use of various chromatographic techniques and identified as analogs of 1,4-naphthalenedione. Based on the median lethal concentration (LC50) values of commercially procured analogs against Ae. aegypti larvae, the most toxic analog was 2-bromo-1,4-naphthalenedione (1.19 mu g/ml); followed by 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (1.72 mu g/ml); 2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (9.12 mu g/ml); 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (10.76 mu g/ml); and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (12.50 mu g/ml). Similar results were observed against Cx. p. pallens and Ae. togoi larvae with 1,4-naphthalenedione analogs. These results also showed that 1,4-naphthalenedione analogs were less toxic than the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl. Nonetheless, naturally occurring C. chinensis derived materials and 1,4-naphthalenedione analogs have potential for development as mosquito larvicidal agents.

287) Effect of chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi larvae
Autor: Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Chloroxylon swietenia bark extract
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4219-4223, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 mu g/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts.

288) Potential of duku (Lansium domesticum corr.) Seed extract against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ni'mah, Tanwirotun; Oktarina, Reni; Mahdalena, Vivin; Asyati, Desy
Assunto: Lansium domesticum Corr; Aedes aegypti; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan, v. 43, n. 2, p. 131-136, 2015
ISSN: 0125-9695
Resumo: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) control still depend on the insecticide fogging and larviciding. Several plants have effective natural toxic contents against mosquito larvae. This study aims to determine larvicidal potential of ethanol extract of duku (Lansium domesticum Corr.) seed against Aedes aegypti. The sample were duku seeds obtained from the village of Lubuk Batang, Ogan Komering Ulu. The seeds were dried and milled into powder then maserated in alcohol 70% with stirring for three days. The extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator and water bath then dissolved with aquadest. Larvicidal assay was using 25 larvae of Ae. aegypti for each concentration in 100 ml solution with 5 replications. Phytochemical assay of extract includes alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. Larvicidal assay includes five concentrations ranged from 4000, 5000, 6000, 8000, to 10000 ppm and control. Phytochemical assay showed that the ethanol extract of duku seed contained compounds of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. Larvicidal assay showed that the ethanol extract of duku seed resulted in 55.2% larval mortality at the highest concentration (10000 ppm) for 24-hour observation. Based on probit test, LC50 for ethanol extract of duku seed was 9367.5 ppm. Ethanol extract of duku seed has low potential as larvicide against Ae. aegypti.

289) Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Polygonum hydropiper; Confertifolin; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Repellent; Oviposition deterrent; Adulticidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 11, p. 8280-8287, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy 1-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P<0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides.

290) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

291) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

292) Surveillance for dengue and dengue-associated neurologic syndromes in the United States
Autor: Waterman, Stephen H.; Margolis, Harold S.; Sejvar, James J.
Assunto: Symptoms; Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Surveillance and enforcement; Hosts; Hygiene; Disease transmission; Public health; Aseptic meningitis; Dengue; Vectors; Encephalitis; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 996-998, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Autochthonous dengue virus transmission has occurred in the continental United States with increased frequency during the last decade; the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, has expanded its geographic distribution in the southern United States. Dengue, a potentially fatal arboviral disease, is underreported, and US clinicians encountering patients with acute febrile illness consistent with dengue are likely to not be fully familiar with dengue diagnosis and management. Recently, investigators suggested that an outbreak of dengue likely occurred in Houston during 2003 based on retrospective laboratory testing of hospitalized cases with encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Although certain aspects of the Houston testing results and argument for local transmission are doubtful, the report highlights the importance of prospective surveillance for dengue in Aedes-infested areas of the United States, the need for clinical training on dengue and its severe manifestations, and the need for laboratory testing in domestic patients presenting with febrile neurologic illness in these regions to include dengue.

293) Mycogenesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Aspergillus niger culture filtrate and their applications for antibacterial and larvicidal activities
Autor: Gopinath, K.; Karthika, V.; Sundaravadivelan, C.; Gowri, S.; Arumugam, A.
Assunto: Cerium; Pest control; Transmission loss; Antibiotics; Mortality causes; Antibacterial activity; Dengue; Transmission electron microscopy; Nanoparticles; Streptococcus; Proteus vulgaris; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Aedes aegypti; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Aspergillus niger
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, v. 5, n. 3, p. 295-303, 2015.
ISSN: 2008-9244
Resumo: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO sub(2) NPs) were synthesized using Aspergillus niger culture filtrate. The mycosynthesized CeO sub(2) NPs were characterized by UV-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro Raman, Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA), Photoluminescence, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses. UV-Vis spectrum exhibited a corresponding absorption peak for CeO sub(2) NPs at 296 nm, and the functional groups present in the fungal filtrate responsible for the synthesis of NPs were analyzed by FT-IR. The further characterization of the mycosynthesized CeO sub(2) NPs revealed particles of the cubic structure and spherical shape, with the particle sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm. The antibacterial activity of CeO sub(2) NPs was examined in respect of two Gram-positive (G+) bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative (G-) bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method. The test results for CeO sub(2) NPs at a concentration of 10 mg/mL showed higher activities on the zone of inhibition of up to 10.67 plus or minus 0.33 and 10.33 plus or minus 0.33 mm against Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis, respectively, The CeO sub(2) NPs caused 100 % mortality on first instar of Aedes aegypti at 0.250 mg/L concentration after 24-h exposure. The mycosynthesis of CeO sub(2) NPs is a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly approach and it will also potentially helpful to control pathogenic bacteria and dengue vector. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

294) Oxime derivatives with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti L.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lima, Tamires Cardoso; Lima Santos, Sandra Regina; Uliana, Marciana P.; Santos, Roseli La Corte; Brocksom, Timothy John; de Holanda Cavalcanti, Socrates Cabral; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino
Assunto: Oxime; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Larvicidal activity; Structure-activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 8, p. 2883-2891, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Oximes containing secondary metabolites constitute an important group of bioactive compounds and have been described and frequently updated in the literature due to their pharmacological properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a series of fourteen structurally related [1,4]-Benzoquinone mono-oximes on third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae and to investigate structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds. Results of larvicidal assay revealed that all oximes were found to have larvicidal activity. Compound 2,6-dimethyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (11) was the most bioactive (LC50 = 9.858 ppm), followed by 2-methyl-[1,4]-benzoquinone oxime tosylate (9) (LC50 = 14.450 ppm). [1,4]-benzoquinone oxime (1) exhibited the lowest potency, with an LC50 = 121.181 ppm. The molecular characteristics which may help to understand the assayed compounds larvicidal activity were identified. SAR indicates that the addition of alkyl groups attached to the ring, number, position in the unsaturated cyclic structure, and size of these groups influence the larvicidal activity. Moreover, the lipophilicity seems to play an important role in increasing the larvicidal effect, because, in general, tosyl-containing products were more potent than products containing free OH.

295) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

296) Assessment of the impact of potential tetracycline exposure on the phenotype of Aedes aegypti OX513A: implications for field use
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Curtis, Zoe; Matzen, Kelly; Oviedo, Marco Neira; Nimmo, Derric; Gray, Pamela; Winskill, Peter; Locatelli, Marco A. F.; Jardim, Wilson F.; Warner, Simon; Alphey, Luke; Beech, Camilla
Assunto: Solid - Phase extraction; Tandem mass - Spectrometry; Waste water; Septic tanks; Hong kong; Antibiotics; Dengue; Sulfonamide; Ph; Oxytetracycline
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever, a viral disease which has an estimated incidence of 390 million infections annually. Conventional vector control methods have been unable to curb the transmission of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of vector control using a tetracycline repressible self-limiting strain of Ae. aegypti OX513A which has achieved > 90% suppression of wild populations.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe investigated the impact of tetracycline and its analogues on the phenotype of OX513A from the perspective of possible routes and levels of environmental exposure. We determined the minimum concentration of tetracycline and its analogues that will allow an increased survivorship and found these to be greater than the maximum concentration of tetracyclines found in known Ae. aegypti breeding sites and their surrounding areas. Furthermore, we determined that OX513A parents fed tetracycline are unable to pre-load their progeny with sufficient antidote to increase their survivorship. Finally, we studied the changes in concentration of tetracycline in the mass production rearing water of OX513A and the developing insect.Conclusion/SignificanceTogether, these studies demonstrate that potential routes of exposure of OX513A individuals to tetracycline and its analogues in the environment are not expected to increase the survivorship of OX513A.

297) Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India
Autor: Singhi, Manju; Purohit, Anil; Chattopadhyay, Sushmita
Assunto: Calotropis procera; Dengue vectors; Larvicide; Methanol extracted latex
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 142-146, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement

298) Long-term Effects of Carbohydrate Availability on Mating Success of Newly Eclosed Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Males
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Villiard, Alexandra; Gaugler, Randy
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Carbohydrate; Fitness; SIT; Sugar
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 308-314, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Sugar availability varies greatly in nature, and determining how this affects male mosquito fitness is essential for understanding population dynamics. We allowed male Aedes albopictus (Skuse) carbohydrate access for increasing intervals of time immediately after eclosion and we evaluated their fitness by comparing mortality, mating success, and sperm transfer. We compared individual male Ae. albopictus, which were offered water or 20% sucrose solution for 24, 48, or 72 h. As predicted, there were significant increases in fitness for each additional day of sucrose access. Following sugar exposure, we allowed males daily access to three virgin females. We assessed mating success through observation of spermatozoa in the female spermathecae. When individuals of the same age were compared, males with sugar access exhibited significantly greater mating success than water-treated males in all treatments. The total number of spermathecae filled by males with sugar access in the 48- and 72-h treatments was also significantly greater on some days; these were 3-5 d posteclosion in the 48-h treatment and 5-6 d posteclosion in the 72-h treatment. We conclude that extended sugar access at eclosion is important for maximizing fitness in male Ae. albopictus and should be applicable to sterile male release efforts, especially when laboratory-reared males suffered from other disadvantages. We recommend retaining adult males for 3 d posteclosion prior to release to improve their mating success in male release initiatives.

299) Ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Tennyson, Samuel; Ravindran, John; Eapen, Alex; William, John
Assunto: Ageratum houstonianum; Crude leaf extracts; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Ovicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. 3, p. 199-203, 2015.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: To study the ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum (A. houstonianum) leaf extracts against the eggs of vector mosquitoes and to develop additional tools for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods: The ovicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf extracts of A. houstonianum were assayed for their toxicity against the eggs of three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L of the crude extract. Results: All extracts showed activity. The minimum concentration at which maximum egg mortality rate of 80% and above obtained was 10.0 mg/L in the case of methanol and ethyl acetate against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti respectively and 5.0 mg/L in ethyl acetate extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. One hundred per cent egg mortality was obtained only in ethyl acetate extract at 20.0 mg/L against Aedes aegypti. Conclusions: The crude leaf extracts of A. houstonianum did not exhibit potential ovicidal activity against the vector species studied. Among the crude leaf extracts tested, the activity of ethyl acetate extract was more effective. More research on the screening of phytochemicals as a potential ovicidal agent is warranted to add more tools in the control of mosquitoes.

300) From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jessica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Assunto: Human diseases; Mathematical models; Sterility; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Spreading; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Landscape; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes, and use this pattern of sterility to facilitate their spread into naive, uninfected host populations. These bacteria were recently introduced into Aedes aegypti, a species naturally free of Wolbachia, and the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia are currently being used as a biological tool to control dengue transmission in many countries, including Brazil. We performed a series of laboratory and field assays and then created mathematical models in order to understand the invasive ability of the wMel Wolbachia strain in Brazilian Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. We show that wMel infection had no detrimental fitness effects on its new Brazilian host, and would theoretically be able to successfully invade the mosquito populations in the five distinct urban landscapes that we studied. We found that Wolbachia spread more easily where the local mosquito population was smaller. The size of the local human population did not overtly influence the likelihood of spread. These findings provide insight into how the nature of different urban landscapes will affect the likelihood of Wolbachia spreading effectively, which will greatly assist future releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Brazil as part of the Eliminate Dengue Program.

301) 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats
Autor: Yoshida, Toshiaki
Assunto: Biomonitoring;ÿMetabolism;ÿMosquito repellent;ÿToxicokinetics;ÿUrine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Biomarkers, v. 20, n. 1, p. 71-76, 2015
ISSN: 1354-750X
Resumo: A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure

302) Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; Masi, Marco; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Evidente, Antonio
Assunto: Dengue fever; Fungal phytotoxins; Papyracillic acid derivatives; Biting deterrence; Structure activity relationships; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medicinal Chemistry Research, v. 24, n. 11, p. 3981-3989, 2015
ISSN: 1054-2523
Resumo: Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid, seiridin and sphaeropsidin A for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti. Because papyracillic acid previously showed a strong mosquito biting deterrent activity, five already known and six new derivatives were prepared in the current study to carry out a structure-activity relationship. All the compounds showed biting deterrence higher than the solvent control, ethanol. Biting deterrent activity of compounds 8, 9, 10 and 12 with biting deterrent index values of 0.76, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.74 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET, which was 25 nmol/cm(2). None of these compounds showed any larvicidal activity at the highest testing dose of 100 ppm. The bioassay results indicated that the structural feature responsible for the activity of compound 1 was probably the furanone ring. The presence of the alternative substituted cyclobutene, oxiran or substituted 4H-1,2,3-oxadiazine rings in some derivatives may be responsible for an increase in activity.

303) (E)-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil
Autor: Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patricia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique
Assunto: Chemical composition; Insecticide resistance; Acaricidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Pyrethroid resistance; Diptera culicidae; Medicinal plants; Aromatic plants; Vector control; Oleogum resin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with a-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and beta-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and a-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

304) Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of marine sponge Cliona celata (Grant) extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Kinsalin, Arokia Valan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Mosquito larvicide; Ovicide; Repellent; Cliona celata; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 8, n. 1, p. 29-34, 2015
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent properties of solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celata (C. celata) (Grant) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) Liston. Methods: Marine sponge C celata was thoroughly washed with distilled water and shade dried for 48 h. Then the sponges were homogenized and extracted sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Larvicidal and ovicidal activities were tested at four different concentrations viz., 62.5, 125.0, 250.0 and 500.0 ppm. For repellent study extracts were taken in three different concentrations viz., 5.0, 2.5, 1.0 mg/cm(2) at. Results: Among the three solvent extracts of C. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at 500 ppm against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. celata methanol extract were recorded as 80.61 and 220.81 ppm against An stephensi larvae respectively. High ovicidal activity of 91.2% was recorded at 500 ppm concentration of methanol extract. The haxane extract was found to be. the most effective protectant against the adult female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to 245 min at 5 mg/cm(2) dosage against An. stephensi adults. Conclusions: The screening results suggest that the hexane and methanol extracts of C. celata are promising in mosquito control. Considering these bioactivities, C. celata could be probed further to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules.

305) Larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized using Morinda citrifolia root extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and its other effect on non-target fish
Autor: Suman, Thodhal Yoganandham; Ravindranath, Radhika Rajasree Santha; Elumalai, Devan; Kaleena, Patheri Kuny;Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Perumal, Pachiappan; Aranganathan, Lakshminarayanan; Chitrarasu, Paneer Selvam
Assunto: Infrared spectroscopy; Fourier transforms; Pesticides; Diffraction; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Roots; Vectors; Habitat; Spectroscopy; Alcoholics; Titanium dioxide; Ionizing radiation; Nanoparticles; Culex quinquefasciatus; Poecilia reticulata; Aedes aegypti; Morinda citrifolia; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. 3, p. 224-230, 2015.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: To assess the larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO sub(2)NP sub(S)) synthesized from the root aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The M. citrifolia broth solution was prepared by taking 8 g of the powdered root of M. citrifolia in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask along with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled for 5 min. About 20 mL of M. citrifolia root extract was added into the 80 mL of an aqueous solution of 5 mmol/L TiO(OH) sub(2) for the reduction under continuous stirring for 4 h at 50 degree C. Synthesized TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Toxicity studies were carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) synthesized by M. citrifolia root extract showed band at 3 426 cm super(-1), 1 637 cm super(-1) and 714 cm super(-1). The 3 426 cm super(-1) showed O-H stretching due to alcoholic group; 1 637 cm super(-1) showed N-H bend due to alcoholic group. In particular, the 1 637 cm super(-1) indicated the presence of H bend bond for 1 degree for proteins. A peak was observed around 714 cm super(-1) due to Ti-O-O bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the spherical nature of the nanoparticles with a size of 20.46-39.20 nm. The biosynthesized TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) showed maximum activity against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the aqueous extract of M. citrifolia. Toxicity studies revealed no toxicity towards Poecilia reticulata at LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) doses of TiO sub(2)NP sub(S). Conclusions: TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) could be used along with Poecilia reticulata in integrated vector control.

306) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban Areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log(10) TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log(10) TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

307) The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert
Assunto: Diets; Feeding experiments; Vaccines; Age determination; Hygiene; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Sugar; Age composition; Age; Vector-borne diseases; Vectors; Models; Blood; I.R. spectroscopy; Dengue; Thorax; Infants; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 1070-1075, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (> or = 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or Infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water + or - blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group ( or = 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

308) Permethrin-Treated Clothing as Protection against the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Extent and Duration of Protection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Banks, Sarah DeRaedt; Orsborne, James; Gezan, Salvador A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsey, Steve W.; Logan, James G.
Assunto: Randomized controlled-trial; Lasting insecticidal nets; Water container covers; Personal protection; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Impregnated uniforms; Pressurized sprays; Residual activity; Efficacy; Prevention
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 10, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: IntroductionDengue transmission by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, occurs indoors and outdoors during the day. Personal protection of individuals, particularly when outside, is challenging. Here we assess the efficacy and durability of different types of insecticide-treated clothing on laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti.MethodsStandardised World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) cone tests and arm-in-cage assays were used to assess knockdown (KD) and mortality of Ae. aegypti tested against factory-treated fabric, home-dipped fabric and microencapsulated fabric. Based on the testing of these three different treatment types, the most protective was selected for further analysis using arm-in cage assays with the effect of washing, ultra-violet light, and ironing investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography.ResultsEfficacy varied between the microencapsulated and factory dipped fabrics in cone testing. Factory-dipped clothing showed the greatest effect on KD (3 min 38.1%; 1 hour 96.5%) and mortality (97.1%) with no significant difference between this and the factory dipped school uniforms. Factory-dipped clothing was therefore selected for further testing. Factory dipped clothing provided 59% (95% CI = 49.2%-66.9%) reduction in landing and a 100% reduction in biting in arm-in-cage tests. Washing duration and technique had a significant effect, with insecticidal longevity shown to be greater with machine washing (LW50 = 33.4) compared to simulated hand washing (LW50 = 17.6). Ironing significantly reduced permethrin content after 1 week of simulated use, with a 96.7% decrease after 3 months although UV exposure did not reduce permethrin content within clothing significantly after 3 months simulated use.ConclusionPermethrin-treated clothing may be a promising intervention in reducing dengue transmission. However, our findings also suggest that clothing may provide only short-term protection due to the effect of washing and ironing, highlighting the need for improved fabric treatment techniques.

309) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

310) Parasite Prevalence Corresponds to Host Life History in a Diverse Assemblage of Afrotropical Birds and Haemosporidian Parasites
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lutz, Holly L.; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Engel, Joshua I.; Bell, Jeffrey A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Bates, John M.; Hackett, Shannon J.; Weckstein, Jason D.
Assunto: Avian malaria parasites; Cytochrome b lineages; Blood parasites; Feeding success; Haemoproteus haemosporida; Neotropical savanna; Encephalitis virus; Sexual selection; Aedes aegypti; Forest birds
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi.

311) Effects of artesunate treatment on Plasmodium gallinaceum transmission in the vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Pruck-Ngern, Mintra; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Buddhirakkul, Prayute; Saiwichai, Tawee
Assunto: Artesunate; Avian malaria; Gametocytocidal action; Transmission; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Veterinary Parasitology, v. 207, n. 1-2, p. 161-165, 2015
ISSN: 0304-4017
Resumo: In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy is an effective and economical way for controlling malaria. Development of anti-malarial drugs that target pathogenic blood stage parasites and gametocytes is preferable for the treatment as it can alleviate the host's morbidity and mortality and block transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. Recently, our laboratory has developed an in vivo transmission blocking assay that involves administration of 7 consecutive daily doses of a test compound into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. To compromise the cost and time for artesunate (ATN) treatment, this study aimed to investigate effects of a 5-day consecutive administration of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) ATN on P. gallinaceum infection in chickens and transmission to two natural vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Our study showed that the treatment with 10 mg/kg ATM for 7 days, but not 5 days, completely eliminated blood stage infections, prevented recrudescence and blocked gametocyte production and transmission of P. gallinaceum to its vectors, thereby confirming the potent schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activities of ATN. This regimen should be further evaluated in field trials. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

312) Phytochemistry AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Spermacoce latifolia AUBL. (Rubiaceae) IN THE CONTROL OF Aedes aegypti L. (Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oliveira Firak Cosmoski, Ana Claudia; Roel, Antonia Railda; de Andrade Porto, Karla Rejane; Matias, Rosemary; Honer, Michel Robin; Motti, Priscila Rezende
Assunto: Vector control; Plant active ingredients; Plant insecticides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Bioscience Journal, v. 31, n. 5, p. 1512-1518, 2015
ISSN: 1981-3163
Resumo: In the search for alternative ways to control Aedes aegypti with minimal environmental impact and in a manner that preserves human health, this study sought to evaluate the larvicidal effect of the invasive and antioxidant Spermacoce latifolia plant by performing a phytochemical study. Phytochemical screenings were done according to characterization reactions and thin layer chromatography. Phenolics compounds content (Folin-Ciocalteu's) and flavonoids (AlCl3) spectrophotometric was performed, and the antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The phytochemical results revealed the presence of phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, steroid, free triterpene, coumarin, and alkaloid compounds. The content of total phenols (TPs) (482.7 +/- 1.8 mg mgGA g(-1)) and flavonoids (165.4 +/- 1.5 mg QE g(-1)) accounted for the antioxidant activity of 150 mu g mL(-1) methanolic extract. In the proposed bioassays, groups of 25 third-stage larvae were challenged at different concentrations of plant crude extract (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1 mg mL(-1)) of weight per volume in four replicates. In multiple concentration tests, the concentrations were selected to range from 0 % to 100 % mortality after 24 hours of contact with the solution. Toxicity was defined as the inhibition or total inactivity of the larvae. It was concluded that the methanol extract had an LC50 of 0.625 mg mL(-1), indicating its potential use as a larvicide against A. aegypti and linking its activity to its phenolic and flavonoid components.

313) Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands
Autor: Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe
Assunto: Biological insecticide; Mosquito control; Field enclosure; Non-biting midge; Non-target invertebrate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 115, p. 272-278, 2015
ISSN: 0147-6513
Resumo: To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on nontarget aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on Polypedilum nubifer and seems to affect Tanytarsus curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

314) Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan
Autor: Balasubramani, Govindasamy Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India, perumalarticles@gmail.com Govindasamy Govindasamy Balasubramani Balasubramani Balasubramani, Govindasamy , Ramkumar, Rajendiran Rajendiran Rajendiran Ramkumar Ramkumar Ramkumar, Rajendiran , Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Krishnaveni Krishnaveni Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy , Sowmiya, Rajamani Rajamani Rajamani Sowmiya Sowmiya Sowmiya, Rajamani , Deepak, Paramasivam Paramasivam Paramasivam Deepak Deepak Deepak, Paramasivam , Arul, Dhayalan Dhayalan Dhayalan Arul Arul Arul, Dhayalan , Perumal, Pachiappan Pachiappan Pachiappan Perumal Perumal Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Infrared spectroscopy; Human diseases; Fourier transforms; Leaves; Malaria; Pest control; Diffraction; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Swietenia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, v. 148, p. 1-8, 2015.
ISSN: 1011-1344
Resumo: A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl sub(4)) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C sub(29)H sub(58)O sub(2)) attributes highest peak area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC sub(50)) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors.

315) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica-a most effective method for mosquito control
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, Lourduraj John; Praba, V. Lakshmi; Mani, C.; Praveen, M.
Assunto: Pest control; Hosts; Toxicity tests; Mortality causes; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Absorption; Malaria; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Azadirachta indica;
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 4, p. 2956-2963, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit major communicable diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so on. Vector control is important in epidemic disease situations as there is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for non-targeted organisms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), and their effects on mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were assessed. The synthesised AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 442 plus or minus 1.5 nm with an average size of 41-60 nm. The XRD data showed six well-defined diffraction peaks, corresponding to a relative intensity of the crystal structure of metallic silver 36.42, 100.00, 53.70, 14.20, 16.05, and 6.79, respectively. The FT-IR data showed strong prominent peaks in different ranges, reflecting its complex nature. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs synthesized from the neem leaves under investigation (0.07-25 mg/l) for 24 h; this revealed larvicidal activity of AgNPs with LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 0.006 and 0.04 mg/l for A. aegypti, respectively. Further, the LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values were also identified as 0.047 and 0.23 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The result obtained from this study presents biosynthesized silver nanoparticle from A. indica as the biolarvicidal agent with the most potential for mosquito control.

316) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

317) Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Albizia lebbeck; Leaf; Seed; Ovicide; Adulticide; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 5, p. 1949-1961, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC50 and LC90 values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

318) Community-effectiveness of temephos for dengue vector control: a systematic literature review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: George, Leyanna; Lenhart, Audrey; Toledo, Joao; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Velayudhan, Raman; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge; Horstick, Olaf
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Integrated control; Abate larvicide; Field; Albopictus; Thailand; Population; Argentina; Malathion; Villages
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley), grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies). All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or-as in the five remaining studies-failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with other interventions. There is no evidence to suggest that temephos use is associated with reductions in dengue transmission.

319) Oviposition of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ovitraps with two Larvicidals in El Fuerte, Sinaloa, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solis-Valdez, Christian B.; Barrientos-Contreras, Juanita; Escobar-Gonzalez, Baldemar; Gpe Zepeda-Cavazos, Irma; Ariadna Rodriguez-Castro, Violeta; Quiroz-Martinez, Humberto
Assunto: Lethal ovitrap; Field evaluation; Mosquito larvae; Temephos; Spinosad; Australia; Impact; Brazil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 3, p. 575-580, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: The selection of oviposition sites by Aedes aegypti L. females was evaluated at El Fuerte, Sinaloa, Mexico. The study was done with ovitraps that contained paper strips as oviposition substrate, and water with spinosad, temephos, and water alone (check). Every week, oviposition substrates were removed and examined for egg laying. Results showed preference for spinosad with an oviposition activity index of 0.35 and for temephos 0.19 although the index was positive, on some sampling dates, they had repellent effect.

320) Boric acid ovicidal trap for the management of Aedes species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bhami, L. Charlet; Das, S. Sam Manohar
Assunto: Aedes; Boric acid; Larvicidal assay; Ovicidal assay; Ovicidal trap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 147-152, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: The use of low concentrations of boric acid as a potential and effective control agent for the eggs and immature stages of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is found to be safe and effective as compared to synthetic chemical insecticides. The study aims to determine the ovicidal concentration of boric acid, its effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the larval mortality concentration for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.Methods: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid was determined by incubating the eggs in different concentrations of boric acid (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Different dilutions of boric acid were taken in the oviposition cup and the ovicidal concentration, effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the mean survival/mortality rate of III and IV instar Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined.Results: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid for 100% mortality in Aedes sp eggs is 1%. Effective concentration for the oviposition attraction is 0.5%. At 1% concentration, larvae of both the species died within 24 h.Interpretation & conclusion: Boric acid is less toxic compared to different pesticides, and in low concentrations, it attracts the ovipositing female Aedes sp as well as fertile males. Dilute boric acid solution is an effective ovitrap since the eggs laid by mosquitoes either die or the larvae that hatch out from them do not survive in boric acid. Boric acid kills the males that come in contact with the solution, which are attracted to the trap by the females hovering around.

321) Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed
Assunto: Dengue vector; Black pepper; GC-MS; Superoxide; Carboxylesterase; Larvicide; Histopathology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4239-4249, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77 %) and double dagger-elemene (10.42 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58 %), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95 %), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1A ,4a,4aa,8aa)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30 %), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48 %), phytol (4.22 %), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78 %) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39 %). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of alpha- and beta-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti.

322) Lethal response of the dengue vectors to the plant extracts from family Anacardiaceae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yousaf, Ali; Zuharah, Wan Fatma
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 5, n. 10, p. 812-818, 2015
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: To explore the larvicidal activities of different plant parts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora (M. fasciculiflora), Gluta renghas (G. renghas), Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica from family Anacardiaceae against the laboratory and field strains of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus).Methods: Leaves and bark parts of study plants were collected from Taman Nageri, Bukit Pancor and Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Leaves and stem barks were separated, air dried, ground and extracted with methanol by Soxhlet apparatus. Crude extract was obtained by evaporating the extra solvent in rotary evaporator. The 4th instar larvae from laboratory and field strains were exposed to 50-1300 mg/L concentrations according to World Health Organization standard larval bioassay. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure.Results: Highest larvicidal activity was exhibited by G. renghas bark extract against Ae. albopictus laboratory strain at 600 mg/L. G. renghas also showed the highest larvicidal activities for other strains as compared to other plant extracts, followed by Mangifera indica and M. fasciculiflora and Anacardium occidentale.Conclusions: Ae. albopictus has been found to be more susceptible as compare to Aedes aegypti in both laboratory and field strains in this study. G. renghas and M. fasciculiflora were tested for the first time and exhibited prompting larvicidal activities against dengue vectors. These results revealed that all the plants especially G. renghas and M. fasciculiflora have the higher larvicidal activities and can be used for the control of dengue vector as a new environment friendly, target specific and low cost phytochemical.

323) Larvicidal activity of a novel isoquinoline type pigment from Fusarium moniliforme KUMBF1201 against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pradeep, F. Stanly; Palaniswamy, M.; Ravi, S.; Thangamani, A.; Pradeep, B. V.
Assunto: Fusarium moniliforme; Isoquinoline pigment; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biocontrol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Process Biochemistry, v. 50, n. 9, p. 1479-1486, 2015
ISSN: 1359-5113
Resumo: The aim of this study is to isolate a novel fungal pigment from Fusarium moniliforme, so F. moniliforme KUMBF1201 a soil isolate from paddy field has been selected in this study. A new 2-(4-((3E,5E)-14-aminotetradeca-3,5-dienyloxy)butyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-4-ol (ATDBTHIQN) compound was isolated and characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of a fungal strain F. monillforme KUMBF1201. The structure of ATDBTHIQN compound was established by detailed spectroscopic analysis by UV, FTIR, MS and NMR. This compound exhibited potent mosquito larvicidal activity against third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (LC50 =237.0 and 276.4 ppm, r(2) = 0.972 and 0.975) and Anopheles stephensi (LC50 =335.6 and 258.1 ppm, r(2) =0.987 and 0.977). The outcome suggests that the use of F. moniliforme KUMBF1201 can be rapid, environment friendly mosquito larvicides, which can form a novel approach to development of effective biolarvicides for controlling the target vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

324) Larvicidal activity of leaf extracts and seselin from Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mukandiwa, L.; Eloff, J. N.; Naidoo, V.
Assunto: Mosquito control; Biopesticides; Natural products
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: South African Journal of Botany, v. 100, p. 169-173, 2015
ISSN: 0254-6299
Resumo: The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of various diseases in both humans and livestock. Mosquito control focuses on reducing the longevity as well as the population of mosquitoes to lessen their damage on human and animal health. It entails several strategies such as environmental management, insecticide treatments, and molecular entomological approaches. Environmental management centres on elimination of breeding sites, however mosquitoes can breed in sites that cannot be eliminated. Resultantly, focus is turned onto mosquito larvae control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of extracts and compounds from Clausena anisata against A. aegypti. The World Health Organization guidelines for testing of mosquito larvicides were used. The acetone, dichloromethane and hexane crude leaf extracts were evaluated in a preliminary screening for larvicidal activity at the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm. Batches of 25 third-instar larvae were transferred into cups each containing test solutions and larval mortality was recorded 24 h and 48 h after exposure. Acetone was used as the solvent control whilst permethrin was used as a positive control. Only the n-hexane extract caused mortality at the tested concentrations, thus it was further tested at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 ppm and had LC50 values of 68.30 and 59.65 ppm after 24 h and 48 h respectively. A stored hexane extract, of 2 months, was also evaluated under simulated field conditions to establish stability of extract. It caused about 90% mortality when tested at 100 ppm. The n-hexane extract was subjected to open column chromatography on silica gel to isolate the active compound. The isolated compound was identified as the pyranocoumarin, seselin. Dose dependent mortality was observed in the larvae exposed to seselin. The LC50 values at 24 and 48 h were 13.90 and 9.96 ppm respectively. Results obtained from this study indicate a potential of the incorporation of C. anisata extracts into the control of mosquito populations. (C) 2015 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

325) Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fernandez-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.
Assunto: Malaria Mosquitos; Preferences; Humans; Genes; Women
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled Genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and nonidentical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.

326) Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Assunto: Trichoderma atroviride; Culture filtrates; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 16, p. 12559-12565, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 degrees C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

327) Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Torres, Rosalinda C.; Garbo, Alicia G.; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anacardium occidentale; Dengue vector; Larvicidal bioassay; Polarity-based fractionation; Thin-layer chromatography
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3699-3702, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95 % EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

328) Creams formulated with ocimum gratissimum L. and lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu
Assunto: Ocimum gratissimum; Lantana camara; Aedes aegypti; Mosquito repellent formulation; Synergism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science, v. 15, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE: MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE: MCE and HF: HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET.

329) Prior Exposure to DEET Interrupts Positive and Negative Responses to Olfactory Cues in Drosophila Melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Junker, Robert R.; Klupsch, Katharina; Paulus, Justina
Assunto: Attraction; Deterrence; Insect behaviour; Olfaction; Repellence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Insect Behavior, v. 28, n. 1, p. 1-14, 2015
ISSN: 0892-7553
Resumo: While the high efficiency of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) in protecting humans against disease-transmitting arthropods is unquestioned, the mode of action of DEET on a physiological and behavioural level remains debated. Recent advances demonstrated that DEET modulates the function of the insects' odorant receptor complex. In this study we aimed to evaluate how DEET affects the behaviour of insects towards attractive and repellent odours. In a series of experiments with larvae and adults of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, we were able to provide the first evidence that DEET, applied in a gaseous phase, interrupts not only positive but also negative responses to olfactory cues indicating that insects treated with DEET lose the ability to perceive and respond to odours. This effect was also observed if insects were exposed to DEET prior to but not during the behavioural experiments, but was reversible after some time. DEET functioned as deterrent in experiments where insects had direct contact to the substance. This dual function - the camouflage of hosts from a distance and the deterrence upon contact - may be the key for the high efficiency of DEET.

330) Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Curcuna Longa; Essential Oil; Extract; Larvicide; Deterrent; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 979-986, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 A mu g/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC50 values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC50 values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin.

331) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

332) Phytochemical profile and larvicidal properties of seed essential oil from Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan
Assunto: Nigella sativa; Phytochemical composition; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3385-3391, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study deals with investigation of larvicidal activity and their chemical constituents of the essential oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae). Totally, 18 chemical compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis. Thymol (19.13 %) and alpha-phellandrene (14.9 %) were identified as major chemical components followed by camphor (12.14 %), borneol (11.31 %), and carvacrol (8.65 %). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that the essential oil were evaluated against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC50 = 196.9 and LC90 = 523.5 ppm (A. aegypti), LC50 = 88.1 and LC90 = 272.4 ppm (A.stephensi), and LC50 = 241.6 and LC90 = 545.4 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC50 = 99.9 and LC90 = 300.8 ppm (A. aegypti), LC50 = 53.9 and LC90 = 172.6 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC50 = 141.7 and LC90 = 364.0 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil from seeds of N. sativa is inexpensive food formulation and new source of natural larvicidal agent.

333) Household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors: comparison between urban and rural areas of Kolkata, India
Autor: Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K.
Assunto: Human diseases; Biotopes; Wastes; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Epidemics; Abundance; Habitat; Breeding; Dengue; Multivariate analysis; Plastics; Seasonal variations; Degradability; Larvae; Hazardous wastes; Urban areas; Rural areas; Domestic wastes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production.

334) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

335) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

336) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

337) Insecticide susceptibility evaluation in Aedes aegypti populations of Caldas, Colombia, in 2007 and 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Conde, Marcela; Orjuela, Lorena I.; Augusto Castellanos, Cesar; Herrera-Varela, Manuela; Licastro, Susana; Quinones, Martha L.
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue; Insecticide Resistance; Insecticides; Organophosphate; Temephos; Vector Control; Colombia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biomedica, v. 35, n. 1, p. 43-52, 2015
ISSN: 0120-4157
Resumo: Continuous use of insecticides for the control of dengue transmission may lead to decreased susceptibility levels in mosquito vector populations. Timely monitoring is necessary to ensure detection of any potential resistance problems.Objective: To determine the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti to insecticides used in public health in Caldas, Colombia, during 2007 and 2011.Materials and methods: Susceptibility tests to the organophosphates temephos, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos methyl, as well as to the pyrethroid deltamethrin, were carried out using standard World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocols.Results: In 2007, resistance to temephos was detected in Ae. aegypti populations from La Dorada with resistance ratios of 11.5 and 13.3, prompting the Caldas Health Department to suspend the use of this larvicide. A reduction in resistance ratios to temephos was observed in 2011, as well as an apparent resistance to pirimiphos methyl. All Ae. aegypti populations tested were susceptible to deltamethrin, malathion and fenitrothion in both years.Conclusion: Evaluating the resistance ratios during two distinct periods allowed a decrease in resistance to be detected after suspension of the use of temephos. Surveillance of mosquito populations for changes in susceptibility levels to the insecticides used in dengue control programs is therefore recommended.

338) Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Jang, Myung Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Millettia pinnata; Fabaceae; Seed; Natural mosquito larvicide; Flavonoids; Fatty acids; Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Octopaminergic receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and A. aegypti as well as wild A. albopictus. Efficacy of 12 experimental liquid formulations containing M. pinnata seed methanol extract and hydrodistillate (0.5-10.0% liquids) was also assessed.Methods: The contact toxicities of all compounds and 12 formulations were compared with those of two larvicides, temephos and fenthion and the commercial temephos 200 g/L emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The possible mode of larvicidal action of the constituents was elucidated using biochemical methods. Larval mortality and cAMP level were analyzed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparison method.Results: Potent toxicity was produced by karanjin, oleic acid, karanjachromene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, pongamol, pongarotene, and elaidic acid toward C. pipiens pallens larvae (24 h LC50, 14.61-28.22 mg/L) and A. aegypti larvae (16.13-37.61 mg/L). Against wild A. albopictus larvae, oleic acid (LC50, 18.79 mg/L) and karanjin (35.26 mg/L) exhibited potent toxicity. All constituents were less toxic than either temephos or fenthion. Structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length, and the geometric isomerism of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the main site of action of the flavonoids, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. The mechanism of larvicidal action of elaidic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid might be due to interference with the octopaminergic system. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid might act on both AChE and octopaminergic receptor. M. pinnata seed extract or hydrodistillate applied as 10% liquid provided 100% mortality toward the three mosquito species larvae and the efficacy of the liquids was comparable to that of temephos 200 g/L EC.Conclusion: Further studies will warrant possible applications of M. pinnata seed-derived products as potential larvicides for the control of mosquito populations.

339) Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K.; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K. Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Salvia species; Beta - Eudesmol; Guaiol; 13-epi-manool; Biting deterrent; Larvicide; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles quadrimaculatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 63, n. 2, p. 447-456, 2015
ISSN: 0021-8561
Resumo: The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), alpha-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and beta-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), beta-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), beta-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; alpha-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), beta-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 mu g/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds beta-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of beta-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

340) Mechanistic basis for morphological damage induced by essential oil from Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolia, on larvae of Stegomyia aegypti, the dengue vector
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pratti, Drielle L. A.; Ramos, Alessandro C.; Scherer, Rodrigo; Cruz, Zilma M. A.; Silva, Ary G.
Assunto: Aroeira; Christmas berry; Larvicide; Aedes; Cullicidae; Anacardiaceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue has become the subject of public health programs worldwide. The lack of a Vaccine and the high environmental risk of synthetic insecticides, arouse the interest in natural products against this vector. This study aimed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of ripe fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi; to evaluate the essential oil effect on mortality of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1792) larvae; and to characterize the structural damage suffered by larvae and their association with different contents of essential oil.Methods: Ripe fruits and seeds were crunched and their essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation, purified, and its phytochemical analysis was carried out through High Resolution Gas Chromatography, coupled with Mass Spectrometry. This essential oil was diluted in a 10-point gradient of 86.22 - 862.20 ppm, at regular intervals of 86.22 ppm. Each point received 50 larvae and the assessments of surviving were made at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. Structural damage was assessed through measurements of thickness with exoskeleton, evaluating the integrity of the head, thorax, abdominal segments, and air siphon, using ImageJ (R) software. Statistical data analysis was carried out through Logistic Regression and Discriminant Analysis.Results: 56 substances were identified, corresponding to 81.67% of the essential oil composition. Larvae were dose-dependent susceptible to the essential oil; the concentration produced a significant effect on larval mortality. Among the major deformations found in the larvae, it was detected inhibition of chitin synthesis by the activity of the oil, thus reducing the deposition of cuticle layers.Conclusion: The essential oil caused death in exposed larvae after 72 hours, in a dose-dependent manner. It also changed the structure of exposed larvae, indicating a direct effect on larval exoskeleton. The results open up possibilities for the use of natural products as an alternative to control dipterans.

341) Fitness cost in field and laboratory Aedes aegypti populations associated with resistance to the insecticide temephos
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Araujo Diniz, Diego Felipe; Varjal de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice; de Mendonca Santos, Elona Maria; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa; Helvecio, Elisama; de Carvalho-Leandro, Danilo; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lucia; Junqueira Ayres, Constancia Flavia
Assunto: Culicidae; Insecticide Resistance; Organophosphate; Temephos; Trade-Offs; Fitness
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 662, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The continued use of chemical insecticides in the context of the National Program of Dengue Control in Brazil has generated a high selective pressure on the natural populations of Aedes aegypti, leading to their resistance to these compounds in the field. Fitness costs have been described as adaptive conSequences of resistance. This study evaluated the biological and reproductive performance of A. aegypti strains and a field population resistant to temephos, the main larvicide used for controlling mosquitoes.Methods: Comparative tests were performed with a resistant field population from the municipality of Arcoverde, Pernambuco State, Brazil, with a high rate of temephos resistance (RR = 226.6) and three isogenetic laboratory strains from the same origin (Araripina municipality, Pernambuco): RecR (RR = 283.6); RecRNEx (RR = 250.5), a strain under a process of resistance reversion; and RecRev (RR = 2.32), a reversed susceptible strain used as an experimental control.Results: Our study revealed that the absence of selective pressure imposed by exposure to temephos, for five consecutive generations, led to a discrete reduction of the resistance ratio and the response of the detoxifying enzymes. Most of the 19 biological parameters were impaired in the resistant strains and field population. The analysis of the fertility life table confirmed the presence of reproductive disadvantages for the resistant individuals. Similarly, the longevity, body size, and total energetic resources were also lower for the resistant females, except for the last two parameters in the field females (Arcoverde). In contrast, the sex ratio and embryonic viability suffered no interference in all strains or population evaluated, regardless of their status of resistance to temephos.Conclusions: The reproductive potential and survival of the resistant individuals were compromised. The parameters most affected were the larval development time, fecundity, net reproduction rate, and the generational doubling time. These fitness costs in the natural population and laboratory strains investigated are likely associated with maintaining the metabolic mechanism of resistance to temephos. Our results show that despite these costs, the highly temephos resistant populations can compensate for these losses and successfully overcome the control actions that are based on the use of chemical insecticides.

342) Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the mosquito sex determination cascade
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Price, Dana C.; Egizi, Andrea; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Doublesex; Mab-3; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex pipiens; Sterile insect technique; Vector biology; Sex determination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 15, n. 108, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2148
Resumo: The doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation of many metazoan species, including the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). As in other studied dipteran dsx homologs, the gene maintains functionality via evolutionarily conserved protein domains and sex-specific alternative splicing. The upstream factors that regulate splicing of dsx and the manner in which they do so however remain variable even among closely related organisms. As the induction of sex ratio biases is a central mode of action in many emerging molecular insecticides, it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors.Results: Here we report the full-length gene sequence of the doublesex gene in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cxqdsx) and its male and female-specific isoforms. Cxqdsx maintains characteristics possibly derived in the Culicinae and present in the Aedes aegypti dsx gene (Aeadsx) such as gain of exon 3b and the presence of Rbp1 cis-regulatory binding sites, and also retains presumably ancestral attributes present in Anopheles gambiae such as maintenance of a singular female-specific exon 5. Unlike in Aedes aegypti, we find no evidence for intron gain in the female transcript(s), yet recover a second female isoform generated via selection of an alternate splice donor. Utilizing next-gen sequence (NGS) data, we complete the Aeadsx gene model and identify a putative core promoter region in both Aeadsx and Cxqdsx. Also utilizing NGS data, we construct a full-length gene sequence for the dsx homolog of the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens form pipiens (Cxpipdsx). Analysis of peptide evolutionary rates between Cxqdsx and Cxpipdsx (both members of the Culex pipiens complex) shows the male-specific portion of the transcript to have evolved rapidly with respect to female-specific and common regions.Conclusions: As in other studied insects, doublesex maintains sex-specific splicing and conserved doublesex/mab-3 domains in the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. The cis-regulated splicing of Cxqdsx does not appear to follow either currently described mosquito model (for An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti); each of the three mosquito genera exhibit evidence of unique cis-regulatory mechanisms. The male-specific dsx terminus exhibits rapid peptide evolutionary rates, even among closely related sibling species.

343) Insensitivity to the Spatial Repellent Action of Transfluthrin in Aedes aegypti: A Heritable Trait Associated with Decreased Insecticide Susceptibility
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wagman, Joseph M.; Achee, Nicole L.; Grieco, John P.
Assunto: Pyrethroid Resistance; Odorant Receptor; Contact Irritant; Malaria Control; Vector Control; Host-Seeking; Mosquitos; Deet; Chemicals; Behavior
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: New vector control paradigms expanding the use of spatial repellents are promising, but there are many gaps in our knowledge about how repellents work and how their long-term use might affect vector populations over time. Reported here are findings from a series of in vitro studies that investigated the plasticity and heritability of spatial repellent (SR) behaviors in Aedes aegypti exposed to airborne transfluthrin, including results that indicate a possible link between repellent insensitivity and insecticide resistance.Methodology/principal findingsA dual-choice chamber system was used to observe directional flight behaviors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to passively emanating transfluthrin vapors (1.35 mg/m(3)). Individual SR responder and SR non-responder mosquitoes were identified, collected and maintained separately according to their observed phenotype. Subsequent testing included re-evaluation of behavioral responses in some mosquito cohorts as well as testing the progeny of selectively bred responder and non-responder mosquito strains through nine generations. At baseline (F-0 generation), transfluthrin actively repelled mosquitoes in the assay system. F-0 mosquitoes repelled upon initial exposure to transfluthrin vapors were no more likely to be repelled again by subsequent exposure 24h later, but repelled mosquitoes allowed to rest for 48h were subsequently repelled at a higher proportion than was observed at baseline. Selective breeding of SR responders for nine generations did not change the proportion of mosquitoes repelled in any generation. However, selective breeding of SR non-responders did produce, after four generations, a strain of mosquitoes that was insensitive to the SR activity of transfluthrin. Compared to the SR responder strain, the SR insensitive strain also demonstrated decreased susceptibility to transfluthrin toxicity in CDC bottle bioassays and a higher frequency of the V1016I(kdr) mutation.Conclusions/significanceSR responses to volatile transfluthrin are complex behaviors with multiple determinants in Ae. aegypti. Results indicate a role for neurotoxic irritation of mosquitoes by sub-lethal doses of airborne chemical as a mechanism by which transfluthrin can produce SR behaviors in mosquitoes. Accordingly, how prolonged exposure to sub-lethal doses of volatile pyrethroids might impact insecticide resistance in natural vector populations, and how already resistant populations might respond to a given repellent in the field, are important considerations that warrant further monitoring and study. Results also highlight the critical need to develop new repellent active ingredients with novel mechanisms of action.

344) Interaction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin with mosquito larval gut cells: Binding and internalization
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lekakarn, Hataikarn; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Boonserm, Panadda
Assunto: Lysinibacillus Sphaericus; Binary Toxin; Membrane Binding; Fluorescent Labeling; Internalization; Mosquito Larvae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, v. 132, p. 125-131, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2011
Resumo: The binary toxin produced by Lysinibacillus sphaericus is composed of BinA and BinB subunits. Together, but not separately, the two subunits are highly toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, but show no toxicity to Aedes aegypti. The molecular mechanism underlying intoxication has not been clearly elucidated. The present study compares the binding and the internalization of binary toxin into the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible C quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae with those of Bin-refractory A. aegypti. The guts from larvae fed with fluorescently labeled toxin were dissected and analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. When fed with a mixture of both components, co-localization of BinA and BinB was detected both on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of Culex larval gut cells. However, administration of BinA alone resulted in localization only on the cell membrane, whereas BinB alone was detected both on the cell membrane and inside the cytoplasm. In contrast, when a mixture of both components, or each individual component, was fed to Aedes larvae, BinA and BinB were unable to reach the cytoplasm and were localized only on the cell membrane. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the internalization of BinA is essential for toxicity, and that BinB is required for this internalization into susceptible larval gut cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

345) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Relative humidity; Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Mountains; Altitude; Epidemics; Dengue; Rainfall; Risk factors; Abundance; Vectors; Tourists; Climate change; Temperature; Humidity; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The local transmission of dengue fever was confirmed in five lowland urban areas in 2006, along with the first report of the primary vectors of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Subsequent studies revealed a wide distribution of Ae. aegypti in 2009, and the first locally acquired dengue fever case in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, during an epidemic in 2010. These records of a rapid expansion of dengue viruses and their primary vector, Ae. aegypti, in the Middle Mountain region and the more pronounced warming of mountains prompted us to investigate the altitudinal distribution and determinants of the abundance of dengue virus vectors in central Nepal. The first local transmission of chikungunya virus was recently reported from central Nepal in 2013. In this study, we document the distribution of Ae. aegypti and the secondary vector of dengue viruses, Aedes albopictus, from the lowlands (80 m) up to 2,100 m altitude in Dhunche, Rasuwa district. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of their abundances. The distribution extension of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

346) Asymmetric mating interference between two related mosquito species: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P.; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Emmanouel, Nickolaos
Assunto: Competitive displacement; Female monogamy; Aegypti diptera; Reproductive isolation; Sexual receptivity; Aedini diptera; Culicidae; Vectors; Strains; Greece
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. Albopictus developing quite higher population densities than Ae. Cretinus. The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females) females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. Cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. Albopictus females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. Cretinus females (31%) in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. Albopictus females with Ae. Cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. Cretinus females was weaker (4%). Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. Albopictus or Ae. Cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. Cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. Albopictus males, compared to 100% when Ae. Cretinus females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

347) Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret
Assunto: Pyrethroid; Mosquito; Bioassay; HRM; Vssc
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Insects, v. 6, n. 3, p. 658-685, 2015
ISSN: 2075-4450
Resumo: Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations.

348) Phylogenomic and functional analyses of salmon lice aquaporins uncover the molecular diversity of the superfamily in Arthropoda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stavang, Jon Anders; Chauvigne, Francois; Kongshaug, Heidi; Cerda, Joan; Nilsen, Frank; Finn, Roderick Nigel
Assunto: Aquaporin; Aquaglyceroporin; Arthropod; Crustacea; Copepod; Salmon louse; Lepeoptheirus; Parasite; Atlantic salmon; Evolution; Osmoregulation; Fluid homeostasis; Permeability; Selectivity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: An emerging field in biomedical research is focusing on the roles of aquaporin water channels in parasites that cause debilitating or lethal diseases to their vertebrate hosts. The primary vectorial agents are hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, flies, ticks and lice, however very little is known concerning the functional diversity of aquaporins in non-insect members of the Arthropoda. Here we conducted phylogenomic and functional analyses of aquaporins in the salmon louse, a marine ectoparasitic copepod that feeds on the skin and body fluids of salmonids, and used the primary structures of the isolated channels to uncover the genomic repertoires in Arthropoda. Genomic screening identified 7 aquaporin paralogs in the louse in contrast to 42 in its host the Atlantic salmon. Phylogenetic inference of the louse nucleotides and proteins in relation to orthologs identified in Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda revealed that the arthropod aquaporin superfamily can be classified into three major grades (1) classical aquaporins including Big brain (Bib) and Prip-like (PripL) channels (2) aquaglyceroporins (Glp) and (3) unorthodox aquaporins (Aqp12-like). In Hexapoda, two additional subfamilies exist as Drip and a recently classified entomoglyceroporin (Eglp) group. Cloning and remapping the louse cDNAs to the genomic DNA revealed that they are encoded by 1-7 exons, with two of the Glps being expressed as N-terminal splice variants (Glp1_v1, -1_v2, -3_v1, -3_v2). Heterologous expression of the cRNAs in amphibian oocytes demonstrated that PripL transports water and urea, while Bib does not. Glp1_v1, -2, -3_v1 and -3_v2 each transport water, glycerol and urea, while Glp1_v2 and the Aqp12-like channels were retained intracellularly. Transcript abundance analyses revealed expression of each louse paralog at all developmental stages, except for glp1_v1, which is specific to preadult and adult males. Our data suggest that the aquaporin repertoires of extant arthropods have expanded independently in the different lineages, but can be phylogenetically classified into three major grades as opposed to four present in deuterostome animals. While the aquaporin repertoire of Atlantic salmon represents a 6-fold redundancy compared to the louse, the functional assays reveal that the permeation properties of the different crustacean grades of aquaporin are largely conserved to the vertebrate counterparts.

349) Investigation of mosquito oviposition pheromone as lethal lure for the control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ong, Song-Quan; Jaal, Zairi
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Oviposition pheromone; Caproic acid; Temephos; Lethal lure
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The trend in chemical insecticide development has focused on improving the efficacy against mosquitoes while reducing the environmental impact. Lethal lures apply an "attract-and-kill" strategy that draws the insect to the killing agent rather than bringing the killing agent to the insect.Methods: In this study, the mosquito oviposition pheromone was extracted from the eggs of Aedes aegypti (L.) and further investigated with a combination of pheromone and granular temephos as a lethal lure.Results: The compound caproic acid attracted significantly more egg-laying mosquitos at 1 ppm (660.83 +/- 91.61) than the control (343.83 +/- 56.24), which consisted of solvent only (Oviposition Activity Index: 0.316). Further investigation of the combination of caproic acid with granular temephos as a lethal lure attracted significantly more gravid female Ae. aegypti to oviposit their eggs than the temephos treated water and control.Conclusions: This indicated the ability of caproic acid in acting as an attractant and counters the repellency effect of temephos. Additionally, the presence of temephos in the lethal ure also restricted the hatching of the eggs and killed any larvae that hatched.

350) Chemosensory cues for mosquito oviposition site selection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Afify, Ali; Galizia, C. Giovanni
Assunto: Mosquito; Odor; Olfactory; Gustatory; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 2, p. 120-130, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Gravid mosquitoes use chemosensory (olfactory, gustatory, or both) cues to select oviposition sites suitable for their offspring. In nature, these cues originate from plant infusions, microbes, mosquito immature stages, and predators. While attractants and stimulants are cues that could show the availability of food (plant infusions and microbes) and suitable conditions (the presence of conspecifics), repellents and deterrents show the risk of predation, infection with pathogens, or strong competition. Many studies have addressed the question of which substances can act as positive or negative cues in different mosquito species, with sometimes apparently contradicting results. These studies often differ in species, substance concentration, and other experimental details, making it difficult to compare the results. In this review, we compiled the available information for a wide range of species and substances, with particular attention to cues originating from larval food, immature stages, predators, and to synthetic compounds. We note that the effect of many substances differs between species, and that many substances have been tested in few species only, revealing that the information is scattered across species, substances, and experimental conditions.

351) Comparison of field and laboratory-based tests for behavioral response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to repellents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Tainchum, Krajana; Suwansirisilp, Kornwika; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Bangs, Michael J.; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Excito - Repellency; Response; Essential oil; DEET
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Economic Entomology, v. 108, n. 6, p. 2770-2778, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0493
Resumo: The repellent and irritant effects of three essential oils-clove, hairy basil, and sweet basil-were compared using an excito-repellency test system against an insecticide-resistant strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) females from Pu Teuy, Kanchanaburi Province. DEET was used as the comparison standard compound. Tests were conducted under field and controlled laboratory conditions. The most marked repellent effect (spatial noncontact assay) among the three test essential oils was exhibited by sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L. (53.8% escaped mosquitoes in 30-min exposure period) under laboratory conditions while hairy basil, Ocimum americanum L. and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et. L.M. Perry from laboratory tests and sweet basil from field tests were the least effective as repellents (0-14%). In contrast, the contact assays measuring combined irritancy (excitation) and repellency effects found the best contact irritant response to hairy basil and DEET in field tests, whereas all others in laboratory and field were relatively ineffective in stimulating mosquitoes to move out the test chambers (0-5.5%). All three essential oils demonstrated significant differences in behavioral responses between field and laboratory conditions, whereas there was no significant difference in contact and noncontact assays for DEET between the two test conditions (P > 0.05).

352) Use of acoustic signals in mating in an eavesdropping frog-biting midge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Silva, Priyanka; Nutter, Brian; Bernal, Ximena E.
Assunto: Acoustic communication; Corethrellidae; Culicidae; Flight tone; Harmonic convergence; Wing beat frequency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Animal Behaviour, v. 103, n. , p. 45-51, 2015
ISSN: 0003-3472
Resumo: The sensory systems of organisms are shaped by selective pressures imposed by their performance in a variety of contexts. Female frog-biting midges use the mating calls of anurans to locate their host to obtain a blood meal. Although the use of sound in foraging is well documented in this group, it is unknown whether sound is used in other contexts. To investigate the ability to use sound in nonforaging contexts, we experimentally tested the prediction that frog-biting midges (Corethrella appendiculata) use sound in mating. We recorded their wing beats while swarming, in controlled tethered conditions and during different- and same-sex pair interactions. Our results show sexual differences in the acoustic properties of flight tones, with male midges having higher frequency wing beats than females. Wing beats of free-flying individuals were significantly higher in frequency than those recorded from tethered individuals, cautioning the interpretation of recordings obtained following this widely used technique. In addition, interacting, tethered opposite-sex pairs altered their flight tones to match their upper harmonics, converging at the third and fourth harmonic frequencies of males and females, respectively. In male-male interactions, however, the frequency of their wing beats diverged. Therefore, flight tones in frog-biting midges may function as courtship signals attracting conspecific females and deterring rival males. We discuss the use of sound in multiple contexts in these midges and potential factors leading to their ability to eavesdrop on anurans. (C) 2015 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

353) Predation by Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in an aquatic environment treated with mosquitocidal nanoparticles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Priyanka, Vishwanathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Khater, Hanem F.; Messing, Russell H.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Aquatic predators; Artemisia vulgaris; Dengue; Green synthesis; Mosquito control; Non target effects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3601-3610, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue and chikungunya. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes populations often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Botanical extracts have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles, but their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has not been well studied. We propose a single-step method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the extract of Artemisia vulgaris leaves as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and XRD showed that AgNP were polydispersed, crystalline, irregularly shaped, with a mean size of 30-70 nm. EDX confirmed the presence of elemental silver. FTIR highlighted that the functional groups from plant metabolites capped AgNP, stabilizing them over time. We investigated the mosquitocidal properties of A. vulgaris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP against larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti. We also evaluated the predatory efficiency of Asian bullfrog tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, against larvae of Ae. aegypti, under laboratory conditions and in an aquatic environment treated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. AgNP were highly toxic to Ae. aegypti larval instars (I-IV) and pupae, with LC50 ranging from 4.4 (I) to 13.1 ppm (pupae). In the lab, the mean number of prey consumed per tadpole per day was 29.0 (I), 26.0 (II), 21.4 (III), and 16.7 (IV). After treatment with AgNP, the mean number of mosquito prey per tadpole per day increased to 34.2 (I), 32.4 (II), 27.4 (III), and 22.6 (IV). Overall, this study highlights the importance of a synergistic approach based on biocontrol agents and botanical nano-insecticides for mosquito control.

354) Underrecognition of dengue during 2013 epidemic in Luanda, Angola
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sharp, Tyler M.; Moreira, Rosa; Soares, Maria Jose; da Costa, Luis Miguel; Mann, Jennifer; DeLorey, Mark; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Colon, Candimar; Margolis, Harold S.; de Caravalho, Adelaide; Tomashek, Kay M.
Assunto: Virus transmission; Aedes aegypti; Children; Fever; Time; Infection; Outbreak; Cluster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1311-1316, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6040
Resumo: During the 2013 dengue epidemic in Luanda, Angola, 811 dengue rapid diagnostic test-positive cases were reported to the Ministry of Health. To better understand the magnitude of the epidemic and identify risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection, we conducted cluster surveys around households of case-patients and randomly selected households 6 weeks after the peak of the epidemic. Of 173 case cluster participants, 16 (9%) exhibited evidence of recent DENV infection. Of 247 random cluster participants, 25 (10%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of 13 recently infected participants who had a recent febrile illness, 7 (54%) had sought medical care, and 1 (14%) was hospitalized with symptoms consistent with severe dengue; however, none received a diagnosis of dengue. Behavior associated with protection from DENV infection included recent use of mosquito repellent or a bed net. These findings suggest that the 2013 dengue epidemic was larger than indicated by passive surveillance data.

355) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis aubl. (negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Aguiar, Raimundo WagnerSouza; Santos, Suetonio Fernandesdos; Morgado, Fabricio daSilva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia deMendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Repellents; Pupae; Pollution effects; Pest control; Toxicity; Larval development; Necrosis; Skin; Insect cells; Developmental stages; Essential oils; Eggs; Mortality; Larvae; Insects; Urban areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

356) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Gated sodium - Channel; Culex – Pipiens pallens; Pyrethroid resistance; Insecticide Resistance; Diptera - Culicidae; Molecular - Basis; Dengue vector; Detoxification genes; Point mutations; Virus - Infection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolite mosquito, vector of arboviruses. The worldwide studies of its insecticide resistance have demonstrated a strong loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids, the major class of insecticide used for vector control. French overseas territories such as French Guiana (South America), Guadeloupe islands (Lesser Antilles) as well as New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean), have encountered such resistance.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe initiated a research program on the pyrethroid resistance in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Aedes aegypti populations were tested for their deltamethrin resistance level then screened by an improved microarray developed to specifically study metabolic resistance mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 genes were implicated in conferring resistance. CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, CYP6N12, CYP9J9, CYP9J10 and CCE3 genes were upregulated in the resistant populations and were common to other populations at a regional scale. The implication of these genes in resistance phenomenon is therefore strongly suggested. Other genes from detoxification pathways were also differentially regulated. Screening for target site mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene demonstrated the presence of I1016 and C1534.Conclusion/significanceThis study highlighted the presence of a common set of differentially up-regulated detoxifying genes, mainly cytochrome P450 genes in all three populations. GUA and GUY populations shared a higher number of those genes compared to CAL. Two kdr mutations well known to be associated to pyrethroid resistance were also detected in those two populations but not in CAL. Different selective pressures and genetic backgrounds can explain such differences. These results are also compared with those obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed in the context of integrative research on vector competence.

357) Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticide; Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Essential oil; Mosquito control; Plant extract
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3201-3212, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.

358) INTERSPECIFIC CROSS-MATING BETWEEN AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS LABORATORY STRAINS: IMPLICATION OF POPULATION DENSITY ON MATING BEHAVIORS
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marcela, P.; Abu Hassan, A.; Hamdan, A.; Dieng, H.; Kumara, T. K.
Assunto: Aedes; Cross-Mating; Heterospecific Female; Mating Behaviors; Population Density
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 313-320, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in Genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

359) Production of serine protease inhibitors by mutagenesis and their effects on the mortality of Aedes aegypti L. larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Soares, Tatiane Sanches; Soares Torquato, Ricardo Jose; Gonzalez, Yamile Gonzalez; Alves Lemos, Francisco Jose; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae
Assunto: Mosquito; Serine protease inhibitor; Larvae; Aedes aegypti; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue, transmitted primarily by the bites of infected Aedes aegypti L., is transmitted to millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue control strategies are primarily based on controlling the vector, using insecticides, but the appearance of resistance poses new challenges. Recently, highly selective protease inhibitors by phage display were obtained for digestive enzymes of the 4th instar larvae (L4) midgut. These mutants were not confirmed as a larvicide due to the low yield of the expression of these inhibitors. In the present study, chimera molecules were constructed based on the mutations at positions P1-P4' selected previously. The T6, T23 and T149 mutants were mixed with another Kunitz inhibitor, domain 1 of the inhibitor boophilin (D1). The chimeras T6/D1, T149/D1 and T23/D1 were expressed at high levels in P. pastoris yeast, purified by ionic exchange chromatography and their homogeneity was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The chimera inhibitors were assayed against larval trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase using specific chromogenic substrates. The inhibitors were assayed for their larvicide potential against L4. The chimeras exhibited strong inhibitory activities against the larval digestive enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. T6/D1, T149/D1 and T23/D1 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against L4 of Ae. aegypti with inhibitor concentrations in the mu M range. A synergistic increase in mortality was observed when a mixture of the three chimeric inhibitors was tested. The strategy for constructing the chimeric inhibitors was successful. The chimeras showed strong larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. In the future, our findings can be used to design synthetic inhibitors for larvae digestive enzymes as an alternative method to control the dengue vector.

360) Pyrethroid-resistance and presence of two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Indian Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Dykes, Cherry L.; Kapoor, Neera; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.
Assunto: Sodium-channel gene; High-throughput assays; Insecticide resistance; Dengue vectors; Deltamethrin resistance; Susceptibility status; Diptera-culicidae; Populations; Thailand; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Control of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever, is a challenging task. Pyrethroid insecticides have emerged as a preferred choice for vector control but are threatened by the emergence of resistance. The present study reports a focus of pyrethroid resistance and presence of two kdr mutations-F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Ae. aegypti from Delhi, India.Methodology/Principal Findings: Insecticide susceptibility status of adult-female Ae. aegypti against DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) was determined using WHO's standard insecticide susceptibility kit, which revealed resistance to DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin with corrected mortalities of 35%, 72% and 76% respectively. Mosquitoes were screened for the presence of kdr mutations including those reported earlier (I1011V/M, V1016G/I, F1534C, D1794Y and S989P), which revealed the presence of F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I. Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays were developed for genotyping of these two mutations. Genotyping using allele specific PCR and new PCR-RFLP assays revealed a high frequency of F1534C (0.41-0.79) and low frequency of novel mutation T1520I (0.13). The latter was observed to be tightly linked with F1534C and possibly serve as a compensatory mutation. A positive association of F1534C mutation with DDT and deltamethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti was established. However, F1534C-kdr did not show significant protection against permethrin.Conclusions/Significance: The Aedes aegypti population of Delhi is resistant to DDT, deltamethrin and permethrin. Two kdr mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, were identified in this population. This is the first report of kdr mutations being present in the Indian Ae. aegypti population. Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays were developed for discrimination of alleles at both kdr loci. A positive association of F1534C mutation with DDT and deltamethrin resistance was confirmed.

361) Transcriptome profiling and genetic study reveal amplified carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance, in the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grigoraki, Linda; Lagnel, Jacques; Kioulos, Ilias; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Morou, Evangelia; Labbe, Pierrick; Weill, Mylene; Vontas, John
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Esterase gene; Small portions; Culex pipiens; Amplification; Mechanisms; Expression; Microassay; Culicidae; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Principal findingsTemephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.SignificanceThe identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.

362) Forced egg retention induced by diethyl-phenylacetamide diminishes the fecundity and longevity of dengue vectors
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Guha, Lopamudra
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Ae Albopictus; Dengue Control; Egg Retention; Oviposition Repellent; Skip Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 4, p. 309-313, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Oviposition is an important event in the life cycle of mosquito which is a decisive factor for the fate of its progeny. If oviposition is prevented, the life cycle of mosquito is disrupted and the population growth can be reduced. Diethyl-phenylacetamide (DEPA) is an effective topical repellent against various haematophagous insects. The study reports the egg retention effect and subsequent lethal effect of DEPA on the gravid females of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes.Methods: DEPA was applied at 1000 mg/l onto water surface in oviposition bowls under no-choice condition. Experiments had three replicates with three control and treated cages separately, containing 100 gravid females of each test mosquito species. Every day freshly treated oviposition bowls were provided to the gravid mosquitoes till the last surviving female of the cohort was dead. On completion of one experimental day (24 h) the number of eggs laid in control and treatment bowls were counted manually to assess the oviposition response and longevity of test mosquito species.Results: DEPA at 1000 mg/l concentration reduced the egg deposition and affected the longevity of gravid females. In the DEPA treated cages >1100 eggs were retained by both the species. In the treated cages, about 50% of Ae. albopictus and 41% of Ae. aegypti females died, retaining eggs in their abdomen. The average life span of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females in control cages were 43 and 50 days respectively, while the females of both the species exposed to DEPA in treated cages survived for 16-22 days.Interpretation & conclusion: Presence of DEPA odor on water surface forced the gravid Aedes females to retain their eggs, affecting their fecundity and longevity. This indigenously developed topical repellent DEPA may be applied to container's water that act as breeding grounds for dengue vectors to deter gravid females from oviposition in the vicinity of a household.

363) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

364) Larvicidal activity of affinin and its derived amides from Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake against Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hernandez-Morales, Alejandro; Lizzeta Arvizu-Gomez, Jackeline; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Estela Gomez-Luna, Blanca; Alvarado-Sanchez, Brenda; Ramirez-Chavez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge
Assunto: Heliopsis longipes; Alkamides; Natural insecticide; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles albimanus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 18, n. 2, p. 227-231, 2015
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Heliopsis longipes has been recognized as a potential source of insecticidal compounds called alkamides, which can be used to control populations of insect vector transmitters of several diseases that affect the human health. To determine the insecticidal activity of H. longipes against Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti, crude extract of H. longipes roots and affinin were obtained. Catalytic reduction of affinin was performed to obtain two reduced amides, N-isobutil-2E-decenamide and N-isobutil-decanamide. Crude extract, affinin and its reduced amides were evaluated against third instar larvae of An. albimanus and Ae. aegypti. Results show that crude extract of H. longipes possess larvicidal activity against larval stage of An. albimanus and Ae. aegypti. This effect could be attributed to affinin, on which the conjugated double bonds present in the structure of the molecule are necessary to maintain larvicidal activity. This study demonstrated the potential of H. longipes to control larval stage of An. albimanus and Ae. aegypti, transmitter vectors of malaria and dengue fever, respectively. (C) 2015 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

365) Evaluation of a push-pull approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) using a novel dispensing system for spatial repellents in the laboratory and in a semi-field environment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin
Assunto: L-lactic acid; Control strategy; Essential oil; BG sentinel; Catnip oil; Mosquito; Culicidae; Diptera; Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The increase in insecticide resistant mosquito populations necessitates the exploration of novel vector control intervention measures. Push-pull strategies for insect control have been successful when used in integrated crop pest management. Through the combinatory use of deterring and attracting stimuli, the abundance of insect pests can be changed in a given area. A push-pull strategy might also significantly reduce human-vector contacts and augment existing mosquito control strategies, e.g. through the combination of an attractive trapping system and a potent spatial repellent. Our approach includes the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap in combination with catnip oil (Nepeta cataria), a known spatial repellent for Aedes aegypti. To impart a deterrent effect on mosquitoes at a distance, a homogenous and continuous dispersal of volatile repellent compounds is crucial. We have developed a repellent dispensing system that is easy to use and provides a homogenous dispersal of repellent in an air curtain. The use of five 9 V fans and custom-made repellent sachets containing 10% catnip essential oil created a repellent loaded air curtain that provided coverage of an area of 2 m(2) (1.2 x 1.65 m). Air was sampled at four different heights in the curtain and analysed via thermal desorption (TD) and consecutive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nepetalactone, the main constituent of the oil, was detected in air at a concentration range of 80 to 100 mu g/m(3) and the amounts were comparable at all four sampling positions. When a human volunteer was sitting behind the repellent curtain and a BGS trap was installed in front of the curtain in laboratory push-pull trials, Ae. aegypti landing collections decreased significantly by 50% compared to repellent-free controls. However, in a semi-field environment, comparable protective effects could not be achieved and further research on suitable repellent concentrations for outdoor implementation will be required.

366) Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Soares-da-Silvaa, Joelma; Soares Pinheiro, Valeria Cristina; Litaiff-Abreu, Eleilza; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro
Assunto: Amazonian; Bioinsecticide; Dengue; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, v. 59, n. 1, p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 0085-5626
Resumo: We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the Biological Control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78%) of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt-28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of Biological Control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins. (C) 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

367) Functional assembly of 260-kDa oligomers required for mosquito-larvicidal activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khomkhum, Narumol; Leetachewa, Somphob; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan; Moonsom, Saengduen
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cry4Ba; Aedes aegypti; Oligomerization; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Peptides, v. 68, p. 183-189, 2015
ISSN: 0196-9781
Resumo: Oligomerization has been shown to contribute to the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins. Mutations have been made in the Cry4Ba toxin and resulted in toxic to non-toxic mutants toward Aedes aegypti larvae. In this study, Cry4Ba wild type and mutants were analyzed for oligomer formation in vitro, biochemical properties and their relationships with larvicidal activity. In vitro, the Cry4Ba forms two-main types of the oligomers including (1) the 260-kDa and larger oligomers, which assembled in the carbonate buffer, pH 10.0 and completely dissociated by heating at 90 degrees C and (2) 190-kDa oligomer, which was induced by heat, sodium-salt and detergent addition. Polar and charge residues in the toxin domain I and II may contribute to formation of the 260-kDa oligomers. A single Cys-525 in domain III was replaced with serine resulting in the C525S mutant, which exhibited a 50% reduction in larvicidal activity compared to the Cry4Ba wild-type. The mutant exhibited partial loss in larger oligomer of the 260 kDa and total loss of 190-kDa oligomer. The results revealed an important role of the Cys-525 in intermolecular disulfide formation of larger oligomer as well as the 190-kDa oligomer. Despite of their formations in the receptor free condition, the 260-kDa and larger oligomers were found to strongly correspond to Cry4Ba toxicity suggesting their functional roles in the A. aegypti larvae. Also, possible roles of the 260-kDa and larger oligomers have been proposed in this report. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

368) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Cassia Roxburghii; Leaf Extract; Synthesis; Agnps; Larvicidal Activity; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4385-4395, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this Area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 mu g/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 mu g/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 mu g/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs.

369) Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga
Assunto: Pinus taxa; Essential oil composition; Aedes albopictus; Larvicidal activity; Repellency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 583-592, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by alpha-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by alpha-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and beta-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by beta-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, beta-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and alpha-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 mu L cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 mu L cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

370) Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Olfactory System; Cell Responses; Carbon-Dioxide; Chemical Lure; Aedes-Aegypti; Sensilla; Drosophila; Mosquitos; Identification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control.

371) Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Terezinha M.; Bezerra Menezes, Erika S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo V.; Filho, Luiz Carlos P. Almeida; Martins, Jorge M.; Moreno, Frederico B.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O.; Araripe Moura, Arlindo A.; Urano Carvalho, Ana F.
Assunto: Comparative proteomics; Detoxification; Natural insecticide; m-Pentadecadienyl-phenol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteome ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 152, p. 49-55, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24 h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

372) Bacterial exposure at the larval stage induced sexual immune dimorphism and priming in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moreno-Garcia, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramirez-Bello, Inci; Hernandez-Martinez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto
Assunto: Messenger - RNA expression; Yellow fever mosquito; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Escherichia -Coli; Nitric - Oxide; Trade - Offs; Antimicrobial peptides; Ecological immunology; Anopheles -Albimanus; Batemans principle
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage.

373) Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Vector Anopheles-Funestus; Major Malaria Vector; Pyrethroid Resistance; Molecular-Basis; Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Detoxification Genes; Lucilia-Cuprina; Metabolism; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Research, v. 25, n. 9, p. 1347-1359, 2015
ISSN: 1088-9051
Resumo: The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep Sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations.

374) Identification of genes associated with blood feeding in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Greene, Wayne K.; Macnish, Marion G.; Rice, Kim L.; Thompson, R. C. Andrew
Assunto: Cat flea; Ctenocephalides felis; Blood feeding; cDNA; Suppression subtractive hybridization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a blood-feeding ectoparasitic insect and particular nuisance pest of companion animals worldwide. Identification of genes that are differentially expressed in response to feeding is important for understanding flea biology and discovering targets for their control.Methods: C. felis fleas were maintained and fed for 24 h using an artificial rearing system. The technique of suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to screen for mRNAs specifically expressed in fed fleas.Results: We characterized nine distinct full-length flea transcripts that exhibited modulated or de novo expression during feeding. Among the predicted protein Sequences were two serine proteases, a serine protease inhibitor, two mucin-like molecules, a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme associated with GPI-mediated cell membrane attachment of proteins and a component of the insect innate immune response.Conclusions: Our results provide a molecular insight into the physiology of flea feeding. The protein products of the genes identified may play important roles during flea feeding in terms of blood meal digestion, cellular growth/repair and protection from feeding-associated stresses.

375) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian
Assunto: Adulticidal activity; Smoke toxicity; Botanical extracts; Clausena dentata
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 3, p. 1139-1144, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative Biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 +/- 2 and 89 +/- 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

376) Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; Morgado, Fabricio da Silva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia de Mendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Plant Essential Oils; Anopheles-Stephensi; Larvicidal Activity; Diptera-Culicidae; L. Diptera; Toxicity; Extract; Leaves; Adults; Brazil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban Areas.

377) Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan
Assunto: Aspergiilus Terreus; FTIR; GC-MS; Larvicidal; Pupicidal; N-Hexadecanoic Acid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 21, p. 17224-17237, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90 % of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 mu g/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 mu g/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 mu g/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 mu g/ml). At higher concentration (500 mu g/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of the C-H group. The band at 1023.59 cm(-1) developed for C-O and C=N, respectively, and was commonly found in carboxylic acid and amine groups. GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extracts showed the presence of six compounds, of which the major compounds were identified as n-hexadecanoic acid (15.31 %) and methyl 12,15-octadecadienoate (31.989 %), based on their peak molecular weight. The HPLC analysis result highlights that the A. terreus ethyl acetate extract was compared with pure n-hexadecanoic acid which resulted in similar retention time of 19.52 and 19.38, respectively. Thus, the active compound produced by this species would be more useful against vectors responsible for diseases of public health importance. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of ethyl acetate extract produced by A. terreus species.

378) Introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua
Autor: Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina
Assunto: Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Epidemiology; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Coexistence; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 713-718, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control.

379) River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C.; Barboza, Jose Luis; Requena, Edwin; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel
Assunto: Rivers; Infestation; Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Barges; Public health; Disease transmission; Boats; Dengue; Vectors; Rural areas; Aedes aegypti; Freshwater
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is an invasive mosquito that is currently in the process of expanding geographically from urban to peri-urban and rural sites throughout Latin America. To improve our understanding of Ae. aegypti population mixing and how it is introduced to new areas, we investigated the infestation levels of different aquatic and terrestrial vehicles in the Peruvian Amazon. Our results show that large barges are heavily infested with Ae. aegypti, and therefore are likely to play an important role in Ae. aegypti geographic expansion.

380) Behavioral response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae to synthetic and natural attractants and repellents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gonzalez, Paula V.; Gonzalez Audino, Paola A.; Masuh, Hector M.
Assunto: Mosquito; Larva; Attractant; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 6, p. 1315-1321, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and +1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns.

381) Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. Essential Oil and its Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti L
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Shanliang; Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Zhi Long; Xu, Xiaofeng
Assunto: Salvia plebeian; Essential oil; Larvicidal activity; Aedes aegypti; Caryophyllene oxide; Upsilon-Eudesmol; T-Cadinol; Calamenene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 14, n. 5, p. 831-836, 2015
ISSN: 1596-5996
Resumo: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Salvia plebeian R.Br. (Labiatae) aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L.Methods: The essential oil of S. plebeian aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was evaluated for larvicidal activity using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth larvae of A. aegypti within 24 h, and activity was recorded for various concentrations of the ranging from 12.5 - 200.0 mu g/mL.Results: A total of 33 components of the essential oil of S. plebeian were identified. The major compounds of the essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (15.54 %), gamma-eudesmol ( 14.03 %), T-cadinol (10.21 %), calamenene (9.63 %), copaene (5.70 %), gamma-cadinene (5.30 %), cadalene (5.28 %), alpha-muurolene (5.19 %), ledol (5.14 %) and alpha-cadinol (5.08 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal activity against A. aegypti at a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 46.26 mu g/mL.Conclusion: The findings indicate that the essential oil of S. plebeian aerial parts has potentials for use in the control of A. aegypti larvae and may be useful in the search for newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

382) Chemical repellents appear non-useful for eliciting exit of brown tree snakes from cargo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kraus, Fred; Stahl, Randal; Pitt, William
Assunto: Brown tree snake; Alien species; Naphthalene; Carbon dioxide; Essential oils; Fumigation; Boiga irregularis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: International Journal of Pest Management, v. 61, n. 2, p. 144-152, 2015
ISSN: 0967-0874
Resumo: The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) is invasive in Guam, has imposed ecological and economic problems there, and threatens to be dispersed via cargo and vehicles to other islands in the Pacific, where it could be expected to inflict similar damages. Prevention of inadvertent snake export currently relies on cargo inspection and suppression of snake populations around ports, which are expensive and incompletely reliable. Hence, there has long been interest in developing additional tools to preclude snakes leaving in cargo, and fumigation with essential oils has been suggested for this role. We tested gaseous or aerosol deliveries of several essential oils and three other candidate irritants. We found none to work reliably in repelling snakes, and we discuss several limitations that make development of an effective fumigation tool from these chemicals improbable. Additional effort to develop an operational tool using essential oils would likely be misdirected, and effective fumigation methods for invasive snakes should be sought elsewhere.

383) Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramanibai, R.; Velayutham, K.
Assunto: Melia azedarach; Mosquito; Electron microscope study
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Research in Veterinary Science, v. 98, p. 82-88, 2015
ISSN: 0034-5288
Resumo: Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fiuorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90= 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 mu g/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 mu g/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

384) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane
Assunto: Ocean currents; Epidemics; Hosts; Introduced species; Hygiene; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Indigenous species; Islands; Vectors; Infection; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

385) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

386) Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frederic; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurelie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane
Assunto: RNA sequencing; RNA-seq; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito; Dengue; Detoxification enzymes; Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP; Cuticle; Transporters
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, n. 174, 2014
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur.Results: After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin selection strongly affected the polymorphism of several transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases likely involved in insecticide biodegradation.Conclusions: The present study confirmed the power of RNA-seq for identifying concomitantly quantitative and qualitative transcriptome changes associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Our results suggest that transcriptome modifications can be selected rapidly by insecticides and affect multiple biological functions. Previously neglected by molecular screenings, polymorphism variations of detoxification enzymes may play an important role in the adaptive response of mosquitoes to insecticides.

387) Survival of larvivorous fish used for biological control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) combined with different larvicides
Autor: Paiva, Clemilson Nogueira; de Oliveira Lima, Jose Wellington; Camelo, Sara Suhett; de Franca Lima, Camila; de Goes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Larvivorous fish; Novaluron; Bti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 19, n. 9, p. 1082-1086, 2014.
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: To evaluate combinations of larvicides and fish which are predators of larvae of Aedes aegypti, namely Betta splendens, Trichogaster trichopterus and Poecilia reticulata. We used 15 water tanks with a capacity of 250 litres of water. In 10 tanks, larvicide - Temephos, Bti and Novaluron - was added, the other five contained only one specimen of fish and unchlorinated water. The fish were monitored for a week without changing the water, and their survival recorded on a form. An estimate of the Kaplan-Meier survival was performed to determine the significance of the tests. Betta splendens showed the lowest mortality range of larvicides tested.Original Abstract: Combined use of larvivorous fish and larvicides in large water tanks is feasible. Evaluer des combinaisons de larvicides et de poissons predateurs de larves d'Aedes aegypti, a savoir Betta splendens, Trichogaster trichopterus et Poecilia reticulata. Nous avons utilise 15 conteneurs d'eau d'une capacite de 250 litres. Dans 10 conteneurs des larvicides - Temephos, Bti et Novaluron - ont ete ajoutes, les cinq autres contenaient un seul specimen de poissons et de l'eau non chloree. Les poissons ont ete suivis pendant une semaine sans changer l'eau et leur survie a ete enregistree sur un formulaire. Une estimation de la survie selon Kaplan-Meier a ete effectuee pour determiner l'importance des essais. La plus faible mortalite a ete observee pour B. splendens. L'utilisation combinee de poissons larvivores et de larvicides dans de grands conteneurs d'eau est realisable. Evaluar combinaciones de larvicidas y peces que son predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, especificamente Betta splendens, Trichogaster trichopterus y Poecilia reticulata. Utilizamos 15 tanques de agua con una capacidad de 250 litros de agua. En 10 tanques se anadieron los larvicidas - Temephos, Bti y Novaluron -, los otros cinco contenian solo una especie de peces y agua sin cloro. Los peces se monitorizaron durante una semana sin cambiar el agua, y se anoto la supervivencia. Se realizo un calculo de la supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier para determinar el nivel de significancia de las pruebas. B. splendens tenia la mortalidad mas baja. El uso combinado de peces larvivoros y larvicidas en grandes tanques de agua es factible.

388) Stormwater drains and catch basins as sources for production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Rainy season; Pest control; Hosts; Dry season; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Data processing; Control programs; Abundance; Vectors; Basins; Drains; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 134, p. 33-42, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Merida City, Mexico. We examined 1761 stormwater drains - located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city - over dry and wet seasons from March 2012 to March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n = 39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n = 23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Merida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Merida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program.

389) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

390) Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oliva, Clelia F.; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q.
Assunto: Aedes; Male; Reproduction; Mate-selection; Genetic control; Sterile insect technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 132, p. S12-S19, 2014
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile,male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. Copyright (C) International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

391) Efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, Bti and temephos larvicides for control of Anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern Mexico
Autor: Marina, Carlos F.; Bond, J. Guillermo; Munoz, Jose; Valle, Javier; Novelo-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Williams, Trevor
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n.5, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined.Methods: A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-6511), and 100 ml/ha temephos (50 EC), or an untreated control. Numbers of immature mosquitoes, and aquatic insects in pools were monitored for 20 weeks.Results: Samples of immature mosquitoes comprised approximately 10% An. albimanus, 70% Culex spp. (mostly Cx. melanoconion and Cx. coronator) and 20% Uranotaenia lowii. The most effective larvicides were spinosad and temephos that eliminated An. albimanus in 16 out of 20 post-treatment samples, or 9 weeks of continuous control of immature stages, respectively. These larvicides resulted in 15 and 5 weeks of elimination of Culex spp., respectively, or 20 and 4 weeks of continuous elimination of U. Iowii, respectively. Bti treatment provided little consistent control. Aquatic insects were recorded comprising 3 orders, 20 families, 40 genera and 44 species. Shannon diversity index values (H') for aquatic insects were highest in the control (0.997) and Bti (0.974) treatments, intermediate in the spinosad treatment (0.638) and lowest in the temephos treatment (0.520). Severely affected non-target insects in the spinosad and temephos treated pools were predatory Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata, which in the case of spinosad was likely due to the high concentration applied. Bti had little effect on aquatic insects.Conclusions: The spinosad treatment retained larvicidal activity for markedly longer than expected. Spinosad is likely to be an effective tool for control of anopheline and other pool-breeding mosquitoes in tropical regions. Non-target effects of spinosad on aquatic insects merit further study, but were likely related to the concentration of the product used.

392) Wolbachia transcription elongation factor "Wol GreA" interacts with alpha 2 beta beta 'sigma subunits of RNA polymerase through its Dimeric C-Terminal Domain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nag, Jeetendra Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chahar, Dhanvantri; Gupta, Chhedi Lal; Bajpai, Preeti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja
Assunto: Lymphatic filariasis; Brugia malayi; Cleavage factor; Protein; Target; Dimerization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 6, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for therapy against lymphatic filariasis. Transcription elongation factor GreA is an essential factor that mediates transcriptional transition from abortive initiation to productive elongation by stimulating the escape of RNA polymerase (RNAP) from native prokaryotic promoters. Upon screening of 6257 essential bacterial genes, 57 were suggested as potential future drug targets, and GreA is among these. The current study emphasized the characterization of Wol GreA with its domains.Methodology/Principal Findings: Biophysical characterization of Wol GreA with its N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) was performed with fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography, and chemical cross-linking. Filter trap and far western blotting were used to determine the domain responsible for the interaction with alpha 2 beta beta'sigma subunits of RNAP. Protein-protein docking studies were done to explore residual interaction of RNAP with Wol GreA. The factor and its domains were found to be biochemically active. Size exclusion and chemical cross-linking studies revealed that Wol GreA and CTD exist in a dimeric conformation while NTD subsists in monomeric conformation. Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Lys123, and Ser134 are the residues of CTD through which monomers of Wol GreA interact and shape into a dimeric conformation. Filter trap, far western blotting, and protein-protein docking studies revealed that dimeric CTD of Wol GreA through Lys82, Ser98, Asp104, Ser105, Glu106, Tyr109, Glu116, Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Ser127, Ser129, Lys140, Glu143, Val147, Ser151, Glu153, and Phe163 residues exclusively participates in binding with alpha 2 beta beta'sigma subunits of polymerase.Conclusions/Significance: To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first documentation of the residual mode of action in wolbachial mutualist. Therefore, findings may be crucial to understanding the transcription mechanism of this alpha-proteobacteria and in deciphering the role of Wol GreA in filarial development.

393) Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus)(Diptera: Culcidae) to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar)(Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae)
Autor: Peschiutta, Maria L.; Cagnolo, Susana R.; Almiron, Walter R.
Assunto: Heterorhabditis; Biological cycle; Mosquitoes; Infectivity; Biological control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, v. 73, n. 3-4, p. 99-108, 2014.
ISSN: 0373-5680
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of etiological agents of yellow fever and dengue. An alternative to chemical control of this vector is the use of biological agents. Entomopathogenic nematodes are effective in pest control. The infectivity and life cycle of an Argentinean isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabdltida: Heterorhabditidae) on Aedes aegypti larvae is registered for the first time under laboratory conditions. For each experimental unit, 30 second-instar larvae were exposed to 8 nematode doses (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1). The infective juveniles (IJs) used were multiplied on Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The infective continuity of IJs obtained from A. aegypti was tested applying the nematodes in a 100:1 dose on mosquito larvae. Larval mortality rates ranged from 0% to 84%. The larval mortality, the number of nematodes developed inside mosquito larvae and the number of new IJs increased with the increase of the nematodes dose. The results indicated that H. bacteriophora is able to infect A. aegypti larvae, and these nematodes can develop and produce new IJs, allowing the continuity of its life cycle.Original Abstract: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) es vector de los agentes etiologicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control quimico de este vector es el uso de agentes biologicos. Los nematodos entomopatogenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) en larvas de A. aegypti se registro por primera vez bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1). Los juveniles infectivos (JIs) utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicandolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito. Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El numero de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti, se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

394) Potentiality of plants as source of insecticide principles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zoubiri, Safia; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur
Assunto: Plants; Essential oil; Chemical composition; Insecticidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, v. 18, n. 6, p. 925-938, 2014
ISSN: 1319-6103
Resumo: In the search for alternatives to conventional insecticides, essential oils extracted from aromatic plants have been widely investigated. Their toxicities toward insects were of special interest during the last decade. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the data published mostly in the past 10 years on aromatic plant and plant's essential oils that have been reported to possess insecticidal activity and practical methods and recent techniques for screening these compounds. The review refers to 230 plants, their geographical distribution and the organism tested. Some aspects of recent insecticidal activity directed research on natural products are discussed. (C) 2011 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

395) A Comparative Analysis of the Relative Efficacy of Vector-Control Strategies Against Dengue Fever
Autor: Amaku, Marcos; Bezerra Coutinho, Francisco Antonio; Raimundo, Silvia Martorano; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Massad, Eduardo
Assunto: Dengue; Basic reproduction number; Force of infection; Sensitivity analysis; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, v. 76, n. 3, p. 697-717, 2014
ISSN: 0092-8240
Resumo: Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne infection, affecting almost half of the world population with 50 to 100 million cases every year. In this paper, we present one of the simplest models that can encapsulate all the important variables related to vector control of dengue fever. The model considers the human population, the adult mosquito population and the population of immature stages, which includes eggs, larvae and pupae. The model also considers the vertical transmission of dengue in the mosquitoes and the seasonal variation in the mosquito population. From this basic model describing the dynamics of dengue infection, we deduce thresholds for avoiding the introduction of the disease and for the elimination of the disease. In particular, we deduce a Basic Reproduction Number for dengue that includes parameters related to the immature stages of the mosquito. By neglecting seasonal variation, we calculate the equilibrium values of the model's variables. We also present a sensitivity analysis of the impact of four vector-control strategies on the Basic Reproduction Number, on the Force of Infection and on the human prevalence of dengue. Each of the strategies was studied separately from the others. The analysis presented allows us to conclude that of the available vector control strategies, adulticide application is the most effective, followed by the reduction of the exposure to mosquito bites, locating and destroying breeding places and, finally, larvicides. Current vector-control methods are concentrated on mechanical destruction of mosquitoes' breeding places. Our results suggest that reducing the contact between vector and hosts (biting rates) is as efficient as the logistically difficult but very efficient adult mosquito's control.

396) QTL mapping of genome regions controlling temephos resistance in larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe del Carmen; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Black, William C.
Assunto: Genomes; Human diseases; Insecticides; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Workers; Quantitative trait loci; Epidemics; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Organophosphates; Gene mapping; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Due to a lack of effective drugs or vaccines, if an epidemic of dengue fever occurs in the near future, the first line of defense will involve the use of insecticides to suppress adult populations of Ae. aegypti. Unfortunately, the species has become resistant to most of the insecticides that can be safely applied. The authors have worked extensively on the mechanisms of resistance to the various insecticides commonly used for suppression of Ae. aegypti populations. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. In this study we show that temephos resistance is under the control of many metabolic genes of small effect and dispersed throughout the Ae. aegypti genome. This information will be of general interest to field workers involved in the suppression of field populations of Ae. aegypti.

397) Human IgG antibody response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide as an indicator to identify areas at high risk for dengue transmission: a retrospective study in urban settings of Vientiane city, Lao PDR
Autor: Ndille, Emmanuel Elanga; Dubot-Peres, Audrey; Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, Francois; Cornelie, Sylvie; Sidavong, Bounpone; Fournet, Florence; Remoue, Franck
Assunto: Salivary biomarker; Aedes bites; Dengue risk; Spatial distribution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 19, n. 5, p. 576-580, 2014.
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: Using human IgG antibody response to the Aedes Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide as an indicator of human exposure to Aedes bites in surveying exposed populations from areas at risk of dengue virus (DENV) transmission in urban settings of Vientiane city, Lao PDR. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests were performed to measure the IgG response to Nterm-34 kDa peptide in blood samples collected within a flavivirus seroprevalence survey carried out in 2006 including 3558 randomly selected individuals. The level of IgG response to the Nterm-34 kDa peptide in individuals was analysed in relation to the level of urbanisation of the individual's residence, areas that presented significant differences in the prevalence of recent DENV infection. No differences were observed in the anti-Nterm-34 kDa IgG level between DENV-positive and DENV-negative individuals. However, the level of specific IgG response was higher among individuals living in slightly urbanised neighbourhoods than among those in more highly urbanised areas (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, a similar pattern had already been observed concerning the prevalence of recent DENV infection in the same populations. The results of this retrospective study indicate that the evaluation of human IgG response to the Aedes Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide could be a useful indicator to identify places with risk of dengue virus transmission in urban endemic areas.Original Abstract: Utiliser la reponse de l'anticorps IgG humaine au peptide salivaire Nterm-34 kDa de l'Aedes comme un indicateur de l'exposition humaine aux piqures de l'Aedes dans la surveillance des populations exposees dans les zones a risque de transmission du virus de la dengue (DENV) en milieu urbain de la ville de Vientiane, au Laos. Des tests ELISA ont ete effectues pour mesurer la reponse IgG au peptide Nterm-34 kDa dans des echantillons de sang preleves dans une etude de seroprevalence du flavivirus realisee en 2006, sur 3558 personnes choisies aleatoirement. Le niveau de reponse IgG contre le peptide Nterm-34 kDa chez les individus a ete analyse en relation avec le niveau d'urbanisation du lieu de residence des individus, les zones qui presentaient des differences significatives dans la prevalence de l'infection DENV recente. Aucune difference n'a ete observee dans le niveau d'IgG anti-Nterm-34 kDa entre les individus positifs et negatifs pour le DENV. Cependant, le niveau de la reponse IgG specifique etait plus eleve chez les personnes vivant dans des quartiers un peu urbanises que chez ceux vivant dans des zones plus fortement urbanisees (P < 0,0001). De facon interessante, une tendance similaire avait deja ete observee dans la prevalence de l'infection DENV recente dans les memes populations. Les resultats de cette etude retrospective indiquent que l'evaluation de la reponse IgG humaine au peptide salivaire Nterm-34 kDa d'Aedes pourrait etre un indicateur utile pour identifier les zones a risque de transmission du virus de la dengue dans les zones endemiques urbaines. Utilizando la respuesta de anticuerpos IgG humanos al peptido salivar Nterm-34 kDa de Aedes como un indicador de la exposicion humana a picaduras de Aedes, estudiar las poblaciones expuestas pertenecientes a areas en riesgo de transmision del virus del dengue (VDEN) en zonas urbanas de la ciudad de Vientiane, Laos. Se realizaron pruebas de ELISA para medir la respuesta de IgG al peptido Nterm-34 kDa en muestras de sangre recogidas como parte de un estudio de seroprevalencia de flavivirus llevado a cabo en el 2006, incluyendose 3558 individuos escogidos al azar. Se analizo el nivel de respuesta de IgG al peptido Nterm-34 kDa con relacion al nivel de urbanizacion de la residencia del individuo, areas que presentaron diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de infecciones recientes por VDEN. No se observaron diferencias entre el nivel de IgG anti-Nterm-34 kDa entre individuos positivos y negativos para VDEN. Sin embargo, el nivel de respuesta IgG especifica era mayor entre individuos viviendo en barrios relativamente urbanizados, que entre aquellos en areas muy urbanizadas (P < 0.0001). Se observo un patron similar con respecto a la prevalencia de infecciones recientes de VDEN entre la misma poblacion. Los resultados de este estudio retrospectivo indican que la evaluacion de la respuesta de IgG humana al peptido salivar Nterm-34 kDa de Aedes podria ser un indicador util para identificar areas con riesgo de transmision del virus del dengue en areas endemicas urbanas.

398) Emerging technology: concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Esvelt, Kevin M.; Smidler, Andrea L.; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Church, George M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Elife, v. 3, 2014
ISSN: 2050-084X
Resumo: Gene drives may be capable of addressing ecological problems by altering entire populations of wild organisms, but their use has remained largely theoretical due to technical constraints. Here we consider the potential for RNA-guided gene drives based on the CRISPR nuclease Cas9 to serve as a general method for spreading altered traits through wild populations over many generations. We detail likely capabilities, discuss limitations, and provide novel precautionary strategies to control the spread of gene drives and reverse genomic changes. The ability to edit populations of sexual species would offer substantial benefits to humanity and the environment. For example, RNA-guided gene drives could potentially prevent the spread of disease, support agriculture by reversing pesticide and herbicide resistance in insects and weeds, and control damaging invasive species. However, the possibility of unwanted ecological effects and near-certainty of spread across political borders demand careful assessment of each potential application. We call for thoughtful, inclusive, and well-informed public discussions to explore the responsible use of this currently theoretical technology.

399) Urban mosquito fauna in Merida City, Mexico: immatures collected from containers and storm-water drains/catch basins
Autor: Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Puc-Tinal, Maria; Coba-Tun, Carlos; Rivero-Osorno, Victor; Lavalle-Kantun, Damian; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.
Assunto: Entomologists; Rainy season; Pathogens; Species Composition; Disease transmission; Domestic animals; Medical importance; Vectors; Species composition; Drains; Urban environments; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes; Haemagogus equinus; Limatus durhamii; Toxorhynchites rutilus; Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 39, n. 2, p. 291-306, 2014.
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: We examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from November 2011 to June 2013 in Merida City, Mexico. A wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. In total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. The most commonly collected species were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (n = 60,961) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (45,702), which together accounted for 95.4% of the immatures collected. These species were commonly encountered during both rainy and dry seasons, whereas most other mosquito species were collected primarily during the rainy season. Other species collected were Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis Diaz Najera, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett), Culex coronator Dyar and Knab, Culex interrogator Dyar and Knab, Culex lactator Dyar and Knab, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex salinarius Coquillett, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex thriambus Dyar, Haemagogus equinus Theobald, Limatus durhamii Theobald, and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The greatest number of species was recorded from vacant lots (n = 11), followed by storm-water drains/catch basins (nine) and residential premises (six). Our study demonstrated that the heterogeneous urban environment in Merida City supports a wide range of mosquito species, many of which are nuisance biters of humans and/or capable of serving as vectors of pathogens affecting humans or domestic animals. We also briefly reviewed the medical importance of the encountered mosquito species.

400) Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Bissinger, B. W.; Schmidt, J. P.; Owens, J. J.; Mitchell, S. M.; Kennedy, M. K.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Anopheles quadrimaculatus; DEET; Essential oil; Geraniol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 2, p. 392-399, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L.). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedesalbopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products.

401) Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-type lectins for dengue prevention
Autor: Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Lectins; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Galactose; Virions; Vectors; Life cycle; Infection; Immunization; Blood; Antibodies; Antisera; Cell membranes; Dengue; Risk factors; Vaccines; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; West Nile virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.

402) Cytotoxicity of piperamides towards Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maleck, Marise; Ferreira, Bruna; Mallet, Jacenir; Guimaraes, Anthony; Kato, Massuo
Assunto: Cytotoxicity; Culicidae; Larvicide; Piperamide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 2, p. 458-463, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The effectiveness of the amides piplartine and piperlonguminine isolated from Piper species for controlling L3 and L4 of Aedes aegypti (L.) was assessed through bioassays at concentrations ranging from 1 to 300 g/ml. Piplartine reduced the mosquito development period and caused larval mortality only at concentrations 100 g/ml, whereas piperlonguminine resulted in an extended period of mosquito development (10 g/ml) and caused 100% larval mortality (30 g/ml) within 24 h. The toxicity and cytotoxic effects of piperlonguminine on epithelial cells of the digestive system of Ae. aegypti were viewed using transmission electron microscopy, which indicated vacuolization of cytoplasm, mitochondrial swelling and leaking of nuclear material. Piperlonguminine was the more effective amide, showing toxic activity with LD 50 of 12 g/ml against the larvae of Ae. aegypti.

403) Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America- a 24th symposium
Autor: Clark, Gary G; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Human diseases; Conferences; Chemical control; Viruses; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Workers; Insecticides; Dengue; Vector-borne diseases; Essential oils; Vectors; Malaria; Ethnic groups; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 30, n. 3, p. 204-214 , 2014.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The 24th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 80th Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA, in February 2014. The principal objective, for the previous 23 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 26 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from Colombia, Mexico, and the US. Topics addressed in the symposium included surveillance, ecology, chemical control, studies of dengue viruses, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti, Anopheles vectors of malaria, essential oils and ethnic groups and vector-borne diseases.

404) In Vitro Larvicidal and Antioxidant Activity of Dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitriles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy
Assunto: Radical Scavenging Activity; N-Alkylpyridinium Salts; Carbon Nucleophiles; Alkaloid Synthesis; Dihydropyridines; Derivatives; Acridine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Biomed Research International, 2014
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds containing dihydrocyanopyridine and cyanopyran moiety show pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal and antioxidant potential of dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives 4a-f. A novel series of 2-amino-10-chloro-4,12-diphenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[j][1,7] phenanthroline-3- carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized by reacting different substituted acridine chalcones through Michel addition. The compounds were synthesized in excellent yields and the structures were corroborated on the basis of FT-IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, and ESI Mass analysis data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. From the antioxidant assay, the compound 4c was reported with profound antioxidant potential.

405) Mosquitoes of Zika forest, Uganda: Species composition and relative abundance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Mutebi J.-P., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C., Akol A.M.
Assunto: biodiversity, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 104-113, jan. 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO(2)-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and thismaysuggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests a high potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

406) Larvicidal activities of the stem bark extract and rotenoids of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis on Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bosire, Carren M.; Deyou, Tsegaye; Kabaru, Jacques M.; Kimata, Dennis M.; Yenesew, Abiy
Assunto: Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis; Aedes aegypti; Larvae; Rotenoid; Usararotenoid-A
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 3, p. 531-535, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis was tested for its larvicidal activity against the 4th instar Aedes aegypti larvae and demonstrated activity with LC50 value of 50.8 +/- 0.06 mu g/mL at 48 h. Compounds isolated from the extract were also tested for their larvicidal activities, and the rotenoid usararotenoid-A (LC50 4.3 +/- 0.8 mu g/mL at 48 h) was identified as the most active principle. This compound appears to be the first rotenoid having a trans-B/C ring junction and methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3 with high larvicidal activity. Related rotenoids with the same configuration at the B/C-ring junction did not show significant activity at 100 mu g/mL. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

407) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

408) Use of the CDC autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Veronica; Caban, Belkis; Felix, Gilberto; Mackay, Andrew J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector control; Mosquito trap; Dengue; Outbreak
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 145-154, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. Direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. The fertility of Ae. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal oviposition cups that prevent the development of mosquitoes inside the trap by mechanical means or larvicides, as well as by releasing sterile, transgenic, and para-transgenic mosquitoes. Survival and fertility can be simultaneously reduced by capturing gravid female Ae. aegypti with sticky gravid traps. We tested the effectiveness of the novel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) to control natural populations of Ae. aegypti under field conditions in two isolated urban areas (reference vs. intervention areas) in southern Puerto Rico for 1 yr. There were significant reductions in the captures of female Ae. aegypti ( 53D70%) in the intervention area. The presence of three to four AGO control traps per home in 81% of the houses prevented outbreaks of Ae. aegypti, which would be expected after rains. Mosquito captures in BG-Sentinel and AGO traps were significantly and positively correlated, showing that AGO traps are useful and inexpensive mosquito surveillance devices. The use of AGO traps to manage Ae. aegypti populations is compatible with other control means such as source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, sterile insect techniques, induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, and dominant lethal gene systems.

409) Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu; Rawi, Che;Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio;Zuharah, Wan; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad; Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald; Majid, Abdul; Fadzly, Nik; Kassim, Nur; Hashim, Nur; Ghani, Idris; Abang, Fatimah; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Assunto: Cigarette butt extract; Sublethal effects; Aedes aegypti; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 130, p. 123-130, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.

410) Bio-efficacy potential of seaweed Gracilaria firma with copepod, Megacyclops formosanus for the control larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Lin, Show-Mei; Tseng, Li-Chun; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Gracilaria firma; Seaweed; Copepod; Mosquito control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Hydrobiologia, v. 741, n. 1, p. 113-123, 2014
ISSN: 0018-8158
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the most critical group of insects in the context of public health, because they transmit numerous diseases, causing millions of deaths annually. The frequent use of systemic insecticides to manage insect pests leads to the destabilization of ecosystems and enhanced resistance to insecticides by pests, suggesting a clear need for alternatives. Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites, and cyclopoid copepods are prominent predators in many aquatic ecosystems and have been used as biological agents in successful programs to control mosquito larvae. In this study, we determine the effectiveness of the Taiwanese seaweed Gracilaria firma and different solvent extracts combined with the copepod Megacyclops formosanus for controlling Aedes aegypti. A significant larvicidal potential was recorded after seaweed extract treatment against the dengue vector A. aegypti. Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure in laboratory. All extracts exhibited larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was observed in the methanol extract of G. firma against A. aegypti larvae (LC50 = 0.251%). The methanol extract of G. firma was more effective than the other extracts and is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control larvae of the dengue vector A. aegypti.

411) Spatiotemporal clustering, climate periodicity, and social-ecological risk factors for dengue during an outbreak in Machala, Ecuador, in 2010
Autor: Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Munoz, Angel G.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Ayala, Efrain Beltran; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Mejia, Raul; Ordonez, Tania; Recalde-Coronel, G. Cristina; Rivero, Keytia
Assunto: Dengue fever; Aedes aegypti; Social-ecological; Climate; Spatial; Temporal; Wavelet analysis; Early warning system
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 14, n. 1, p. 610, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2334
Resumo: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is a rapidly emerging public health problem in Ecuador and throughout the tropics. However, we have a limited understanding of the disease transmission dynamics in these regions. Previous studies in southern coastal Ecuador have demonstrated the potential to develop a dengue early warning system (EWS) that incorporates climate and non-climate information. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics and climatic and social-ecological risk factors associated with the largest dengue epidemic to date in Machala, Ecuador, to inform the development of a dengue EWS. Methods: The following data from Machala were included in analyses: neighborhood-level georeferenced dengue cases, national census data, and entomological surveillance data from 2010; and time series of weekly dengue cases (aggregated to the city-level) and meteorological data from 2003 to 2012. We applied LISA and Moran's I to analyze the spatial distribution of the 2010 dengue cases, and developed multivariate logistic regression models through a multi-model selection process to identify census variables and entomological covariates associated with the presence of dengue at the neighborhood level. Using data aggregated at the city-level, we conducted a time-series (wavelet) analysis of weekly climate and dengue incidence (2003-2012) to identify significant time periods (e.g., annual, biannual) when climate co-varied with dengue, and to describe the climate conditions associated with the 2010 outbreak. Results: We found significant hotspots of dengue transmission near the center of Machala. The best-fit model to predict the presence of dengue included older age and female gender of the head of the household, greater access to piped water in the home, poor housing condition, and less distance to the central hospital. Wavelet analyses revealed that dengue transmission co-varied with rainfall and minimum temperature at annual and biannual cycles, and we found that anomalously high rainfall and temperatures were associated with the 2010 outbreak. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of geospatial information in dengue surveillance and the potential to develop a climate-driven spatiotemporal prediction model to inform disease prevention and control interventions. This study provides an operational methodological framework that can be applied to understand the drivers of local dengue risk.

412) Chlorophyll derivatives can be an efficient weapon in the fight against dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Azizullah, Azizullah; Rehman, Zia Ur; Ali, Imran; Murad, Waheed; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Waheed; Haeder, Donat-Peter
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chlorophyllin; Dengue; Photodynamic control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 12, p. 4321-4326, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.

413) Electrophysiological and behavioural response of Aedes albopictus to n-heinecosane, an ovipositional pheromone of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Gonzalez, Paula V.; Gonzalez Audino, Paola A.; Masuh, Hector M.
Assunto: Hydrocarbon; Diptera; Cuticular; Culicidae; Electroantennogram; Attractant; Repellent; EAD; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, v. 151, n. 3, p. 191-197, 2014
ISSN: 0013-8703
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are highly anthropophilic mosquito species and potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever. The location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influence females before they lay their eggs. In this study, the effect of n-heneicosane, a recognized oviposition pheromone of Ae.aegypti, on the olfactory receptors of the antennae of Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus was studied using electroantennographic detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC-EAD). A significant electroantennographic response to n-heneicosane in adult females of both mosquito species was observed. In addition, gravid Ae.albopictus females laid more eggs in substrate treated with n-heneicosane at 0.1, 1, or 10p.p.m. than in the control, denoting oviposition attractancy. Conversely, at 30, 50, 100, and 200p.p.m., more eggs were laid in the control substrate, indicating oviposition repellency. Analysis of the larval cuticle by GC and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of n-heneicosane in the cuticles of Ae.albopictus larvae. The species-specific role of n-heneicosane as an oviposition pheromone in Ae.aegypti and its significance as a behaviour modifier of Ae.albopictus in breeding sites is discussed.

414) Molecular interactions between terpenoid mosquito repellents and human-secreted attractants
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liao, Shengliang; Song, Jie; Wang, Zongde; Chen, Jinzhu; Fan, Guorong; Song, Zhanqian; Shang, Shibin; Chen, Shangxing; Wang, Peng
Assunto: Terpenoid; Mosquito repellent; Human-secreted attractant; Molecular interaction; Repellency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, v. 24, n. 3, p. 773-779, 2014
ISSN: 0960-894X
Resumo: Molecular interactions between terpenoid mosquito repellents and three typical human-secreted attractants, ammonia, 1-octen-3-ol, and formic acid were studied. Relative energies, bond distances, and bond angles of the molecular interactions were obtained at HF level to evaluate the interaction intensity and types. The effects of molecular interactions on repellency were investigated by the subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. The results of this study suggest that attractant-repellent interaction should not be ignored and could be helpful for future research on the repelling mechanism of mosquito repellents. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

415) Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes
Autor: Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi
Assunto: Chemical composition; Lethal limits; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Vectors; Essential oils; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Pinus sylvestris; Syzygium aromaticum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 4, n. 1, p. 30-34, 2014.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method: The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results: The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC sub(50)(S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC sub(50)(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC sub(50)(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC sub(50)(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more, toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

416) Identification of Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance in the Dengue Vector Aedes Aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Poupardin, Rodolphe; Srisukontarat, Wannaporn; Yunta, Cristina; Ranson, Hilary
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Amino-Acid Substitution; Insecticide Resistance; Pyrethroid Resistance; Organophosphorus Insecticides; Detoxification Genes; Cross-Resistance; Molecular-Basis; Small Portions; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 3, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Thailand is currently experiencing one of its worst dengue outbreaks in decades. As in most countries where this disease is endemic, dengue control in Thailand is largely reliant on the use of insecticides targeting both immature and adult stages of the Aedes mosquito, with the organophosphate insecticide, temephos, being the insecticide of choice for attacking the mosquito larvae. Resistance to temephos was first detected in Aedes aegypti larvae in Thailand approximately 25 years ago but the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been determined.Principal Findings: Bioassays on Ae. aegypti larvae from Thailand detected temephos resistance ratios ranging from 3.5 fold in Chiang Mai to nearly 10 fold in Nakhon Sawan (NS) province. Synergist and biochemical assays suggested a role for increased carboxylesterase (CCE) activities in conferring temephos resistance in the NS population and microarray analysis revealed that the CCE gene, CCEae3a, was upregulated more than 60 fold in the NS population compared to the susceptible population. Upregulation of CCEae3a was shown to be partially due to gene duplication. Another CCE gene, CCEae6a, was also highly regulated in both comparisons. Sequencing and in silico structure prediction of CCEae3a showed that several amino acid polymorphisms in the NS population may also play a role in the increased resistance phenotype.Significance: Carboxylesterases have previously been implicated in conferring temephos resistance in Ae aegypti but the specific member(s) of this family responsible for this phenotype have not been identified. The identification of a strong candidate is an important step in the development of new molecular diagnostic tools for management of temephos resistant populations and thus improved control of dengue.

417) Increased replicative fitness of a dengue virus 2 clade in native mosquitoes: potential contribution to a clade replacement event in Nicaragua
Autor: Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: Epidemics; Viral diseases; Viruses; Clinical isolates; Serotypes; Vectors; Dengue; Immune esponse; Evolution; Genetics; Climate change; Globalization; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, no. 22, pp. 13125-13134, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern. This is due to globalization, unplanned urbanization, and climate change, as well as host genetics and immune responses and viral genetic changes. DENV consists of four serotypes, in turn composed of genotypes and genetically distinct clades. What drives the frequent replacement of a previously circulating DENV clade by another is unclear. Here, we investigate the replicative fitness of two clades of DENV serotype 2 in Aedes aegypti cells and mosquitoes collected from the region where the viruses circulated and conclude that increased replicative fitness could have contributed to a DENV clade replacement event in Nicaragua. These findings provide insight into vector-driven evolution of DENV epidemics.

418) Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Anopheles-Stephensi; Plant; Culicidae; Diptera; Particles; Leaves; Larvae; L.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 3, p. 875-880, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to the development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the synthesized AgNPs from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77, 2,923.30, and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C=O group. The band 1,383 developed for C=C and C=N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNP from leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti with LC50 values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l and LC90 values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNP from leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti.

419) Enhanced Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis and Three Essential Oil Major Constituents to Wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Mosquito; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis; (E)-anethole; (E)-cinnamaldehyde; Eugenol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 804-810, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1: 1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations.

420) Clone 13-infected Aedes aegypti salivary components inhibit Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Clone 13; Pathogenicity; Rift Valley fever virus; Salivary gland
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 16, n. 5, p. 439-444, 2014
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks among humans and domestic animals in Africa. RVFV Clone 13, a naturally attenuated clone, is a promising vaccine which was used during the 2009-2010 outbreak in South Africa and played a key role in the control of the disease. In this work, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with RVFV Clone 13 and prepared salivary gland extracts (SGE). C57BL/6-NRJ male mice were infected with a mixture of SGE infected by Clone 13 and the ZH548 RVFV strain. With the injection of increasing doses of Clone 13-infected SGE, all mice were protected. Our results suggest Clone 13 infected SGE contain unique antiviral components able to counteract the replication of RVFV when injected into vertebrates. (C) 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

421) Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Coutinho Moraes, Denise Fernandes
Assunto: Culex-pipiens-pallens; Plant essential oils; Leaf essential oil; Chemical-composition; Insecticidal activity; Asarum heterotropoides; Ochlerotatus-togoi; Larvae diptera; Dengue vector; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 2, p. 565-592, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50 < 100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes.

422) Oviposition deterrent activity of three mosquito repellents diethyl phenyl acetamide (DEPA), diethyl m toluamide (DEET), and diethyl benzamide (DEB) on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tikar, S. N.; Yadav, Ruchi; Mendki, M. J.; Rao, A. N.; Sukumaran, D.; Parashar, B. D.
Assunto: Essential oils; Culicidae; Diptera; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 101-106, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Oviposition deterrent activity of three mosquito repellents namely diethyl phenyl acetamide (DEPA), diethyl benzamide (DEB) along with diethyl toluamide (DEET) was studied in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. All the repellents evaluated at three log concentrations 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 % in comparison with control by dual choice method. The oviposition response and oviposition activity index (OAI) was estimated by counting number of eggs laid in both the treatment and control. Mean OAI determined for A. aegypti was in the range of -0.23 to +0.22, -0.3 to +0.27, and +0.04 to +0.33 for DEPA, DEET, and DEB, respectively, whereas it was -0.77 to -0.035, -0.92 to +0.001, and -0.77 to -0.07 for A. albopictus and -0.927 to -0.251, -1 to -0.41, and -0.94 to -0.17 for C. quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent activity was observed in the order of DEET > DEPA > DEB. Similarly, the response of species toward the repellents as oviposition deterrent was in the trend of C. quinquefasciatus > A. albopictus > A. aegypti. The finding suggests potential role of mosquito repellents as oviposition deterrent.

423) Vector competence of Aedes aegypti populations from Kilifi and Nairobi for dengue 2 virus and the influence of temperature
Autor: Chepkorir, Edith; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Limbaso, Konongoi; Orindi, Benedict; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Sang, Rosemary
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector competence; Temperature
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 435, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti mosquito to dengue virus (DENV) varies geographically and can be influenced by climatic factors such as temperature, which affect the incidence, seasonality and distribution of vector-borne diseases. The first outbreak of dengue fever (DF) in Kenya occured in 1982 in the coastal towns of Malindi and Kilifi. Unlike Nairobi where no active dengue transmission has been reported, DF is currently re-emerging at the Coast causing major outbreaks. This study investigated the vector competence of Ae. aegypti populations from two urban areas, Kilifi (Coast of Kenya) and Nairobi (Central Kenya), for DEN-2 virus and the influence of temperature on the same. Methods: Four-day old adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes collected as eggs from the two sites were exposed to defibrinated sheep blood mixed with DEN-2 virus (10 super(5.08) PFU/ml) using a membrane feeder. Half of the exposed mosquitoes were incubated at high temperature (30 degree C) and the other half at low temperature (26 degree C), and every 7 days up to day 21 post-infection 30% of the exposed mosquitoes were randomly picked, individually dissected, separated into abdomen and legs, and tested for midgut and disseminated infection, respectively, including virus quantification by plaque assay using Vero cells. Results: Nairobi mosquito populations exhibited significantly higher midgut infection rates (16.8%) compared to the Kilifi population (9%; p = 0.0001). Midgut infection rates among the populations varied with temperature levels with a significantly higher infection rate observed for Nairobi at high (21.3%) compared to low temperature (12.0%; p = 0.0037). Similarly, for the Kilifi population, a significantly higher infection rate was recorded at high (11.6%) relative to low temperature (6.8%; p = 0.0162). It is however, noteworthy that disseminated infection was higher among the Kilifi mosquito population (40.7%) than in Nairobi mosquitoes (10.3%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The findings show a clear inherent difference between the two populations in their ability to develop disseminated infection with high temperature having an added effect of enhancing vector competence. Therefore, the inherent difference among the two populations of Ae. aegypti coupled with prevailing ambient temperature could partly explain the distribution of dengue 2 virus between the Coastal and Nairobi regions in Kenya.

424) Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (diptera: culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Viral diseases; Wings; Archipelagoes; Pest control; Hosts; Hygiene; Disease transmission; Public health; RNA; Survival; Vectors; Blood meals; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Aedes vittatus; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 635-641, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa.

425) Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Blázquez A.-B., Escribano-Romero E., Merino-Ramos T., Saiz J.-C., Martín-Acebes M.A.
Assunto: autophagy, cellular stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Flavivirus infection, unfolded protein response
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 5, jun. 2014
ISSN: 1664-302X (electronic)
Resumo: The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. © 2014 Blázquez, Escribano-Romero, Merino-Ramos, Saiz and Martín-Acebes.

426) Bioefficacy of acyclic monoterpenes and their saturated derivatives against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Michaelakis, Antonios; Vidali, Veroniki P.; Papachristos, Dimitrios P.; Pitsinos, Emmanuel N.; Koliopoulos, George; Couladouros, Elias A.; Polissiou, Moschos G.; Kimbaris, Athanasios C.
Assunto: Culex pipiens; Structure–activity relationships; Acyclic monoterpenes; Repellency; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Chemosphere, v. 96, p. 74-80, 2014
ISSN: 0045-6535
Resumo: Twenty acyclic monoterpenes with different functional groups (acetoxy, hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) bearing a variable number of carbon double bonds were assayed as repellent and larvicidal agents against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens. Seven of them were derivatives that were synthesized through either hydrogenation or oxidation procedures. All repellent compounds were tested at the dose of 1 mg cm(-2) and only neral and geranial were also tested at a 4-fold lower dose (0.25 mg cm(-2)). Repellency results revealed that geranial, neral, nerol, citronellol, geranyl acetate and three more derivatives dihydrolinalool (3), dihydrocitronellol (5) and dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) resulted in no landings. Based on the LC50 values the derivative dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) was the most active of all, resulting in an LC50 value of 17.9 mg L-1. Linalyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, dihydrocitronellol (5), dihydrocitronellal (7), citronellol, dihydrolinalyl acetate (2), citronellic acid and tetrahydrolinalyl acetate (1) were also toxic with LC50 values ranging from 23 to 45 mg L-1. Factors modulating toxicity have been identified, thus providing information on structural requirements for the selected acyclic monoterpenes. The acetoxy group enhanced toxicity, without being significantly affected by the unsaturation degree. Within esters, reduction of the vinyl group appears to decrease potency. Presence of a hydroxyl or carbonyl group resulted in increased activity but only in correlation to saturation degree. Branched alcohols proved ineffective compared to the corresponding linear isomers. Finally, as it concerns acids, data do not allow generalizations or correlations to be made. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

427) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo D., Sall A.A., Diagne C.T., Faye O., Faye O., Ba Y., Hanley K.A., Buenemann M., Weaver S.C., Diallo M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti , Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

428) Larvicide effect of methanolic extracts from seeds and leaves Persea americana (Laurales: Lauraceae) (avocado) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Agrela, Irma F.; Hidalgo, Yessika; Herrera, Flor
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes Aegypti; Persea Americana; Larvicide; Lethal Concentrations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental, v. 54, n. 2, p. 199-207, 2014
ISSN: 1690-4648
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue in the Americas. This disease is one of the most important arboviruses in Venezuela due to the high morbidity and mortality it produces. The absence of a Vaccine against this virus has led to the indiscriminate use of insecticides causing vector resistance, environmental damage and adverse reactions in susceptible individuals. The search for effective and inexpensive ways to control dengue has led to the evaluation of plant extracts as a low environmental risk, economical alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the larvicidal effect of methanol extracts obtained from the seeds and leaves of Persea americana (avocado) on Ae. aegypti [Rockefeller and Mario Briceno Iragorry (MBI) strains]. The methanol extract obtained from the seeds proved to be the most toxic for Ae. aegypti, producing 100% mortality 24 hours post-exposure, at concentrations of 25 mg/L (Rockefeller strain) and 50 mg/L (MBI strain). The lethal concentrations (LC50) were: a) methanol seed extract LC50 = 5.7 mg/L (Rockefeller strain) and 9.9 mg/L (MBI strain), b) methanol leaf extract LC50 = 22.8 mg/L (Rockefeller strain) and 26.2 mg/L (MBI strain). These results demonstrate the toxicity of methanol extracts from avocado seeds and leaves for Ae. aegypti and suggest that these products have potential as chemical controls of this vector.

429) A rationale to design longer lasting mosquito repellents
Autor: Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo; Conti, Barbara
Assunto: Mosquito repellent; Aedes albopictus; Protection time; Menthone; Human-bait test; DEET
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1813-1820, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito repellents represent a cleaner and safer alternative for population control and reduce the diseases they carry in large areas of the world. Recently, research has been focused on repellents of natural origins, both crude essential oils and their main constituents. We have observed that, although a large number of compounds can be efficiently used as mosquito repellents, their efficacy is never higher than those of commercial products DEET and Icaridin. Reasoning that probably specific and exceptionally active repellents might not exist, we focused our research on products that could provide longer protection times with respect to current commercial formulations while being used at lower concentrations. Based on the structure of menthone, a moderate natural repellent, we designed and synthesised some cyclic ketals that, because of their reduced volatility, could be effective for longer periods. In particular, a 1 % solution of one of such derivatives can still reduce mosquito bites by 90 % after 2 h, while DEET provides the same performance only for 15 min, when used at the same concentration. The approach we illustrate can be applied to other compounds and other systems and offers the additional advantage that derivatives of reduced volatility are also endowed with weaker odours.

430) Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia
Autor: Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Assunto: Biological control; Human diseases; Replication; Pest control; Cosmopolite species; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Head; Dengue; Blood meals; Tropical environments; Cosmopolitan species; Insects; Feeds; World population; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Almost half of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics. The virus is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a cosmopolitan species that has proved difficult to control using traditional methods. A new biocontrol strategy has been developed involving the release of mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria. Mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia show dramatically reduced replication and transmission of dengue virus in laboratory trials. Although promising, the utility of Wolbachia biocontrol depends on field wMel-infected mosquitoes retaining the phenotype of reduced viral replication. Mosquitoes with wMel were released in the field in Cairns, Australia in early 2011. We provide evidence that, one year later, field collected wMel mosquitoes showed reduced dengue virus replication in the body and limited dissemination to the head compared to controls. Wolbachia numbers in mosquitoes increased following blood meals, which may further decrease viral replication if the insects feed frequently. Our results indicate that Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference is sustained in field populations and shows no sign of attenuation after one year of deployment.

431) Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects
Autor: Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Juergen; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Assunto: Essential oils; Contact allergy; Anopheles; Aedes; Mosquitos
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 185-188, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20 % and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1 % to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1 % additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1 % as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

432) Seasonal and nonseasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: fitting mathematical models to trap data
Autor: Lana, Raquel; Carneiro, Tiago; Honorio, Nildimar; Codeco, Claudia
Assunto: Seasonality; Rivers; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Climate; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Temperature effects; Risk assessment; Serotypes; Data processing; Dengue; Abundance; Pest outbreaks; Seasonal variations; Disease transmission; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 129, p. 25-32, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Mathematical models suggest that seasonal transmission and temporary cross-immunity between serotypes can determine the characteristic multi-year dynamics of dengue fever. Seasonal transmission is attributed to the effect of climate on mosquito abundance and within host virus dynamics. In this study, we validate a set of temperature and density dependent entomological models that are built-in components of most dengue models by fitting them to time series of ovitrap data from three distinct neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results indicate that neighborhoods differ in the strength of the seasonal component and that commonly used models tend to assume more seasonal structure than found in data. Future dengue models should investigate the impact of heterogeneous levels of seasonality on dengue dynamics as it may affect virus maintenance from year to year, as well as the risk of disease outbreaks.

433) Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus, Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, feb. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Methodology/Principal Findings:Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.Conclusions/Significance:We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. © 2014 Grard et al.

434) Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan
Assunto: Green synthesis; Silver nanoparticles; Feronia elephantum; Larvicidal activity; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, no. 5, p. 1775-1785, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mu g mL super(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mu g mL super(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values: A. stephensi had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 11.56 and 20.56 mu g mL super(-1); A. aegypti had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 13.13 and 23.12 mu g mL super(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 14.19 and 24.30 mu g mL super(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

435) Seasonal distribution of Aedes aegypti in southern Benin: a risk of dengue virus transmission to urban populations
Autor: Yadouleton, A.; Agbanrin, R.; Vodounon, C.; padonou, G.; Badirou, K.; Attolou, R.; Ursins, F.; Zola, J.; Allagbe, H.; Akogbeto, M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Season; Traps; Tires; Benin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, v. 9, n. 2, p. 648-654, 2014.
ISSN: 2028-9324
Resumo: This study aims to assess the seasonal distribution of Aedes aegypti from May 2013-April 2014 in Dandji, Southern Benin. The study was based on Ae. aegypti immature stages (larvae/pupae) sampling from domestic, peri-domestic, and natural water sources and were reared to adults. The collections were made during the dry and rainy seasons. During the study, a total number of 18,658 mosquitoes were collected, where 15,204 were collected by human landing catvhes, 303 with biogents sentinel trap, 3,038 with Indoor Pyrethrum Spray Catches, and 48 with Gravid traps. Among the 18,593 of Ae. aegypti collected, the female populations was significantly higher than the male populations. From the 13,834 females, 1,380 were blood-fed. Adult's collection was high during the two rainy seasons (June-July and October-November) but declined in the two dry seasons (December-March and August-September). At Dandji, the average Human Biting Rates obtained during rainy seasons was significantly higher than those obtained during the dry seasons.

436) Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) HWLi Essential Oil to Aedes aegypti L. and its Chemical Composition
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qi Yong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Isodon Japonicus Var. Glaucocalyx; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicidal Activity; Mosquito; Essential Oil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 13, n. 9, p. 1471-1476, 2014
ISSN: 1596-5996
Resumo: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) H.W. Li (Labiatae) aerial parts at flowering stage against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L.Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mas spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth larvae of A. aegypti for 24 h, and larval mortality recorded at various essential oil concentrations ranging from 12.5 - 200 mu g/mL.Results: A total of 34 components of the essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx were identified. The principal compounds of the essential oil were thujone (9.65 %), morillol (8.14 %), caryophyllene oxide (7.68 %), beta-caryophyllene (7.60 %), alpha-terpineol (7.22 %), 1,8-cineole (7.09 %), linalool (5.56 %), Z-caryophyllene (5.10 %) and gamma-eudesmol (4.71 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal activity against A. aegypti with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 40.82 mu g/mL.Conclusion: The findings indicate that the essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts has potentials for use in the control of A. aegypti larvae and may be useful in the search for newer, safer and more effective natural compounds for use as larvicides.

437) Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Allium macrostemon; Aedes albopictus; Larvicidal activity; Methyl propyl disulfide; Dimethyl trisulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 184, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus.Methods: Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 -150 mu g/ml.Results: The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 mu g/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 mu g/ml and 86.16 mu g/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

438) Chikungunya Virus: A Major Emerging Threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs, Stephen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 8, p. 535-536, 2014
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo:

439) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections: an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roth; Mercier; Lepers; Hoy; Duituturaga; Benyon; Guillaumot; Souars
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue virus; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic distribution; Infection risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public health; Serotype; Virus infection; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41, p. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: Since January 2012, the Pacific Region has experienced 28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world.

440) Molecular and Phytochemical Investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis Essential Oils and Their Biological Activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum Species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E.; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J.; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can
Assunto: Angelica Dahurica; Angelica Pubescentis; Internal Transcribed Spacer Region; Colletotrichum Species; Aedes Aegypti; Stephanitis Pyrioides; 1-Dodecanol; 1-Tridecanol; Terpinen-4-Ol; Sabinene; Myrcene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 62, n. 35, p. 8848-8857, 2014
ISSN: 0021-8561
Resumo: In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed Genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A dahurica oil were found as alpha-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). alpha-Pinene (37.6%), p-cyrnene (11.6%), lirnonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 +/- 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 +/- 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents.

441) Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed lectin in traps for the capture of Aedes aegypti eggs and adults under semi-field conditions
Autor: de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; Paixo, Kelly da Silva; Napoleao, Thiago Henrique; Trindade, Priscila Barbi; Pinto, Mariele Ribeiro; Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Luana Cassandra; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Guedes Paiva, Patricia Maria
Assunto: Lectin; Moringa; Dengue vector; Oviposition; Ovitrap; Semi-field
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1837-1842, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The water-soluble lectin isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL) is a larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-stimulating agent against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. This study investigated the effect of WSMoL in traps for the capture of A. aegypti eggs and adult females under semi-field conditions and determined whether gravid females could detect WSMoL by an olfactory response. WSMoL was isolated according to a previously described procedure using chitin chromatography. The bioassays were performed in large cages (12.5 m(3)). Two traps for collection of eggs (ovitrap) or adult mosquitoes (MosquiTRAP(TM)) were placed in a cage. One was filled with WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL) and the other with tap water (negative control). An infusion of Panicum maximum leaves was used as a positive control. Forty gravid females were then released in each cage. After 2 (for oviposition) or 3 h (for female capture), the traps were removed, and the number of eggs or females was counted. An olfactometry assay was performed to investigate whether the effect of WSMoL on gravid females was linked to an olfactory response. WSMoL showed an oviposition-stimulating effect (65 +/- 14 %) that was similar (p < 0.05) to that promoted by the P. maximum infusion (67 +/- 11 %). The efficiency of MosquiTRAP(TM) in capturing gravid females was not increased by WSMoL. The olfactometry assay indicated that the response of females to WSMoL did not involve the stimulation of olfactory sensilla. WSMoL effectively captured eggs when used in ovitraps under semi-field conditions; this property, together with the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of this lectin, makes it an interesting candidate for A. aegypti control.

442) Influência dos fatores abióticos na efetividade de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Berliner, 1911) para larvas de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Santos da Silva, Antonia; dos Santos Lobo, Katiane; Soares da Silva, Joelma; Fernandes da Silva Vale, Cíntia; Pedro Tadei, Wanderli; Soares Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina
Assunto: Bacillus Thuringiensis, Controle Biológico, Dengue, Vetor.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical, v. 66, n. 2, p. 174-190, 2014
ISSN: 1561-3054
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis , has been used worldwide for the control of mosquitoes, particularly in combating Aedes aegypti. Various formulations have been made however, the effectiveness of these insecticides vary varies considerably according to the environmental conditions. Objective: to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis to against larvae of Ae. aegypti. Methods: we conducted bioassay experiments in the campus of the CESC / UEMA. With use of 20 Twenty cement tanks, of these, were used, 10 of which were exposed to environmental factors, and only. Of these, 5 were treated and 5 served as controls. The other 10 tanks were placed in the shade, also again 5 were treated and 5 untreated were not (control). After treatment, the 25 stage L 3 larvae were placed in 25 L 3 each stage tank and mortality. Mortality readings were taken after 24 hours and every 7 days. Weekly water samples were collected from all tanks to measure once a week to check the number of viable spores and evaluate bacterial recycling. Results and discussion: the larvicidal efficacy: The larvicide showed initial efficacy, killing 100 % of the larvae in tanks that were located both in the sun and in the shade. Environmental factors, sunlight, temperature and rainfall negatively affected the effectiveness of the product, because for there was a reduction in the effectiveness of the product throughout the experiment. It was observed variation in the number of spores during the development of the experiment demonstrating, showing that the bacterium has potential recyclability. Conclusion: these data serve as parameters for improving to in Bti-based insecticides, in order to make the with a view to making formulations more suited toin keeping with the environmental conditions of our region.

443) Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Tome, Hudson V. V.; Pascini, Tales V.; Dangelo, Romulo A. C.; Guedes, Raul N. C.; Martins, Gustavo F.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Behavioral response; Biopesticides; Dengue vector; Mosquito; Sublethal toxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 195, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4 super(th) instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods: Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4 super(th) instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results: All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and wriggling movements. A similar trend was also observed for swimming pupa, except for imidacloprid, which increased the swimming activity of pupa. Curiously, the insecticides did not affect cell damage in the neuromuscular system of larvae and pupae. Conclusions: Deltamethrin and spinosad were the main compounds to exhibit lethal effects, which allowed the control of A. aegypti larvae and pupae, and impair their swimming potentially compromising foraging and predation likelihood.

444) Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Plant leaf extracts; Repellent activities; Comparative efficacy; Chikungunya vector; Essential oil; Seed extract; Say diptera; Larvae; L.; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 4, p. 1435-1449, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100 % hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against Anopheles stephensi followed by Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values were 120.44, 135.60, and 157.71 ppm and 214.65, 248.35, and 290.95 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. The finding of the present investigation revealed that the root extract of Asparagus racemosus possess remarkable ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes and this is the low cost and ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the reported Asparagus racemosus root.

445) Macroclimate determines the global range limit of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Capinha, Cesar; Rocha, Jorge; Sousa, Carla A.
Assunto: Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Ecological distribution; Climate; Hosts; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Vectors; Climate change; Exploitation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: EcoHealth, v. 11, n. 3, p. 420-428, 2014.
ISSN: 1612-9202
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and a number of other diseases worldwide. Because of the domestic nature of this mosquito, the relative importance of macroclimate in shaping its distribution has been a controversial issue. We have captured here the worldwide macroclimatic conditions occupied by A. aegypti in the last century. We assessed the ability of this information to predict the species' observed distribution using supra-continental spatially-uncorrelated data. We further projected the distribution of the colonized climates in the near future (2010-2039) under two climate-change scenarios. Our results indicate that the macroclimate is largely responsible for setting the maximum range limit of A. aegypti worldwide and that in the near future, relatively wide areas beyond this limit will receive macroclimates previously occupied by the species. By comparing our projections, with those from a previous model based strictly on species-climate relationships (i.e., excluding human influence), we also found support for the hypothesis that much of the species' range in temperate and subtropical regions is being sustained by artificial environments. Altogether, these findings suggest that, if the domestic environments commonly exploited by this species are available in the newly suitable areas, its distribution may expand considerably in the near future.

446) Spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue 2009 outbreak in Cordoba City, Argentina
Autor: Estallo, E. L.; Carbajo, A. E.; Grech, M. G.; Frias-Cespedes, M.; Lopez, L.; Lanfri, M. A.; Luduena-Almeida, F. F.; Almiron, W. R.
Assunto: Infestation; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Population density; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Age; Dengue; Temperature requirements; Survival; Vectors; Temperature; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 136, p. 129-136, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: During 2009 the biggest dengue epidemic to date occurred in Argentina, affecting almost half the country. We studied the spatio-temporal dynamics of the outbreak in the second most populated city of the country, Cordoba city. Confirmed cases and the results of an Aedes aegypti monitoring during the outbreak were geolocated. The imported cases began in January, and the autochthonous in March. Thirty-three percent of the 130 confirmed cases were imported, and occurred mainly at the center of the city. The autochthonous cases were more frequent in the outskirts, specially in the NE and SE. Aedes aegypti infestation showed no difference between neighborhoods with or without autochthonous cases, neither between neighborhoods with autochthonous vs. imported cases. The neighborhoods with imported cases presented higher population densities. The majority of autochthonous cases occurred at ages between 25 and 44 years old. Cases formed a spatio-temporal cluster of up to 20 days and 12 km. According to a mathematical model that estimates the required number of days needed for transmission according to daily temperature, the number of cases begun to fall when more than 15.5 days were needed. This may be a coarse estimation of mean mosquito survival in the area, provided that the study area is close to the global distribution limit of the vector, and that cases prevalence was very low.

447) Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barra Medeiros Barbosa, Patricia Batista; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macdo; Araujo Rabelo, Luciana Maria; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchoa, Adriana Ferreira; de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fatima
Assunto: Larvicide; Pupicide; Adulticide; Ovipositional deterrence activity; Gut homogenate; Enzyme inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 10, p. 3565-3580, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

448) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.; Moorthi, P. Vinayaga
Assunto: Anopheles - Stephensi liston; Extracellular biosynthesis; Licheniformis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 311-316, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

449) Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes
Autor: Gkinis, G.; Michaelakis, A.; Koliopoulos, G.; Ioannou, E.; Tzakou, O.; Roussis, V.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; N,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide deet; Diptera-culicidae; Catnip oil; Components; Albopictus; N,n-diethyl-m-toluamide; Anopheles; Safety; Adult
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 3, p. 1127-1134, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskal. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone (36.8 %), 1,8-cineole (25.5 %), and 4a alpha, 7 beta, 7a beta-nepetalactone (11.1 %) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species.

450) Influence of Time of Assay on Behavioral Responses of Laboratory and Field Populations Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tainchum, Krajana; Ritthison, Wanapa; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Tanasilchayakul, Somchai; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, Michael J.; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: DEET; Excito-Repellency; Aedes Aegypti; Culex Quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1227-1236, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Knowledge on test conditions that may influence behavioral responses of mosquitoes is critical when excito-repellency tests are conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of test time differences on normal circadian activity and behavioral responses of field and colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) (=Stegomyia aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to DEET, one of the most common synthetic repellent active ingredients available. Two field populations of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus from Kanchanaburi and Nonthaburi provinces, respectively, and two long-standing laboratory populations, Ae. aegypti obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Cx. quinquefasciatus from the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, were used. Each population was exposed to DEET during two different periods of time (0900-1500 hours) and (2100-0300 hours). Both field and laboratory Cx. quinquefasciatus showed marked differences in spatial repellent escape responses between day and nighttime periods but none in direct contact tests. No significant differences between day and nighttime testing periods were observed with field or laboratory Ae. aegypti, except a higher daytime escape response from noncontact DEET treatment. This study indicates that test time may influence the behavioral avoidance responses and is a potential confounder of excito-repellency evaluations.

451) Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions
Autor: Santos, Clisiane C. S.; Araujo, Silvan S.; Santos, Andre L. L. M.; Almeida, Elis C. V.; Dias, Antonio S.; Damascena, Nicole P.; Santos, Deisylaine M.; Santos, Matheus I. S.; Junior, Karlos A. L. R.; Pereira, Carla K. B.; Lima, Amanda C. B.; Shan, Andrea Y. K. V.; Sant'ana, Antonio E. G.; Estevam, Charles S.; Araujo, Brancilene S.
Assunto: Artemia salina; Aedes; Biomphalaria; Larvicide; Molluscicide; Schinopsis brasiliensis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, v. 24, n. 3, p. 298-303, 2014
ISSN: 0102-695X
Resumo: Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50 and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina (LC50 > 1000 mu g/ml), while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50 313 mu g/ml); ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 mu g/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 mu g/ml, respectively), while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90 values of 68 and 73 mu g/ml, respectively). Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis. (C) 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

452) Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Lee-Ching Ng; Lee, Chow-Yang
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Synergist; Biochemical assay; Singapore; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 170-181, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti ( L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43- fold) could be developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47- fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34- fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S, S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing.

453) Natural vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus in Aedes aegypti populations in Acapulco, Mexico
Autor: Martinez, Norma E; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Martini-Jaimes, Andres; Huerta, Heron;Che-Mendoza, Azael; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Rainy season; Pupae; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Dengue; Control programs; Polymerase chain reaction; Eggs; Disease transmission; Households; Larvae; Standards; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 30, n. 2, p. 143-146, 2014.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We carried out dengue virus surveillance in Aedes aegypti populations from 47 neighborhoods of Acapulco during the rainy season of 2011 following a standard national protocol and as an improvement of the entomological surveillance of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 4,146 Ae. aegypti adults collected indoors and/or emerged from eggs, larvae, or pupae from households with dengue reports (probable or confirmed cases), were grouped into pools and processed using a standardized serotype-specific 4-plex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Overall, only 2 (0.9%) of 226 pools of Ae. aegypti adults (1 pool of adults emerged from field-collected larvae, and another of indoor-collected adults) were positive for dengue virus 1 (DENV-1). This is appears to be the 1st report of evidence on the vertical and transovarial transmission of DENV-1 in field-caught Ae. aegypti in Mexico.

454) Quinine and artesunate inhibit feeding in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: the role of gustatory organs within the mouthparts
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kessler, Sebastien; Gonzalez, Julia; Vlimant, Michele; Glauser, Gaetan; Guerin, Patrick M.
Assunto: Alkaloids; Antimalarial drugs; Feeding deterrents; In vitro feeding assay; Mosquito blood meal; Phagostimulants; Sesquiterpene lactones
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Physiological Entomology, v. 39, n. 2, p. 172-182, 2014
ISSN: 0307-6962
Resumo: A membrane feeding assay in which the effects of the antimalarial drugs quinine and artesunate are tested on Anopheles gambiaeGiles sensu stricto is described. In the present study, 87% of female A. gambiae are shown to feed on whole defibrinated bovine blood alone, whereas only 47% and 43.5% feed on saline and on saline+bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions, respectively, suggesting that additional components in the blood stimulate mosquito feeding. The addition of 1mm quinine or artesunate to the BSA solution results in a significant reduction in percentage engorgement to 16.2% and 14.1%, respectively. However, the feeding rate is higher when 1mm artesunate and quinine are mixed in the blood because 67.8% and 78.4% of females engorge on these solutions respectively. Artesunate (10mm) in the blood reduces percentage engorgement to 20%. Because circulating doses of quinine and artesunate affecting Plasmodium in humans are much lower than those affecting feeding by A. gambiae in the in vitro assay, these two antimalarial drugs should have no effect, or only a minor effect, on the infection rate of mosquitoes feeding on treated patients. Because only the stylets penetrate the membrane and not the labellar lobes, the results of the present study suggest that both blood phagostimulants and feeding deterrents are detected by internal gustatory organs in A. gambiae, namely sensory cells in the apical and subapical labral pegs, in sensilla on the inner face of the labellar lobes, or by cibarial receptor cells. The neuroanatomy of gustatory sensilla on the apical and subapical labral pegs and on the inner face of the labellar lobes of female A. gambiae is described in the present study.

455) Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes' Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals
Autor: Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, Andre; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson
Assunto: Yellow-fever mosquito; Aedes-aegypti; Rhipicephalus-sanguineus; Anopheles-gambiae; Salivary-gland; Visual-stimuli; Host-seeking; Olfactometer; Attraction; Repellents
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 10, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Background: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable.Principal Findings: By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat.Significance: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

456) Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Prathibha, K. P.; Raghavendra, B. S.; Vijayan, V. A.
Assunto: Eugenia Jambolana; Solidago Canadensis; Euodia Ridleyi; Spilanthes Mauritiana; Anopheles Stephensi; Aedes Aegypti; Culex Quinquefasciatus; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Oviposition Deterrent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 21, n. 10, p. 6736-6743, 2014
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100 % mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes.

457) Bionomic response of Aedes aegypti to two future climate change scenarios in far north Queensland, Australia: implications for dengue outbreaks
Autor: Williams, Craig R.; Mincham, Gina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David
Assunto: Climate change; Environmental impact; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Bionomics; Dengue; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Risk assessment; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 252, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue viruses are transmitted by anthropophilic mosquitoes and infect approximately 50 million humans annually. To investigate impacts of future climate change on dengue virus transmission, we investigated bionomics of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Using a dynamic life table simulation model (the Container inhabiting mosquito simulation CIMSiM) and statistically downscaled daily values for future climate, we assessed climate change induced changes to mosquito bionomics. Simulations of Ae. aegypti populations for current (1991-2011) and future climate (2046-2065) were conducted for the city of Cairns, Queensland, the population centre with most dengue virus transmission in Australia. Female mosquito abundance, wet weight, and the extrinsic incubation period for dengue virus in these mosquitoes were estimated for current and future climate (MPI ECHAM 5 model, B1 and A2 emission scenarios). Results: Overall mosquito abundance is predicted to change, but results were equivocal for different climate change scenarios. Aedes aegypti abundance is predicted to increase under the B1, but decrease under the A2 scenario. Mosquitoes are predicted to have a smaller body mass in a future climate. Shorter extrinsic incubation periods are projected. Conclusions: It is therefore unclear whether dengue risk would increase or decrease in tropical Australia with climate change. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that a future, warmer climate will lead to larger mosquito populations and a definite increase in dengue transmission. Whilst general predictions can be made about future mosquito borne disease incidence, cautious interpretation is necessary due to interaction between local environment, human behaviour and built environment, dengue virus, and vectors.

458) Impact of insecticide resistance on the field control of Aedes aegypti in the State of Sao Paulo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: da Graca Macoris, Maria de Lourdes; Macoris Andrighetti, Maria Teresa; Valerio Wanderley, Dalva Marli; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti Control; Field Control; Insecticide Resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 47, n. 5, p. 573-578, 2014
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Introduction: The need to control dengue transmission by means of insecticides has led to the development of resistance to most of the products used worldwide against mosquitoes. In the State of Sao Paulo, the Superintendencia de Controle de Endemias (SUCEN) has annually monitored the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to insecticides since 1996; since 1999, surveys were conducted in collaboration with the National Network of Laboratories (MoReNAa Network) and were coordinated by the Ministry of Health. In this study, in addition to the biological characterization of insecticide resistance in the laboratory, the impact of resistance on field control was evaluated for vector populations that showed resistance in laboratory assays. Methods: Field efficacy tests with larvicides and adulticides were performed over a 13-year period, using World Health Organization protocols. Results: Data from the field tests showed a reduction in the residual effect of temephos on populations with a resistance ratio of 3. For adults, field control was less effective in populations characterized as resistant in laboratory qualitative assays, and this was confirmed using qualitative assays and field evaluation. Conclusions: Our results indicated that management of resistance development needs to be adopted when insect populations show reduced susceptibility. The use of insecticides is a self-limiting tool that needs to be applied cautiously, and dengue control requires more sustainable strategies.

459) Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nilles E.J., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, virus infection, zika virus, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 20, n. 10, p. O595-O596, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo:

460) Properties for Sourcing Nigerian Larvicidal Plants
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aliyu, Fatima Abosede
Assunto: Methanolic extracts; Nigerian medicinal plants; Aedes aegypti; Plant larvicides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Molecules, v. 19, n. 6, p. 8363-8372, 2014
ISSN: 1420-3049
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s) of the latter should be determined.

461) Identification and characterization of the expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus
Autor: Liu, Wenquan; Huang, Huicong; Xing, Cuicui; Li, Chunxiang; Tan, Feng; Liang, Shaohui
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Parasitic diseases; Medical research; Viruses; Experiments; Tropical diseases; Genomes; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 159, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Anopheles anthropophagus, one of the most important mosquito-borne disease vectors in Asia, mainly takes blood meals from humans and transmits both malaria and filariae. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, and play a critical role in many cellular processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis and innate immunity. Methods: We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of male and female adults of A. anthropophagus using illumina Hiseq2000 sequencing combined with Northern blot. Results: By using the miRNAs of the closely-related species Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti as reference, we obtained 102 miRNAs candidates out of 12.43 million raw sequencing reads for male and 16.51 million reads for female, with 81 of them found as known miRNAs in An. gambiae and/or Ae. aegypti, and the remaining 21 miRNAs were considered as novel. By analyzing the revised read count of miRNAs in male and female, 29 known miRNAs show sexual difference expression: >2-fold in the read count of the same miRNAs in male and female. Especially for miR-989, which is highly expressed in the female mosquitoes, but shows almost no detected expression in male mosquitoes, indicating that miR-989 may be involved in the physiological activity of female mosquito adults. The expression of four miRNAs in different growth stages of mosquito were further identified by Northern blot. Several miRNAs show the stage-specific expression, of which miR-2943 only expressed in the egg stage, suggesting that miR-2943 may be associated with the development of mosquito eggs. Conclusions: The present study represents the first global characterization of An. anthropophagus miRNAs in sexual differences and stage-specific functions. A better understanding of the functions of these miRNAs will offer new insights in mosquito biology and has implications for the effective control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

462) Molecular analysis of Aedes aegypti classical protein tyrosine phosphatases uncovers an ortholog of mammalian PTP-1B implicated in the control of egg production in mosquitoes
Autor: Moretti, Debora Monteiro; Ahuja, Lalima Gagan; Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Cudischevitch, Cecilia Oliveira; Daumas-Filho, Carlos RenatoOliveira; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla;Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Jablonka, Willy; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Senna, Raquel
Assunto: Human diseases; Tyrosine; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Phosphatase; Data processing; Fat body; Enzymes; Cancer; Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase; Differentiation; Homology; Structure-function relationships; Vitellogenin; RNA-mediated interference; Protein turnover; Metabolism; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that catalyze phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation and modulate cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In mammals, PTPs play a key role in the modulation of canonical pathways involved in metabolism and immunity. PTP1B is the prototype member of classical PTPs and a major target for treating human diseases, such as cancer, obesity and diabetes. These signaling enzymes are, hence, targets of a wide array of inhibitors. Anautogenous mosquitoes rely on blood meals to lay eggs and are vectors of the most prevalent human diseases. Identifying the mosquito ortholog of PTP1B and determining its involvement in egg production is, therefore, important in the search for a novel and crucial target for vector control. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an analysis to identify the ortholog of mammalian PTP1B in the Aedes aegypti genome. We identified eight genes coding for classical PTPs. In silico structural and functional analyses of proteins coded by such genes revealed that four of these code for catalytically active enzymes. Among the four genes coding for active PTPs, AAEL001919 exhibits the greatest degree of homology with the mammalian PTP1B. Next, we evaluated the role of this enzyme in egg formation. Blood feeding largely affects AAEL001919 expression, especially in the fat body and ovaries. These tissues are critically involved in the synthesis and storage of vitellogenin, the major yolk protein. Including the classical PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or the PTP substrate DiFMUP in the blood meal decreased vitellogenin synthesis and egg production. Similarly, silencing AAEL001919 using RNA interference (RNAi) assays resulted in 30% suppression of egg production. Conclusions/Significance The data reported herein implicate, for the first time, a gene that codes for a classical PTP in mosquito egg formation. These findings raise the possibility that this class of enzymes may be used as novel targets to block egg formation in mosquitoes.

463) High level of vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from ten American countries as a crucial factor in the spread of chikungunya virus
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Epidemics; Glands; Genotypes; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Spreading; Vectors; Salivary gland; Pest outbreaks; Islands; Dengue; Oceans; Risk factors; Saliva; Local authority; Risk assessment; Continents; Outbreaks; Mutants; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 11, p. 6294-6306, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever. IMPORTANCE Until recently, the Americas had never reported chikungunya (CHIK) autochthonous transmission despite its global expansion beginning in 2004. Large regions of the continent are highly infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and millions of dengue (DEN) cases are annually recorded. Indeed, DEN virus and CHIK virus (CHIKV) share the same vectors. Due to a recent CHIK outbreak affecting Caribbean islands, the need for a Pan-American evaluation of vector competence was compelling as a key parameter in assessing the epidemic risk. We demonstrated for the first time that A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations throughout the continent are highly competent to transmit CHIK irrespective of the viral genotypes tested. The risk of CHIK spreading throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more than ever a reality. In light of our results, local authorities should immediately pursue and reinforce epidemiological and entomological surveillance to avoid a severe epidemic.

464) Vertebrate pheromones and other semiochemicals: the potential for accommodating complexity in signalling by volatile compounds for vertebrate management
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pickett, John A.; Barasa, Stephen; Birkett, Michael A.
Assunto: Attractant; Pest control; Pheromone; Repellent; Semiochemical; Signalling; Vertebrate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Biochemical Society Transactions, v. 42, n. 4 , p. 846-850, 2014
ISSN: 0300-5127
Resumo: The interaction between volatile and non-volatile, e.g. proteinaceous, components of pheromone and other semiochemical-based signalling systems presents a daunting set of problems for exploitation in the management of vertebrates, good or bad. Aggravating this is the complexity of the mixtures involved with pheromones, not only by definition associated with each species, but also with individual members of that species and their positions within their immediate communities. Nonetheless, already in some contexts, particularly where signals are perceived at other trophic levels from those of the vertebrates, e.g. by arthropods, reductionist approaches can be applied whereby the integrity of complex volatile mixtures is maintained, but perturbed by augmentation with individual components. In the present article, this is illustrated for cattle husbandry, fish farming and human health. So far, crude formulations have been used to imitate volatile semiochemical interactions with non-volatile components, but new approaches must be developed to accommodate more sophisticated interactions and not least the activities of the non-volatile, particularly proteinaceous components, currently being deduced.

465) Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Climate change; Dengue; Elimination; Japanese encephalitis; Lymphatic filariasis; Mosquito-borne diseases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 540, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: It is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. In particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. The aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal. Methods: Adult mosquitoes resting indoors and outdoors were collected using CDC light trap and aspirators with the support of flash light. Mosquito larvae were collected using locally constructed dippers. We assessed the local residents' perceptions of the distribution and occurrence of mosquitoes using key informant interview techniques. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the effect of season, resting site and topography on the abundance of malaria vectors. Results: The known malaria vectors in Nepal, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles maculatus complex members were recorded from 70 to 1,820 m above sea level (asl). The vectors of chikungunya and dengue virus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and that of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, were found from 70 to 2,000 m asl in eastern Nepal. Larvae of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes species were recorded up to 2,310 m asl. Only season had a significant effect on the abundance of An. fluviatilis, season and resting site on the abundance of An. maculatus complex members, and season, resting site and topography on the abundance of An. annularis. The perceptions of people on mosquito occurrence are consistent with entomological findings. Conclusions: This study provides the first vertical distribution records of vector mosquitoes in eastern Nepal and suggests that the vectors of malaria and other diseases have already established populations in the highlands due to climatic and other environmental changes. As VBD control programmes have not been focused on the highlands of Nepal, these findings call for actions to start monitoring, surveillance and research on VBDs in these previously disease-free, densely populated and economically important regions.

466) Genetic toxicity of dillapiol and spinosad larvicides in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pires Aciole, Eliezer H.; Guimaraes, Nilza N.; Silva, Andre S.; Amorim, Erima M.; Nunomura, Sergio M.; Garcia, Ana Cristina L.; Cunha, Kenya S.; Rohde, Claudia
Assunto: SMART; Essential Oil; Mitotic Recombination; Genetic Toxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 70, n. 4, p. 559-565, 2014
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Higher rates of diseases transmitted from insects to humans led to the increased use of organophosphate insecticides, proven to be harmful to human health and the environment. New, more effective chemical formulations with minimum genetic toxicity effects have become the object of intense research. These formulations include larvicides derived from plant extracts such as dillapiol, a phenylpropanoid extracted from Piper aduncum, and from microorganisms such as spinosad, formed by spinosyns A and D derived from the Saccharopolyspora spinosa fermentation process. This study investigated the genotoxicity of dillapiol and spinosad, characterising and quantifying mutation events and chromosomal and/or mitotic recombination using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wings of Drosophila melanogaster.RESULTSStandard cross larvae (72 days old) were treated with different dillapiol and spinosad concentrations. Both compounds presented positive genetic toxicity, mainly as mitotic recombination events. Distilled water and doxorubicin were used as negative and positive controls respectively.CONCLUSIONSpinosad was 14 times more genotoxic than dillapiol, and the effect was found to be purely recombinogenic. However, more studies on the potential risks of insecticides such as spinosad and dillapiol are necessary, based on other experimental models and methodologies, to ensure safe use. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

467) Examination of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in the Aedes aegypti (dengue vector mosquito) pupal brain
Autor: Tomchaney, Michael; Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Li, Ping; Emrich, Scott J.; Severson, David W.; Duman-Scheel, Molly
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Mosquito; Vector; Pupae; Brain; Nervous system; Dimorphism; Doublesex; Development; Optic lobe
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biology of Sex Differences, v. 5, n. 10, 2014
ISSN: 2042-6410
Resumo: Background: Most animal species exhibit sexually dimorphic behaviors, many of which are linked to reproduction. A number of these behaviors, including blood feeding in female mosquitoes, contribute to the global spread of vector-borne illnesses. However, knowledge concerning the genetic basis of sexually dimorphic traits is limited in any organism, including mosquitoes, especially with respect to differences in the developing nervous system.Methods: Custom microarrays were used to examine global differences in female vs. male gene expression in the developing pupal head of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The spatial expression patterns of a subset of differentially expressed transcripts were examined in the developing female vs. male pupal brain through in situ hybridization experiments. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown studies were used to assess the putative role of Doublesex, a terminal component of the sex determination pathway, in the regulation of sex-specific gene expression observed in the developing pupal brain.Results: Transcripts (2,527), many of which were linked to proteolysis, the proteasome, metabolism, catabolic, and biosynthetic processes, ion transport, cell growth, and proliferation, were found to be differentially expressed in A. aegypti female vs. male pupal heads. Analysis of the spatial expression patterns for a subset of dimorphically expressed genes in the pupal brain validated the data set and also facilitated the identification of brain regions with dimorphic gene expression. In many cases, dimorphic gene expression localized to the optic lobe. Sex-specific differences in gene expression were also detected in the antennal lobe and mushroom body. siRNA-mediated gene targeting experiments demonstrated that Doublesex, a transcription factor with consensus binding sites located adjacent to many dimorphically expressed transcripts that function in neural development, is required for regulation of sex-specific gene expression in the developing A. aegypti brain.Conclusions: These studies revealed sex-specific gene expression profiles in the developing A. aegypti pupal head and identified Doublesex as a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression during mosquito neural development.

468) Practical Applications of Insects' Sexual Development for Pest Control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Koukidou, M.; Alphey, L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Alternative splicing; Doublesex; Genetic control; Insects; Mosquitoes; RIDL; Sterile insect technique; Tephritidae; Transformer
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Sexual Development, v. 8, n. 42430, p. 127-136, 2014
ISSN: 1661-5425
Resumo: Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key,regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

469) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Virulence; Viral diseases; Mutations; DNA; Proteins; Public health; Chimeras; Infectivity; Envelope protein; Vectors; Embryos; Infection; Mutation; Mutagenesis; Culex; Yellow fever virus; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 1, p. 60, 2014.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. Findings: The study utilized the rever