Estratégias de bloqueio da transmissão e controle do mosquito

1) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

2) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

3) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango A., Abílio A.P.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo City; Mozambique; New Record
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites and Vectors, v. 9, n. 76,2016.
ISSN: 17563305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December,2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors. ©2016 Kampango and Abílio.

4) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

5) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

6) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

7) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

8) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

9) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

10) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

11) Punishing the Cure Makers Won’t End Cancer.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Melanoma, Patients, Tumors - Classification, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

12) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

13) Zika virus as a cause of neurologic disorders.
Autor: Broutet Nathalie,Krauer Fabienne,Riesen Maurane,Khalakdina Asheena,Almiron Maria,Aldighieri Sylvain,Espinal Marcos,Low Nicola,Dye Christopher
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus's geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the western Pacific, but also in Africa and southeast Asia. Zika virus infections acquired by travelers visiting those countries have been discovered at sites worldwide. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vectors, though other mosquito species may contribute to transmission. The virus was found to be neurotropic in animals in experiments conducted in . . .

14) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

15) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.
Autor: Adibi Jennifer J,Marques Ernesto T A,Cartus Abigail,Beigi Richard H
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1587–1590, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

16) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

17) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M,Brooks John T,Stryker Jo Ellen,Kachur Rachel E,Mead Paul,Pesik Nicki T,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

18) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

19) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

20) Zikavirus - gammalt virus får nytt liv i nytt ekosystem - Mikrocefali och Guillain-Barrés syndrom möjliga följder när bakgrundsimmunitet saknas hos befolkningen
Autor: Olsen Björn,Lundkvist Åke
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: La?kartidningen, v. 113, p. DX9X, 2016
ISSN: 1652-7518
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

21) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of Rubia cordifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
Autor: Gandhi M R,Reegan A D,Ganesan P,Sivasankaran K,Paulraj M G,Balakrishna K,Ignacimuthu S,Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic filariasis, Mosquito control, Sustainable pest control, Vector control
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

22) Drug Industry Starts Race to Develop Zika Vaccine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Noemie Bisserbe And Betsy
Assunto: Pharmaceutical industry, Zika Virus Epidemic, Viral vaccine manufacturing, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

23) Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease
Autor: Li J D,Li D X
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing xue za Zhi, v. 37, n. 3, p. 329-334, 2016
ISSN: 0254-6450
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

24) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

25) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

26) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

27) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

28) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

29) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

30) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Zika virus, congenital abnormalities, travel medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

31) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

32) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

33) Zika virus infection Among U.S. pregnant travelers - august 2015-february 2016.
Autor: Meaney-Delman Dana,Hills Susan L,Williams Charnetta,Galang Romeo R,Iyengar Preetha,Hennenfent Andrew K,Rabe Ingrid B,Panella Amanda,Oduyebo Titilope,Honein Margaret A,Zaki Sherif,Lindsey Nicole,Lehman Jennifer A,Kwit Natalie,Bertolli Jeanne,Ellington Sascha,Igbinosa Irogue,Minta Anna A,Petersen Emily E,Mead Paul,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

34) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

35) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

36) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Autor: Hills Susan L,Russell Kate,Hennessey Morgan,Williams Charnetta,Oster Alexandra M,Fischer Marc,Mead Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

37) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ryo,Mizumoto Kenji,Yasuda Yohei,Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number, Epidemic, Statistical estimation, Transmissibility, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

38) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

39) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

40) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oduyebo Titilope,Petersen Emily E,Rasmussen Sonja A,Mead Paul S,Meaney-Delman Dana,Renquist Christina M,Ellington Sascha R,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Powers Ann M,Villanueva Julie,Galang Romeo R,Dieke Ada,Muñoz Jorge L,Honein Margaret A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

41) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

42) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

43) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

44) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

45) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

46) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

47) Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a zika virus outbreak - United States, 2016.
Autor: Petersen Emily E,Staples J Erin,Meaney-Delman Dana,Fischer Marc,Ellington Sascha R,Callaghan William M,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 2, p. 30-33, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

48) Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Martines Roosecelis Brasil,Bhatnagar Julu,Keating M Kelly,Silva-Flannery Luciana,Muehlenbachs Atis,Gary Joy,Goldsmith Cynthia,Hale Gillian,Ritter Jana,Rollin Dominique,Shieh Wun-Ju,Luz Kleber G,Ramos Ana Maria de Oliveira,Davi Helaine Pompeia Freire,Kleber de Oliveria Wanderson,Lanciotti Robert,Lambert Amy,Zaki Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

49) Battling Zika in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 794-793, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article reports on the campaign initiated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to limit the Zika outbreak in Brazil by spraying larvicide in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 13, 2016.

50) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016.
Autor: Staples J Erin,Dziuban Eric J,Fischer Marc,Cragan Janet D,Rasmussen Sonja A,Cannon Michael J,Frey Meghan T,Renquist Christina M,Lanciotti Robert S,Muñoz Jorge L,Powers Ann M,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

51) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

52) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Kleber de Oliveira Wanderson,Cortez-Escalante Juan,De Oliveira Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda,do Carmo Greice Madeleine Ikeda,Henriques Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,Araújo de França Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

53) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.
Autor: Paixão Enny S,Barreto Florisneide,da Glória Teixeira Maria,da Conceição N Costa Maria,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 606-612, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge."

54) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

55) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

56) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

57) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

58) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

59) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola H., Gozzer E., Zhuo J., Memish Z.A.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

60) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

61) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

62) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

63) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

64) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

65) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

66) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

67) 14 New Reports of Sexual Transmission of Zika in U.S.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Transmisson
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57152, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the health authorities in the U.S. regarding the transmission of the Zika virus by sex.

68) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

69) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

70) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

71) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

72) Eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Anopheles subpictus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Culicidae; GC-MS; Mosquito-borne diseases; Plant-borne larvicides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 807-815, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12 %), alpha-pinene (19.38 %) and beta-caryophyllene (18.42 %). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 mu g/ml and 90 % lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 mu g/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50=25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 mu g/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50=28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 mu g/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 mu g/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

73) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

74) Zika poses sex risk.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Sexual intercourse, Diseases - Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article reports on the posed threat of the Zika virus through sexual transmission which survive for two months in semen and the reports by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the lack of evidence that the virus persists in the female genitals.

75) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J. ;  Bandeira, Antonio Carlos;  Franco-Paredes, Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

76) Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)
Autor: Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y.; Costa Junior, Livio M.; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze
Assunto: Repellent; Essential oil; Lone star tick; Amblyomma americanum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Experimental and Applied Acarology, v. 68, n. 2, p. 241-249, 2016
ISSN: 0168-8162
Resumo: DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50 % of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC(50)s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.

77) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

78) Evaluation of the Activity of the Essential Oil from an Ornamental Flower against Aedes aegypti: Electrophysiology, Molecular Dynamics and Behavioral Assays
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Silva, Rayane C. S.; Iulek, Jorge; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue fever has spread worldwide and affects millions of people every year in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Europe and America. Since there is no effective vaccine against the dengue virus, prevention of disease transmission depends entirely on regulating the vector (Aedes aegypti) or interrupting human-vector contact. The aim of this study was to assess the oviposition deterrent activity of essential oils of three cultivars of torch ginger (Etlingera elatior, Zingiberaceae) against the dengue mosquito. Analysis of the oils by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 43 constituents, of which a-pinene, dodecanal and n-dodecanol were the major components in all cultivars. Solutions containing 100 ppm of the oils exhibited oviposition deterrent activities against gravid Ae. aegypti females. GC analysis with electroantennographic detection indicated that the oil constituents n-decanol, 2-undecanone, undecanal, dodecanal, trans-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, alpha-humulene, n-dodecanol, isodaucene and dodecanoic acid were able to trigger antennal depolarization in Ae. aegypti females. Bioassays confirmed that solutions containing 50 ppm of n-dodecanol or dodecanal exhibited oviposition deterrent activities, while a solution containing the alcohol and aldehyde in admixture at concentrations representative of the oil presented an activity similar to that of the 100 ppm oil solution. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations verified that the interaction energies of the long-chain oil components and Ae. aegypti odorant binding protein 1 were quite favorable, indicating that the protein is a possible oviposition deterrent receptor in the antenna of Ae. aegypti.

79) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

80) Zika Test Is Near but Vaccine Is Not, Officials Say.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sewell Chan, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika virus, Vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57141, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the scientists are working on the development of a test for the Zika virus that is a mosquito transmitted infection and mentions that the development of vaccine for Zika virus is going to take time.

81) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

82) Zika? Partying Brazilians Offer Collective Shrug.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew
Assunto: Carnival, Brazilians, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Insect baits & repellents, Mosquitoes, Brazil, Brazil - Social life & customs, Attitudes, Social aspects, Salvador (Brazil) - Social life & customs
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A1-A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the celebration of the Carnival festival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Salvador, Brazil within the context of the Zika Virus Epidemic, including Brazilians' attitudes towards the epidemic. An overview of those participating in the Carnival's wearing of mosquito repellent to prevent Zika virus transmission is provided.

83) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

84) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown, Carolyn
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Disease prevalence, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Mosquito nets, Public health, Asia
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n.2, p. E34, 2016
ISSN: 8203946
Resumo: The article reports on the prevalence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia and South America which can cause microcephaly in newborns. It highlights several symptoms of Zika virus including fever, muscle soreness and rash as well as microcephaly in newborns. It also cites the effort of the governments to encourage people to take basic mosquito protection such as insect repellent, clothing, screens on windows and mosquito nets.

85) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

86) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

87) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

88) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

89) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: The need for novel mosquito control methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yakob L., Walker T.
Assunto: disease control, virus infection (epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Global Health, v. 4, n. 3, p. e148-e149, mar. 2016
ISSN: 2214-109X (electronic)
Resumo:

90) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

91) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

92) Obama requests $1.8 billion to fight Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Erickson, Britt E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Virus diseases - Vaccination, Virus diseases - Diagnosis, Mosquito control
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 7, p. 52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article discusses the urge from Obama Administration towards Congress reagrding emergency funding to fight against Zika virus. Topics discussed include use of emergency funds in the development of vaccines, diagnostics, testing and mosquito control to prevent from Zika virus, views of Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid regarding the same, and transmission of virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the U.S.

93) The race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen, Jon
Assunto: Vaccines - Research, Zika virus infections, Public health, Management, Pregnant women, Safety measures
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article focuses on the research for the development of a Zika vaccine. Topics mentioned include the complications of Zika virus such as microcephaly and neurological complications, the insights of virologist Thomas Monath on the development of Zika vaccine, and the importance of public health management. Also mentioned are the flavivirus vaccines development and the safety measures for pregnant women on the planned use of Zika vaccine.

94) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

95) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

96) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

97) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

98) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernández, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika virus; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 percent nt and 100 percent aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

99) How to contain the Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Micorcephaly, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 49-52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus and the effort to prevent it from spreading in the U.S. Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that is suspected to be linked with microcephaly. It explores the use of chemical strategies to avoid mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, such as treating water with larvicides to control mosquitoes before they mature. The spread of the Zika virus in Brazil is also discussed.

100) Dallas Reports A Case of Zika Spread by Sex.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission, Texas
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57131, p. A1-A17, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at a report from the county of Dallas, Texas, of a case in which the Zika virus was transmitted by sexual contact, which it notes is in contrast with the virus's usual transmission by mosquitoes. Topics include the advice issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for precautions people should take when visiting world regions where Zika is prevalent and an association between Zika infections in pregnant women and birth defects in their babies.

101) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

102) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

103) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

104) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

105) OFF! Clip-on Repellent Device With Metofluthrin Tested on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Mortality at Different Time Intervals and Distances
Autor: Bibbs, Christopher S.; Xue, Rui-De
Assunto: OFF! Clip-on; Mosquito; Mortality; Repellent; Metofluthrin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 480-483, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The OFF! Clip-on mosquito-repellent device was tested outdoors against Aedes aegypti (L.). A single treatment device was used against batches of caged adult, nonblood fed Ae. aegypti at multiple locations 0.3m from treatment center. Another set of cages was stationed 0.6m from treatment. A final set of cages was placed 0.9m away. Trials ran for durations of 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. Initial knockdown and mortality after 24 h was recorded. The devices had effective knockdown and mortality. This was not sustained at distances greater than 0.3m from the device.

106) Another emerging pathogen - Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Zika virus - još jedan novoiskrsli patogen
Autor: Lazi?, Srdjan
Assunto: Zika virus, Flaviviruses, Research, Pathogenic microorganisms, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, v. 73, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016
ISSN: 428450
Resumo:

107) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

108) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

109) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

110) Practice pointer zika virus: management of infection and risk
Autor: Ahmad, Shazaad S. Y.; Amin, Tejal N.; Ustianowski, Andrew
Assunto: Sexual transmission; Interim guidelines; United-States
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: BMJ-British Medical Journal, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

111) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

112) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola, Habida, Gozzer, Ernesto, Jiatong Zhuo, Memish, Ziad A.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Special events, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Muslim pilgrims & pilgrimages, Mosquitoes, Diseases, Social aspects, Saudi Arabia, Mecca
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet , v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses how to be prepared against Zika virus while participating at several international events including 2016 Rio Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj. It states the need to use personal mosquito bite protection including insect repellents, protective clothing, and long-sleeved shirts. It mentions that health-care providers are encouraged to use travel health visits to emphasize personal protection against mosquito bites and sexual transmission.

113) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

114) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

115) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

116) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

117) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

118) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

119) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

120) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic.
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kisubi Catholic Mission, Microcephaly, Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato, Zika virus, Zika virus and travel, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, p. 1-6, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

121) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

122) Brazil State Bans Pesticide After Zika Claim.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pesticides - Law & legislation, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

123) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

124) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

125) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

126) Zika poses sex risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Viruses , Body fluids , Sexual behavior
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 7, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Last week, it was reported that Zika virus can survive in semen for two months, posing potential risks of sexual transmission long after any symptoms, such as a week-long rash, have vanished. Zika is already known to have been transmitted via sex from men to women.

127) UK is safe from Zika virus and is helping towards a vaccine, MPs hear.
Autor: O'Dowd Adrian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, p. i692, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

128) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

129) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J,Bandeira Antonio Carlos,Franco-Paredes Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, n. 1, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

130) Microcephaly in Brazil: How to interpret reported numbers?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Victora C.G., Schuler-Faccini L., Matijasevich A., Ribeiro E., Pessoa A., Barros F.C.
Assunto: head circumference, microcephaly (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 621-624, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

131) Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus
Autor: Palacios Ricardo,Poland Gregory A,Kalil Jorge
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo:

132) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

133) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

134) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

135) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

136) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

137) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

138) NIH hopes funding increases will continue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Budgets, Presidents, Public health, Zika virus, Alzheimers disease, Cancer, Antibiotics, Medical research, FDA approval, Biomedical research, Brain research, Funding
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: The US Congress recently approved the largest single increase in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 12 years--a US$2 billion raise that was twice as much as President Barack Obama requested. But almost as soon as NIH supporters stopped cheering, they began to worry about next year's budget, and the challenge of a new public health threat, Zika virus.

139) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach J., Alencar C.H., Kelvin A.A., de Oliveira W.K., de Góes Cavalcanti L.P.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil’s Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil’s Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

140) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

141) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

142) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

143) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

144) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

145) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

146) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

147) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

148) Waging war on Zika mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson, Clare
Assunto: Viruses, Mosquitoes, Disease transmission, Epidemics, Global health, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3059, p. 8-9, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Zika is officially a global public health emergency. The declaration, by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday, means that it can now take the lead in coordinating the global response to a virus it has estimated could infect up to 4 million people in the Americas over the next year. Zika, which was first detected in the region in May, has now spread "explosively" to at least 25 countries. The emergency designation will help the WHO to ramp up research and organize international efforts to combat the Aedes mosquitoes that spread the disease. Here, Wilson discusses the tactics that countries could consider in the war on mosquitoes.

149) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

150) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

151) River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C.; Barboza, Jose Luis; Requena, Edwin; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel
Assunto: Rivers; Infestation; Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Barges; Public health; Disease transmission; Boats; Dengue; Vectors; Rural areas; Aedes aegypti; Freshwater
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is an invasive mosquito that is currently in the process of expanding geographically from urban to peri-urban and rural sites throughout Latin America. To improve our understanding of Ae. aegypti population mixing and how it is introduced to new areas, we investigated the infestation levels of different aquatic and terrestrial vehicles in the Peruvian Amazon. Our results show that large barges are heavily infested with Ae. aegypti, and therefore are likely to play an important role in Ae. aegypti geographic expansion.

152) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

153) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

154) A male-determining factor in the mosquito aedes aegypti
Autor: Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Biedler, James K.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Sex determination; Doublesex gene; Drosophila; Differentiation; Chromosome; Pathway; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Science, v. 348, n. 6240, p. 1268-1270, 2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

155) Assessing carbon dioxide and synthetic lure-baited traps for dengue and chikungunya vector surveillance
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G.; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Carbon dioxide; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Light traps; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, 242 p, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

156) Zika virus in an american recreational traveler.
Autor: Summers Dyan J,Acosta Rebecca Wolfe,Acosta Alberto M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

157) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Pest control; Home range; Hosts; Resistance mechanisms; Public health; Disease transmission; Detoxification; Vectors; Carboxylesterase; Transcription; Territory; Deltamethrin; Dengue; Cytochrome P450; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

158) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

159) Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan
Autor: Balasubramani, Govindasamy Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India, perumalarticles@gmail.com Govindasamy Govindasamy Balasubramani Balasubramani Balasubramani, Govindasamy , Ramkumar, Rajendiran Rajendiran Rajendiran Ramkumar Ramkumar Ramkumar, Rajendiran , Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Narayanaswamy Krishnaveni Krishnaveni Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy , Sowmiya, Rajamani Rajamani Rajamani Sowmiya Sowmiya Sowmiya, Rajamani , Deepak, Paramasivam Paramasivam Paramasivam Deepak Deepak Deepak, Paramasivam , Arul, Dhayalan Dhayalan Dhayalan Arul Arul Arul, Dhayalan , Perumal, Pachiappan Pachiappan Pachiappan Perumal Perumal Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Infrared spectroscopy; Human diseases; Fourier transforms; Leaves; Malaria; Pest control; Diffraction; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Swietenia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, v. 148, p. 1-8, 2015.
ISSN: 1011-1344
Resumo: A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl sub(4)) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C sub(29)H sub(58)O sub(2)) attributes highest peak area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC sub(50)) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors.

160) Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura
Assunto: Cananga odorata; Aedes aepypti; Anopheles dirus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Oviposition deterrent; Ovicidal; Insecticidal; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4531-4543, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), < 1 % (for An. dirus), and < 1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

161) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

162) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

163) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

164) Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura; Phasornkusolsill, Siriporn
Assunto: Repellency; Cananga odorata oil; Cymbopogon citratus oil; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, n. , p. 127-130, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(R) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(R)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 mu l/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The Cananga odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7 +/- 10.4 min. In addition, Cymbopogon citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of Culex quinquefasciatus for 170.0 +/- 9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0 +/- 7.1-182.0 +/- 12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against Aedes aegypti than Culex quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that Cananga odorata oil and Cymbopogon citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

165) Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil
Autor: Cecilio, Samyra Giarola; Silva, Willer Ferreira Junior; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhaes, Jose Carlos
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue virus; Ovitraps; Transovarial transmission; Oviposition; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-74, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools.

166) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

167) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

168) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

169) Introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua
Autor: Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina
Assunto: Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Epidemiology; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Coexistence; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 713-718, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control.

170) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

171) Pyrethroid-resistance and presence of two knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in Indian Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kushwah, Raja Babu S.; Dykes, Cherry L.; Kapoor, Neera; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P.
Assunto: Insecticides; Mutations; DDT; Pest control; Toxicity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Infection; Pyrethroids; Cross-resistance; Mutation; Nets; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue and chikungunya are the two important human arboviral infections in India transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti. In absence of any specific drug or vaccine for these infections, vector control and personal protection are the only control options available. The success of insecticide-based vector control heavily relies upon the knowledge of the status of insecticide resistance in vector populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance, especially in the presence of cross-resistance. Knockdown resistance (kdr) is one of the mechanisms of resistance that confers cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Currently, pyrethroids are the only insecticide class recommended for use in long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN) and have proven superior to all other insecticides used in vector control programme, due to low mammalian toxicity, low residual activity in nature and rapid knockdown action. The present study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti against DDT and pyrethroids, and identification of kdr mutations. Though the presence of kdr mutations in Ae. aegypti has been reported in many countries, such a report is not available from India. This study for the first time reports the presence of two kdr mutations, F1534C and a novel mutation T1520I, in an Indian Ae. aegypti population.

172) A household serosurvey to estimate the magnitude of a dengue outbreak in Mombasa, Kenya, 2013
Autor: Ellis, Esther M.; Neatherlin, John C.; Delorey, Mark; Ochieng, Melvin; Mohamed, Abdinoor Haji; Mogeni, Daniel Ondari; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Patta, Shem; Gikunju, Stella; Waiboic, Lilian; Fields, Barry; Ofula, Victor; Konongoi, Samson Limbaso; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Marano, Nina; Sang, Rosemary; Margolis, Harold S.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Tomashek, Kay M.
Assunto: Linked ? Immunosorbent - Assay; Arboviral infections; Virus - infection; Aedes aegypti; Clinical - Manifestations; Hemorrhagic - Fever; West - Africa; Malaria; Diagnosis; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue appears to be endemic in Africa with a number of reported outbreaks. In February 2013, several individuals with dengue-like illnesses and negative malaria blood smears were identified in Mombasa, Kenya. Dengue was laboratory confirmed and an investigation was conducted to estimate the magnitude of local transmission including a serologic survey to determine incident dengue virus (DENV) infections. Consenting household members provided serum and were questioned regarding exposures and medical history. RTPCR was used to identify current DENV infections and IgM anti-DENV ELISA to identify recent infections. Of 1,500 participants from 701 households, 210 (13%) had evidence of current or recent DENV infection. Among those infected, 93 (44%) reported fever in the past month. Most (68, 73%) febrile infected participants were seen by a clinician and all but one of 32 participants who reportedly received a diagnosis were clinically diagnosed as having malaria. Having open windows at night (OR = 2.3; CI: 1.1-4.8), not using daily mosquito repellent (OR = 1.6; CI: 1.0-2.8), and recent travel outside of Kenya (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.1-5.4) were associated with increased risk of DENV infection. This survey provided a robust measure of incident DENV infections in a setting where cases were often unrecognized and misdiagnosed.

173) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

174) Is a universal flu vaccine on the horizon?
Titulo Alternativo: Un vaccin anti-grippal à large spectre pour le futur?
Autor: Fourati S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 238-239, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo:

175) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

176) Efficacy of Two Larvasonic? Units Against Culex Larvae and Effects on Common Aquatic Nontarget Organisms in Harris County, Texas
Autor: Fredregill, Chris L.; Motl, Greg C.; Dennett, James A.; Bueno, Rudy, Jr.; Debboun, Mustapha
Assunto: Integrated pest management; Larvasonic; Larvicide; Physical control; Ultrasonic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 366-370, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Larvasonic (TM) Field Arm Mobile Wetlands Unit and SD-Mini were tested for efficacy against Culex larvae, and effects on aquatic nontarget organisms (NTO). The Field Arm provided 84.61% to 100% control of caged Culex larvae out to 0.91-m distance in shallow ditches and 60.45% control of Culex larvae at 0.61-m without any effects to caged NTO. Slow ditch treatment achieved 77.35% control compared to fast treatment (20.42%), whereas 77.65% control was obtained along edges of a neglected swimming pool, compared to near the middle (23.97%). In bucket tests, the SD-Mini provided >97% control of Culex and 85.35% reduction of immature giant water bugs, which decreased slightly (83.45%) over the monitoring period, which was not significantly different from cannibalistic damselflies (62.80%), with reduction of both being significantly higher than other NTO tested. There was a small (0.37%) reduction of dragonflies (naiads), due to cannibalism. Both Larvasonic units could effectively augment conventional larvicide operations in smaller areas without causing resistance within mosquito populations or harming NTO when used properly.

177) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

178) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global: After racing through Oceania last year, the Zika virus is now spreading in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink M.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

179) Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review
Autor: Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1471-1485. Nov 2015.
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus , Ae. aegypti , Ae. japonicus japonicus , Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus . These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Wolbachia ), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

180) Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil fatty acids or their esters and three terpenoids to Stomoxys calcitrans
Autor: Tran Trung Hieu; Choi, Won Sil; Kim, Soon-Il; Wang, Mo; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Stable fly; Calophyllum inophyllum; Natural insect repellent; Fatty acid; Structure-activity relationship; Synergy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 71, n. 9, p. 1213-1218, 2015
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Background: An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm(-2)) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and -phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm(-2)), using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of synthetic repellent DEET (0.25 mg cm(-2)).RESULTSBased upon protection time (PT) (time to first bite of stable fly), oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl oleate or methyl linoleate synergised the repellency of each monoterpenoid and DEET. For example, the binary mixture of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol (PT 2.05 h) resulted in significantly greater repellency than either oleic acid (0.55 h), cuminyl alcohol (0.70 h) or DEET alone (1.50 h). The binary mixtures of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol or DEET (PT 2.10 h) did not differ significantly in repellency. The structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length and the functional group of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid repellency to stable flies.CONCLUSIONMixtures formulated from fatty acid and monoterpenoid could be useful as potential repellents for protecting humans and possibly domestic animals from bites caused by stable fly. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

181) (E)-Caryophyllene and [alpha]-Humulene: Aedes aegypti oviposition deterrents elucidated by gas chromatography-electrophysiological assay of Commiphora leptophloeos leaf oil
Autor: Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos da; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Silva, Patrícia Cristina Bezerra da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Marcia Vanusa da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Silva, Nicácio Henrique da
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with [alpha] -phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and [Beta]-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and [alpha] -humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

182) Entomological Indicators to Assess Larval Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) Control in Baja California Sur, Mexico
Autor: Tovar-Zamora, Ivonne; Ramos-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Mendez Galvan, Jorge Fernando; Servin-Villegas, Rosala
Assunto: Dengue transmission; North queensland; Vector control; Pupal survey; Culicidae; Mosquito; Indexes; Diptera; Australia; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 81-95, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is the mosquito species responsible for transmission of yellow and dengue fevers. Different strategies are used worldwide to reduce its abundance, but effectiveness is not well understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of larvae of this species using different indices before and after application at three locations in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The presence of Ae. aegypti larvae was evaluated by three larval indices: house index, container index, and Breteau index at three locations at Cabo San Lucas, La Paz, and San Jose del Cabo during 3 years (2011-2013) before and after chemical control and reduction of potential breeding sites by the Secretaria de Salud (health department of Baja California Sur). The data showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) in the relative abundance of Ae. aegypti larvae before and after applying larvicide (Temephos (R)) and by removing water containers where mosquitoes reproduce, regardless of the type of index used for the analysis. In La Paz, the average of the housing index was reduced from 16-83% to 0-5% after control during the 3 years. In Cabo San Lucas, the value was reduced from 2-40% to <1% and in San Jose del Cabo such variation was 4-46% to 0-7%. The index of positive containers before and after management varied in La Paz from 6-34% to 0-4.7%; in Cabo San Lucas from 0.2-23% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 0.6-11% to <1.2%. The Breteau index in La Paz varied from 48-358% to 0-12.5%, in Cabo San Lucas, values decreased from 3-67% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 3-174% to 0-16% after vector-control measures were applied. Our data suggested that controls applied in Baja California Sur on Ae. aegypti larvae were effective enough to reduce the relative abundance of larvae of the species. However, other strategies are necessary to ensure elimination of Ae. aegypti larvae homes, thereby reducing impact on human health in the zone.

183) Household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors: comparison between urban and rural areas of Kolkata, India
Autor: Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K.
Assunto: Human diseases; Biotopes; Wastes; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Epidemics; Abundance; Habitat; Breeding; Dengue; Multivariate analysis; Plastics; Seasonal variations; Degradability; Larvae; Hazardous wastes; Urban areas; Rural areas; Domestic wastes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Porcelain and plastic materials constitute bulk of household wastes. Owing to resistibility and slow degradability that accounts for higher residence time, these materials qualify as potential hazardous wastes. Retention of water permits these wastes to form a congenial biotope for the breeding of different vector mosquitoes. Thus porcelain and plastic wastes pose a risk from public health viewpoint. This proposition was validated through the study on the porcelain and plastic household wastes as larval habitats of Dengue vectors (Aedes spp.) in rural and urban areas around Kolkata, India. The wastes were characterized in terms of larval productivity, seasonal variation and a comparison between urban and rural areas was made using data of two subsequent years. The number of wastes positive as larval habitats and their productivity of Aedes spp. varied among the types of household wastes with reference to months and location. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the larval productivity of the household wastes based on the materials, season, and urban-rural context. Results of Discriminant Analysis indicated differences in abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the urban and rural areas. The porcelain and plastic wastes were more productive in urban areas compared to the rural areas, indicating a possible difference in the household waste generation. A link between household wastes with Aedes productivity is expected to increase the risk of dengue epidemics if waste generation is continued without appropriate measures to limit addition to the environment. Perhaps, alternative strategies and replacement of materials with low persistence time can reduce this problem of waste and mosquito production.

184) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

185) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Relative humidity; Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Mountains; Altitude; Epidemics; Dengue; Rainfall; Risk factors; Abundance; Vectors; Tourists; Climate change; Temperature; Humidity; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The local transmission of dengue fever was confirmed in five lowland urban areas in 2006, along with the first report of the primary vectors of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Subsequent studies revealed a wide distribution of Ae. aegypti in 2009, and the first locally acquired dengue fever case in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, during an epidemic in 2010. These records of a rapid expansion of dengue viruses and their primary vector, Ae. aegypti, in the Middle Mountain region and the more pronounced warming of mountains prompted us to investigate the altitudinal distribution and determinants of the abundance of dengue virus vectors in central Nepal. The first local transmission of chikungunya virus was recently reported from central Nepal in 2013. In this study, we document the distribution of Ae. aegypti and the secondary vector of dengue viruses, Aedes albopictus, from the lowlands (80 m) up to 2,100 m altitude in Dhunche, Rasuwa district. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of their abundances. The distribution extension of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

186) Essential oil composition and biological/pharmacological properties of Salmea scandens (L.) DC
Autor: Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Pacheco-Hernandez, Yesenia; Rubio-Rosas, Efrain; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Mosso-Gonzalez, Clemente; Ramon-Canul, Lorena G.; Cruz-Duran, Ramiro
Assunto: Salmea scandens; Proximate analysis; Essential oil; Anti-lipase; Antimicrobial; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Food Control, v. 57, p. 177-184, 2015
ISSN: 0956-7135
Resumo: Salmea scandens (L.) DC is an indigenous edible plant whose stem bark is traditionally used as food by people of Oaxaca, Mexico. Proximate analysis of the edible stem bark revealed abundant amounts of fiber (43.67%) and protein (9.27%). GC and GC-MS analyses demonstrated that the essential oil from leaves contained high levels of germacrene D (47.1%) and elemol (15.3%), whereas that of the stem bark contained the alkylamides N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers (39.7%). Levels of these compounds in the essential oil from both organs were in similar concentrations in all seasons except winter. The HPLC purified N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers produced a noncompetitive inhibition on porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic assays with these compounds revealed a modification on V-max (0.0431-0.0533 mM min(-1)) whereas the K-m value (0.880-0.881 mM) was not significantly changed. Essential oil from the stem bark showed a high anti-microbial activity against some phytopathogenic microorganisms. The MIC's in mu g mL(-1) for Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were tabaci 56.1, tomato 91.2 and phaseolitica 196.4, for Clavibacter michiganensis 35.8 and Erwinia carotovora 48.1. The fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans had MIC's in mu g mL(-1) of 3.3 and 2.4 respectively. Same essential oil was highly effective against larvae from Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 0.3 mu g mL(-l)) and Anopheles albimanis (LC50 = 2.5 mu g mL(-1)). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

187) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols, J. T.; Huang, Y. J. S.; Higgs, S.; Miller, A. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Spratt, H. M.; Horne, K. M.; Vanlandingham, D. L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 x 10 super(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 x 10 super(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

188) Essential oils of green and red Perilla frutescens as potential sources of compounds for mosquito management
Autor: Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ali, Abbas; Ali, Zulfiqar; Blythe, Eugene K.; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Perilla frutescens; Aedes aegypti; Perilla aldehyde; Perilla alcohol; Perillic acid; Methyl perillate; Limonene; Caryophyllene oxide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Industrial Crops and Products, v. 65, p. 36-44, 2015
ISSN: 0926-6690
Resumo: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti producing high rates of human morbidity and mortality. In order to find new and effective compounds against A. aegypti with low mammalian and less environmental toxic products, green and red Purilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (perilla) essential oils were investigated for their deterrent and larvicidal activity. Green perilla oil showed more promising deterrent and larvicidal activity than red perilla oil. Therefore, we focused on the principle compound in green perilla oil and, in addition, perilla alcohol and perillic acid were included for the activity relationship on the allylic methyl groups on carbon 7. Chemical composition of green and red perilla essential oils was compared using gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In biting deterrent bioassays, biting deterrence index (BDI) values for compounds methyl perillate (0.73), perillic acid (0.71), perilla alcohol (0.69), perilla aldehyde (0.62), caryophyllene oxide (0.60), and limonene (0.52) indicated good biting deterrent activity but the activity was significantly lower (proportion not biting (PNB) value 0.84) than the positive control N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) at 25 nmol/cm(2). In larval bioassays, methyl perillate was the most toxic compound with LC50 of 16.0 ppm. Methyl perillate was the most active compound against A. aegypti larvae and this compound may offer a new biodegradable mosquito control agent. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

189) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

190) Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Aytac, Zeki; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Baser, K. Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Echinophora lamondiana; Biting deterrent; Repellent; Larvicide; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 1, p. 93-100, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B. Yildiz et Z. Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana were delta-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), alpha-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-delta-3-carene, (R)-(-)-alpha-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than delta-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.

191) Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sunish, I. P.; Vidhya, P. T.
Assunto: Aedes spp.; Blood meal; Arbovirus (es); Host seeking; Andaman
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3539-3546, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed.

192) Evaluating Liquid and Granular Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Broadcast Applications for Controlling Vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses in Artificial Containers and Tree Holes
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T.; Richardson, Alec G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval mosquito control; Backpack sprayer; Ground applications; Stihl SR 450
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 663-671, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation.

193) Evaluation of the Atraedes(tm) lure for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in gravid traps
Autor: Irish, S. R.; Batengana, B. M.; Eiras, A. E.; Cameron, M. M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Grasses; Attraction; Vectors; Traps; Attractants; Trapping; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 107-109, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedes(TM) lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this lure in combination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps was conducted in Tanga, Tanzania. The addition of the lure to traps baited with either grass infusion or tap water did not result in significant increases in trap catch. Grass infusion-baited traps (with and without the AtrAedes lure) collected significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, or AtrAedes alone. The catches of the traps baited with AtrAedes + tap water, tap water alone, and AtrAedes alone were not significantly different from each other. Although the placement of the lure in the base of the trap may have decreased trap catches, it seems that the AtrAedes is not as effective as grass infusion for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus in Tanzania.

194) Evaluation of a push-pull approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) using a novel dispensing system for spatial repellents in the laboratory and in a semi-field environment (vol 10, e0129878, 2015)
Autor: Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo:

195) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Population genetics; Insecticides; Allelles; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Heredity; Vectors; Vaccines; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ;
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

196) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

197) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

198) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

199) Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique;Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernandez, Roberto Torres;Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Pest control; Monitoring systems; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Tires; Vectors; Immunoglobulin M; Evolution; Containers; Gender; Residential areas; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28ppt to 0.95ppt; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

200) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire / Section d'hygiène du Secrétariat de la Société des Nations = Weekly epidemiological record / Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, nov. 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

201) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

202) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors
Autor: Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Arachis hypogaea; Green synthesis; AgNPs; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Light microscopic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 22, p. 17769-17779, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

203) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

204) The potential threat to blood transfusion safety of emerging infectious disease agents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, communicable disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, v. 13, n. 7, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1543-0790
Resumo:

205) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

206) Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse
Autor: Loke, S. R.; Sing, K. W.; Teoh, G. N.; Lee, H. L.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Medicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 76-83, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m(3). Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

207) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from brazilian legal Amazon plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patricia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonca do; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto: Chemical composition; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Mass spectroscopy; Dengue; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Vaccines; Plant extracts; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC sub(50) ) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

208) Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi
Autor: Jayaraman, M.; Senthilkumar, A.; Venkatesalu, V.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Aromatic plants; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1511-1518, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50=194.22 and LC90=458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=173.04 and LC90=442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=167.28 and LC90=433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 =94.12 and LC90 =249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=80.58 and LC90=200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=76.24 and LC90=194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata>methanol extract of P. amboinicus>acetone extract of F. limonia>methanol extract of T. erecta>methanol extract of B. mollis> and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

209) Assessing dengue infection risk in the southern region of Taiwan: implications for control
Autor: Liao, C. M.; Huang, T. L.; Cheng, Y. H.; Chen, W. Y.; Hsieh, N. H.; Chen, S.C.; Chio, C. P.
Assunto: Dengue; Modelling; Mosquito; Risk assessment; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 5, p. 1059-1072, 2015.
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Dengue, one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, is a major international public health concern. This study aimed to assess potential dengue infection risk from Aedes aegypti in Kaohsiung and the implications for vector control. Here we investigated the impact of dengue transmission on human infection risk using a well-established dengue-mosquito-human transmission dynamics model. A basic reproduction number (R sub(0))-based probabilistic risk model was also developed to estimate dengue infection risk. Our findings confirm that the effect of biting rate plays a crucial role in shaping R sub(0) estimates. We demonstrated that there was 50% risk probability for increased dengue incidence rates exceeding 0.5-0.8 wk super(-1) for temperatures ranging from 26 degree C to 32 degree C. We further demonstrated that the weekly increased dengue incidence rate can be decreased to zero if vector control efficiencies reach 30-80% at temperatures of 19-32 degree C. We conclude that our analysis on dengue infection risk and control implications in Kaohsiung provide crucial information for policy-making on disease control.

210) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

211) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane
Assunto: Ocean currents; Epidemics; Hosts; Introduced species; Hygiene; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Indigenous species; Islands; Vectors; Infection; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

212) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

213) From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jessica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Assunto: Human diseases; Mathematical models; Sterility; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Spreading; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Landscape; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes, and use this pattern of sterility to facilitate their spread into naive, uninfected host populations. These bacteria were recently introduced into Aedes aegypti, a species naturally free of Wolbachia, and the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia are currently being used as a biological tool to control dengue transmission in many countries, including Brazil. We performed a series of laboratory and field assays and then created mathematical models in order to understand the invasive ability of the wMel Wolbachia strain in Brazilian Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. We show that wMel infection had no detrimental fitness effects on its new Brazilian host, and would theoretically be able to successfully invade the mosquito populations in the five distinct urban landscapes that we studied. We found that Wolbachia spread more easily where the local mosquito population was smaller. The size of the local human population did not overtly influence the likelihood of spread. These findings provide insight into how the nature of different urban landscapes will affect the likelihood of Wolbachia spreading effectively, which will greatly assist future releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Brazil as part of the Eliminate Dengue Program.

214) Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae
Autor: Pavela, Roman
Assunto: Synergisms; Antagonisms; Botanical insecticides; Monoterpenes; Larvicides; Essential oils
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3835-3853, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L-1, respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L-1, respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L-1, their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L-1, respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and alpha-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, alpha-pinene and menthone, beta-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, alpha-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2 % mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio > 2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we can choose two pairs that caused mortality higher than 90 % in concentrations lower than 20 mg L-1: limonene and trans-anethole (with the mixing ratio 1:1), and carvone and carvacrol (with the mixing ratio 1:2-3). The information gained can thus be used in the development of new botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) and particularly in the creation of formulations.

215) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis aubl. (negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Aguiar, Raimundo WagnerSouza; Santos, Suetonio Fernandesdos; Morgado, Fabricio daSilva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia deMendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Repellents; Pupae; Pollution effects; Pest control; Toxicity; Larval development; Necrosis; Skin; Insect cells; Developmental stages; Essential oils; Eggs; Mortality; Larvae; Insects; Urban areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

216) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

217) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

218) Effects of artesunate treatment on Plasmodium gallinaceum transmission in the vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Pruck-Ngern, Mintra; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Buddhirakkul, Prayute; Saiwichai, Tawee
Assunto: Artesunate; Avian malaria; Gametocytocidal action; Transmission; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Veterinary Parasitology, v. 207, n. 1-2, p. 161-165, 2015
ISSN: 0304-4017
Resumo: In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy is an effective and economical way for controlling malaria. Development of anti-malarial drugs that target pathogenic blood stage parasites and gametocytes is preferable for the treatment as it can alleviate the host's morbidity and mortality and block transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. Recently, our laboratory has developed an in vivo transmission blocking assay that involves administration of 7 consecutive daily doses of a test compound into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. To compromise the cost and time for artesunate (ATN) treatment, this study aimed to investigate effects of a 5-day consecutive administration of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) ATN on P. gallinaceum infection in chickens and transmission to two natural vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Our study showed that the treatment with 10 mg/kg ATM for 7 days, but not 5 days, completely eliminated blood stage infections, prevented recrudescence and blocked gametocyte production and transmission of P. gallinaceum to its vectors, thereby confirming the potent schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activities of ATN. This regimen should be further evaluated in field trials. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

219) Arterial hypertension and skin allergy are risk factors for progression from dengue to dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case control study
Autor: Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Paixao, Enny S.; Costa, Maria da Conceicao N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Pamplona, Luciano; Dias, Juarez P.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Figueiredo, Maria Aparecida A.; Blanton, Ronald; Morato, Vanessa; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Rodrigues, Laura C.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemics; Physicians; Hypertension; Public health; Pathogenesis; Immunology; Risk factors; Hypotheses; Chronic illnesses; Mortality; Diabetes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a virus disease that has already reached more than 100 countries worldwide, transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, mainly Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that annually nearly 96 million symptomatic cases and about 22,000 deaths occur. This virus most often manifests itself in the form of Dengue Fever (DF), which in some cases progresses to severe forms, also called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). However, the current knowledge does not allow early prediction of which cases of DF will progress to DHF. But it is important to know the factors Involved in this process so that physicians may intervene early to prevent progression and avoid deaths. One of the proposed explanations is that preexisting comorbidities would increase the risk of progression from DF to DHF. This study showed that cases of DF associated with hypertension or skin allergy are more likely to progress to DHF. Monitoring and early appropriate clinical management of these cases can save lives.

220) Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains
Autor: Uragayala, Sreehari; Verma, Vaishali; Natarajan, Elamathi; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Kamaraju, Raghavendra
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Imidacloprid - Resistance; Thiacloprid; Thiamethoxam
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 142, p. 64-70, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. In this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Laboratory-reared mosquito species were used. Insecticide susceptibility tests were done using standard WHO procedures and using diagnostic dosages of insecticide test papers and larvicides. Adulticidal efficacy of candidate insecticides was assessed using topical application method and larval bioassays were conducted using standard WHO procedure.Results: The results of topical application on 3-5 day old female mosquitoes indicated that resistant strain of An. stephensi registered lower LC50 values than the susceptible strain. Among the three insecticides tested, thiacloprid was found more effective than the other two insecticides. Culex quinquefasciatus registered lowest LC50 for imidacloprid than the other two mosquito species tested. In larval bioassays, the LC50 values registered for imidacloprid were in the order of Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR) < Ae. aegypti. In case of thiacloprid, the order of efficacy (LC50) was Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR), whereas in case of thiamethoxam, the larvicidal efficacy was in the order of An. stephensi (RR) < An. stephensi (SS) < Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present study indicated that insecticide resistant strains of mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes should be explored

221) Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi;Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou;Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Copepods Lemongrass; Nanotechnology; Mesocyclops aspericorni
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, p. 129-138, 2015.
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC50 of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32ppm to 471.36ppm. LC50 of AuN ranged from 18.80ppm to 41.52ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs.

222) Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Adulticidal activity; Botanical extracts; Eco-friendly; Smoke toxicity; Cipadessa baccifera; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 1, p. 167-173, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6 +/- 1.8, 78.2 +/- 0.5, and 77 +/- 1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

223) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis ; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lounibos, LPhilip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Biological surveys; Barriers; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Biting; Travellers; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: More than one million chikungunya cases have been reported in the Americas since October 2013, when the Asian genotype of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was imported by a traveller returning from Asia. CHIKV is mainly transmitted in urban areas by the domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the CHIKV circulating in the Caribbean to initiate outbreaks in Aedes-infested regions of continental America and Europe by assessing the ability of local mosquitoes to experimentally transmit the virus. Mosquitoes were exposed to a blood-meal containing the virus which must overcome several barriers to infect various tissues in the vector before being secreted in the mosquito saliva when biting a host. We found that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus transmitted similarly the virus. When exposing Ae. albopictus from Europe at a temperature of 20 degree C after infection, we detect a significant drop of CHIKV transmission potential. Our results suggest that the CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas however with a limited risk of spillovers in Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. These data will be useful for adapting vector control strategies and epidemiological surveillance.

224) Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti)
Autor: Ruktanonchai, N. W.; Lounibos, L. P.; Smith, D. L.; Allan, S. A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Stegomyia Aegypti; Behavioural Plasticity; Mosquito Behaviour; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 255-262, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

225) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

226) Extract of Bowdichia virgilioides and maackiain as larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Santos, Jefferson C.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santana, Andrea L. B. D.; Maranhao, Claudia A.; Nascimento, Marcia S.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Bieber, Lothar W.
Assunto: Hardwood; Maackiain; Medicarpin; Bowdichia virgilioides; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, n. , p. 160-164, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: The larvicidal activities of extracts of three hardwood species (Hymenaea stigonorcapa, Anadenanthera colubrina and Bowdichia virgilioides) against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were evaluated using WHO guidelines. Extracts of H. stignocarpa and A. colubrina showed weak activity. The highest larvicidal effect was obtained with the cyclohexane extract of the heartwood of B. virgilioides, which caused 100% mortality at concentrations at 50 and 100 mu g/mL. Fraction toluene/EtOAc (8:2) from this extract showed larvicidal activity (LC50 = 34.90 +/- 1.27 mu g/mL). A mixture of two compounds identified as medicarpin and maackiain exhibited a very good larvicidal activity (sub-fraction 2, LC50 = 17.5 +/- 1.87 mu g/mL) and maackiain showed to be a strong larvicidal compound (LC50 = 21.95 +/- 1.34 mu g/mL). This result can be of value in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds from other hardwood plant extracts and presents the first report of B. virgilioides being used to control a mosquito vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

227) Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns
Autor: Santiago, Viviene S.; Grace Alvero, Rita; Villasenor, Irene M.
Assunto: Larvicidal; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Piper nigrum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 29, n. 5, p. 441-443, 2015
ISSN: 1478-6419
Resumo: Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 +/- 0.1304ppm (mean +/- Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 +/- 0.0491ppm and 3.7078ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

228) Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Babaniyi O., Mwaba P., Mulenga D., Monze M., Songolo P., Mazaba-Liwewe M., Mweene-Ndumba I., Masaninga F., Chizema E., Eshetu-Shibeshi M., Malama C., Rudatsikira E., Siziya S.
Assunto: risk assessment, yellow fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-17, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

229) Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Chomelia asiatica; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 3, p. 989-999, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.

230) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

231) Mosquito Repellent Activity of Delonix Elata (Fabaceae) Leaf and Seed Extracts Against the Primary Dengue Vector Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni; Amsath, A.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Delonix elata; Leaf; Seed; Repellent activity; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: International Journal of Pure And Applied Zoology, v. 3, n. 4, p. 312-317, 2015
ISSN: 2320-9577
Resumo: Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in tropical and subtropical areas. As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. In the present study the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata) leaf and seed against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). One hundred three day old starved female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were kept on a net cage (45 cmx30 cmx45 cm). The repellency was determined against Ae. aegypti mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) under the laboratory conditions. Ae. aegypti were tested during the day time from 07.00 to 17.00 h. In this study, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extracts. The highest concentrations of 5.0 mg/cm(2) provided over 180 and 150 min protection, respectively. Overall, the crude methanol extract of D. elata showed an excellent potential to develop newer and safer control tools the dengue vector mosquito Ae. aegypti.

232) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino, Eunice A.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Pirk, Christian; Mbogo, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Attractant; Electrophysiology; Mosquito; Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 253, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Effective surveillance and estimation of the biting fraction of Aedes aegypti is critical for accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks and inter-epidemic periods of dengue and chikungunya fever. Here, we describe the development and use of synthetic human odor baits for improved sampling of adult Ae. aegypti, in two dengue and chikungunya fevers endemic areas in Kenya; Kilifi and Busia counties. We collected volatiles from the feet and trunks of two female and two male volunteers aged between 25 and 45 years. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis to screen for antennally-active components from the volatiles and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the EAD-active components. Using randomized replicated designs, we compared the efficacies of Biogents (BG) sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus either single or blends of the identified compounds against the BG sentinel trap baited with carbon dioxide plus the BG commercial lure in trapping Ae. aegypti. The daily mosquito counts in the different traps were subjected to negative binomial regression following the generalized linear models procedures. A total of ten major EAD-active components identified by GC/MS as mainly aldehydes and carboxylic acids, were consistently isolated from the human feet and trunk volatiles from at least two volunteers. Field assays with synthetic chemicals of the shared EAD-active components identified from the feet and trunk gave varying results. Ae. aegypti were more attracted to carbon dioxide baited BG sentinel traps combined with blends of aldehydes than to similar traps combined with blends of carboxylic acids. When we assessed the efficacy of hexanoic acid detected in odors of the BG commercial lure and volunteers plus carbon dioxide, trap captures of Ae. aegypti doubled over the trap baited with the commercial BG lure. However, dispensing aldehydes and carboxylic acids together in blends, reduced trap captures of Ae. aegypti by similar to 45%-50%.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for roles of carboxylic acids and aldehydes in Ae. aegypti host attraction and also show that of the carboxylic acids, hexanoic acid is a more effective lure for the vector than the BG commercial lure

233) An environmentally safe larvicide against Aedes aegypti based on in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems containing an essential oil
Autor: Ferreira, S. G.; Conceicao, Vs; Gouveia, N. S.; Santos, G. S.; Santos, R. L. C.; Lira, A. A. M.; Cavalcanti, S. C. H.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Nunes, R. S.
Assunto: Liquid crystal; Microemulsion; In situ gelling; Citrus sinensis; Dengue; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, v. 456, p. 190-196, 2015
ISSN: 0021-9797
Resumo: Liquid crystalline precursors, which are in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems, can undergo phase transition in aqueous solution and become more structured aggregates, controlling release of larvicides and acting as biotechnology alternatives for dengue control. Such systems can contain bioactive substances as Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) which exhibits biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. The formulations were composed by fixed concentration of CSEO stabilized by Polyoxypropylene (5) Polyoxyethylene (20) Cetyl Ether (PPG-5 CETETH-20): oleic acid (OA) 2:1, increasing water content. The phase diagram was established and systems structure was evaluated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. Median lethal concentration was determined against Ae. aegypti larvae. The phase diagram exhibited four regions: liquid crystal (LC), emulsion, microemulsion (ME) and phase separation. The PLM and SAXS distinguished microemulsions, lamellar and hexagonal LC structures. Flow and oscillatory tests showed that increasing water content increases elasticity from Newtonian to non-newtonian behavior confirming the in situ gelation behavior. The larvicidal activity of formulations indicates that these nanostructured systems improved the oil solubility in aqueous medium and in addition are potential environmental larvicide against Ae. aegypti larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

234) Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015
ISSN: 1420-3049
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

235) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

236) An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal
Autor: Huang, T-H.; Tien, N-Y.; Luo, Y-P.
Assunto: Stegomyia aegypti; DEET; In vitro bioassay; Plant compound; Quantitative evaluation; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 238-244, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe invitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St.aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD50 (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 mu g/cm(2), respectively.

237) Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Ovicidal activity; Pupicidal activity; Repellent activity; Oxystelma esculentum; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 3, n. 4, p. 326-332, 2015
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm(2) under laboratory conditions. The LC50 value of methanol extract of Oxystelma esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Aedes aegypti at 280 mg/L. The present results suggest that the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquito.

238) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

239) Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale
Autor: Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Goncalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sergio L. B.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue; Chikungunya; Albopictus; Dispersal; Culicidae; Area; Containers; Wolbachia; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: BackgroundMosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 'dissemination stations' (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a > 10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000-3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination.Conclusions/SignificanceBy expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics.

240) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

241) Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector
Autor: Santhosh, S. B.; Yuvarajan, R.; Natarajan, D.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Annona muricata; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 8, p. 3087-3096, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 mu g mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 mu g mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 mu g mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 mu g mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 mu g mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was confirmed between the temperatures 20 to 70 A degrees C. The result suggests that green synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata has the potential to be used as a low-cost and eco-friendly approach for the control of selected mosquitoes.

242) Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Krtinic, B.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.
Assunto: Diagnostic traits; Larval traits; Sexual dimorphism; Wing trait variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 1, p. 129-138, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens (`rural') and molestus (`urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of `urban' and `rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third-and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

243) Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand
Autor: Champakaew, D.; Junkum, A.; Chaithong, U.; Jitpakdi, A.; Riyong, D.; Sanghong, R.; Intirach, J.; Muangmoon, R.; Chansang, A.; Tuetun, B.; Pitasawat, B.
Assunto: Repellent; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Angelica sinensis; DEET; Phthalides; Phthalates
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 6, p. 2187-2198, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations.

244) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding
Autor: Choo, Young-Moo; Buss, Garrison K.; Tan, Kaiming; Leal, Walter S.
Assunto: Proboscis; Oviposition attractant; 4-ethylphenol; CquiOR99; Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Frontiers in Physiology, v. 6, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1664-042X
Resumo: Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional "antenna" has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum toward a blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR) from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol), CquiOR99, and a receptorf for the insect repellent DEFT, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated) laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEFT-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated with 4EP, i.e., they engaged more rapidly in continuous blood feeding as compared to untreated blood. The time of engagement for feeding in skatole-containing blood vs untreated blood did not differ significantly. Taken together, these data suggest that 4EP reception by the labrum is important not only for oviposition decisions, but also for reducing probing and initiation of blood feeding.

245) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

246) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

247) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

248) Neolignans and Other Metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar Rain Forest and Their Biological Activities
Autor: Rakotondraibe, L. Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R.; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D.; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasannison, Vincent E.; Cassera, Maria B.; Hahn, Donald R.; Kingston, David G. I.; Fotso, Serge
Assunto: Piper capense; Dry forest; Ocobullenone; Lauraceae; Bullata; Alkaloids
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 78, n. 3, p. 431-440, 2015
ISSN: 0163-3864
Resumo: Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds.

249) Optimization of pyrethroid and repellent on fabrics against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) using a microencapsulation technique
Autor: Yao, T. -T.; Wang, L. -K.; Cheng, J. -L.; Hu, Y. -Z.; Zhao, J. -H.; Zhu, G. -N.
Assunto: Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus); DEET; Deltamethrin; Finishing; Optimized mixing ratio; Synergistic interaction; Washing durability
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 37-43, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: A new approach employing a combination of pyrethroid and repellent is proposed to improve the protective efficacy of conventional pyrethroid-treated fabrics against mosquito vectors. In this context, the insecticidal and repellent efficacies of commonly used pyrethroids and repellents were evaluated by cone tests and arm-in-cage tests against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae). At concentrations of LD50 (estimated for pyrethroid) or ED50 (estimated for repellent), respectively, the knock-down effects of the pyrethroids or repellents were further compared. The results obtained indicated that deltamethrin and DEET were relatively more effective and thus these were selected for further study. Synergistic interaction was observed between deltamethrin and DEET at the ratios of 5:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (but not 1:5). An optimal mixing ratio of 7:5 was then microencapsulated and adhered to fabrics using a fixing agent. Fabrics impregnated by microencapsulated mixtures gained extended washing durability compared with those treated with a conventional dipping method. Results indicated that this approach represents a promising method for the future impregnation of bednet, curtain and combat uniform materials.

250) Effect of chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi larvae
Autor: Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Chloroxylon swietenia bark extract
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4219-4223, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 mu g/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts.

251) Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Polygonum hydropiper; Confertifolin; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Repellent; Oviposition deterrent; Adulticidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 11, p. 8280-8287, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy 1-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P<0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides.

252) Dengue and other flavivirus infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choumet V., Desprès P.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), v. 34, n. 2, p. 467-478, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0253-1933
Resumo: Flaviviruses are responsible for yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue, all of which are major human diseases found in tropical regions of the globe. They are zoonoses with a transmission cycle that involves primates as reservoirs and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes as vectors. The recent upsurge of urban epidemics of yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue has involved human-to-human transmission with mosquitoes as the vector. This paper is primarily concerned with dengue, which has become the pre-eminent arbovirosis in terms of public health.

253) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

254) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

255) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

256) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

257) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

258) Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis
Autor: Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Assunto: Trichoderma atroviride; Culture filtrates; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Dengue; CLSM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 16, p. 12559-12565, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 degree C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC sub(90) and LC sub(99) values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

259) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

260) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

261) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

262) Global virology I-identifying and investigating viral diseases
Autor: Shapshak P., Sinnott J.T., Somboonwit C., Kuhn J.H.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 1-813,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This book provides trajectories and illustrations of viruses that have catapulted into the global arena (linked to humans, animals, and vectors) due to human behaviors in recent years, as well as viruses that have already shown expansion among humans, animals, and vectors just a few decades ago. Topics in the current book include: vaccines environmental impact emerging virus transmission Filovirus (Ebola) hemorrhagic fevers flaviviruses Dengue evasion papillomaviruses Hepatitis C Nipah virus giant viruses hantaviruses bunyaviruses encephalitides West Nile virus Zika virus XMRV henipaviruses human respiratory syncytial virus influenza A virus several aspects of HIV-1 © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

263) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

264) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

265) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

266) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

267) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

268) Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India
Autor: Singhi, Manju; Purohit, Anil; Chattopadhyay, Sushmita
Assunto: Calotropis procera; Dengue vectors; Larvicide; Methanol extracted latex
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 142-146, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement

269) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

270) (E)-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil
Autor: Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patricia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique
Assunto: Chemical composition; Insecticide resistance; Acaricidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Pyrethroid resistance; Diptera culicidae; Medicinal plants; Aromatic plants; Vector control; Oleogum resin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with a-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and beta-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and a-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

271) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

272) 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats
Autor: Yoshida, Toshiaki
Assunto: Biomonitoring;ÿMetabolism;ÿMosquito repellent;ÿToxicokinetics;ÿUrine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Biomarkers, v. 20, n. 1, p. 71-76, 2015
ISSN: 1354-750X
Resumo: A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure

273) Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands
Autor: Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe
Assunto: Biological insecticide; Mosquito control; Field enclosure; Non-biting midge; Non-target invertebrate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 115, p. 272-278, 2015
ISSN: 0147-6513
Resumo: To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on nontarget aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on Polypedilum nubifer and seems to affect Tanytarsus curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

274) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, 2015.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: A little-known virus called Zika has caused outbreaks in Pacific Ocean islands the past few years and has arrived in South America this year. Scientists predict it will spread far and wide in the Western Hemisphere, and perhaps in southern Europe as well, because the Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus are so widespread. Scientifically speaking, Zika virus is still largely terra incognita. Its symptoms, including rash, fatigue, headaches, muscle pains, and swollen and painful joints, appear to be generally mild, but during an outbreak in French Polynesia that started in 2013, some patients developed a serious neurological condition named Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although it is primarily spread by mosquitoes, some evidence suggests sexual transmission is possible as well.

275) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

276) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

277) Chlorophyll derivatives can be an efficient weapon in the fight against dengue
Autor: Azizullah, Azizullah; Rehman, Zia Ur; Ali, Imran; Murad, Waheed; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Waheed; Haeder, Donat-Peter
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Larvae; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Chlorophyll; Freshwater environments; Dengue; Vectors; chlorophyllin; Vaccines; Infection; Parasites; Insects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 12, p. 4321-4326, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.

278) Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L
Autor: Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini
Assunto: Trichoderma harzianum; Aedes aegypti; Bioefficacy; Mycosynthesis; Ecofriendly approach
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 21, n. 6, p. 4624-4633, 2014
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and 100 % for third, fourth instars, and pupa. Lethal concentration 50 values of 0.079, 0.084, 0.087, 0.068, and 0.026 % were recorded for I-IV instars and pupa, respectively, when exposed to Ag NPs at 0.25 % concentration. Toxicity was exhibited against first (1.076 %), second (0.912 %), third (0.770 %), fourth (0.914 %) instars larvae, and pupa (0.387 %) with extracellular filtrate at a concentration of 1 % that was three- to fourfold higher compared to Ag NPs; no mortality was observed in the control. The present study is the first report on effective larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Ag NPs synthesized from an entomopathogenic fungi T. harzianum extracellular filtrate and could be an ideal ecofriendly, single-step, and inexpensive approach for the control of A. aegypti.

279) Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Insecticides; Mortality; Methanol; Medicinal plants; Filariasis; Leaves; Schistosomiasis; Benzene; Disease transmission; Chloroform; Dengue; Yellow fever; Ethyl acetate; Hatchability; Plant extracts; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Schistosoma; Fabaceae; Anopheles stephensi; Culicidae; Erythrina; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 2, p. 777-791, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in methanol extract against A. stephensi followed by A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus with the LD sub(50) and LD sub(90) values of 88.76, 94.09, and 119.64 ppm and 160.83, 169.01, and 219.77 ppm, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus.

280) Effect of niloticin, a protolimonoid isolated from Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) on the immature stages of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: L. acidissima; Niloticin; Bioassay; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 139, p. 67-76, 2014
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of fractions and a compound niloticin from the hexane extract of Limonia acidissima L leaves on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). In these bioassays, the eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated for larvae and pupae. Per cent ovicidal activity was calculated for eggs after 120 h post treatment. Among the sixteen fractions screened, fraction 8 from the hexane extract of L. acidissima generated good mosquitocidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 8 were 4.11, 8.04 ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae and 4.19, 8.10 ppm against Ae. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound, niloticin recorded strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities. The 2 ppm concentration of niloticin showed 100% larvicidal and pupicidal activities in 24 h. The LC50 and LC90 values of niloticin on Ae. aegypti larvae were 0.44, 1.17 ppm and on pupae were 0.62,1.45 ppm, respectively. Niloticin presented 83.2% ovicidal activity at 2 ppm concentration after 120 h post treatment and niloticin exhibited significant growth disruption and morphological deformities at sub lethal concentrations against Ae. aegypti. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of single XRD and spectral data (H-1 NMR and C-13 NMR) and compared with literature spectral data. The results indicate that niloticin could be used as a potential natural mosquitocide. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

281) Genetic control of Aedes aegypti: data-driven modelling to assess the effect of releasing different life stages and the potential for long-term suppression
Autor: Winskill, Peter; Harris, Angela F.; Morgan, Sian A.; Stevenson, Jessica; Raduan, Norzahira; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew R.; Donnelly, Christl A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; RIDL; Transgenic; Sterile insect technique; SIT; Pupae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Control of the world's most important vector-borne viral disease, dengue, is a high priority. A lack of vaccines or effective vector control methods means that novel solutions to disease control are essential. The release of male insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL) is one such approach that could be employed to control Aedes aegypti. To maximise the potential of RIDL control, optimum release strategies for transgenic mosquitoes are needed. The use of field data to parameterise models allowing comparisons of the release of different life-stages is presented together with recommendations for effective long-term suppression of a wild Ae. aegypti population. Methods: A compartmental, deterministic model was designed and fitted to data from large-scale pupal mark release recapture (MRR) field experiments to determine the dynamics of a pupal release. Pulsed releases of adults, pupae or a combination of the two were simulated. The relative ability of different release methods to suppress a simulated wild population was examined and methods to maintain long-term suppression of a population explored. Results: The pupal model produced a good fit to field data from pupal MRR experiments. Simulations using this model indicated that adult-only releases outperform pupal-only or combined releases when releases are frequent. When releases were less frequent pupal-only or combined releases were a more effective method of distributing the insects. The rate at which pupae eclose and emerge from release devices had a large influence on the relative efficacy of pupal releases. The combined release approach allows long-term suppression to be maintained with smaller low-frequency releases than adult- or pupal-only release methods. Conclusions: Maximising the public health benefits of RIDL-based vector control will involve optimising all stages of the control programme. The release strategy can profoundly affect the outcome of a control effort. Adult-only, pupal-only and combined releases all have relative advantages in certain situations. This study successfully integrates field data with mathematical models to provide insight into which release strategies are best suited to different scenarios. Recommendations on effective approaches to achieve long-term suppression of a wild population using combined releases of adults and pupae are provided.

282) Electrophysiological and behavioural response of Aedes albopictus to n-heinecosane, an ovipositional pheromone of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Gonzalez, Paula V.; Gonzalez Audino, Paola A.; Masuh, Hector M.
Assunto: Hydrocarbon; Diptera; Cuticular; Culicidae; Electroantennogram; Attractant; Repellent; EAD; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, v. 151, n. 3, p. 191-197, 2014
ISSN: 0013-8703
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are highly anthropophilic mosquito species and potential vectors of dengue and yellow fever. The location of suitable sites for oviposition requires a set of visual, tactile, and olfactory cues that influence females before they lay their eggs. In this study, the effect of n-heneicosane, a recognized oviposition pheromone of Ae.aegypti, on the olfactory receptors of the antennae of Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus was studied using electroantennographic detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC-EAD). A significant electroantennographic response to n-heneicosane in adult females of both mosquito species was observed. In addition, gravid Ae.albopictus females laid more eggs in substrate treated with n-heneicosane at 0.1, 1, or 10p.p.m. than in the control, denoting oviposition attractancy. Conversely, at 30, 50, 100, and 200p.p.m., more eggs were laid in the control substrate, indicating oviposition repellency. Analysis of the larval cuticle by GC and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of n-heneicosane in the cuticles of Ae.albopictus larvae. The species-specific role of n-heneicosane as an oviposition pheromone in Ae.aegypti and its significance as a behaviour modifier of Ae.albopictus in breeding sites is discussed.

283) Bioassay guided fractionation of Sphaeranthus indicus extract against mosquito vectors
Autor: Vidhya, P. T.; Mathew, Nisha
Assunto: Sphaeranthus indicus; Larvicide; Mosquito; Vector; Anopheles; Culex; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, v. 5, n. 9, p. 3965-3971, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: This paper aims to at exploring the mosquitocidal potential of the extract of the medicinal plant Sphaeranthus indicus. The soxhlet extracts of flowers, leaves and arial parts of S. indicus with four solvents, viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were screened against the larvae of the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The commercially available synthetic insecticide temephos was used as a positive control. Bioassay guided fractionation was carried out for the hexane extract of the leaves of S. indicus using a silica gel column with eluents hexane followed by 5% and 10% ethyl acetate in hexane. Fractions were examined by thin layer chromatography using silica gel, 60 F254 plates using hexane-ethyl acetate, pooled the silmilar fractions and screened for mosquito larvicidal activity. The bioassay guided fractionation showed that the fractions F3-F7 eluted with hexane showed 100% mosquito larvicidal activity against all the three species of mosquitoes at 10 mg/L. FT-IR spectrum of this fraction revealed the presence of long chain alkanes.

284) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

285) Molecular analysis of Aedes aegypti classical protein tyrosine phosphatases uncovers an ortholog of mammalian PTP-1B implicated in the control of egg production in mosquitoes
Autor: Moretti, Debora Monteiro; Ahuja, Lalima Gagan; Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Cudischevitch, Cecilia Oliveira; Daumas-Filho, Carlos RenatoOliveira; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla;Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Jablonka, Willy; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Senna, Raquel
Assunto: Human diseases; Tyrosine; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Phosphatase; Data processing; Fat body; Enzymes; Cancer; Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase; Differentiation; Homology; Structure-function relationships; Vitellogenin; RNA-mediated interference; Protein turnover; Metabolism; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that catalyze phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation and modulate cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In mammals, PTPs play a key role in the modulation of canonical pathways involved in metabolism and immunity. PTP1B is the prototype member of classical PTPs and a major target for treating human diseases, such as cancer, obesity and diabetes. These signaling enzymes are, hence, targets of a wide array of inhibitors. Anautogenous mosquitoes rely on blood meals to lay eggs and are vectors of the most prevalent human diseases. Identifying the mosquito ortholog of PTP1B and determining its involvement in egg production is, therefore, important in the search for a novel and crucial target for vector control. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an analysis to identify the ortholog of mammalian PTP1B in the Aedes aegypti genome. We identified eight genes coding for classical PTPs. In silico structural and functional analyses of proteins coded by such genes revealed that four of these code for catalytically active enzymes. Among the four genes coding for active PTPs, AAEL001919 exhibits the greatest degree of homology with the mammalian PTP1B. Next, we evaluated the role of this enzyme in egg formation. Blood feeding largely affects AAEL001919 expression, especially in the fat body and ovaries. These tissues are critically involved in the synthesis and storage of vitellogenin, the major yolk protein. Including the classical PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or the PTP substrate DiFMUP in the blood meal decreased vitellogenin synthesis and egg production. Similarly, silencing AAEL001919 using RNA interference (RNAi) assays resulted in 30% suppression of egg production. Conclusions/Significance The data reported herein implicate, for the first time, a gene that codes for a classical PTP in mosquito egg formation. These findings raise the possibility that this class of enzymes may be used as novel targets to block egg formation in mosquitoes.

286) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

287) Clone 13-infected Aedes aegypti salivary components inhibit Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity
Autor: Coupanec, Alain Le; Babin, Divya; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Rift Valley fever virus; Clone 13; Salivary gland; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 16, n. 5, p. 439-444, 2014.
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks among humans and domestic animals in Africa. RVFV Clone 13, a naturally attenuated clone, is a promising vaccine which was used during the 2009-2010 outbreak in South Africa and played a key role in the control of the disease. In this work, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with RVFV Clone 13 and prepared salivary gland extracts (SGE). C57BL/6-NRJ male mice were infected with a mixture of SGE infected by Clone 13 and the ZH548 RVFV strain. With the injection of increasing doses of Clone 13-infected SGE, all mice were protected. Our results suggest Clone 13 infected SGE contain unique antiviral components able to counteract the replication of RVFV when injected into vertebrates.

288) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

289) Deletion of the NSm virulence gene of rift valley fever virus inhibits virus replication in and dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Kading, Rebekah C.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Bird, Brian H.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.
Assunto: Virulence; Endemic species; Genes; Replication; Pest control; Rift valleys; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Genomes; Mortality; Data processing; Rift Valley fever; Infection; Morbidity; Livestock; Antibodies; Gene deletion; Midgut; Vaccines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Africa. Outbreaks of RVFV have resulted in devastating morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. A novel RVFV vaccine strain has been developed in which two virulence genes, NSs and NSm, have been deleted from the RVFV genome. Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of NSm also significantly reduced the ability of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to transmit RVFV. The objective of this study was to track the spread (dissemination) of wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) and RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF- Delta NSm) through different tissues in the mosquito body over time by staining lengthwise slices of infected mosquitoes with fluorescent antibody specific to RVFV. We found that midgut infections in mosquitoes exposed to rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF- Delta NSm were confined to only one or a few small foci. Our data provide supporting evidence that the NSm virulence gene has a functional role in mosquitoes by helping RVFV establish an infection in, and escape from, the midgut.

290) A Comparative Analysis of the Relative Efficacy of Vector-Control Strategies Against Dengue Fever
Autor: Amaku, Marcos; Bezerra Coutinho, Francisco Antonio; Raimundo, Silvia Martorano; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Massad, Eduardo
Assunto: Dengue; Basic reproduction number; Force of infection; Sensitivity analysis; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, v. 76, n. 3, p. 697-717, 2014
ISSN: 0092-8240
Resumo: Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne infection, affecting almost half of the world population with 50 to 100 million cases every year. In this paper, we present one of the simplest models that can encapsulate all the important variables related to vector control of dengue fever. The model considers the human population, the adult mosquito population and the population of immature stages, which includes eggs, larvae and pupae. The model also considers the vertical transmission of dengue in the mosquitoes and the seasonal variation in the mosquito population. From this basic model describing the dynamics of dengue infection, we deduce thresholds for avoiding the introduction of the disease and for the elimination of the disease. In particular, we deduce a Basic Reproduction Number for dengue that includes parameters related to the immature stages of the mosquito. By neglecting seasonal variation, we calculate the equilibrium values of the model's variables. We also present a sensitivity analysis of the impact of four vector-control strategies on the Basic Reproduction Number, on the Force of Infection and on the human prevalence of dengue. Each of the strategies was studied separately from the others. The analysis presented allows us to conclude that of the available vector control strategies, adulticide application is the most effective, followed by the reduction of the exposure to mosquito bites, locating and destroying breeding places and, finally, larvicides. Current vector-control methods are concentrated on mechanical destruction of mosquitoes' breeding places. Our results suggest that reducing the contact between vector and hosts (biting rates) is as efficient as the logistically difficult but very efficient adult mosquito's control.

291) Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan
Assunto: Green synthesis; Silver nanoparticles; Feronia elephantum; Larvicidal activity; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, no. 5, p. 1775-1785, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mu g mL super(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mu g mL super(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values: A. stephensi had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 11.56 and 20.56 mu g mL super(-1); A. aegypti had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 13.13 and 23.12 mu g mL super(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 14.19 and 24.30 mu g mL super(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

292) Mosquitoes of Zika forest, Uganda: Species composition and relative abundance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Mutebi J.-P., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C., Akol A.M.
Assunto: biodiversity, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 104-113, jan. 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO(2)-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and thismaysuggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests a high potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

293) Differential susceptibility of two field Aedes aegypti populations to a low infectious dose of dengue virus
Autor: Pongsiri, Arissara; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Serum; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Vectors; Viremia; Blood meals; Infection; Dengue; Dose-response effects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background The infectious dose required to infect mosquito vectors when they take a blood meal from a viremic person is a critical parameter underlying the probability of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Because experimental vector competence studies typically examine the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected at intermediate or high DENV infectious doses in the blood meal, the minimum blood meal titer required to infect mosquitoes is poorly documented. Understanding the factors influencing the lower infectiousness threshold is epidemiologically significant because it determines the transmission potential of humans with a low DENV viremia, possibly including inapparent infections, and during the onset and resolution of the viremic period of acutely infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the susceptibility of two field-derived Aedes aegypti populations from Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand when they were orally exposed to low titers of six DENV-2 isolates derived from the serum of naturally infected humans living in the same region. The infectious dose, time-point post-blood feeding, viral isolate and mosquito population, were significant predictors of the proportion of mosquitoes that became infected. Importantly, the dose-response profile differed significantly between the two Ae. aegypti populations. Although both mosquito populations had a similar 50% oral infectious dose (OID50), the slope of the dose-response was shallower in one population, resulting in a markedly higher susceptibility at low blood meal titers. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that mosquitoes in nature vary in their infectious dose-response to DENV. Thus, different mosquito populations have a differential ability to acquire DENV infection at low viremia levels. Future studies on human-to-mosquito DENV transmission should not be limited to OID50 values, but rather they should be expanded to account for the shape of the dose-response profile across a range of virus titers.

294) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential
Autor: Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklov, Joacim
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Climatic changes; Climate; Vectors; Mapping; Infection; Models; Diurnal variations; Historical account; Tropical environments; Temperature; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3 degree C when DTR was 0 degree C and at 20 degree C when DTR was 20 degree C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29 degree C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29 degree C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29 degree C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29 degree C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC.

295) Genetic diversity of brazilian Aedes aegypti: patterns following an eradication program
Autor: Monteiro, Fernando A.; Shama, Renata; Martins, Ademir J.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Epidemics; Refuges; Public health; Disease transmission; Refugia; Data processing; Dengue; Yellow fever; Genetic diversity; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 9, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, was historically very important as the major vector of yellow fever, whereas today it is most notorious for being the major transmitter of dengue fever. In the 1940s and 50s, the Pan-American Health Organization organized a campaign to eradicate Ae. aegypti from the New World. They were partly successful, with Brazil being the largest country to be declared free of Ae. aegypti. Within ten years of relaxation of control efforts, Ae. aegypti reappeared in Brazil and today is the vector of the most intense dengue epidemics in the New World. Here, we present population genetic data that are most consistent with the species having truly been eradicated from Brazil rather than simply pushed into small refugia as a consequence of the eradication campaign. The re-infestation most likely resulted from two sources: 1) from northern S. American countries like Venezuela into northwest Brazil and 2) from the Caribbean into the southeast of the country.

296) Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds
Autor: Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Larvae; Leaves; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Mortality; Chloroform; Dengue; Petroleum; Column chromatography; Vectors; Malaria; Acetic acid; Herbs; Chromatography; Technology; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Artemisia annua
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 197-209, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100 %) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation.

297) Brazil welcomes Oxitec's first mosquito production unit to fight the dengue vector
Autor: Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous Anon.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: International Pest Control. Vol. 56, n. 5, p. 236, 2014.
ISSN: 0020-8256
Resumo: In July this year, Oxitec held the official inauguration of its first Brazilian production unit for the genetically modified strain of Aedes aegypti OX513A in order to help in the fight against the principal vector of dengue and chikungunya. The event created national interest with all the main TV channels providing positive coverage. Located in Campinas, northwest of Sao Paulo, Oxitec's factory has an initial capacity to produce 2 million OX513A male mosquitoes a week. This production unit is sufficient to initiate projects, but it intends to invest in the construction of larger units in the coming months, says Glen Slade Head of Business Development. The opening of the factory follows national approval for commercial release from the country's National Biosafety Commission in April.

298) Efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, Bti and temephos larvicides for control of Anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern Mexico
Autor: Marina, Carlos F.; Bond, J. Guillermo; Munoz, Jose; Valle, Javier; Novelo-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Williams, Trevor
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n.5, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined.Methods: A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-6511), and 100 ml/ha temephos (50 EC), or an untreated control. Numbers of immature mosquitoes, and aquatic insects in pools were monitored for 20 weeks.Results: Samples of immature mosquitoes comprised approximately 10% An. albimanus, 70% Culex spp. (mostly Cx. melanoconion and Cx. coronator) and 20% Uranotaenia lowii. The most effective larvicides were spinosad and temephos that eliminated An. albimanus in 16 out of 20 post-treatment samples, or 9 weeks of continuous control of immature stages, respectively. These larvicides resulted in 15 and 5 weeks of elimination of Culex spp., respectively, or 20 and 4 weeks of continuous elimination of U. Iowii, respectively. Bti treatment provided little consistent control. Aquatic insects were recorded comprising 3 orders, 20 families, 40 genera and 44 species. Shannon diversity index values (H') for aquatic insects were highest in the control (0.997) and Bti (0.974) treatments, intermediate in the spinosad treatment (0.638) and lowest in the temephos treatment (0.520). Severely affected non-target insects in the spinosad and temephos treated pools were predatory Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata, which in the case of spinosad was likely due to the high concentration applied. Bti had little effect on aquatic insects.Conclusions: The spinosad treatment retained larvicidal activity for markedly longer than expected. Spinosad is likely to be an effective tool for control of anopheline and other pool-breeding mosquitoes in tropical regions. Non-target effects of spinosad on aquatic insects merit further study, but were likely related to the concentration of the product used.

299) Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Ecological distribution; Surveillance and enforcement; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Abundance; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: We carried out a comprehensive study of the long-term trends in household-level Aedes aegypti spatial distribution within a well-defined urban area endemic for dengue virus. By using a dataset consisting of 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two neighborhoods in Iquitos, Peru, we quantified the similar to 3 year spatial clustering patterns of Ae. aegypti among houses and the temporal persistence of vector abundance hotspots. Our results provide strong support for the conclusion that Ae. aegypti distribution is highly focal and that hotspots of high vector abundance at the level of small groups of houses are common, but temporally unstable. Results from our study have implications for understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of Ae. aegypti abundance and for the design of surveillance and control activities that are based on household-level entomological data.

300) Editorial: The 2014 Ebola outbreak and its significance to New Zealand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hall R., Williamson D.
Assunto: disease surveillance, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (drug therapy, drug therapy, epidemiology), epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New Zealand Public Health Surveillance Report, v. 12, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1176-2888
Resumo:

301) Microhabitat partitioning of Aedes simpsoni (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Walter, Katharine S.; Brown, Julia E.; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Population genetics; Genetics; Microhabitats; Public health; Microenvironments; Vectors; Infection; Habitat; Genetic structure; Aedes simpsoni; Yellow fever virus; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 596-604, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Yellow fever virus is a reemerging infection responsible for widespread, sporadic outbreaks across Africa. Although Aedes aegypti (L.) is the most important vector globally, in East Africa, epidemics may be vectored by Aedes bromeliae (Theobald), a member of the Aedes simpsoni (Theobald) species complex. The Ae. simpsoni complex contains 10 subspecies, of which Ae. bromeliae alone has been incriminated as a vector of yellow fever virus. However, morphological markers cannot distinguish Ae. bromeliae from conspecifics, including the sympatric and non-anthropophilic Aedes lilii (Theobald). Here, we used three sequenced nuclear markers to examine the population structure of Ae. simpsoni complex mosquitoes collected from diverse habitats in Rabai, Kenya. Gene trees consistently show strong support for the existence of two clades in Rabai, with segregation by habitat. Domestic mosquitoes segregate separately from forest-collected mosquitoes, providing evidence of habitat partitioning on a small spatial scale (<5 km). Although speculative, these likely represent what have been described as Ae. bromeliae and Ae. lilii, respectively. The observation of high levels of diversity within Rabai indicates that this species complex may exhibit significant genetic differentiation across East Africa. The genetic structure, ecology, and range of this important disease vector are surprisingly understudied and need to be further characterized.

302) Enhanced Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis and Three Essential Oil Major Constituents to Wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Mosquito; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis; (E)-anethole; (E)-cinnamaldehyde; Eugenol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 804-810, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E)-cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1: 1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations.

303) Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in north Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus
Autor: Ye, Yixin H. ; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; O'Neill, Scott L.; Beebe, Nigel W.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Endemic species; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Midgut; Stochasticity; Evolution; Health risks; Historical account; Outbreaks; Infection; World population; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 90, n. 3, p. 422-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination.

304) Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Coutinho Moraes, Denise Fernandes
Assunto: Culex-pipiens-pallens; Plant essential oils; Leaf essential oil; Chemical-composition; Insecticidal activity; Asarum heterotropoides; Ochlerotatus-togoi; Larvae diptera; Dengue vector; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 2, p. 565-592, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50 < 100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes.

305) Knockdown and repellent effect of permethrin-impregnated army uniform cloth against Aedes aegypti after different cycles of washings
Autor: Sukumaran, D.; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Wasu, Yogesh H.; Pandey, Pratibha; Tyagi, Varun
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Army uniform; Knockdown; Permethrin; Repellent textile
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1739-1747, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Personnel protection is one of the methods for protection from bites of mosquitoes and other arthropod vectors transmitting many dreadful diseases. Insect repellents and other plant products are normally used to ward off mosquitoes. Application of synthetic pyrethroid permethrin on cloth is adopted for repelling arthropod vectors in many countries for military and civil purposes. In the present study, attempt has been made to impregnate permethrin in the army uniform cloth and to evaluate for its knockdown and repellency against unfed female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in laboratory condition. WHO protocols were adopted for impregnation of permethrin on cloth and evaluation for its knockdown and repellency after different cycles of washing. Results showed that 93.33 % of mosquitoes were knocked down within 1 h after the first washing while its efficacy reduced gradually till the fifty-fifth washing. Landing of mosquitoes on the permethrin-treated cloth was found to increase with respect to number of washings as compared to the untreated cloth. Within 24 h, 100 % mortality of all the mosquitoes exposed to permethrin-impregnated cloth was observed. SEM-EDX studies on the texture of untreated cloth and permethrin-treated cloth after different cycles of washing also revealed presence of permethrin on treated cloth.

306) Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Blázquez A.-B., Escribano-Romero E., Merino-Ramos T., Saiz J.-C., Martín-Acebes M.A.
Assunto: autophagy, cellular stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Flavivirus infection, unfolded protein response
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 5, jun. 2014
ISSN: 1664-302X (electronic)
Resumo: The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. © 2014 Blázquez, Escribano-Romero, Merino-Ramos, Saiz and Martín-Acebes.

307) Genomic composition and evolution of Aedes aegypti chromosomes revealed by the analysis of physically mapped supercontigs
Autor: Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Kinney, Nicholas A.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Mao, Chunhong; Tu, Zhijian; Severson, David W.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.
Assunto: Physical mapping; Mosquito; Genome; Chromosome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Biology, v. 12, 2014.
ISSN: 1741-7007
Resumo: Background: An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results: Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions: The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes.

308) 139 Dengue vector control: critical needs and opportunities for helping to control the dengue pandemic
Autor: Beaty, Barry
Assunto: Dengue fever; Disease control; Pandemics; Mosquitoes; Disease prevention; Vaccines; Drug resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - transmission ; Aedes aegypti - vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, v. 65, p. 58, 2014.
ISSN: 1525-4135
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquito control is currently the only option for controlling and preventing epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, current approaches for vector control are not stemming the rising tide of dengue disease throughout the tropical world. In the absence of a vaccine, new and effective approaches are needed to improve vector control. Novel approaches to prevent dengue virus transmission will be described and discussed, including (1) the Casa Segura approach to prevent dengue transmission in the home, (2) development of a new generation of molecular mosquitocides to address the rise of resistance to existing insecticides, and (3) engineering dengue virus resistant mosquitoes. There is a public health imperative to increase the armamentarium for vector control. [PUBLICATIONABSTRACT]

309) Comparative behavioral responses of pyrethroid-susceptible and-resistant Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to citronella and eucalyptus oils
Autor: Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Achee, Nicole L.; Bangs, Michael J.; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Behavior; DEET; Citronella oil; Eucalyptus oil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1182-1191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The objective of this study was to compare the behavioral responses (contact irritancy and noncontact spatial repellency) between susceptible and resistant populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) (= Stegomyia aegypti) to essential oils, citronella, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, extracts, using an excito-repellency test system. N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was used as the standard reference repellent. Mosquitoes included two long-standing insecticide susceptible colonies (U.S. Department of Agriculture and Bora Bora) and two pyrethroid-resistant populations recently obtained from Phetchabun and Kanchanaburi provinces in Thailand. Both DEET and citronella produced a much stronger excitation ("irritancy") and more rapid flight escape response in both pyrethroid-resistant populations compared with the laboratory populations. Noncontact repellency was also greater in the two resistant populations. Eucalyptus oil was found to be the least effective compound tested. Differences in responses between long-established pyrethroid-susceptible colonies and newly established and naturally resistant colonies were clearly demonstrated. These findings also demonstrate the need for further comparisons using natural pyrethroid-susceptible populations for elucidation of factors that might contribute to different patterns of escape behavior.

310) Will people change their vector-control practices in the presence of an imperfect dengue vaccine?
Autor: Boccia, T. M. Q. R.; Burattini, M. N.; Coutinho, F. A. B.; Massad, E.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemiology; Health policy; Infectious disease control; Vaccines; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 142, n. 3, p. 625-633, 2014.
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Human behaviours, which are influenced by social, cultural, economic and political factors, can increase or decrease the risk of dengue infection, depending on the relationship with the insect vector. Because no vaccine is currently available, the spread of dengue can only be curtailed by controlling vector populations (Aedes aegypti and others) and by protecting individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that dengue-affected populations are likely to relax their vector-control habits if a potentially protective vaccine becomes available. The hypothesis was tested using two approaches: a mathematical model designed to describe dengue transmission and an empirical field test in which the local population of an endemic area was interviewed about their vector-control habits given the presence of a theoretical vaccine. The model demonstrated that depending on the level of vector-control reduction, there is a threshold in vaccine efficacy below which it is better not to introduce the vaccine. The interview showed that people who were informed that a very effective vaccine is available would reduce their vector-control habits significantly compared to a group that was informed that the vaccine is not very effective.

311) Determining the spatial autocorrelation of dengue vector populations: influences of mosquito sampling method, covariables, and vector control
Autor: Azil, Aishah H.; Bruce, David; Williams, Craig R.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Breeding; Dengue; Vectors; Maps; Prediction; Containers; Housing; Spatial distribution; Residential areas; Sampling methods; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 39, n. 1, p. 153-163, 2014.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We investigated spatial autocorrelation of female Aedes aegypti L. mosquito abundance from BG-Sentinel trap and sticky ovitrap collections in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia. BG-Sentinel trap collections in 2010 show a significant spatial autocorrelation across the study site and over a smaller spatial extent, while sticky ovitrap collections only indicate a non-significant, weak spatial autocorrelation. The BG-Sentinel trap collections were suitable for spatial interpolation using ordinary kriging and cokriging techniques. The uses of Premise Condition Index and potential breeding container data have helped improve our prediction of vector abundance. Semiovariograms and prediction maps indicate that the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito abundance determined by BG-Sentinel traps extends farther compared to sticky ovitrap collections. Based on our data, fewer BG-Sentinel traps are required to represent vector abundance at a series of houses compared to sticky ovitraps. A lack of spatial structure was observed following vector control treatment in the area. This finding has implications for the design and costs of dengue vector surveillance programs.

312) A rationale to design longer lasting mosquito repellents
Autor: Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo; Conti, Barbara
Assunto: Mosquito repellent; Aedes albopictus; Protection time; Menthone; Human-bait test; DEET
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1813-1820, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito repellents represent a cleaner and safer alternative for population control and reduce the diseases they carry in large areas of the world. Recently, research has been focused on repellents of natural origins, both crude essential oils and their main constituents. We have observed that, although a large number of compounds can be efficiently used as mosquito repellents, their efficacy is never higher than those of commercial products DEET and Icaridin. Reasoning that probably specific and exceptionally active repellents might not exist, we focused our research on products that could provide longer protection times with respect to current commercial formulations while being used at lower concentrations. Based on the structure of menthone, a moderate natural repellent, we designed and synthesised some cyclic ketals that, because of their reduced volatility, could be effective for longer periods. In particular, a 1 % solution of one of such derivatives can still reduce mosquito bites by 90 % after 2 h, while DEET provides the same performance only for 15 min, when used at the same concentration. The approach we illustrate can be applied to other compounds and other systems and offers the additional advantage that derivatives of reduced volatility are also endowed with weaker odours.

313) Challenges encountered using standard vector control measures for dengue in Boa Vista, Brazil
Autor: Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Valle, Denise
Assunto: Biological surveys; Endemic species; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Diflubenzuron; Dengue; Vectors; Larvicides; Deltamethrin; Households; Larvae; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of The World Health Organization, v. 92, n. 9, p. 685-689, 2014.
ISSN: 0042-9686
Resumo: In 2010, dengue virus (DENV) serotype-4 was detected during a dengue outbreak in the Amazonian city of Boa Vista. At that time Brazil was already endemic for DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3. This was the first time DENV-4 was observed in the country after it was initially detected and eliminated in 1981. To hinder the spread of DENV-4 throughout Brazil, standard vector control measures were intensified. Vector control professionals visited 56 837 households in 22 out of 31 districts of Boa Vista, to eliminate mosquito-breeding sites. Water storage containers were treated with the larvicide diflubenzuron, and deltamethrin was sprayed for adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fifteen days later, a second larvae survey and additional deltamethrin applications were performed. In Brazil, dengue vector control is managed at all three government levels. Regular surveillance of Aedes aegypti is done four to six times a year to strengthen mosquito control activities in areas with high-vector density. Educational dengue control campaigns in communities are scarce, especially between outbreaks.

314) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo D., Sall A.A., Diagne C.T., Faye O., Faye O., Ba Y., Hanley K.A., Buenemann M., Weaver S.C., Diallo M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti , Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

315) Co-occurrence of point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar
Autor: Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai ZawMin; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan NaungMaung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru
Assunto: Mutation; Mosquitoes; Malaria; Genetic engineering; Insecticides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The use of pyrethroids with high killing activity has accelerated the development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes. The knockdown resistance (kdr) allele contains a single amino acid substitution in the voltage-gated sodium channel and is one of the main causative factors of pyrethroid resistance in insects. We investigated the distribution of the kdr gene in Aedes aegypti larvae collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. We detected three patterns of co-occurrence of point mutations, namely, V1016G/S989P with wide distribution, and small number of V1016G/F1534C and V1016G/F1534C/S989P, both of which were first found in the field collected Ae. aegypti population. The use of pyrethroids and/or DDT for malaria control is thought to be one of the main causes of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. Insecticide treatment for malaria vector control seems to have been intensively conducted in the interior and along the periphery of human habitation areas, where the breeding and resting sites of Aedes aegypti are located.

316) Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects
Autor: Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Juergen; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Assunto: Essential oils; Contact allergy; Anopheles; Aedes; Mosquitos
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 185-188, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20 % and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1 % to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1 % additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1 % as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

317) Dengue transmission model by means of viremic adult immuno-competent mouse
Autor: Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Konishi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Makino, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Eshita, Yuki
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Mass-infection; Viremia; Immuno-competent mouse
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue virus infection manifests in three distinct forms in humans: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Infection with the virus is a fatal disease; no vaccine is available and prevention depends on interruption of the chain of transmission. The study of dengue viral transmission by mosquitoes is hindered due to the lack of an affordable animal model. In general, immuno-competent mice are used as a simple and inexpensive animal model, but mice are not susceptible to dengue virus infection and therefore viremia will not occur following the inoculation of the virus in such mice. Here, we report a method for creating artificial viremia in immuno-competent mice, and further demonstrate the use of viremic mice to simultaneously infect a large number of Aedes aegypti. Methods: We infected K562 cells with DENV-2 in the presence of an antibody against DENV-4. We then incubated the cells for 2 d before injecting the infected cells into C3H mice. After 5 h incubation, we allowed 100-150 female Aedes aegypti to feed on blood from the mice directly. We collected blood samples from the mice and from randomly selected Ae. aegypti at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-blood meal and screened the samples for DENV-2 genome as well as for virus concentration. Results: Our procedure provided high virus concentrations in the mice for at least 7 h after viral inoculation. We found that 13 out of 14 randomly picked mosquitoes were infected with DENV-2. High concentrations of virus were detected in the mosquitoes until at least 12 h post-infection. Conclusions: Using the viremic immuno-competent mouse, we show that mass infection of Ae. aegypti is achievable. Compared to other infection techniques using direct inoculation, membrane-feeding, or immuno-deficient/humanized mice, we are confident that this method will provide a simpler and more efficient infection technique.

318) Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus, Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, feb. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Methodology/Principal Findings:Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.Conclusions/Significance:We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. © 2014 Grard et al.

319) Dengue vectors, human activity, and dengue virus transmission potential in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, United States
Autor: Vitek, Christopher J.; Gutierrez, Joann A.; Dirrigl, Frank J.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Disease risk; Human behavior
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 5, p. 1019-1028, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Dengue virus is an emerging disease of concern in the Americas. Recent outbreaks in Florida highlight the potential for the virus to return to the United States. The Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas directly borders Mexico, and has experienced dengue transmission in the past concurrent with outbreaks in Mexico along the border region. We examined the potential for dengue virus transmission by examining the vectors in the region, as well as assessing human behavior. We further hypothesized that dengue vector abundance would influence human behavior. Two dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), were found in the region in high abundance. More mosquitoes were collected in rural sites and sites with high vegetation. Of the two species, only Ae. albopictus showed any significant habitat preferences, being more common in rural site. While there was no correlation between human behavior and mosquito abundance, the results support a significant correlation between knowledge of mosquitoes and dengue virus and behavioral practices that might reduce risk of disease transmission. Dengue risk may be higher in certain regions of the Lower Rio Grande Valley based on socioeconomic conditions, specifically in economically poor regions such as the undeveloped colonias found in the region. Because of the proximity of this region to an area with endemic dengue, continued surveillance and risk assessment is suggested.

320) Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Allium macrostemon; Aedes albopictus; Larvicidal activity; Methyl propyl disulfide; Dimethyl trisulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 184, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus.Methods: Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 -150 mu g/ml.Results: The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 mu g/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 mu g/ml and 86.16 mu g/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

321) Distribution of yellow fever vectors in Northwestern and Western Provinces, Zambia
Autor: Masaninga, Freddie; Muleba, Mbanga; Masendu, Hieronymo;Songolo, Peter; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Siziya, Seter; Ayorinde, Olusegun
Assunto: Viral diseases; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Canoes; Disease transmission; Public health; Light traps; Risk factors; Yellow fever; Polymerase chain reaction; Forests; Infection; Culex; Aedes; Anopheles; Mansonia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 7, supl.1, p. 88-92, 2014.
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To determine the distribution of yellow fever (YF) vectors species in Northwestern and Western of Zambia, which sampled mosquitoes inside and outside houses in rural, urban, peri-urban and forest areas. Methods: Back-pack aspirators spray catches and CDC light traps collected adult mosquitoes including 405 Aedes, 518 Anopheles, 471 Culex and 71 Mansonia. Morphological vector identification and PCR viral determination were done at a WHO Regional Reference Centre (Institute Pasteur Dakar), Senegal. Results: The two main YF vectors were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus. The first was collected in peri-urban areas and the later was in forest areas, both sparsely distributed in Northwestern Province, where the 0.43 Breteau and 1.92 container indexes, respectively implied low risk to YF. Aedes (Aedimorphus) mutilus; Aedes (Aedimorphus) minutus and Aedes (Finlaya) wellmani were also found in Northwestern, not in Western Province. No Aedes were collected from rural peri-domestic areas. Significantly more Aedes species (90.7%, n=398) than Anopheles (9.1%, n=40) were collected in forest areas (P<0.001) or Culex species (0.2%, n=2) (P<0.001). Ae. aegypti was found only in a discarded container but not in flower pots, old tyres, plant axils, discarded shallow wells, disused container bottles and canoes inspected. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti and Aedes africanus YF vectors were found in the study sites in the Northwestern Province of Zambia, where densities were low and distribution was sparse. The low Breteau index suggests low risk of YF in the Northwestern Province. The presence of Aedes in Northwestern Province and its absence in the Western Province could be due to differing ecological factors in the sampled areas. Universal coverage of vector control interventions could help to reduce YF vector population and the risk to arthropod-borne virus infections.

322) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections: an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roth; Mercier; Lepers; Hoy; Duituturaga; Benyon; Guillaumot; Souars
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue virus; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic distribution; Infection risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public health; Serotype; Virus infection; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41, p. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: Since January 2012, the Pacific Region has experienced 28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world.

323) Defense response in non-genomic model species: methyl jasmonate exposure reveals the passion fruit leaves' ability to assemble a cocktail of functionally diversified Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors and recruit two of them against papain
Autor: Botelho-Junior, Sylvio; Machado, Olga L. T.; Fernandes, Katia V. S.; Lemos, Francisco J. A.; Perdizio, Viviane A.; Oliveira, Antonia E. A.; Monteiro, Leandro R.; Filho, Mauri L.; Jacinto, Tania
Assunto: Defense response; Jasmonate; Kunitz protease inhibitor; Passion fruit; Recruitment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Planta, v. 240, n. 2, p. 345-356, 2014.
ISSN: 0032-0935
Resumo: Main conclusion: Multiplicity of protease inhibitors induced by predators may increase the understanding of a plant's intelligent behavior toward environmental challenges. Information about defense mechanisms of non-genomic model plant passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in response to predator attack is still limited. Here, via biochemical approaches, we showed its flexibility to build-up a broad repertoire of potent Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in response to methyl jasmonate. Seven inhibitors (20-25 kDa) were purified from exposed leaves by chromatographic techniques. Interestingly, the KTIs possessed truncated Kunitz motif in their N-terminus and some of them also presented non-consensus residues. Gelatin-Native-PAGE established multiple isoforms for each inhibitor. Significant differences regarding inhibitors' activity toward trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed, indicating functional polymorphism. Despite its rarity, two of them also inhibited papain, and such bifunctionality suggests a recruiting process onto another mechanistic class of target protease (cysteine-type). All inhibitors acted strongly on midgut proteases from sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (a lepidopteran insect) while in vivo assays supported their insecticide properties. Moreover, the bifunctional inhibitors displayed activity toward midgut proteases from cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (a coleopteran insect). Unexpectedly, all inhibitors were highly effective against midgut proteases from Aedes aegypti a dipteran insect (vector of neglected tropical diseases) opening new avenues for plant-derived PIs for vector control-oriented research. Our results reflect the KTIs' complexities in passion fruit which could be wisely exploited by influencing plant defense conditions. Therefore, the potential of passion fruit as source of bioactive compounds with diversified biotechnological application was strengthened.

324) Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed lectin in traps for the capture of Aedes aegypti eggs and adults under semi-field conditions
Autor: de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; Paixo, Kelly da Silva; Napoleao, Thiago Henrique; Trindade, Priscila Barbi; Pinto, Mariele Ribeiro; Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Luana Cassandra; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Guedes Paiva, Patricia Maria
Assunto: Lectin; Moringa; Dengue vector; Oviposition; Ovitrap; Semi-field
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1837-1842, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The water-soluble lectin isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds (WSMoL) is a larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-stimulating agent against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. This study investigated the effect of WSMoL in traps for the capture of A. aegypti eggs and adult females under semi-field conditions and determined whether gravid females could detect WSMoL by an olfactory response. WSMoL was isolated according to a previously described procedure using chitin chromatography. The bioassays were performed in large cages (12.5 m(3)). Two traps for collection of eggs (ovitrap) or adult mosquitoes (MosquiTRAP(TM)) were placed in a cage. One was filled with WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL) and the other with tap water (negative control). An infusion of Panicum maximum leaves was used as a positive control. Forty gravid females were then released in each cage. After 2 (for oviposition) or 3 h (for female capture), the traps were removed, and the number of eggs or females was counted. An olfactometry assay was performed to investigate whether the effect of WSMoL on gravid females was linked to an olfactory response. WSMoL showed an oviposition-stimulating effect (65 +/- 14 %) that was similar (p < 0.05) to that promoted by the P. maximum infusion (67 +/- 11 %). The efficiency of MosquiTRAP(TM) in capturing gravid females was not increased by WSMoL. The olfactometry assay indicated that the response of females to WSMoL did not involve the stimulation of olfactory sensilla. WSMoL effectively captured eggs when used in ovitraps under semi-field conditions; this property, together with the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of this lectin, makes it an interesting candidate for A. aegypti control.

325) Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric
Assunto: Hematophagy; Evolution; Saliva; Transgenesis; RNAi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 19, p. 6946-6951, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85-87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78-300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (15-56 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency.

326) Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors
Autor: Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Human diseases; Replication; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Chemical compounds; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Sugar; Mycophenolic acid; Double-stranded RNA; Vectors; Blood meals; Salivary gland; Infection; Longevity; Fecundity; Digestive tract; Insect cells; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; H super(+)-transporting ATPase; Gene silencing; Dengue; Machinery; Arthropods; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 mu M) and MPA (25 mu M) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. Arboviruses utilize homologous host factors of the mammalian and insect cellular machinery to complete the infection cycle. Studies in both mammalian and insect cell lines have shown that virus infection can be suppressed through inhibition of host factors by chemical compounds that therefore could be developed into transmission blocking agents. However, similar studies have not been conducted in adult mosquitoes. Here we investigated the effect of four chemical compounds (bafilomycin, mycophenolic acid, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin), known to inhibit the host factors vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and glucosidases, on dengue virus replication in adult mosquitoes. We found that bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid suppressed dengue virus replication in adult mosquito guts when they were injected prior to dengue virus infection; however, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin did not. Ingestion of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid also inhibited virus replication. We showed that the predicted target genes of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid function as virus host factors in adult mosquitoes through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Inhibition of vATPase also decreases mosquito longevity and fecundity, thereby further compromising vector capacity. Our study demonstrated that chemical compounds or double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) can be used to suppress virus infection through inhibition of host factors in adult mosquitoes, thereby rendering such approaches interesting for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies.

327) Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Pest control; Disease transmission; Public health; Immune system; Vector-borne diseases; Disease control; Survival; Infection; Dengue; Midgut; Immune response; Larvae; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chromobacterium; Plasmodium falciparum; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

328) Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barra Medeiros Barbosa, Patricia Batista; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macdo; Araujo Rabelo, Luciana Maria; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchoa, Adriana Ferreira; de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria de Fatima
Assunto: Larvicide; Pupicide; Adulticide; Ovipositional deterrence activity; Gut homogenate; Enzyme inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 10, p. 3565-3580, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

329) Dual RNA-seq of parasite and host reveals gene expression dynamics during filarial worm-mosquito interactions
Autor: Choi, Young-Jun; Aliota, Matthew T.; Mayhew, George F.; Erickson, Sara M.; Christensen, Bruce M.
Assunto: Parasites; Studies; Mosquitoes; Proteins; Experiments; Infections; Tropical diseases; Competition; Gene expression; Technological change; Nematodes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In a parasitic relationship, both host and parasite genotypes influence the parameters of their relationship. Previous studies examining host-parasite systems have examined the effects of the genotype of the host or the parasite on the relationship, but due to limitations of technology, have rarely examined interactions between the two genotypes. Here, we utilized a dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approach to examine the entirety of the known transcriptomes and their interactions in the dynamic process of filarial worm development in the mosquito. In addition, the unprecedented sequencing depth achieved with this technology allowed us to compare, for the first time, parasite gene expression of larval developmental stages within the intermediate host with those life cycle stages found within the mammalian definitive host. These data provide a strong foundation for understanding how Brugia malayi interacts with its vector's transcriptome temporally during its complex life cycle and also simultaneously provides information on how Aedes aegypti responds to filarial worm infection. These data are extremely valuable for future studies of the underlying mechanisms of this mosquito-filarial worm relationship.

330) Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Vinauger, Clement; Lutz, Eleanor K.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.
Assunto: Olfactory learning; Long-term memory; Appetitive conditioning; Disease vector; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 217, n. 13, p. 2321-2330, 2014
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS - some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in naive mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (beta-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses.

331) Dengue virus infections among haitian and expatriate non-governmental organization workers - leogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012
Autor: Salyer, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Esther M.; Salomon, Corvil; Bron, Christophe; Juin, Stanley; Hemme, Ryan R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Jentes, Emily S.; Magloire, Roc; Tomashek, Kay M.; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Etienne, Lesly; Beltran, Manuela; Sharp, Tyler M.; Moffett, Daphne; Tappero, Jordan; Margolis, Harold S.; Katz, Mark A.
Assunto: Antibodies; Human diseases; Organizations; Endemism; Viral diseases; Pupae; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Workers; Bites; Non-governmental organizations; Dengue; Risk factors; Repellents; Immunoglobulin G; Infection; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Leogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Leogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and caused an estimated 390 million infections and 96 million cases in the tropics and subtropics in 2010. Over the last decade, the number of cases of dengue and the severity of dengue virus infections have increased in the Americas, including the Caribbean, yet little is still known about dengue in Haiti. Following an outbreak of dengue in mostly expatriate NGO workers, the investigators of this study took blood samples from expatriate and Haitian NGO workers living in two cities in Haiti and tested them for evidence of current, recent, and past dengue virus infection. They also investigated the amount and kinds of mosquitoes at homes and work sites. The study found recent infections among some Haitians and expatriates and widespread past infections among all Haitians and most expatriates. It also found that many people were not doing basic things to avoid mosquito bites, like applying mosquito repellent multiple times a day and wearing long sleeves or pants. These findings highlight the likely endemicity of dengue virus in Haiti, and the need to improve knowledge and awareness of dengue prevention among expatriates visiting Haiti and local Haitians.

332) Evaluation of the repellent effects of Nepeta parnassica extract, essential oil, and its major nepetalactone metabolite against mosquitoes
Autor: Gkinis, G.; Michaelakis, A.; Koliopoulos, G.; Ioannou, E.; Tzakou, O.; Roussis, V.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; N,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide deet; Diptera-culicidae; Catnip oil; Components; Albopictus; N,n-diethyl-m-toluamide; Anopheles; Safety; Adult
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 3, p. 1127-1134, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The dichloromethane-methanol extract, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Nepeta parnassica, and the isolated 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone were evaluated for their repellent effect against the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards and Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus Forskal. The chemical analysis of N. parnassica essential oil, dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (87 %), revealed 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone (36.8 %), 1,8-cineole (25.5 %), and 4a alpha, 7 beta, 7a beta-nepetalactone (11.1 %) as the major constituents. The results of the insect bioassays showed that the essential oil and the dichloromethane-methanol extract of N. parnassica were very active against Aedes cretinus for up to 3 h and against Culex pipiens for up to 2 h post application. The isolated 4a alpha, 7 alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone showed very high mosquito repellency for periods of at least 2 h against both species.

333) Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Nanoparticles; Leucas aspera; Plant extracts; AgNPs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1673-1679, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm super(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm super(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C=O group. The band 1,383 developed for C=C and C=N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated, and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC sub(50) values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l) and (LC sub(90) values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l), respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti.

334) Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions
Autor: Santos, Clisiane C. S.; Araujo, Silvan S.; Santos, Andre L. L. M.; Almeida, Elis C. V.; Dias, Antonio S.; Damascena, Nicole P.; Santos, Deisylaine M.; Santos, Matheus I. S.; Junior, Karlos A. L. R.; Pereira, Carla K. B.; Lima, Amanda C. B.; Shan, Andrea Y. K. V.; Sant'ana, Antonio E. G.; Estevam, Charles S.; Araujo, Brancilene S.
Assunto: Artemia salina; Aedes; Biomphalaria; Larvicide; Molluscicide; Schinopsis brasiliensis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, v. 24, n. 3, p. 298-303, 2014
ISSN: 0102-695X
Resumo: Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50 and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina (LC50 > 1000 mu g/ml), while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50 313 mu g/ml); ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 mu g/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 mu g/ml, respectively), while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90 values of 68 and 73 mu g/ml, respectively). Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis. (C) 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

335) Genome-wide SNPs lead to strong signals of geographic structure and relatedness patterns in the major arbovirus vector, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Filipovic, Igor; Weeks, Andrew R.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing; In silico genome digestion; Fastq file demultiplexing; Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms; Mosquito population genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: Genetic markers are widely used to understand the biology and population dynamics of disease vectors, but often markers are limited in the resolution they provide. In particular, the delineation of population structure, fine scale movement and patterns of relatedness are often obscured unless numerous markers are available. To address this issue in the major arbovirus vector, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), we used double digest Restriction-site Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing for the discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We aimed to characterize the new SNP set and to test the resolution against previously described microsatellite markers in detecting broad and fine-scale genetic patterns in Ae. aegypti. Results: We developed bioinformatics tools that support the customization of restriction enzyme-based protocols for SNP discovery. We showed that our approach for RAD library construction achieves unbiased genome representation that reflects true evolutionary processes. In Ae. aegypti samples from three continents we identified more than 18,000 putative SNPs. They were widely distributed across the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes, with 47.9% found in intergenic regions and 17.8% in exons of over 2,300 genes. Pattern of their imputed effects in ORFs and UTRs were consistent with those found in a recent transcriptome study. We demonstrated that individual mosquitoes from Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and Brazil can be assigned with a very high degree of confidence to their region of origin using a large SNP panel. We also showed that familial relatedness of samples from a 0.4 km super(2) area could be confidently established with a subset of SNPs. Conclusions: Using a cost-effective customized RAD sequencing approach supported by our bioinformatics tools, we characterized over 18,000 SNPs in field samples of the dengue fever mosquito Ae. aegypti. The variants were annotated and positioned onto the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes. The new SNP set provided much greater resolution in detecting population structure and estimating fine-scale relatedness than a set of polymorphic microsatellites. RAD-based markers demonstrate great potential to advance our understanding of mosquito population processes, critical for implementing new control measures against this major disease vector.

336) Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes' Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals
Autor: Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, Andre; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson
Assunto: Yellow-fever mosquito; Aedes-aegypti; Rhipicephalus-sanguineus; Anopheles-gambiae; Salivary-gland; Visual-stimuli; Host-seeking; Olfactometer; Attraction; Repellents
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 10, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Background: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable.Principal Findings: By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat.Significance: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

337) QTL mapping of genome regions controlling temephos resistance in larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe del Carmen; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Black, William C.
Assunto: Genomes; Human diseases; Insecticides; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Workers; Quantitative trait loci; Epidemics; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Organophosphates; Gene mapping; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Due to a lack of effective drugs or vaccines, if an epidemic of dengue fever occurs in the near future, the first line of defense will involve the use of insecticides to suppress adult populations of Ae. aegypti. Unfortunately, the species has become resistant to most of the insecticides that can be safely applied. The authors have worked extensively on the mechanisms of resistance to the various insecticides commonly used for suppression of Ae. aegypti populations. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. In this study we show that temephos resistance is under the control of many metabolic genes of small effect and dispersed throughout the Ae. aegypti genome. This information will be of general interest to field workers involved in the suppression of field populations of Ae. aegypti.

338) Examination of the genetic basis for sexual dimorphism in the Aedes aegypti (dengue vector mosquito) pupal brain
Autor: Tomchaney, Michael; Mysore, Keshava; Sun, Longhua; Li, Ping; Emrich, Scott J.; Severson, David W.; Duman-Scheel, Molly
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Mosquito; Vector; Pupae; Brain; Nervous system; Dimorphism; Doublesex; Development; Optic lobe
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biology of Sex Differences, v. 5, n. 10, 2014
ISSN: 2042-6410
Resumo: Background: Most animal species exhibit sexually dimorphic behaviors, many of which are linked to reproduction. A number of these behaviors, including blood feeding in female mosquitoes, contribute to the global spread of vector-borne illnesses. However, knowledge concerning the genetic basis of sexually dimorphic traits is limited in any organism, including mosquitoes, especially with respect to differences in the developing nervous system.Methods: Custom microarrays were used to examine global differences in female vs. male gene expression in the developing pupal head of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The spatial expression patterns of a subset of differentially expressed transcripts were examined in the developing female vs. male pupal brain through in situ hybridization experiments. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown studies were used to assess the putative role of Doublesex, a terminal component of the sex determination pathway, in the regulation of sex-specific gene expression observed in the developing pupal brain.Results: Transcripts (2,527), many of which were linked to proteolysis, the proteasome, metabolism, catabolic, and biosynthetic processes, ion transport, cell growth, and proliferation, were found to be differentially expressed in A. aegypti female vs. male pupal heads. Analysis of the spatial expression patterns for a subset of dimorphically expressed genes in the pupal brain validated the data set and also facilitated the identification of brain regions with dimorphic gene expression. In many cases, dimorphic gene expression localized to the optic lobe. Sex-specific differences in gene expression were also detected in the antennal lobe and mushroom body. siRNA-mediated gene targeting experiments demonstrated that Doublesex, a transcription factor with consensus binding sites located adjacent to many dimorphically expressed transcripts that function in neural development, is required for regulation of sex-specific gene expression in the developing A. aegypti brain.Conclusions: These studies revealed sex-specific gene expression profiles in the developing A. aegypti pupal head and identified Doublesex as a key regulator of sexually dimorphic gene expression during mosquito neural development.

339) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

340) Effect of Moringa oleifera lectins on survival and enzyme activities of Aedes aegypti larvae susceptible and resistant to organophosphate
Autor: Agra-Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Napoleao, Thiago Henrique; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; Luz, Luciana de Andrade; Fontes de Oliveira, Claudia Maria; Varjal de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice; Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Luana Cassandra; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Guedes Paiva, Patricia Maria
Assunto: Myracrodruon - Urundeuva; Insecticidal action; Leaf lectin; Alpha; Extract; Brazil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 175-184, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has led to emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectins WSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A. aegypti organophosphate-susceptible larvae (Rockefeller L-4). This study reports on the effects of cMoL on the survival of Rockefeller L-4 as well as of WSMoL and cMoL on L-4 from an organophosphate-resistant population (Rec-R). The effects of lectins on digestive (amylase, trypsin, and protease) and detoxifying (superoxide dismutase (SOD), alpha- and beta-esterases) enzymes from larvae were also determined. cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) did not kill Rockefeller L-4 as well as WSMoL and cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) were not larvicidal for Rec-R L-4. WSMoL stimulated protease, trypsin-like, and alpha-amylase from Rockefeller L-4 while cMoL inhibited these enzymes. WSMoL had no effect on trypsin-like activity from Rec-R L-4 but inhibited protease and alpha-amylase. Among digestive enzymes of Rec-R L-4, cMoL inhibited only trypsin-like activity. cMoL inhibited SOD activities from Rockefeller and Rec-R L-4 in a higher level than WSMoL while beta-esterase from Rockefeller L-4 was more inhibited by WSMoL. The lectins promoted low stimulation or inhibition of alpha-esterase activities from both populations. In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-R larvae were distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L-4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes. cMoL interfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as a synergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to an increased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme.

341) Dengue in Florida (USA)
Autor: Rey, Jorge R
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Dengue; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insects, v. 5, n. 4, p. 991-1000, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Florida (USA), particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases), and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

342) Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand
Autor: Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P.; Bangs, Michael J.; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: Behavior; Excito-repellency; Aedes aegypti; Plant extracts; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 39, n. 1, p. 112-122, 2014
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P<0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance.

343) Design and testing of a novel, protective human-baited tent trap for the collection of anthropophilic disease vectors
Autor: Krajacich, Benjamin J.; Slade, Jeremiah R.; Mulligan, Robert T.; Labrecque, Brendan; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Gray, Meg; Kuklinski, Wojtek S.; Burton, Timothy A.; Seaman, Jonathan A.; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Vector; Trap; Tent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 253-263, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Currently, there exists a deficit of safe, active trapping methods for the collection of host-seeking Anopheles and other disease-causing arthropod vectors. The gold-standard approach for mosquito collection is that of human landing catch (HLC), in which an individual exposes bare skin to possibly infected vectors. Here, we present the development of a new method for mosquito collection, the Infoscitex tent, which uses modern tent materials coupled with a novel trap design. This provides an efficacious, a non-labor-intensive, and a safe method for vector collection. In these initial studies, we found it collected an average of 27.7 Anopheles gambiae s.l. per trap per night in rural villages in southeastern Senegal, and 43.8 Culex group V per trap per night in the semiurban town of Kedougou, Senegal. In direct comparisons with HLC, the tent was not statistically different for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in crepuscular sampling, but was significantly less efficacious at trapping the highly motile dusk-biter Aedes aegypti. These studies suggest that the Infoscitex tent is a viable and safe alternative to HLC for Anopheles and Culex sampling in areas of high vector-borne disease infection risk.

344) Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nilles E.J., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, virus infection, zika virus, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 20, n. 10, p. O595-O596, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo:

345) Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C.; Thirugnanasambantham, K.; Praba, V.; Ahangar, Niyaz; Balagangadharan, K.
Assunto: Growth; Nucleotide sequence; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Lymphocytes B; Control programs; Filariasis; Vectors; Biomass; Toxins; Soil; Homology; Marine environment; Pesticides; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Bacillus cereus; Bacillus sphaericus; Bacillus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 323-332, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely aCry4Aaa. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

346) Advances in Research of Odorant Receptor Proteins of Mosquitoes
Autor: Dai Yu-Hua; Zhao Zhong-Yi; Cheng Peng; Liu Li-Juan; Gong Mao-Qing
Assunto: Fun?Æo da expressÆo; Repelente - Receptor olfativo
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Jishengchong Yu Yixue Kunchong Xuebao, v. 21, n. 1, p. 59-64, 2014
ISSN: 1005-0507
Resumo: Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever. In mosquitoes, the olfactory system plays a crucial role in many types of behavior, including nectar feeding, host preference selection and oviposition. Odorant receptors ( ORs) are comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. They are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ORs have been identified in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. This review enclosed the lately research progress of ORs, including the characteristics of structure, expression regulation and physiological function. Moreover, a highly conserved, broadly expressed olfactory receptor Or83b were summarized in the article. The relationship between OR with the development of mosquito repellents was also involved in the present paper.

347) Biological control of mosquitoes on scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Autor: Uejio, Christopher K.; Hayden, Mary H.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H.
Assunto: Biological control; Human diseases; Pest control; Public health; Dengue; Vegetation; Vectors; Disease transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 30, n. 2, p. 130-135, 2014.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or an adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus-treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

348) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): evaluation of natural long-lasting materials containing pyriproxyfen to improve control strategies
Autor: Seccacini, Emilia; Juan, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana
Assunto: Aedes aegypti;ÿPyriproxyfen;ÿLarvicides;ÿNatural materials;ÿSlow release formulations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 9, p. 3355-3360, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Natural materials such as beeswax or a paraffin/stearin mixture containing pyriproxyfen and used as a slow release formulation may convert any breeding place into a larvicidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti (L.) control. Effectiveness and residual activity of beeswax and paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing from 10(-5) to 10(-1) % pyriproxyfen and sticked at the bottom of plastic jars were evaluated for adult emergence inhibition (EI) on late 3rd or early 4th instar A. aegypti larvae. At the initial time t = 0, the EI was 100 % for vessels containing beeswax or paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing up to 10(-4) % pyriproxyfen. For the lowest pyriproxyfen concentration of 10(-5) %, paraffin/stearin mixture gave a higher EI% value than beeswax (100 and 50 %, respectively). Jars were kept at room temperature, and water was totally replaced every 15 days. Bioassays for residual activity repeated monthly showed that at 30 days and for pyriproxyfen 10(-5) % and both matrices, the EI values were low and comparable to control values. For pyriproxyfen 10(-4) %, EI remained above 95 % for at least 90 days and around 75 % up to 180 days. The EI values are always higher for paraffin/stearin mixture than for beeswax. For all other higher concentrations, 100 % EI was obtained at least during 300 days. In a semi-field trial, paraffin/stearin/sand O-rings (2:1:2), containing pyriproxyfen 1 %, were sunken in 200-l water-storage tanks and held outdoors in a shadow place. After 72 h, a 250-ml aliquot was taken (t = 0) obtaining 100 % EI. Water level was completed to 200 l every 15 days and bioassays repeated monthly as before. Residual activity remains with 100 % EI at least for 6 months.

349) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Banu, A.; Balasubramanian, C.; Moorthi, P.
Assunto: Biological control; Particle size; Scanning electron microscopy; Vectors; Spectroscopy; Dengue; Nanoparticles; Silver; Larvicides; Biosynthesis; Microscopy; Spectrophotometers; Aedes egypti; Bacillus thuringiensis; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, p. 311-316, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UVavisible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

350) Extraction of flavonoids from Tagetes patula: process optimization and screening for biological activity
Autor: Munhoz, Vanessa M.; Longhini, Renata; Souza, Jose R. P.; Zequi, Joao A. C.; Leite Mello, Eneri V. S.; Lopes, Gisely C.; Mello, Joao C. P.
Assunto: Tagetes Patula L.; Flavonoids; Statistical Mixture Design; Simplex-Centroid; Larvicidal Activity; Aedes Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, v. 24, n. 5, p. 576-583, 2014
ISSN: 0102-695X
Resumo: The flowers of Tagetes patula L., Asteraceae, commonly known as French marigold, are used in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic, blood purifier and insect repellent. This study was conducted to optimize the extraction process through the biomonitoring of flavonoids, using a statistical mixture simplex-centroid design, to evaluate the effect of the solvents water, ethanol and acetone, as well as mixtures of these solvents, assessed by the total flavonoid content. The extracts were tested for dry residue, radical scavenging activity, chromatographic profile, and larvicidal activity. The acetone extract had the highest total flavonoid content, 25.13 +/- 1.02% (4.07%); and the best radical scavenging activity, with IC50 of 15.74 mu g/ml +/- 1.09 (6.92%), but with lower dry residue, 6.62 +/- 1.33% (20.10%). The water extracts showed higher levels of dry residue, but lower total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity than the acetone extract. The positive correlation between the total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the extracts showed that flavonoids contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity. The statistical mixture design allowed us to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from flowers of T. patula, with acetone as the best extraction solvent. Preliminary studies on the biological activity of the optimized extracts demonstrated a larvicidal effect of the acetone extract on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (C) 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

351) Determinants of heterogeneous blood feeding patterns by Aedes aegypti in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: Liebman, Kelly A.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Perkins, TAlex; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Blood; Fingerprinting; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; DNA fingerprinting; Mathematical models; Biting; Control programs; Vectors; Blood meals; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: We studied the biting habits of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue virus, to determine why certain people are bitten more often by this day-active mosquito. Over one year in dengue-endemic Iquitos, Peru, we collected blood fed mosquitoes from 19 households. Mosquito blood meals were then matched to household residents using genetic fingerprinting. We found that within a household, larger individuals and those spending more time in the home were bitten more often than other household residents. Importantly, our results show that one's probability of being bitten is dependent on the characteristics of other household residents and visitors. These results indicate that measurable characteristics of individuals do predict who is most exposed to mosquito-borne pathogens, which contributes to our understanding of pathogen transmission processes, informs development of mathematical disease models, and can enhance the design of targeted control programs.

352) FATIGUE FROM MULTIPLE HOST-SEEKING ACTIVITY OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND ITS EFFECTS ON BLOODFEEDING BEHAVIOR AND DEET REPELLENCY
Autor: Xue, Rui-De; Debboun, Mustapha
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Repellent; Deet; Host-Seeking; Bloodfeeding Behavior
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 30, n. 2, p. 116-118, 2014
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: A decrease in host-seeking activity in female Aedes albopictus was observed after exposure to a human hand tested in an olfactometer in the laboratory. The increased treatment times resulted in a decreasing response to a human hand. Fatigued/exhausted female mosquitoes after multiple host-seeking activities did prolong the blood engorgement time, compared with untreated nonfatigued mosquitoes. Also, fatigued mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in human host attacking rates. The mean duration of protection from mosquito bites of human hand treated with 25% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was higher in fatigued than unfatigued mosquitoes.

353) Characterization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dengue vector population established in urban areas of Fernando de Noronha, a Brazilian oceanic island
Autor: Regis, Leda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, Jose Constantino, Jr.; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de; Cunha, Mercia Cristiane Santana da; Souza, Fatima; Batista, Carlos Alberto Vieira; Barbosa, Rosangela Maria Rodrigues; Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes de; Ayres, Constancia Flavia Junqueira; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Souza, Wayner Vieira
Assunto: Dengue vector; Mosquito surveillance; Aedes monitoring system; GIS; Ovitrap; Bti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 137, p. 80-87, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Aedes aegypti has played a major role in the dramatic expansion of dengue worldwide. The failure of control programs in reducing the rhythm of global dengue expansion through vector control suggests the need for studies to support more appropriated control strategies. We report here the results of a longitudinal study on Ae. aegypti population dynamics through continuous egg sampling aiming to characterize the infestation of urban areas of a Brazilian oceanic island, Fernando de Noronha. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dengue vector population in urban areas of the island was described using a monitoring system (SMCP-Aedes) based on a 103-trap network for Aedes egg sampling, using GIS and spatial statistics analysis tools. Mean egg densities were estimated over a 29-month period starting in 2011 and producing monthly maps of mosquito abundance. The system detected continuous Ae. aegypti oviposition in most traps. The high global positive ovitrap index (POI = 83.7% of 2815 events) indicated the frequent presence of blood-fed-egg laying females at every sampling station. Egg density (eggs/ovitrap/month) reached peak values of 297.3 (0 - 2020) in May and 295 (0 - 2140) in August 2012. The presence of a stable Ae. aegypti population established throughout the inhabited areas of the island was demonstrated. A strong association between egg abundance and rainfall with a 2-month lag was observed, which combined with a first-order autocorrelation observed in the series of egg counts can provide an important forecasting tool. This first description of the characteristics of the island infestation by the dengue vector provides baseline information to analyze relationships between the spatial distribution of the vector and dengue cases, and to the development of integrated vector control strategies.

354) Feeding Host Range of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Demonstrates Its Opportunistic Host-Seeking Behavior in Rural Singapore
Autor: Kek, Relus; Hapuarachchi, H. C.; Chung, Chiew-Yuan; Bin Humaidi, Mahathir; Razak, Muhammad Aliff B. A.; Chiang, Suzanna; Lee, Caleb; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Ng, Lee-Ching
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Host-Seeking; Bloodmeal; Polymerase Chain Reaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 880-884, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a competent vector of arboviruses of public health importance, including dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus viruses. Ae. albopictus is the primary vector of chikungunya virus in Singapore. However, despite being ubiquitous, it plays a secondary role in DENV transmission. The vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus for DENV in field settings appears to be weak because dengue primarily occurs in Aedes aegypti (L.)-dominated, urban settings of the country. As host-seeking behavior is one of the determinants of vectorial capacity, we screened 6,762 female Ae. albopictus from rural, semiurban, and urban locations in Singapore for avian and nonavian bloodmeals using two polymerase chain reaction-sequencing assays developed in-house. The majority (83.2%, n = 79) of bloodmeals from rural and semiurban areas were from humans. However, Ae. albopictus was also found to feed on shrews, swine, dogs, cats, turtles, and multiple hosts in rural settings. In urban areas, all positive bloodmeals were from humans. There were no avian bloodmeals. Our findings testify that Ae. albopictus is highly anthropophagic even in rural settings, but become opportunistic in extremely low human abundance. This opportunistic feeding behavior warrants further investigations into the vectorial capacity of Ae. albopictus to assess its role in arbovirus transmission in endemic habitats.

355) Next generation sequencing reveals regulation of distinct Aedes microRNAs during chikungunya virus development
Autor: Shrinet, Jatin; Jain, Shanu; Jain, Jaspreet; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Sunil, Sujatha
Assunto: Sexual maturity; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Public health; Disease transmission; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Small, non-coding, RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNA) of length 18-24 nucleotide are reported in wide range of organisms and known to play a determinative role in regulation of various cellular processes. They have also reported to have regulatory roles during pathogen infection, maturation and transmission. Chikungunya virus is an important alphavirus transmitted through two important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. While Ae. aegypti has been the preferred vector for transmission of this virus, recently, Ae. albopictus has gained notoriety for disease transmission. Using Illumina platform, we sequenced the small RNA population an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with chikungunya virus. We studied the expression modulation of miRNAs upon CHIKV infection and found distinct set of miRNAs regulated in Aedes upon CHIKV infection. We further predicted the targets of these miRNAs and performed pathway analysis of these targets. The cellular functional targets of some of these miRNAs overlapped suggesting aggressive participation of the targeted pathways in establishing CHIKV infection.

356) Evidence of perinatal transmission of zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Besnard M., Lastère S., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Musso D.
Assunto: perinatal infection, virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology), virus transmission, zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 13, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: A Zika virus (ZIKAV) outbreak started in October 2013 in French Polynesia, South Pacific. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of two mothers and their newborns who had ZIKAV infection as confirmed by ZIKAV RT-PCR performed on serum collected within four days post-delivery in date. The infants' infection most probably occurred by transplacental transmission or during delivery. Attention should be paid to ZIKAV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, as data on the impact on them are limited.

357) Bio-efficacy potential of seaweed Gracilaria firma with copepod, Megacyclops formosanus for the control larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Lin, Show-Mei; Tseng, Li-Chun; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Gracilaria firma; Seaweed; Copepod; Mosquito control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Hydrobiologia, v. 741, n. 1, p. 113-123, 2014.
ISSN: 0018-8158
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the most critical group of insects in the context of public health, because they transmit numerous diseases, causing millions of deaths annually. The frequent use of systemic insecticides to manage insect pests leads to the destabilization of ecosystems and enhanced resistance to insecticides by pests, suggesting a clear need for alternatives. Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites, and cyclopoid copepods are prominent predators in many aquatic ecosystems and have been used as biological agents in successful programs to control mosquito larvae. In this study, we determine the effectiveness of the Taiwanese seaweed Gracilaria firma and different solvent extracts combined with the copepod Megacyclops formosanus for controlling Aedes aegypti. A significant larvicidal potential was recorded after seaweed extract treatment against the dengue vector A. aegypti. Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure in laboratory. All extracts exhibited larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was observed in the methanol extract of G. firma against A. aegypti larvae (LC sub(50) = 0.251%). The methanol extract of G. firma was more effective than the other extracts and is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control larvae of the dengue vector A. aegypti.

358) Mosquito larvicidal and silver nanoparticles synthesis potential of plant latex
Autor: Borase, H. P.; Patil, C. D.; Salunkhe, R. B.; Narkhede, C. P.; Suryawanshi, R. K.; Salunke, B. K.; Patil, S. V.
Assunto: Plant latex; Mosquito biolarvicidal; Silver nanoparticles; Anopheles stephensi; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, v. 46, n. 2, p. 59-65, 2014
ISSN: 2038-324X
Resumo: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the latex of the medicinally important plants Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa and Jatropha curcas. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential analysis. Potency of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The lowest lethal concentration 50 (LC50) value among the different types of plant latex studied was observed for latex of E. milii (281.28ñ23.30 and 178.97ñ37.82 ppm, respectively) against 2nd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. E. milii latex-synthesised AgNPs showed a high reduction in LC50 compared with its latex; i.e., 8.76ñ0.46 and 8.67ñ0.47 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. LC50 values of AgNPs synthesized using the latex of E. hirta, F. racemosa and J. curcas were lower than those of the latex of the respective plants; i.e., 10.77ñ0.53, 9.81ñ0.52, 12.06ñ0.60 and 8.79ñ0.51, 9.83ñ0.52, 9.60ñ0.51 ppm, respectively, for 2nd instars of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. Similarly, as compared with the plant latex, lower LC50 values were reported for latex-synthesized AgNPs against 4th instars of Ae. aegypt and An. stephensi. Results showed that all the types of plant latex investigated have the potential to convert silver nitrate into AgNPs showing a spectrum of potent mosquito larvicidal effects, indicating the possibility of further exploration of the bioefficacy of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs against vectors of public health concerns.

359) Geometric morphometrics of nine field isolates of Aedes aegypti with different resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and relative fitness of one artificially selected for resistance
Autor: Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodriguez, Duverney
Assunto: Aquaculture economics; Insecticides; Wings; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Control resistance; Public health; Fitness; Fecundity; Control programs; Founder effect; Survival; Reversion; Vectors; Infection; Evolution; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available.

360) Using garp to predict the range of Aedes aegypti in China
Autor: Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hengduan; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Xiaolong;Wang, Guolong; He, Zhihong; Yu, Changhui; Zhao, Tongyan
Assunto: Biological surveys; Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Data processing; Dengue; Tires; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 2, p. 290-928, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are common mosquito-borne diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, and are mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The international trade of used tires, coupled with its anthropophilic habit, has enabled Ae. aegypti to colonise new areas in China. The authors used Genetic Algorithum Rule-Set Production (GARP) to predict the putative current distribution of Ae. aegypti based on data on its distribution 20 years ago and compared this predicted distribution with the known current distribution. The putative distribution corresponded perfectly to the existing distribution. They conclude that GARP is a valid method to predict the putative future distribution of Ae. aegypti, and therefore is an important tool for the surveillance of mosquito-borne diseases in general.

361) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Quantitative distribution; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Risk factors; Reproduction; Evolution; Sensitivity; Mitigation; Sensitivity analysis; Invasions; Risk taking; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease.

362) Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae
Autor: Patil, Chandrashekhar D.; Borase, Hemant P.; Salunkhe, Rahul B.; Suryawanshi, Rahul K.; Narkhade, Chandrakant P.; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Patil, Satish V.
Assunto: Cotton; Leaves extract; Mosquito; Toxicity; A. aegypt
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 91-101, 2014
ISSN: 2322-1984
Resumo: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73 +/- 21.49, 241.64 +/- 19.92, 358.07 +/- 32.43, 401.03 +/- 36.19 and 232.56 +/- 26.00, 298.54 +/- 21.78, 366.50 +/- 30.59, 387.19 +/- 31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95 +/- 12.79, 167.65 +/- 11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48 +/- 11.76, 188.10 +/- 12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72 +/- 25.84, 138.23 +/- 23.18, 126.19 +/- 25.65, 134.04 +/- 04 and 137.88 +/- 17.59, 154.25 +/- 16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

363) Gravid females of the mosquito Aedes aegypti avoid oviposition on m-cresol in the presence of the deterrent isomer p-cresol
Autor: Afify, Ali; Galizia, C. Giovanni
Assunto: Parasites; Hosts; Females; Spawning; Aquatic insects; Oviposition; Cages; Disease transmission; p-Cresol; Deterrents; Sensilla; Vectors; Odor; Stimulants; Eggs; Isomers; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and its isomer m-cresol (3-methylphenol) have been shown to activate the same sensilla in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes. Whereas p-cresol has been suggested to play a role in oviposition site choice, the behavioral significance of m-cresol is unknown. Methods: Here, we assayed the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti towards p-cresol and m-cresol using cage assay. Specifically we tested different concentrations of p-cresol (10 super(-12)-10 super(3) ppm) and m-cresol (10 super(-1)-10 super(3) ppm), the 1:1 mixture of the two compounds at 10 super(2) ppm, and the two individual compounds at 10 super(2) ppm together in the same cage. Results: We show that (1) p-cresol is a stimulant at a low concentration and deterrent over a broad range of higher concentrations (10 super(-8)-10 super(3) ppm), while m-cresol was behaviorally ineffective, except for a deterrent effect at the highest concentration (10 super(3) ppm) (2) in concentration choice tests (different concentrations tested against each other), both compounds were deterrent only at the highest concentration (3) a 1:1 mixture of both compounds exhibited a deterrent effect on oviposition (4) when presented in separate cups but together in the same cage, p-cresol and m-cresol (10 super(2) ppm) both received significantly less eggs than water alone. Conclusions: Our results suggest that p-cresol is a strong oviposition deterrent with a stimulant effect at only a very low concentration, while m-cresol is not a deterrent per se. However, in the presence of p-cresol in the vicinity, m-cresol acts as a deterrent. This finding adds a new twist to the possible interactions of different odors in oviposition site choice: not only the source itself, but nearby odors also influence a mosquito's choice.

364) Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan
Assunto: AgNPs; Larvicidal activity; Heliotropium indicum; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 6, p. 2363-2373, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 mu g/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mu g/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 mu g/mL; LC90, 121.07 mu g/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 mu g/mL; LC90, 126.86 mu g/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 mu g/mL; LC90, 134.39 mu g/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 mu g/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 mu g/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 mu g/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

365) Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Bissinger, B. W.; Schmidt, J. P.; Owens, J. J.; Mitchell, S. M.; Kennedy, M. K.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Anopheles quadrimaculatus; DEET; Essential oil; Geraniol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 2, p. 392-399, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L.). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedesalbopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products.

366) Neurological manifestations of dengue infection: A review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Verma, Rajesh; Sahu, Ritesh; Holla, Vikram
Assunto: Symptoms; Endemic species; Literature reviews; Aquatic insects; Aetiology; Public health; Serotypes; Neurological complications; Infection; Encephalitis; Disease transmission; Myositis; Differential diagnosis; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Dengue; Peripheral nervous system; Myelitis; Encephalopathy; Neuropathy; Complications; Reviews; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Transmission
Fonte: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, v. 346, n. 1-2, p. 26-34, 2014
ISSN: 0022-510X
Resumo: Dengue is a common arboviral infection in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and caused by infection with one of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Neurologic manifestations are increasingly recognised but the exact incidence is unknown. Dengue infection has a wide spectrum of neurological complications such as encephalitis, myositis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and mononeuropathies. Encephalopathy is the most common reported complication. In endemic regions, dengue infection should be considered as one of the aetiologies of encephalitis. Even for other neurological syndromes like myelitis, myositis, GBS etc., dengue infection should be kept in differential diagnosis and should be ruled out especially so in endemic countries during dengue outbreaks and in cases where the aetiology is uncertain. A high degree of suspicion in endemic areas can help in picking up more cases thereby helping in understanding the true extent of neurological complications in dengue fever. Also knowledge regarding the various neurological complications helps in looking for the warning signs and early diagnosis thereby improving patient outcome.

367) Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of dengue viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Wanja, Elizabeth; Parker, Zahra F.; Odusami, Oluwakemi; Rowland, Tobin; Dave, Kirti; Dave, Sonia; Turell, Michael J.
Assunto: Antigens; Disease detection; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Risk groups; Vectors; Rift Valley fever; Rift valleys; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 220-225, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: There is a threat for dengue virus (DENV) reemergence in many regions of the world, particularly in areas where the DENV vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), are readily available. However, there are currently no accurate and reliable diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of DENV within the vector populations to implement appropriate vector control and personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect DENV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes infected with any of the four viral serotypes. The DENV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, and provided clear results within 30 min. It was highly specific and did not cross-react with samples spiked with West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, Ross River, LaCrosse, or Caraparu viruses. The DENV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of DENV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.

368) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ioos S., Mallet H.-P., Leparc Goffart I., Gauthier V., Cardoso T., Herida M.
Assunto: epidemic, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, v. 44, n. 7, p. 302-307, jul. 2014
ISSN: 1769-6690 (electronic),0399-077X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (Aedes), similar to other arboviruses, first identified in Uganda in 1947. Few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika outbreak occurred in Yap, Micronesia, even though ZIKV activity had been reported in Africa and in Asia through virological surveillance and entomological studies. French Polynesia has recorded a large outbreak since October 2013. A great number of cases and some with neurological and autoimmune complications have been reported in a context of concurrent circulation of dengue viruses. The clinical presentation is a "dengue-like syndrome". Until the epidemic in French Polynesia, no severe ZIKV disease had been described so far. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral genome detection by genomic amplification (RT- PCR) and viral isolation. These two large outbreaks occurred in a previously unaffected area in less than a decade. They should raise awareness as to the potential for ZIKV to spread especially since this emergent disease is not well known and that some questions remain on potential reservoirs and transmission modes as well as on clinical presentations and complications. ZIKV has the potential to spread to new areas where the Aedes mosquito vector is present and could be a risk for Southern Europe. Strategies for the prevention and control of ZIKV disease should include the use of insect repellent and mosquito vector eradication. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

369) Influence of time of assay on behavioral responses of laboratory and field populations Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: culicidae) to DEET
Autor: Tainchum, Krajana; Ritthison, Wanapa; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Tanasilchayakul, Somchai; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, Michael J.; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Assunto: Repellents; Avoidance reactions; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Public health; Agriculture; Daytime; Escape behavior; DEET; Nighttime; Circadian rhythms; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1227-1236, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Knowledge on test conditions that may influence behavioral responses of mosquitoes is critical when excito-repellency tests are conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of test time differences on normal circadian activity and behavioral responses of field and colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) ( = Stegomyia aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to DEET, one of the most common synthetic repellent active ingredients available. Two field populations of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus from Kanchanaburi and Nonthaburi provinces, respectively, and two long-standing laboratory populations, Ae. aegypti obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Cx. quinquefasciatus from the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, were used. Each population was exposed to DEET during two different periods of time (0900-1500 hours) and (2100-0300 hours). Both field and laboratory Cx. quinquefasciatus showed marked differences in spatial repellent escape responses between day and nighttime periods but none in direct contact tests. No significant differences between day and nighttime testing periods were observed with field or laboratory Ae. aegypti, except a higher daytime escape response from noncontact DEET treatment. This study indicates that test time may influence the behavioral avoidance responses and is a potential confounder of excitorepellency evaluations.

370) Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; West nile virus; Langerhans cell migration; Borne Encephalitis virus; Aedes aegypti; Heparan sulfate; Immune response; Arbovirus transmission; Infection; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 1, p. 164-175, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

371) Chemical composition and bioactivity studies of Alpinia nigra essential oils
Autor: Ghosh, Sudipta; Ozek, Temel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas;Rehman, Junaid; Khan, Ikhlas; Rangan, Latha
Assunto: Antibacterial activity; Biting deterrent activity; DPPH assay; Essential oil; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Industrial Crops and Products, v. 53, p. 111-119, 2014.
ISSN: 0926-6690
Resumo: Free radical scavenging, bactericidal and bitting deterrent properties of Alpinia nigra essential oils (EOs) were investigated in the present study. Chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed using GC-MS/GC-FID which revealed the presence of 63 constituents including beta -caryophyllene as major component. All the EOs were found to possess notable antioxidant activities as determined using methods for scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Rhizome essential oil (REO) exhibited best effective free radical scavenging activities among other EOs compared to the standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxyl toluene. The efficacy of A. nigra EOs was tested against three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria. Flow cytometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the bacterial cell membrane damage and disintegration when they are treated with REO. Further, all EOs showed weak biting deterrent and larvicidal activity against the blood-feeding female adults and 1 day old Aedes aegypti larvae except flower essential oil which was inactive at 125 ppm. Current investigation highlights the detailed chemical composition and bioactive potential of A. nigra EOs for the first time.

372) Use of the CDC autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Veronica; Caban, Belkis; Felix, Gilberto; Mackay, Andrew J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector control; Mosquito trap; Dengue; Outbreak
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 145-154, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. Direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticideimpregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. The fertility of Ae. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal oviposition cups that prevent the development of mosquitoes inside the trap by mechanical means or larvicides, as well as by releasing sterile, transgenic, and para-transgenic mosquitoes. Survival and fertility can be simultaneously reduced by capturing gravid female Ae. aegypti with sticky gravid traps. We tested the effectiveness of the novel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) to control natural populations of Ae. aegypti under field conditions in two isolated urban areas (reference vs. intervention areas) in southern Puerto Rico for 1 yr. There were significant reductions in the captures of female Ae. aegypti (53-70%) in the intervention area. The presence of three to four AGO control traps per home in 81% of the houses prevented outbreaks of Ae. aegypti , which would be expected after rains. Mosquito captures in BG-Sentinel and AGO traps were significantly and positively correlated, showing that AGO traps are useful and inexpensive mosquito surveillance devices. The use of AGO traps to manage Ae. aegypti populations is compatible with other control means such as source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, sterile insect techniques, induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, and dominant lethal gene systems.

373) CPB1 of Aedes aegypti interacts with DENV2 E protein and regulates intracellular viral accumulation and release from midgut cells
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; R. M. T., Vinod; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Carboxypeptidase; Yeast two-hybrid dengue virus; Yeast two-hybrid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5028-5046, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network.

374) Mosquitocidal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: Dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant
Autor: Geetha, I.; Aruna, R.; Manonmani, A. M.
Assunto: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Biosurfactant; Lipopeptide; Mosquitocidal; Pupicidal; Surface tension
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 140, n. , p. 427-434, 2014
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Background & objectives: A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. The present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium.Methods: Dynamics of growth, sporulation and production of mosquitocidal biosurfactant were studied by standard microbiological methods. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant was precipitated from the culture supernatant and bioassayed against immature stages of mosquito vectors to determine lethal dose and lethal time. The activity, biological and biochemical properties of the biosurfactant have also been studied.Results: The pupal stages of mosquitoes were found to be more vulnerable to the biosurfactant produced by this bacterium with Anopheles stephensi being the most vulnerable species. The median lethal time (LT50) was found to be 1.23 h when the pupal stages of the above species were exposed to lethal concentration LC90 (9 g/ml) dosage of the biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was found to increase with incubation time and maximum biomass, maximum quantity of biosurfactant (7.9 mg/ml), maximum biosurfactant activity (6 kBS unit/mg) and maximum mosquitocidal activity (5 mu g/ml) were attained by 72 h of growth. The lipopeptide nature of the biosurfactant was confirmed by beta-haemolysis, lipase activity, biofilm forming capacity, thermostability and biochemical analysis.Interpretation & conclusions: The mosquitocidal biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) may be a prospective alternative molecule for use in mosquito control programmes involving bacterial biopesticides.

375) Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia
Autor: Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Assunto: Biological control; Human diseases; Replication; Pest control; Cosmopolite species; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Head; Dengue; Blood meals; Tropical environments; Cosmopolitan species; Insects; Feeds; World population; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Almost half of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics. The virus is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a cosmopolitan species that has proved difficult to control using traditional methods. A new biocontrol strategy has been developed involving the release of mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria. Mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia show dramatically reduced replication and transmission of dengue virus in laboratory trials. Although promising, the utility of Wolbachia biocontrol depends on field wMel-infected mosquitoes retaining the phenotype of reduced viral replication. Mosquitoes with wMel were released in the field in Cairns, Australia in early 2011. We provide evidence that, one year later, field collected wMel mosquitoes showed reduced dengue virus replication in the body and limited dissemination to the head compared to controls. Wolbachia numbers in mosquitoes increased following blood meals, which may further decrease viral replication if the insects feed frequently. Our results indicate that Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference is sustained in field populations and shows no sign of attenuation after one year of deployment.

376) Vector competence of selected mosquito species in Kenya for Ngari and Bunyamwera viruses
Autor: Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Chepkorir, Edith; Mbaika, Sophia; Lutomiah, Joel; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary
Assunto: Specificity; Interspecific relationships; Viruses; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Disseminated infection; Vectors; Midgut; Side effects; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Bunyamwera virus; Ngari virus; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1248-1253, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses have been isolated from a range of mosquito species in Kenya but their actual role in the maintenance and transmission of these viruses in nature remains unclear. Identification of the mosquito species efficient in transmitting these viruses is critical for estimating the risk of human exposure and understanding the transmission and maintenance mechanism. We determined the vector competence of, Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles gambiae Giles for transmission ofBunyamweraand Ngari viruses. Ae. aegypti was moderately susceptible to Bunyamwera virus infection at days 7 and 14. Over 60% of Ae. aegypti with a midgut infection developed a disseminated infection at both time points. Approximately 20% more mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection at day 14 compared with day 7. However, while Ae. aegypti was incompetent for Ngari virus, An. gambiae was moderately susceptible to both viruses with dissemination rates more than double by day 14. Cx. quinquefasciatus was refractory to both Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses. Our results underscore the need to continually monitor emergent arboviral genotypes circulating within particular regions as well as vectors mediating these transmissions to preempt and prevent their adverse effects. The genetic mechanism for species specificity and vector competence owing to reassortment needs further investigation.

377) Oviposition deterrent activity of three mosquito repellents diethyl phenyl acetamide (DEPA), diethyl m toluamide (DEET), and diethyl benzamide (DEB) on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Tikar, S.; Yadav, Ruchi; Mendki, M.; Rao, A.; Sukumaran, D.; Parashar, B.
Assunto: Repellents; Pest control; Spawning; Oviposition; Aquatic insects; Deterrents; DEET; Enumeration; Eggs; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 101-106, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Oviposition deterrent activity of three mosquito repellents namely diethyl phenyl acetamide (DEPA), diethyl benzamide (DEB) along with diethyl toluamide (DEET) was studied in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. All the repellents evaluated at three log concentrations 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 % in comparison with control by dual choice method. The oviposition response and oviposition activity index (OAI) was estimated by counting number of eggs laid in both the treatment and control. Mean OAI determined for A. aegypti was in the range of a0.23 to +0.22, a0.3 to +0.27, and +0.04 to +0.33 for DEPA, DEET, and DEB, respectively, whereas it was a0.77 to a0.035, a0.92 to +0.001, and a0.77 to a0.07 for A. albopictus and a0.927 to a0.251, a1 to a0.41, and a0.94 to a0.17 for C. quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent activity was observed in the order of DEET > DEPA > DEB. Similarly, the response of species toward the repellents as oviposition deterrent was in the trend of C. quinquefasciatus > A. albopictus > A. aegypti. The finding suggests potential role of mosquito repellents as oviposition deterrent.

378) Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Wirth, Margaret C.; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E.; Federici, Brian A.
Assunto: Mtx toxins; Cry toxins; Synergy; Resistance; Resistance Management
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, v. 115, n. , p. 62-67, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2011
Resumo: The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

379) Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti
Autor: Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araujo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimaraes, Anthony Erico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Celia; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Maleck, Marise
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Macrophages; Parasites; Mortality; Vectors; Medical importance; Toxicity; Eggs; Dengue; Nitric oxide; Vaccines; Midgut; Aedes aegypti; Ocotea; Lauraceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods: Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results: The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations greater than or equal to 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion: The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

380) Dengue: Update on Epidemiology
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson M.E., Chen L.H.
Assunto: dengue (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Current Infectious Disease Reports, v. 17, n. 1, p. 1-8, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1534-3146 (electronic),1523-3847
Resumo: The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact.

381) Evaluation of the effectiveness of mass trapping with BG-sentinel traps for dengue vector control: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Manaus, Brazil
Autor: Degener, C. M. ; Eiras, A. E.; Azara, T. M. F.; Roque, R. A.; Rosner, S.; Codeco, C. T.; Nobre, A. A.; Rocha, E. S. O.; Kroon, E. G.; Ohly, J. J.; Geier, M.
Assunto: BG-sentinel; Mosquito trap; Dengue control; Mass trapping; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 2, p. 408-420, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps for mass trapping at the household level to control the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), in Manaus (Brazil) by performing a cluster randomized controlled trial. After an initial questionnaire and baseline monitoring, 6 out of 12 clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention arm, where participating premises received one BGS trap for mass trapping. The other six clusters did not receive traps and were considered as the control arm. Biweekly monitoring with BGS in both arms assessed the impact of mass trapping. At the end of the study, a serological survey was conducted and a second questionnaire was conducted in the intervention arm. Entomological monitoring indicated that mass trapping with BGS traps significantly reduced the abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti during the first five rainy months. In the subsequent dry season when the mosquito population was lower, no effect of mass trapping was observed. Fewer Ae. aegypti females were measured in the intervention arm during the next rainy period, but no significant difference between arms was observed. The serological survey revealed that in participating houses of mass trapping areas recent dengue infections were less common than in control areas, although this effect was not statistically significant. The majority of participants responded positively to questions concerning user satisfaction. Our results suggest that BGS traps are a promising tool which might be deployed as part of dengue control programs; however, further investigations and larger scale studies are necessary.

382) Olfaction in Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: flight orientation response to certain saturated carboxylic acids in human skin emanations
Autor: Seenivasagan, T.; Guha, Lopamudra; Parashar, B. D.; Agrawal, O. P.; Sukumaran, D.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Human skin emanations; Attractant; Repellent; Host-seeking behavior; Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1927-1932, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The flight orientation response of nonblood-fed and hungry Aedes albopictus females was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer at 10(-6) to 10(-2) g odor plumes of saturated carboxylic acids (C-1-C-20), in which C-2-C-18 were the main constituents of human skin emanations. Thirteen acids viz C-1, C-2, C-3, C-5, C-6, C-8 C-9, C-10, C-12, C-14, C-16, C-18, and C-20 showed attractance at odor plumes ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) g doses, while five acids viz C-4, C-7, C-11, C-15, and C-19 showed repellence at 10(-4) to 10(-2) g to test mosquitoes. Tridecanoic acid (C-13) showed attractance only at 10(-4) g dose while higher doses caused repellence. Dose-dependent reversal of orientation behavior from attractance to repellence was observed at 10(-2) g plumes of C-5, C-9, C-10, C-13, C-17, C-19, and C-20 acids. The outcome of the study will help in the identification of odoriferous acids as potential attractants, repellents, or attraction inhibitors, which may find their application in the repellent formulations and odor-baited traps for surveillance and control of mosquitoes.

383) Heterogeneous feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, on individual human hosts in rural Thailand
Autor: Harrington, Laura C.; Fleisher, Andrew; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wa, Chrystal V.; Poulson, Rebecca L; Edman, John D.; Clark, John M.; Jones, James W.; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Hot spots; Viruses; Disease control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Age; Vectors; Infection; Children; Models; Blood; Dengue; DNA; Vaccines; Feeding behavior; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue, a potentially lethal infection impacting hundreds of millions of human lives annually, is caused by viruses transmitted during mosquito blood feeding. With no vaccine or treatment commercially available, understanding the underlying factors linked to virus exposure is critical for developing more effective dengue interventions. We conducted a study in an endemic region of Thailand where transmission is high and children are expected to be the non-immune, amplifying portion of the host population. We examined Ae. aegypti feeding patterns and risk by matching human DNA profiles in blood-fed mosquitoes to study area residents. A small number of meals matched people from the study area, suggesting that mosquitoes feed on people moving transiently through communities. People under 25 years of age were bitten less frequently than older people. We constructed network models to explore the presence of mosquito feeding "hotspots" and detected a local market "hotspot" in one study village during the high dengue transmission season. Our results provide new details on dengue vector feeding patterns and highlight the need to conduct integrated studies of vector feeding and human behavior, and virus transmission patterns in order to better understand the dengue transmission efficiency and spread.

384) Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Sugumar, S.; Clarke, S. K.; Nirmala, M. J.; Tyagi, B. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Chandrasekaran, N.
Assunto: Ultrasonication; Nanoemulsion; Larvicidal activity; Eucalyptus oil; Histopathology; Filariasis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 104, n. 3, p. 393-402, 2014
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate.

385) Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study
Autor: Quintero, Juliana; Brochero, Helena; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Basso, Cesar; Romero, Sonnia; Caprara, Andrea; De Lima Cunha, Jane Cris; Beltran - Ayala, Efrain; Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannnes; Petzold, Max
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vector breeding sites; Pupal indices; Urban settings; Ecobiosocial framework
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 14, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background: Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. Methods: In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. Results: The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and -except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and "dengue mosquitoes" was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and -particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. Conclusions: A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container types; 2) the need to raise public awareness about useful and effective interventions in productive container types specific to their area; and 3) the motivation for control services that-according to this and similar studies in Asia- dedicated, targeted vector management can make a difference in terms of reducing vector abundance.

386) Molecular caracterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declere, Stephane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Central Africa; Aedes africanus; Zika virus; Genomic Characterization; Aedes opok
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus and Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, 2014.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

387) Identification of carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Poupardin, Rodolphe; Srisukontarat, Wannaporn; Yunta, Cristina; Ranson, Hilary
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Insecticides; Pest control; Hosts; Biopolymorphism; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Amino acid substitution; Acetylcholinesterase; Dengue; Gene polymorphism; Enzymes; Carboxylesterase; Mutation; Amino acid sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Temephos is the most important insecticide used in larviciding campaigns to reduce the risk of dengue transmission. This organophosphate insecticide has been in use for over 50 years and resistance to this chemical has been reported in Aedes aegypti populations from Latin America, the Caribbean and from Asia. In other insect species, organophosphate resistance is typically associated with mutations in the target site, acetylcholinesterase, that decrease the insect's sensitivity to the insecticide, or increases in the activity of one or more carboxylesterase enzymes, either by overproduction and/or amino acid substitutions, that reduce the amount of insecticide reaching the target site. Neither of these mechanisms has been previously characterised at the molecular level in dengue vectors. Here we identify an Ae aegypti carboxylesterase gene with expression levels and amino acid sequence polymorphisms correlating with temephos resistance in Thailand. This is a key step in the development of tools to manage resistance in this mosquito species.

388) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors
Autor: Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan;Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian
Assunto: Molecular structure; Pesticides; Larvae; Leaves; Pest control; Acetone; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Mortality; Chemical composition; Methanol; Filariasis; Solvents; Vectors; Malaria; Habitat; Chloroform; Insecticides; Dengue; Petroleum; Ethyl acetate; Essential oils; Plant extracts; Aromatics; Rutaceae; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 7, p. 2475-2481, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC sub(50) = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC sub(90) = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC sub(50) = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC sub(90) = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC sub(50) = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97 %), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81 %), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14 %), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34 %), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35 %). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

389) Correlating remote sensing data with the abundance of pupae of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico
Autor: Moreno-Madrinan, Max J.; Crosson, William L.; Eisen, Lars; Estes, Sue M.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr; Hayden, Mary; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Irwin, Dan E.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Monaghan, Andrew J.
Assunto: MODIS; TRMM; DEM; Aqua; Remote sensing; Elevation; Mosquito; Rainfall; Temperature
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, v. 3, n. 2, p. 732-749, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS) products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST) values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM). Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

390) Application of post-PCR methods for analysis of mosquito densovirus
Autor: Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; Mosquito; Post-PCR technique; RFLP; SSCP
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 4, p. 801-807, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Two clades of Aedes densovirus, Aedes aegypti densovirus and Aedes albopictus densovirus, were classified according to the origin of isolation. These two densoviruses were isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines, respectively. This group of invertebrate viruses belongs to the subfamily Densovirinae of the Parvoviridae family and infects only insects. Several types of densoviruses have been isolated from mosquitoes especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are important vectors of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. The authors describe applications of post-PCR techniques, restriction fragment length polymorphism and single-strand conformation polymorphism to classify these two clades of Aedes densoviruses isolated from different origins. These methods are simple and rapid and are applicable to identify other groups of densoviruses isolated from biological samples.

391) Dynamics of midgut microflora and dengue virus impact on life history traits in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hill, Casey L.; Sharma, Avinash; Shouche, Yogesh; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Human diseases; Disease control; Antibiotics; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Mortality; Fertility; Vectors; Survival; Pathogens; Infection; Morbidity; Life history; Fecundity; Dengue;Microflora; Biologists; Flora; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 140, p. 151-157, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Significant morbidity and potential mortality following dengue virus infection is a re-emerging global health problem. Due to the limited effectiveness of current disease control methods, mosquito biologists have been searching for new methods of controlling dengue transmission. While much effort has concentrated on determining genetic aspects to vector competence, paratransgenetic approaches could also uncover novel vector control strategies. The interactions of mosquito midgut microflora and pathogens may play significant roles in vector biology. However, little work has been done to see how the microbiome influences the host's fitness and ultimately vector competence. Here we investigated the effects of the midgut microbial environment and dengue infection on several fitness characteristics among three strains of the primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. This included comparisons of dengue infection rates of females with and without their normal midgut flora. According to our findings, few effects on fitness characteristics were evident following microbial clearance or with dengue virus infection. Adult survivorship significantly varied due to strain and in one strain varied due to antibiotic treatment. Fecundity varied in one strain due to microbial clearance by antibiotics but no variation was observed in fertility due to either treatment. We show here that fitness characteristics of Ae. aegypti vary largely between strains, including varying response to microflora presence or absence, but did not vary in response to dengue virus infection.

392) Application of quantitative PCR for quantization of densovirus genome
Autor: Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; qPCR; Quantization; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 1, p. 47-52, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Densovirus is classified as invertebrate virus belonging to the subfamily Densovirinae of Parvoviridae family. This group of viruses infects only insects and several densoviruses have been isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. A number of mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of viruses, which are the major causes of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. As densoviruses do not cause any pathology in humans, these viruses have been proposed to be a potential vector for use in biological control of mosquitoes and insects. We report the application of quantitative (q)PCR to determine the amount of densovirus genome in mosquito cell culture supernatant and mosquito. This method is simple, rapid and has a wide dynamic range, and therefore is likely to be useful and applicable in the determination of viral load of other viruses in a variety of biological specimens.

393) The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins
Autor: Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Hayden, Mary H.; Bieringer, Paul E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Bionomics; Population dynamics; Range margin; Temperature
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 496-516, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of temperature on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic range margins where future rising temperatures could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how temperature impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the temperature ranges for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool range margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic range now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating temperatures impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water temperature. The general shape of the relationship between water temperature and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower developmental zero temperature (10-14 degree C) is exceeded, there is a near-linear relationship up to 30 degree C. Above this temperature, the development rate is relatively stable or even decreases slightly before falling dramatically near the upper developmental zero temperature, which occurs at similar to 38-42 degree C. Based on life stage-specific linear relationships between water temperature and development rate in the 15-28 degree C range, the lower developmental zero temperature is estimated to be 14.0 degree C for eggs, 11.8 degree C for larvae, and 10.3 degree C for pupae. We further conclude that available population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti, such as CIMSiM and Skeeter Buster, likely produce robust predictions based on water temperatures in the 16-35 degree C range, which includes the geographic areas where Ae. aegypti and its associated pathogens present the greatest threat to human health, but that they may be less reliable in cool range margins where water temperatures regularly fall below 15 degree C. Finally, we identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its range, now and in the future, based on impacts on mosquito population dynamics of temperature and other important factors, such as water nutrient content, larval density, presence of biological competitors, and human behavior.

394) Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan
Assunto: Mosquito vector; Medicinal plant; NMR; Larvicide; Histopathology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 8, p. 3105-3109, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC(90)72.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector.

395) Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing
Autor: David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frederic; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurelie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane
Assunto: RNA sequencing; RNA-seq; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito; Dengue; Detoxification enzymes; Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; CYP; Cuticle; Transporters
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 15, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Background: Mosquito control programmes using chemical insecticides are increasingly threatened by the development of resistance. Such resistance can be the consequence of changes in proteins targeted by insecticides (target site mediated resistance), increased insecticide biodegradation (metabolic resistance), altered transport, sequestration or other mechanisms. As opposed to target site resistance, other mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Indeed, insecticide selection often affects a large number of genes and various biological processes can hypothetically confer resistance. In this context, the aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for comparing transcription level and polymorphism variations associated with adaptation to chemical insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Biological materials consisted of a parental susceptible strain together with three child strains selected across multiple generations with three insecticides from different classes: the pyrethroid permethrin, the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate propoxur. Results: After ten generations, insecticide-selected strains showed elevated resistance levels to the insecticides used for selection. RNA-seq data allowed detecting over 13,000 transcripts, of which 413 were differentially transcribed in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain. Among them, a significant enrichment of transcripts encoding cuticle proteins, transporters and enzymes was observed. Polymorphism analysis revealed over 2500 SNPs showing > 50% allele frequency variations in insecticide-selected strains as compared to the susceptible strain, affecting over 1000 transcripts. Comparing gene transcription and polymorphism patterns revealed marked differences among strains. While imidacloprid selection was linked to the over transcription of many genes, permethrin selection was rather linked to polymorphism variations. Focusing on detoxification enzymes revealed that permethrin selection strongly affected the polymorphism of several transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases likely involved in insecticide biodegradation. Conclusions: The present study confirmed the power of RNA-seq for identifying concomitantly quantitative and qualitative transcriptome changes associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Our results suggest that transcriptome modifications can be selected rapidly by insecticides and affect multiple biological functions. Previously neglected by molecular screenings, polymorphism variations of detoxification enzymes may play an important role in the adaptive response of mosquitoes to insecticides.

396) Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of larvicides used in the control of Aedes aegypti to daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera)
Autor: Abe, Flavia Renata; Coleone, Ana Carla; Machado, Angela Aparecida; Machado-Neto, Joaquim Goncalves
Assunto: Diflubenzuron Dimilin(R); Pyriproxyfen
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, v. 77, n. 1-3, p. 37-45, 2014
ISSN: 1528-7394
Resumo: Dengue transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, species aegypti, is a major public health concern in Brazil. The chemical control of the mosquito larvae has been performed with the larvicide temephos since 1967. However, vector resistance was reported to temephos in several Brazilian states, and the Ministry of Health ordered the replacement of this larvicide by diflubenzuron (DFB), an inhibitor of chitin synthesis. Both insecticides are diluted in water with larvae and are able to reach aquatic environments in which they subsequently adversely damage nontarget organisms. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity (EC50) and environmental risk (RQ) of DFB and temephos to the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, and (2) evaluate the chronic toxicity (no-observed-effect concentration [NOEC] and lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]) of these larvicides to D. magna. The experiments were performed according to a completely randomized design. The estimated 48-h EC50 of temephos was 0.15 g/L (lower limit = 0.1 and upper limit = 0.2 g/L) and the 48-h EC50 of DFB was 0.06 g/L (lower limit = 0.03 and upper limit = 0.1 g/L). RQ values were 4.166.7 to DFB and 6.666.6 to temephos. NOEC and LOEC values were respectively 2.5 and 5 ng/L for DFB, and respectively 6.2 and 12.5 ng/L for temephos. Thus, temephos and DFB are classified as highly toxic to Daphnia magna and pose a high environmental risk to this species. Mortality of D. magna was observed at concentrations lower than those used in the field to control A. aegypti larvae.

397) Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Baser, K. Husnu Can
Assunto: Tanacetum argenteum subsp. Argenteum; Tanacetum argenteum subsp. canum; Biting deterrent; Larvicide; Aecles aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 824-830, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha -pinene (67.9%) and beta -pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha -pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 mu g/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of s-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta -caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)- beta -pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)- alpha -pinene and (+)- beta -pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)- beta -pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum.

398) Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin
Autor: Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.
Assunto: Lymantria dispar L.; Aedes aegypti; Mosquito repellents; Lepidoptera lymantriidae; Specialist herbivores; Cellular basis; Bitter taste; Deterrent; Receptor; Generalist
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 6, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects.

399) Distribution and dissemination of the Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys Kdr mutations in Aedes aegypti Brazilian natural populations
Autor: Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt; Brito, Luiz Paulo; Garcia, Gabriela Azambuja; Araki, Alejandra Saori; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Lima, Jose Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise; Martins, Ademir Jesus
Assunto: Population genetics; Allelles; Mutations; Nucleotide sequence; Natural populations; Pest control; Disease transmission; Fitness; Parasites; Spreading; Chemical control; Genotyping; Vectors; Genotypes; Dengue; Gene flow; Polymerase chain reaction; Sodium channels; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The chemical control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue, is being seriously threatened due to the development of pyrethroid resistance. Substitutions in the 1016 and 1534 sites of the voltage gated sodium channel (AaNa sub(V)), commonly known as kdr mutations, confer the mosquito with knockdown resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the allelic composition of natural populations of Brazilian Ae. aegypti at both kdr sites. Methods: The AaNa sub(V) IIIS6 region was cloned and sequenced from three Brazilian populations. Additionally, individual mosquitoes from 30 populations throughout the country were genotyped for 1016 and 1534 sites, based in allele-specific PCR. For individual genotypes both sites were considered as a single locus. Results: The 350 bp sequence spanning the IIIS6 region of the AaNa sub( V ) gene revealed the occurrence of the kdr mutation Phe1534Cys in Brazil. Concerning the individual genotyping, beyond the susceptible wild-type (Na sub(V) super(S)), two kdr alleles were identified: substitutions restricted to the 1534 position (Na sub(V) super(R1)) or simultaneous substitutions in both 1016 and 1534 sites (Na sub(V) super(R2)). A clear regional distribution pattern of these alleles was observed. The Na sub(V) super(R1) kdr allele occurred in all localities, while Na sub(V) super(R2) was more frequent in the Central and Southeastern localities. Locations that were sampled multiple times in the course of a decade revealed an increase in frequency of the kdr mutations, mainly the double mutant allele Na sub(V) super(R2). Recent samples also indicate that Na sub(V) super(R2) is spreading towards the Northern region. Conclusions: We have found that in addition to the previously reported Val1016Ile kdr mutation, the Phe1534Cys mutation also occurs in Brazil. Allelic composition at both sites was important to elucidate the actual distribution of kdr mutations throughout the country. Studies to determine gene flow and the fitness costs of these kdr alleles are underway and will be important to better understand the dynamics of Ae. aegypti pyrethroid resistance.

400) Neurotoxicity and Mode of Action of N,N-Diethyl-Meta-Toluamide (DEET)
Autor: Swale, Daniel R.; Sun, Baonan; Tong, Fan; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-M-Toluamide; Sensitive adenylate cyclase; Anopheles gambiae; Octopamine receptors; Firefly lantern; Neural control; Aedes aegypti; Cholinesterases; Transmitter; Pesticides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Recent studies suggest that N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and that this action may result in neurotoxicity and pose a risk to humans from its use as an insect repellent. We investigated the mode of action of DEET neurotoxicity in order to define the specific neuronal targets related to its acute toxicity in insects and mammals. Although toxic to mosquitoes (LD50 ca. 1.5 mu g/mg), DEET was a poor acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (<10% inhibition), even at a concentration of 10 mM. IC50 values for DEET against Drosophila melanogaster, Musca domestica, and human acetylcholinesterases were 6-12 mM. Neurophysiological recordings showed that DEET had excitatory effects on the housefly larval central nervous system (EC50: 120 mu M), but was over 300-fold less potent than propoxur, a standard anticholinesterase insecticide. Phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, completely blocked the central neuroexcitation by DEET and octopamine, but was essentially ineffective against hyperexcitation by propoxur and 4-aminopyridine, a potassium channel blocker. DEET was found to illuminate the firefly light organ, a tissue utilizing octopamine as the principal neurotransmitter. Additionally, DEET was shown to increase internal free calcium via the octopamine receptors of Sf21 cells, an effect blocked by phentolamine. DEET also blocked Na+ and K+ channels in patch clamped rat cortical neurons, with IC50 values in the micromolar range. These findings suggest DEET is likely targeting octopaminergic synapses to induce neuroexcitation and toxicity in insects, while acetylcholinesterase in both insects and mammals has low (mM) sensitivity to DEET. The ion channel blocking action of DEET in neurons may contribute to the numbness experienced after inadvertent application to the lips or mouth of humans.

401) Distinct variation in vector competence among nine field populations of Aedes aegypti from a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city
Autor: Goncalves, Caroline M.; Melo, Fabricio F.; Bezerra, Juliana M. T.; Chaves, Barbara A.; Silva, Breno M.; Silva, Luciana D.; Pessanha, Jose E. M.; Arias, Jorge R.; Secundino, Nagila F. C.; Norris, Douglas E.; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.
Assunto: Parasites; Epidemics; Pest control; Hosts; Risks; Public health; Disease transmission; Statistics; Data processing; Head; Dengue; Disseminated infection; Regression analysis; Vectors; Sustainable development; Outbreaks; Infection; Social sciences; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: In Brazil, dengue epidemics erupt sporadically throughout the country and it is unclear if outbreaks may initiate a sustainable transmission cycle. There are few studies evaluating the ability of Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations to transmit dengue virus (DENV). The aim of this study was to compare DENV susceptibility of field-captured Ae. aegypti populations from nine distinct geographic areas of the city of Belo Horizonte in 2009 and 2011. Infection Rate (IR), Vector Competence (VC) and Disseminated Infection Rate (DIR) were determined. Methods: Aedes aegypti eggs from each region were collected and reared separately in an insectary. Adult females were experimentally infected with DENV-2 and the virus was detected by qPCR in body and head samples. Data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. Results: IR varied from 40.0% to 82.5% in 2009 and 60.0% to 100.0% in 2011. VC ranged from 25.0% to 77.5% in 2009 and 25.0% to 80.0% in 2011. DIR oscillated from 68.7% to 100.0% in 2009 and 38.4% to 86.8 in 2011. When the results were evaluated by a logistic model using IR as covariate, North, Barreiro, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the strongest association in 2009. In 2011, a similar association was observed for South-Central, Venda Nova, West and Northeast regions. Using VC as covariate, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the most relevant association in 2009. In 2011, South-Central, Venda Nova and Barreiro presented the greatest revelation associations. When DIR data were analyzed by logistic regression models, Pampulha, South-Central, Venda Nova, West, Northeast and East (2009) as well as South-Central, Venda Nova and West (2011) were the districts showing the strongest associations. Conclusions: We conclude that Ae. aegypti populations from Belo Horizonte exhibit wide variation in vector competence to transmit dengue. Therefore, vector control strategies should be adapted to the available data for each region. Further analysis should be conducted to better understand the reasons for this large variability in vector competence and how these parameters correlate with epidemiological findings in subsequent years.

402) Sublethal effect of pyriproxyfen released from a fumigant formulation on fecundity, fertility, and ovicidal action in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Pyriproxyfen; Fecundity; Fertility; Ovicidal action
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 2, p. 436-443, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population.

403) Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices
Autor: Laurentino dos Santos, Solange; Parra-Henao , Gabriel ; Costa e Silva, Mírcia Betânia; Silva Augusto, Lia Giraldo
Assunto: Dengue; Knowledge; Practices; Brazil; Colombia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 47, n. 6, p. 783-787, 2014.
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.

404) Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Ho, Yung S.; Ariani, Cristina V.; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Viruses; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Parasites; Nucleotide sequence; Recombination; Dengue; Yellow fever; Genetic markers; Genetic crosses; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. Mosquitoes are important for transmission of human diseases including dengue and yellow fever. The sequencing of the genomes of key mosquito species including Aedes aegypti has helped us to understand the factors that allow mosquitoes to vector disease. While the genome for Ae. aegypti has been sequenced, it is in many pieces which have not yet been arranged on chromosomes. To this end, we have created a genetic linkage map and measured the distance between genetic markers, which allows us to assign them to regions of the genome. Using this method, we also detected errors in the current genome sequences. We used our genetic map to find regions of the mosquito genome associated with the development of Brugia malayi, a nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. A better genome assembly will be important for the development of novel methods for controlling disease transmission.

405) Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian Vectors of malaria and arboviruses
Autor: Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies
Assunto: Human diseases; Repellents; Malaria; Pest control; Pathogens; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Parity; Lotions; Vectors; Insecticides; DEET; Sensitivity; Acceptability; Prevention; Arthropods; Culex; Anopheles barbirostris; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Aedes albopictus; Mansonia; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological impact of large scale use of topical repellents on arthropod borne diseases. Malaria and arboviruses are transmitted by several mosquitoes. Targeting these mosquitoes instead of the pathogens can contribute to prevention of these diseases. For mosquitoes biting throughout the night, mosquito nets (preferably impregnated with insecticides) are very effective for mosquito control. However, bites of day-, evening- and outdoor-biting mosquitoes have to be prevented in different ways, for example by applying repellents on the skin which contain DEET or other active ingredients such as picaridin. Here we report on the evaluation of the performance of two formulated picaridin repellents (lotion 10% and spray 20%) against mosquito bites, including vectors of arboviruses and malaria in the field in Cambodia. These repellent formulations were compared to a DEET solution (20%). In general, all repellents performed very well, providing more than 97% protection against mosquito bites when used for five consecutive hours. At the highest concentration, the picaridin repellent performed similarly to DEET. However, different mosquito species reacted differently to the repellents. As such, repellents can provide an additional protection against bites of malaria and arbovirus vectors.

406) Non conserved residues between Cqm1 and Aam1 mosquito alpha-glucosidases are critical for the capacity of Cqm1 to bind the Binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus
Autor: Ferreira, Ligia Maria; Romao, Tatiany Patricia; do Nascimento, Nathaly Alexandre; da Conceicao, Maria; da Costa, Mendes Ferreira; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompilio; Neves Lobo Silva-Filha, Maria Helena
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Biolarvicides; Orthologs; Receptor; Binding sites
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 50, n. , p. 34-42, 2014
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: The Binary (Bin) toxin from the entomopathogenic bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus acts on larvae of the culicid Culex quinquefasciatus through its binding to Cqm1, a midgut-bound alpha-glucosidase. Specific binding by the BinB subunit to the Cqm1 receptor is essential for toxicity however the toxin is unable to bind to the Cqm1 ortholog from the refractory species Aedes aegypti (Aam1). Here, to investigate the molecular basis for the interaction between Cqm1 and BinB, recombinant Cqm1 and Aam1 were first expressed as soluble forms in Sf9 cells. The two proteins were found to display the same glycosilation patterns and BinB binding properties as the native alpha-glucosidases. Chimeric constructs were then generated through the exchange of reciprocal fragments between the corresponding Cqm1 and aam1 cDNAs. Subsequent expression and binding experiments defined a Cqm1 segment encompassing residues S129 and A312 as critical for the interaction with BinB. Through site directed mutagenesis experiments, replacing specific sets of residues from Cqm1 with those of Aam1, the (159)GG(160) doublet was required for this interaction. Molecular modeling mapped these residues to an exposed loop within the Cqm1's structure, compatible with a target site for BinB and providing a possible explanation for its lack of binding to Aam1. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

407) Distribution of dengue vectors during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan
Autor: Saleem, Muhammad; Ghouse, Ghulam; Hussain, Dilbar; Saleem, Hafiz Muhammad; Abbas, Muneer
Assunto: Biological surveys; Education; Human diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Altitude; Houses; Breeding; Dengue; Vectors; Habitat; Containers; Housing; Residential areas; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 4, n. 16, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomological surveys were carried out on the dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2013 from different breeding places in and around the residential areas of three Punjab districts, namely Lahore (217 m), Sheikhupura (214 m) and Faisalabad (184 m) located at different altitudes. Four vector indices (house index, container index, breteau index and premises index) were used to assess the breeding potential of vectors in each district. The house index ranged from 12 to 18 % during pre-monsoon while it was from 14 and 29% due to the post-monsoon season. The container index ranged from 11.40 to 13.17% for the pre-monsoon and from 11.22 to 30.39% for the post-monsoon. Breteau index varied from 11 and 69% during both seasons and the premises index ranged from 24.40 to 44.32%. Entomological survey also revealed that in both seasons, the highest breeding potentiality was recorded in Lahore followed by Sheikhupura and Faisalabad. The high vector indices of Aedes in these areas warrant intensification of vector surveillance activities along with habitat reduction and health education.

408) Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Autor: Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Stephan, Celso; Lourenco, Roberto Wagner; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Arduino, Marylene de Brito; de Lima, Virgilia Luna Castor
Assunto: Biological surveys; Prediction; Infestation; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Control programs; Vectors; Eggs; Evolution; Models; Health risks; Sulfur dioxide; Risk factors; Seasonal variations; Geographical coordinates; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of Sao Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study. Dengue is a disease caused by a virus which has four serotypes DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. In Americas, A. aegypti is acknowledged as the only dengue vector in America. Currently the only strategy to prevent dengue is controlling A. aegypti mosquitoes. The generalized additive model was used to understand the relationship of the indicators of the presence of eggs, larvae-pupae and adult stages of A. aegypti with the occurrence of dengue cases in a medium sized city of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Dengue incidence as well as the entomological indicators in all stages of the mosquito showed a seasonal behavior. The infestation level was not a limiting or a determinant factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. Risk maps of the disease, from the crude and adjusted by generalized additive models, showed no differences, suggesting that the entomological indicators did not influence the incidence of dengue in the city. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive model could reveal the modulating effect on the disease risk, not found in this study.

409) Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain
Autor: Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Epithelial cells; Serotypes; Double-stranded RNA; Transgenes; Cell culture; Genotypes; Disease resistance; Infection; Homozygotes; Expression vectors; Integration; RNA; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. Expression of a DENV2 sequence-derived IR RNA in the mosquito midgut initiates an antiviral intracellular RNAi response that efficiently blocks DENV2 infection and profoundly impairs vector competence for that virus in Aedes aegypti. DENV2-specific IR RNA expression in the Carb109M strain has maintained the RNAi-based, refractory phenotype for 33 generations in laboratory culture. The two transgene integration sites were stable after multiple generations and following introgression into a genetically-diverse (GDLS) Ae. aegypti population. Introgression of the transgene into the GDLS genetic background changed GDLS from a DENV2 susceptible phenotype to a DENV2 refractory phenotype. The DENV2 refractory homozygous line, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ, exhibits (relative to GDLS) minimal fitness loss associated with the transgene. This line could be a potential candidate for proof-of-principle field studies.

410) Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host
Autor: Menger, D. J.; Van Loon, J. J. A.; Takken, W.
Assunto: Disease control; Public health; DEET; Yellow fever; Malaria; Natural products; Lactones;Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 28, n. 4, p. 407-413, 2014.
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate assessment of candidate repellent compounds, using a synthetic odour that mimics the odour blend released by human skin. Using DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) and PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol) as reference compounds, nine candidate repellents were tested, of which five showed significant repellency to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). These included: 2-nonanone; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; linalool; delta -decalactone, and delta -undecalactone. The lactones were also tested on the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae), against which they showed similar degrees of repellency. We conclude that the lactones are highly promising repellents, particularly because these compounds are pleasant-smelling, natural products that are also present in human food sources.

411) Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission
Autor: Brady, Oliver J.; Golding, Nick; Pigott, David M.; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Messina, Jane P.; Reiner, Robert C., Jr; Scott, Thomas W.; Smith, David L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hay, Simon I.
Assunto: Temperature effects; Parasites; Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Dengue; Life span; Vectors; Models; Ecology; Diurnal variations; Temperature; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods: Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results: Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions: These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we explicitly outlined here, point to clear targets for entomological investigation.

412) Stability of the wMel Wolbachia infection following invasion into Aedes aegypti populations
Autor: Hoffmann, Ary A.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; Callahan, Ashley G.; Phillips, Ben L.; Billington, Katrina; Axford, Jason K.; Montgomery, Brian; Turley, Andrew P.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Assunto: Human diseases; Tests; Natural populations; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Gonotrophic cycles; Immigration; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Dengue; Progeny; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 9, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The wMel infection of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully transferred into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes where it has the potential to suppress dengue and other arboviruses. The infection was subsequently spread into two natural populations at Yorkeys Knob and Gordonvale near Cairns, Queensland in 2011. Here we report on the stability of the infection following introduction and we characterize factors influencing the ongoing dynamics of the infection in these two populations. While the Wolbachia infection always remained high and near fixation in both locations, there was a persistent low frequency of uninfected mosquitoes. These uninfected mosquitoes showed weak spatial structure at both release sites although there was some clustering around two areas in Gordonvale. Infected females from both locations showed perfect maternal transmission consistent with patterns previously established pre-release in laboratory tests. After >2 years under field conditions, the infection continued to show complete cytoplasmic incompatibility across multiple gonotrophic cycles but persistent deleterious fitness effects, suggesting that host effects were stable over time. These results point to the stability of Wolbachia infections and their impact on hosts following local invasion, and also highlight the continued persistence of uninfected individuals at a low frequency most likely due to immigration. The wMel infection is a Wolbachia infection introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquito populations; wMel can provide potential suppression of dengue if the infection persists in populations. We show that the infection has persisted at a high frequency since its initial introduction into two natural populations in North Queensland, Australia. The infection, which is inherited through females, appears perfectly transmitted to offspring in the field. It has continued to produce a high level of incompatibility when infected males are mated with uninfected females; these females are likely to enter populations at a low frequency as migrants. These features ensure that the infection will stay at a high frequency in populations, but costs prevent its rapid spread.

413) Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle targeting demonstrates a requirement for single-minded during larval and pupal olfactory system development of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Mysore, Keshava; Andrews, Emily; Li, Ping; Duman-Scheel, Molly
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Neural development; Single-minded; Odorant receptor; Olfactory receptor neuron; Targeting; siRNA; Nanoparticle; Mosquito; Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Developmental Biology, v. 14, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-213X
Resumo: Background: Essentially nothing is known about the genetic regulation of olfactory system development in vector mosquitoes, which use olfactory cues to detect blood meal hosts. Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have identified a regulatory matrix of transcription factors that controls pupal/adult odorant receptor (OR) gene expression in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). However, it is unclear if transcription factors that function in the D. melanogaster regulatory matrix are required for OR expression in mosquitoes. Furthermore, the regulation of OR expression during development of the larval olfactory system, which is far less complex than that of pupae/adults, is not well understood in any insect, including D. melanogaster. Here, we examine the regulation of OR expression in the developing larval olfactory system of Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector mosquito. Results: A. aegypti bears orthologs of eight transcription factors that regulate OR expression in D. melanogaster pupae/adults. These transcription factors are expressed in A. aegypti larval antennal sensory neurons, and consensus binding sites for these transcription factors reside in the 5' flanking regions of A. aegypti OR genes. Consensus binding sites for Single-minded (Sim) are located adjacent to over half the A. aegypti OR genes, suggesting that this transcription factor functions as a major regulator of mosquito OR expression. To functionally test this hypothesis, chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were used to target sim during larval olfactory development. These experiments demonstrated that Sim positively regulates expression of a large subset of OR genes, including orco, the obligate co-receptor in the assembly and function of heteromeric OR/Orco complexes. Decreased innervation of the antennal lobe was also noted in sim knockdown larvae. These OR expression and antennal lobe defects correlated with a larval odorant tracking behavioral defect. OR expression and antennal lobe defects were also observed in sim knockdown pupae. Conclusions: The results of this investigation indicate that Sim has multiple functions during larval and pupal olfactory system development in A. aegypti.

414) Assessment of pupal productivity of Aedes and co-occurring mosquitoes in Kolkata, India
Autor: Mohan, Sushree; Banerjee, Soumyajit; Mohanty, Siba Prasad; Saha, Goutam K.; Aditya, Gautam
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Larval habitats; Vector management
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 6, p. 1279-1291, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Monitoring of dengue vectors provide baseline information about the abundance and subsequent management strategy. An appraisal of mosquito abundance using dengue vectors as focal species was made in respect to Kolkata, India as geographical area. It was observed that Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus coexist with Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in different container habitats, that varied with months and habitats. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in higher proportions in porcelain and plastic containers. In earthen containers a stable ratio of three mosquitoes was observed. Sex specific variations in pupal weight and wing length were noted in both species of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The wing length of adult Aedes mosquitoes showed correspondence with pupal weight suggesting the use of pupal weight can be used as indicator of prospective adult body size. The present habitat-based study calls for a strict vector management strategy to reduce sources of ovipostion in various container habitats to minimize mosquito vectors and thus potential risk of dengue and other mosquito borne diseases.

415) Bionomic response of Aedes aegypti to two future climate change scenarios in far north Queensland, Australia: implications for dengue outbreaks
Autor: Williams, Craig R.; Mincham, Gina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David
Assunto: Climate change; Environmental impact; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Bionomics; Dengue; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Risk assessment; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue viruses are transmitted by anthropophilic mosquitoes and infect approximately 50 million humans annually. To investigate impacts of future climate change on dengue virus transmission, we investigated bionomics of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Using a dynamic life table simulation model (the Container inhabiting mosquito simulation CIMSiM) and statistically downscaled daily values for future climate, we assessed climate change induced changes to mosquito bionomics. Simulations of Ae. aegypti populations for current (1991-2011) and future climate (2046-2065) were conducted for the city of Cairns, Queensland, the population centre with most dengue virus transmission in Australia. Female mosquito abundance, wet weight, and the extrinsic incubation period for dengue virus in these mosquitoes were estimated for current and future climate (MPI ECHAM 5 model, B1 and A2 emission scenarios). Results: Overall mosquito abundance is predicted to change, but results were equivocal for different climate change scenarios. Aedes aegypti abundance is predicted to increase under the B1, but decrease under the A2 scenario. Mosquitoes are predicted to have a smaller body mass in a future climate. Shorter extrinsic incubation periods are projected. Conclusions: It is therefore unclear whether dengue risk would increase or decrease in tropical Australia with climate change. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that a future, warmer climate will lead to larger mosquito populations and a definite increase in dengue transmission. Whilst general predictions can be made about future mosquito borne disease incidence, cautious interpretation is necessary due to interaction between local environment, human behaviour and built environment, dengue virus, and vectors.

416) Optimization and synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Isaria fumosorosea against human vector mosquitoes
Autor: Banu, A. Najitha; Balasubramanian, C.
Assunto: Isaria fumosorosea; Silver nanoparticles; Toxicity; LC50 and LC90
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 10, p. 3843-3851, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of silver generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) against major vector mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The Ifr-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized structurally and functionally using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optimum pH (alkaline), temperature (30 A degrees C) and agitation (150 rpm) for AgNP synthesis and its stability were confirmed through colour change. Ae. aegypti larvae (I-IV instars) were found highly susceptible to synthesized AgNPs than the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the mortality rate was indirectly proportional to the larval instar and the concentration. The lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90 % of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the tested concentration are 0.240, 0 0.075.337, 0.430, 0.652 and 1.219, 2.210, 2.453, 2.916; 0.065, 0.075, 0.098, 0.137 and 0.558, 0.709, 0.949, 1.278 ppm with respect to 0.03 to 1.00 ppm of Ifr-AgNPs against first, second, third and fourth instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. This is the first report for synthesis of AgNPs using Ifr against human vector mosquitoes. Hence, Ifr-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide.

417) The effect of virus-blocking Wolbachia on male competitiveness of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Segoli, Michal; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Lloyd, Jane; Omodei, Gavin J.; Ritchie, Scott A.
Assunto: Human diseases; Males; Pest control; Reproductive behaviour; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Cages; Disease transmission; Public health; Mating; Dengue; Disease control; Vectors; Habitat; Competitiveness; Breeding success; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a tropical, potentially lethal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. A new control method involves the release of mosquitoes infected by the bacterium Wolbachia that blocks the transmission of the dengue virus to humans. However, possible negative effects of Wolbachia on mosquito reproductive success could substantially slow the spread of this bacterium in mosquito populations, reducing the feasibility of this method. We found that male mosquitoes infected by Wolbachia are equally successful in finding and mating with females within experimental tents and semi-field cages that mimic mosquito natural habitat. Moreover, larger, well-fed mosquitoes were more successful in semi-field cages, suggesting that Wolbachia mosquitoes that are reared in the lab, and are generally larger than wild mosquitoes, might have an advantage during the time they are being released in the field. Hence, in contrast to other control methods (e.g., the use of sterile males or genetically modified mosquitoes), the use of Wolbachia does not seem to compromise male performance, making it a candidate for disease control.

418) Spatio-temporal distribution of dengue and lymphatic filariasis vectors along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kres, Aljoscha; Mueller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Parasitic diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Spreading; Spatial distribution; Bites; Temporal variations; Abundance; Vector-borne diseases; Filariasis; Vectors; Morbidity; Mountains; Altitude; Dengue; Economics; Viral diseases; Temperature; Socioeconomics; Slums; Rural areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever, a viral disease transmitted by the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, has been rapidly spreading in Nepal since it was first reported in this country in 2004. Similarly, lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Nepal, is a public health problem in terms of morbidity and impact on the social and economic status of poor people living in rural and slum areas. Evidence for more pronounced temperature rises in higher altitudes of Nepal and an increasing frequency of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases reported from mountain areas, in the absence of recent data on the mosquito vectors of these diseases, prompted us to investigate their distribution and abundance in this country. In our study, we document the distribution of A. aegypti and A. albopictus from the lowlands up to 1,310 m altitude in Kathmandu, and the distribution of C. quinquefasciatus up to Dhunche (2,100 m altitude), the highest locality included in this study. The wide distribution of these important disease vectors in the mountains, previously considered non-endemic for dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis, calls for an extension and scaling-up of vector-borne disease surveillance and control programmes in Nepal.

419) Undesirable consequences of insecticide resistance following Aedes aegypti control activities due to a dengue outbreak
Autor: Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos;Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araujo, Simone Costa; Lima, Jose BentoPereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus;Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise
Assunto: Infestation; Human diseases; Insecticides; Chemical control; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Diflubenzuron; Serotypes; Vectors; Organophosphates; Spraying; Deltamethrin; Eggs; Breeding sites; Dengue; Receptacles; Pyrethroids; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of 80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of both public and domestic intensification of chemical control due to a dengue outbreak.

420) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio CM; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo MA; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Biological surveys; Recombination; Epidemics; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Public health; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Molecular evolution; Vectors; Forests; Glycosylation; Infection; Fever; Genetic relationship; Exanthema; Epidemiology; Envelope protein; Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes; Zika virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Proteins ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in nature and that, after it emerged from Uganda in the early of the 20th century, it moved to West Africa and Asia in the first half of the century, without any clear preference for host and vector species.

421) Vector competence in west african Aedes aegypti is flavivirus species and genotype dependent
Autor: Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Viruses; Pathogens; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Vector competence is defined as the intrinsic permissiveness of an arthropod vector for infection, dissemination, and transmission of a pathogen. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses worldwide and is divided into two subspecies: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. Aedes aegypti aegypti is found globally in tropical and subtropical regions, while Ae. aegypti formosus is mainly restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Aedes aegypti formosus is considered to be a poor vector for both yellow fever and dengue, but some of these original studies with yellow fever were performed with highly passaged viral isolates collected at different locations than the mosquitoes. Viral genetics is an important determinant of vector competence and virus/mosquito genetic specificity exists in Ae. aegypti aegypti. We compared the vector competence of multiple collections of Ae. aegypti from throughout Senegal for both yellow fever and dengue viruses to demonstrate that vector competence in Ae. aegypti formosus is dependent on viral genotype. In contrast to earlier claims, populations of Ae. aegypti in West Africa can be competent vectors of flaviviruses.

422) Epidemiological and molecular features of dengue, Zika and Chikungunya concurrent outbreaks in the pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Roche C., Teissier A., Nilles E.J., Musso D.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, hygiene, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 588, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: During more than a century dengue has been the only mosquito-borne virus considered as major public health concern for Pacific nations. However, during the past 5 years the epidemiology of arboviruses in the Pacific region has shown terrific changes. The situation gradually switched from the predominant circulation of a single dengue virus (DENV) to active transmission of multiple DENV serotypes and genotypes as observed in French Polynesia from 2013 and in New Caledonia and Fiji since the beginning of 2014. In the mean time, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) appeared for the first time in New Caledonia with autochtonous cases sporadically reported from 2011 up to 2013, and large outbreaks occurring in Papua New Guinea in 2012, Yap Island in 2013 and in Tonga in 2014. Another unexpected event was the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in French Polynesia at the end of 2013. ZIKV caused in French Polynesia the largest outbreak ever documented, and in a context of active circulation of DENV serotypes 1 and 3. At the beginning of 2014, ZIKV outbreaks also emerged in New Caledonia and Cook Islands. As of April 2014, outbreaks of “dengue-like illnesses” were under investigation in several other Pacific islands suggesting that the situation was evolving from bad to worse. We will describe here the early laboratory investigations that contributed to the identification of the aetiological agents of the outbreaks that recently occurred in the Pacific, notably based on the use of filter paper-spotted serum and saliva collected on cotton swab as a source of viral RNA. Based on phylogenetic data we will discuss how these viruses were introduced from continental regions into the Pacific and how they spread from one Pacific island country to another. We will also discuss the particular features of these outbreaks, notably in the occurrence of unusual clinical manifestations, like observed in French Polynesia during the ZIKV outbreak.

423) Effect of polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus L.
Autor: Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Polygonum hydropiper; Confertifolin; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Repellent; Oviposition deterrent; Adulticidal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 9, p. 3143-3150, 2014
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study aimed to evaluate the essential oil and an isolated compound from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus L. The plant material was macerated and steam distilled using clavenger apparatus for oil extraction. The essential oil was tested at different concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 ppm concentrations against the larvae of Ae. albopictus. The isolated compound was tested for larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent, oviposition deterrent and adulticidal activities at 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 ppm concentrations. The essential oil exhibited LC50 values of 194.63 and 199.65 and confertifolin exhibited LC50 values of 2.02 and 3.16 against the second and fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus, respectively. The ovicidal activity of 100 % on 0- to 6-h-old eggs, repellent activity of 320.6 min, oviposition deterrent activity of 98.51 % and adulticidal activity of 100 % at 10 ppm concentration of confertifolin were recorded. No mortality of was observed in negative control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the potential mosquitocidal activities of confertifolin against Ae. albopictus.

424) Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico
Autor: Alto, Barry W.; Smartt, Chelsea T.; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L.; Richards, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Viruses; Commerce; Pest control; Hosts; Vulnerability; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 39, n. 2, p. 406-413, 2014.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, similar to 28%; Ae. albopictus, similar to 9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission.

425) Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K.
Assunto: Parasites , Binding sites , Crystal structure , Proteins , Ligands , Hydrogen bonds , Malaria , Erythrocytes , Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7527, p. 427-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents1. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions2. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN)3,4. Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro4-9, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

426) Identification of the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK: A novel sample type for diagnostic purposes and support for a potential non-vectorborne route of transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hearn P.T., Atkinson B., Hewson R., Brooks T.
Assunto: diagnosis, fever, hygiene, society, tropical medicine, United Kingdom
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 62-63, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and normally causes a self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, headache, conjunctival suffusion, myalgia and joint pains. It was discovered in 1947 at Zika Forest, near to Entebbe, Uganda. More recently it has been found outside Africa in outbreaks such as those of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. We report the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK, highlight novel samples for testing and a theoretical mode of non-vector-borne transmission. A couple travelled to the Cook Islands during what was thought to be a Dengue outbreak in February 2014. Within 6 days of exposure, both 'Patient 1' and his wife, 'Patient 2', had developed fatigue, followed 48 hours later by fever, headache, aching joints and a widespread maculopapular rash. Both reported symptoms resolving by day 5 of rash onset. In 2011, Foy et al described likely sexual transmission of ZIKV. A scientist from Colorado, travelling back from Senegal whilst incubating the virus, reportedly passed it to his wife, in whom clinical and serological evidence supported the diagnosis. On day 1 of rash onset, Patient 1 had serum sent to the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton Down and a panel of serological tests based on stated travel was performed. Dengue testing revealed positive IgM, but negative IgG and PCR. This pattern has been reported previously due to cross-reactivity between the flaviviruses. The sample was then tested by PCR for ZIKV and found to be positive. Further samples were taken on day 28 after rash onset. Blood and urine from both patients were tested in parallel, along with a semen sample from Patient 1. The semen was the only sample found to be positive for ZIKV by PCR. The reasons for persistence in the semen are not yet clear, but this case is significant not only as the first case of Zika Fever imported to the UK, but also as support for the possibility of sexual transmission, though not in this case, and highlights an additional sample type for the confirmation of infection in the future.

427) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Ondo, Statiana Mboui; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Zika virus; Mutation; Infections; Phylogenetics; Flavivirus - Classification; Flavivirus - Genetics, Animals; Gabon; Humans; Phylogeny, Aedes - Virology; Communicable Diseases, Emerging - Virology; Flavivirus - Isolation and purification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Not previously considered an important human arboviral pathogen, the epidemic capacity of Zika virus (ZIKV, a dengue-related flavivirus) was revealed by the Micronesia outbreak in 2007, which affected about 5000 persons. Widely distributed throughout tropical areas of Asia and Africa, ZIKV is transmitted by a broad range of mosquito species, most of which are sylvatic or rural, Aedes aegypti, an anthropophilic and urban species, being considered the main ZIKV epidemic vector. In a context of emerging arbovirus infections (chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV)) in Gabon since 2007, we conducted a retrospective study to detect other, related viruses. In samples collected during the concurrent CHIKV/DENV outbreaks that occurred in the capital city in 2007, we detected ZIKV in both humans and mosquitoes, and notably the Asian mosquito Aedes albopictus that recently invaded the country and was the main vector responsible for these outbreaks. We found that the Gabonese ZIKV strain belonged to the African lineage, and phylogenetic analysis suggested ancestral diversification and spread rather than recent introduction. These findings, showing for the first time epidemic ZIKV activity in an urban environment in Central Africa and the presence of ZIKV in the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, raise the possibility of a new emerging threat to human health.

428) Progress in infectious disease testing-NAT and beyond
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L., Dodd R.Y.
Assunto: blood transfusion, hematology, infection, organization, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ;
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 107, supl. 1, p. 5, june 2014
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Aims: To update membership on state-of-the-art testing technologies for infectious disease blood donation screening including new methods such as expanding NAT platforms, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays. Changes to testing algorithms with the availability of inactivation by pathogen reduction will also be highlighted. Background: Testing donated blood for markers of infectious disease plays a major role in establishing and maintaining blood safety. Minimal expectations worldwide are that blood is tested for syphilis, HIV, HCV and HBV. The norm for viral testing has been serology, but increasingly, nucleic acid testing is being implemented where resources allow, even for emerging infectious disease (EID) agents such as the chikungunya virus outbreak that started in Dec 2013 in the Caribbean, marking the first introduction of this virus in the Americas. The appropriate mix of tests and algorithms will depend on local epidemiology, infrastructure and economic considerations. Although NAT will detect acute infections, representing the greatest infectious threat, not all pathogens have adequate concentrations of nucleic acid for detection in the early acute or later chronic phases of infection (if chronicity is a feature of infection). Thus, for many agents, either serology only or a combination of serology and NAT exist. In developing test strategies, it is important to understand the actual risk of transfusion transmission and the impact of the test systems on such risk, especially where resources are limited. Methods: NAT has been implemented in over 30 nations worldwide as documented by an International Forum organized by the ISBT Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Disease Working Party that captured implementation from 1999 to 2009 for HCV, HIV and HBV (Roth et al., Vox Sang 2012;102:82-90). Testing has progressed from manual technologies using single markers to highly multiplexed automated assays. Routine NAT has been added, either as a required marker or under investigational studies for additional agents including, parvovirus B19, HAV, HEV, arboviruses including WNV, dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, the red-cell parasite, Babesia, and likely others. In addition to NAT, new technologies including pathogen reduction, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays will have an important impact on testing. Recently, the AABB EID working group has updated a listing of pathogen reduction technologies available including over 40 clinical trials in support of their safety and efficacy (http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/eidpostpub.aspx). The impact is either to prevent the need to introduce new tests, assuming availability of the technology to inactivate the component in which the agent is transmitted, and that the technology has sufficient robustness to produce an effective 'kill'. As an additional benefit, changes to existing testing algorithms may be feasible such that redundant tests may be eliminated. With respect to nucleic acid and protein microarrays, technological advances will allow the simultaneous detection and differentiation of hundreds of pathogens, but many hurdles prior to routine adoption exist. Conclusions: Blood systems worldwide must be ready to adapt to changes in their infectious disease epidemiology, emergence of new agents, and changes in their economic conditions and public expectations to accommodate the changing landscape of infectious disease testing.

429) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Autor: Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Landing statistics; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Canopies; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Agriculture; Savannahs; Vectors; Forests; Cadmium; Infection; Pest outbreaks; Aedes; Zika virus; Aedes furcifer; Aedes vittatus; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kedougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

430) Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes
Autor: Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli; Jalali, Sushil; Puttaraju, Hosagavi
Assunto: Wolbachia; Mosquitoes; Dengue; Chickungunya; Malaria; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 4, n. 1, p. 78-81, 2014.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

431) Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Genomes; Nucleotide sequence; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Amino acid sequence; Public health; Data processing; Statistical analysis; Codons; codon bias; Transcription; Bioinformatics; Infection; DNA microarrays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 289, n. 5, p. 885-894, 2014.
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level.

432) Distribution patterns and relationship between elevation and the abundance of Aedes aegypti in Mojokerto city 2012
Autor: Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Islamiyah, Madaniatul
Assunto: Dominant species; Endemic species; Human diseases; Epidemics; Ecological distribution; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Dengue; Abundance; Vectors; Dengue virus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Open Journal of Animal Sciences, v. 3, n. 4A, p. 11-16, 2013.
ISSN: 2161-7597
Resumo: Mosquitoes are one of the insects that have an important role as vectors of disease agents. The diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are still public health problems in Indonesia especially in East Java Province, for example, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). DHF is a very alarming disease because the occurrence of this epidemic is no longer just confined to certain geographic locations. At present, Mojokerto is a district in East Java region known as endemic for DHF in Indonesia. The number of cases in this district tends to rise and expand distributed. The spread pattern of dengue cases in this district is not certainly known. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution pattern of mosquitoes and its relationship between elevation and density of Aedes aegypti in the Mojokerto district that caused dengue virus transmission. Sampling was conducted at two locations in the Mojokerto district, in the urban and rural, namely Prajurit Kulon for urban and Dlanggu for rural. We used survey for mosquito larvae by WHO standard and for mosquito eggs by ovitrap. The coordinates of sampling locations are recorded using GPS and then identification of mosquitoes is performed at the Laboratory of Ecology and Animal Diversity, University of Brawijaya. Quantitative data were analyzed to determine the abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative frequency and IVI (Importance Value Index). Mosquito distribution patterns were analyzed with Morisita index. The research findings indicated that there are five mosquitoes species consisted of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes laniger, Culex bitaeniorchynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Aedes aegypti is the dominant species in urban area while Culex quinquefasciatus is the dominant species in rural area. Morisita index showed that mosquito dispersal on patterns in Mojokerto district is uniform. The elevation of the area and density of Aedes aegypti has a positive correlation.

433) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Abundance; Genetic diversity; Disease resistance; Infection; DNA microarrays; Gene expression; Colonies; Dengue; Gene regulation; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Gene silencing; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 7, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. Genetic variations among Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can greatly influence their ability to transmit human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). Some of these variations between mosquito populations are represented by differences in the expression of specific genes that control susceptibility to a pathogen. We have compared susceptibilities to dengue virus infection and the genome-wide gene expression patterns between laboratory-maintained Aedes aegypti strains as well as field-derived colonies collected from geographically-distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. These analyses in conjunction with functional gene silencing assays showed that the basal immune activity is a likely determinant of resistance to the dengue virus, along with other novel factors. Our study also identified two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor, thereby elucidating novel aspects of dengue virus - mosquito interactions.

434) Integration of botanical and bacterial insecticide against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi
Autor: Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai
Assunto: Insecticides; Insect larvae; Leaves; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Integration; Powder; Dengue; Control programs; Solvents; Vectors; Water temperature; Petroleum ether; Spinosad; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 2, p. 761-771, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The present study evaluated the Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaf extract and the bacterial insecticide spinosad, testing the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi. The fresh leaves of O. thymiflorus were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade-dried at room temperature (28 plus or minus 2 degree C) for 5 to 8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using a commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of petroleum ether sequentially for a period of 72 h each and then filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC50 = 309.16, 337.58, 390.42, 429.68, and 513.34 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC50 = 334.78, 366.45, 422.97, 467.94, and 54.02 ppm, respectively. Spinosad against the A. stephensi had values of LC50 = 384.19, 433.39, 479.17, 519.79, and 572.63 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC50 = 210.68, 241.20, 264.93, 283.27, and 305.85 ppm, respectively. Moreover, in combined treatment, the A. stephensi had values of LC50 = 202.36, 224.76, 250.84, 288.05, and 324.05 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC50 = 217.70, 246.04, 275.36, 315.29, and 353.80 ppm, respectively. Results showed that the leaf extract of O. thymiflorus and bacterial insecticide spinosad are promising as a good larvicidal and pupicidal against dengue vector, A. aegypti and malarial vector, A. stephensi. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of target species of vector control programs.

435) Bioactivity of plant extracts on the larval and pupal stages of Aedes aegypti(Diptera, Culicidea)
Autor: Candido, Lafayette Pereira; Cavalcanti, Monica Tejo; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa
Assunto: Larvicidal; Control; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 46, n. 4, p. 420-425, 2013.
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Introduction Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of the dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Cnidosculos phyllacanthus, Ricinus communis, and Coutarea hexandra on the developmental periods of A.aegypti larvae and pupae. Crude extracts of C. phyllacanthus and C. hexandra and oil from R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were used. Methods Bioassays of the larvicidal and pupicidal effects of these products at different concentrations and times of exposure were evaluated. The lethal and sublethal effects were determined using different concentrations in larvicidal tests. Mortality data were evaluated by Probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values. Results The vegetable oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater efficiency for larval control with an LC50=0.28 mu l/mL and an LC90=1.48 mu l/mL and LC50=0.029 mu l/mL and a LC90=0.26 mu l/mL, respectively. In pupal tests toxic effects for all insects were verified after exposure to the products at significant LC50 and LC90 values for 24 and 48h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of C. phyllacanthus (oil) were more effective on the insects. Conclusions The vegetables oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater potential from the control of different developmental periods in the life cycle of this insect.

436) Phylogeography and spatio-temporal genetic variation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) populations in the Florida keys
Autor: Brown, Julia E.; Obas, Vanessa; Morley, Valerie; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Florida Keys; Population genetics; Dengue; Microsatellites
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 2, p. 294-299, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti(L.) is the principal mosquito vector of dengue fever, the second-most deadly vector-borne disease in the world. In Ae. aegypti and other arthropod disease vectors, genetic markers can be used to inform us about processes relevant to disease spread, such as movement of the vectors across space and the temporal stability of vector populations. In late 2009, 27 locally acquired cases of dengue fever were reported in Key West, FL. The last dengue outbreak in the region occurred in 1934. In this study, we used 12 microsatellite loci to examine the genetic structure of 10 Ae.aegypti populations from throughout the Florida Keys and Miami to assess gene flow along the region's main roadway, the Overseas Highway. We also assessed temporal genetic stability of populations in Key West to determine whether the recent outbreak could have been the result of a new introduction of mosquitoes. Though a small amount of geographic genetic structure was detected, our results showed high overall genetic similarity among Ae.aegypti populations sampled in southeastern Florida. No temporal genetic signal was detected in Key West populations collected before and after the outbreak. Consequently, there is potential for dengue transmission across southeastern Florida; renewed mosquito control and surveillance measures should be taken.

437) Susceptibility of larval Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) to dengue virus
Autor: Bara, J. J.; Clark, T. M.; Remold, S. K.
Assunto: Viral diseases; Larvae; Pest control; Tissue culture; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 1, p. 179-184, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquitoes vertically transmit many arthropod borne viruses, and as a consequence arboviruses are often present within the larval environment. We tested the hypothesis that Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae were susceptible to dengue virus through two infection methods: exposure to dengue in the larval growth environment via viral supernatant, and exposure to infected tissue culture along with viral supernatant. In addition to investigating for the first time the susceptibility of larval Ae. albopictus to dengue virus, we analyzed the infection rate and viral titer of infected pools of Ae. aegypti when exposed to multiple serotypes of dengue. We found that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were susceptible to the three dengue virus serotypes to which they were exposed regardless of the exposure method and that there were significant differences between the serotypes in infection titer and infection rate. The finding that larval Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to dengue indicates that dengue might be able to spread among larvae within the larval habitat potentially contributing to the persistence of dengue in the environment.

438) Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission
Autor: Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.
Assunto: Pathogens; Biomarkers; Population dynamics; Disease transmission; Public health; Initiation factors; Fat body; Cuticles; Electron transfer; Mass spectroscopy; Longevity; Post-translation; Multivariate analysis; Superoxide dismutase; Dengue; Manganese; Bioindicators; Risk factors; Abundance; Mass spectrometry; Proteins; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting mosquito longevity.

439) Efficacy of Various Larvicides against Aedes aegypti Immatures in the Laboratory
Autor: Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Southern Taiwan; Israelensis BTI; Pyriproxyfen; Containers; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 66, n. 4, p. 341-344, 2013
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos.

440) First screening of Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins
Autor: Doucoure, S.; Cornelie, S.; Patramool, S.; Mouchet, F.; Demettre, E.; Seveno, M.; Dehecq, J. S.; Rutee, H.; Herve, J. P.; Favier, F.; Misse, D.; Gasque, P.; Remoue, F.
Assunto: Screening; Molecular biology; Antibodies; Proteins; Biomarkers; Aquatic insects; Public health; Feeding; Bites; Antigenicity; Vectors; Antibody response; Apyrase; Blood; Immunogenicity; Adenosine deaminase; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 4, p. 411-423, 2013.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Study of the human antibody (Ab) response to Aedes salivary proteins can provide new biomarkers to evaluate human exposure to vector bites. The identification of genus- and/or species-specific proteins is necessary to improve the accuracy of biomarkers. We analysed Aedes albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins by 2D immunoproteomic technology and compared the profiles according to human individual exposure to Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti bites. Strong antigenicity to Ae. albopictus salivary proteins was detected in all individuals whatever the nature of Aedes exposure. Amongst these antigenic proteins, 68% are involved in blood feeding, including D7 protein family, adenosine deaminase, serpin and apyrase. This study provides an insight into the repertoire of Ae. albopictus immunogenic salivary proteins for the first time.

441) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti for dengue virus type 2 is reduced with co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae
Autor: Garza-Hernandez, Javier A.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Blood; Fecundity; Head; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Midgut; Infection; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Metarhizium anisopliae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a worldwide public health problem. There is not an effective vaccine yet; the chemical struggle against its transmitter, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is onerous and erratic, and the community participation to eliminate vector breeding sites is unconfident. Here, we examined mosquitoes fed on human blood mixed with the Dengue virus, by exposure to the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to test whether the fungus halts the viral dissemination from midgut to head in co-infected (CI) insects. We found an overall viral infection rate in CI mosquitoes of 76% but infected or not, most (78%) died before or at day six post-infection; only six (12%) out of 50, survivors had virus in head and were potentially infectious at day seven post-infection. A higher infection (84%) was observed in single-virus infected mosquitoes, but they suffered only 6% mortality after 6 days and 32 (64%) survivors tested positive for virus in head after 7 days. Survival, fecundity and ovaric cycle of CI mosquitoes were reduced in 70, 52 and 40% in comparison to the ones of control. Therefore, if the fungus caused a 5-fold reduction in the number of infectious mosquitoes, it has potential to be evaluated against the Dengue transmitter in field.

442) Colonized Aedes albopictus and its sexual performance in the wild: implications for SIT technology and containment
Autor: Hamady, Dieng; Ruslan, Norrafiza Binti; Ahmad, Abu Hassan;Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu;Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; FuKumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Fadzly, Nik; Ghani, Idris Abd;AbuBakar, Sazaly
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Laboratory strain; Wild strain; Mating affinity; Containment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 1, 2013.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some mosquitoes have an enormous reproductive potential for both themselves and pathogens and mating may contribute to persistence of infection in nature. As Aedes albopictus can transmit flaviviruses both sexually and horizontally, and as infected insects are usually derived from laboratory colonies, we investigated the implications of mating between a long-term laboratory colony of Ae. albopictus and wild populations. Methods: Through a series of mating experiments, we examined the reproductive outcomes of sexual cross-affinity between laboratory-raised and wild adults of Ae. albopictus. Results: The results indicated appreciable mating compatibility between laboratory-reared and wild adults, and equivalent levels of egg production among reciprocal crosses. We also observed comparable larval eclosion in lab females mated with wild males, and increased adult longevity in female offspring from wild females||laboratory males crosses. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that Ae. albopictus can preserve its reproductive fitness over a long period of time in the laboratory environment and has valuable attributes for SIT application. These observations together with the ability to successfully inseminate heterospecific females indicate the potential of Ae. albopictus to act as an ecological barrier if non-sterilized males are massively released in areas occupied by Aedes aegypti. The observed substantial reproductive fitness combined with the capability to reproduce both, itself and viruses illustrates the potential of Ae. albopictus to pose a serious threat if infected and released accidentally.

443) A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals that mRNA decapping restricts bunyaviral replication by limiting the pools of Dcp2-accessible targets for cap-snatching
Autor: Hopkins, Kaycie C.; McLane, Laura M.; Maqbool, Tariq; Panda, Debasis; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Cherry, Sara
Assunto: Dcp2; RNA decapping; RVFV; Bunyavirus; Cap-snatching; RNAi screen
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genes & Development, v. 27, n. 13, p. 1511-1525, 2013
ISSN: 0890-9369
Resumo: Bunyaviruses are an emerging group of medically important viruses, many of which are transmitted from insects to mammals. To identify host factors that impact infection, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila and identified 131 genes that impacted infection of the mosquito-transmitted bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Dcp2, the catalytic component of the mRNA decapping machinery, and two decapping activators, DDX6 and LSM7, were antiviral against disparate bunyaviruses in both insect cells and adult flies. Bunyaviruses 5' cap their mRNAs by "cap-snatching'' the 5' ends of poorly defined host mRNAs. We found that RVFV cap-snatches the 5' ends of Dcp2 targeted mRNAs, including cell cycle-related genes. Loss of Dcp2 allows increased viral transcription without impacting viral mRNA stability, while ectopic expression of Dcp2 impedes viral transcription. Furthermore, arresting cells in late S/early G2 led to increased Dcp2 mRNA targets and increased RVFV replication. Therefore, RVFV competes for the Dcp2-accessible mRNA pool, which is dynamically regulated and can present a bottleneck for viral replication.

444) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Leaves; Larval development; Toxicity tests; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Vectors; Spectroscopy; Infection; Biodegradability; Encephalitis; Insecticides; Dengue; Environmental quality; Nontarget organisms; Plant extracts; Biocides; Culex quinquefasciatus; Malvaceae; Aedes aegypti;
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 12, p. 4073-4085, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mu g/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mu g/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 109.94 mu g/mL and LC90, 202.42 mu g/mL) followed by A. aegypti LC50 (119.32 mu g/mL and LC90, 213.84 mu g/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 130.30 mu g/mL and LC90, 228.20 mu g/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.92, and 41.07 mu g/mL; A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 23.96, and 44.05 mu g/mL; C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 26.13 and 47.52 mu g/mL. These results suggest that the use of S. acuta synthesized silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer biopesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target vector mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant aqueous extract and synthesized nanoparticles.

445) The efficacy of a combined larvicide-adulticide in ultralow volume and fumigant canister formulations in controlling the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwest of Argentina
Autor: Juri, Maria JDantur; Zaidenberg, Mario; Santana, Mirta
Assunto: Aerosols; Pesticides; Survival; Survivorship; Vectors; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Cages; Mortality causes; Mortality; Dengue; Fumigants; Permethrin; Pyriproxyfen; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 3, p. 1237-1246, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of an ultralow volume formulation (ULV) and fumigant canister, containing both permethrin and pyriproxyfen, was compared with that of standard permethrin applications in a field assay conducted in Banda del Rio Sali, Tucuman (north-western Argentina). Five treatment areas were established: first area was sprayed with a ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin, a second area was treated using a fumigant canister containing 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen, the third area was sprayed with a ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen, the fourth area with ULV formulation of 10 % permethrin using a portable aerosol generator and the fifth area was a left untreated area. Immature and adult Aedes aegypti individuals placed in containers and sentinel cages were positioned within the treated and control areas. The effects of treatment and time on larval, pupal and adult survival were tested. We also investigated the effects of treatment and time on the numbers of larval and pupal deaths, on the proportion of larvae that metamorphosed into pupae and adults, and on the proportion of dead adults. Larval A. aegypti survivorship in 250 mL containers revealed a significant treatment effect and significant treatment A time interaction 2 and 24 h after the application of the ULV treatment with 10 % permethrin using the portable aerosol generator. The number of dead larvae in 20 L containers differed significantly by treatment and by time. ULV treatment with 10 % permethrin and 10 % permethrin plus 3 % pyriproxyfen using the cold fogger truck mount ULV resulted in the greatest numbers of dead larvae; most larvae died 2 weeks after application. Adult A. aegypti mortality in all treatments did not differ significantly 2 and 24 h after application. In addition, we found no significant differences in adult mortality between cages exposed at 3 m and those at 6 m from the ULV application line. However, there was a significant difference in adult mortality between the 10 % permethrin treatment applied with cold fogger truck mount ULV and that applied using the portable aerosol generator (P < 0.001). The larval index known as Breteau index (BI) was higher before treatment than after treatment in different areas. After the treatments, the lowest value of BI was observed in the area treated with the fumigant canister formulation, and a long-lasting effect was observed with the formulation of 10 % permethrin and 3 % pyriproxyfen.

446) Genetic mapping of specific interactions between Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue viruses
Autor: Fansiri, Thanyalak; Fontaine, Albin; Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valerie; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H;Jarman, Richard G; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Genomes; Human diseases; Viruses; Genotypes; Hosts; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Molecular modelling; Genetic factors; Data processing; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Genetics, v. 9, n. 8, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Specific interactions between host genotypes and pathogen genotypes (GG interactions) are commonly observed in invertebrate systems. Such specificity challenges our current understanding of invertebrate defenses against pathogens because it contrasts the limited discriminatory power of known invertebrate immune responses. Lack of a mechanistic explanation, however, has questioned the nature of host factors underlying GG interactions. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GG interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes aegypti vectors in nature can be mapped to discrete loci in the mosquito genome and to document their genetic architecture. We developed an innovative genetic mapping strategy to survey GG interactions using outbred mosquito families that were experimentally exposed to genetically distinct isolates of two dengue virus serotypes derived from human patients. Genetic loci associated with vector competence indices were detected in multiple regions of the mosquito genome. Importantly, correlation between genotype and phenotype was virus isolate-specific at several of these loci, indicating GG interactions. The relatively high percentage of phenotypic variation explained by the markers associated with GG interactions (ranging from 7.8% to 16.5%) is consistent with large-effect host genetic factors. Our data demonstrate that GG interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions of the mosquito genome, some of which have a large effect on the phenotype. This finding establishes the existence of tangible host genetic factors underlying specific interactions between invertebrates and their pathogens in a natural system. Fine mapping of the uncovered genetic loci will elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mosquito-virus specificity.

447) ERK signaling couples nutrient status to antiviral defense in the insect gut
Autor: Xu, Jie; Hopkins, Kaycie; Sabin, Leah; Yasunaga, Ari; Subramanian, Harry; Lamborn, Ian; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Cherry, Sara
Assunto: Innate immunity; Enterocytes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 110, n. 37, p. 15025-15030, 2013
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: A unique facet of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infection is that the pathogens are orally acquired by an insect vector during the taking of a blood meal, which directly links nutrient acquisition and pathogen challenge. We show that the nutrient responsive ERK pathway is both induced by and restricts disparate arboviruses in Drosophila intestines, providing insight into the molecular determinants of the antiviral "midgut barrier." Wild-type flies are refractory to oral infection by arboviruses, including Sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, but this innate restriction can be overcome chemically by oral administration of an ERK pathway inhibitor or genetically via the specific loss of ERK in Drosophila intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, we found that vertebrate insulin, which activates ERK in the mosquito gut during a blood meal, restricts viral infection in Drosophila cells and against viral invasion of the insect gut epithelium. We find that ERK's antiviral signaling activity is likely conserved in Aedes mosquitoes, because genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of the ERK pathway affects viral infection of mosquito cells. These studies demonstrate that ERK signaling has a broadly antiviral role in insects and suggest that insects take advantage of cross-species signals in the meal to trigger antiviral immunity.

448) Dengue vector dynamics (Aedes aegypti) influenced by climate and social factors in Ecuador: implications for targeted control
Autor: Ibarra, Anna M. Stewart; Ryan, Sadie J.; Beltran, Efrain; Mejia, Raul; Silva, Mercy; Munoz, Angel
Assunto: Human diseases; Pest control; Population dynamics; Disease transmission; Public health; Spreading; Rainfall; Vectors; Water temperature; Dengue; Perception; Containers; Temperature; Intervention; Storage; Ecology; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 11, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is now the fastest spreading tropical disease globally. Previous studies indicate that climate and human behavior interact to influence dengue virus and vector (Aedes aegypti) population dynamics; however, the relative effects of these variables depends on local ecology and social context. We investigated the roles of climate and socio-ecological factors on Ae. aegypti population dynamics in Machala, a city in southern coastal Ecuador where dengue is hyper-endemic. Methods/Principal findings We studied two proximate urban localities where we monitored weekly Ae. aegypti oviposition activity (Nov. 2010-June 2011), conducted seasonal pupal surveys, and surveyed household to identify dengue risk factors. The results of this study provide evidence that Ae. aegypti population dynamics are influenced by social risk factors that vary by season and lagged climate variables that vary by locality. Best-fit models to predict the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae included parameters for household water storage practices, access to piped water, the number of households per property, condition of the house and patio, and knowledge and perceptions of dengue. Rainfall and minimum temperature were significant predictors of oviposition activity, although the effect of rainfall varied by locality due to differences in types of water storage containers. Conclusions These results indicate the potential to reduce the burden of dengue in this region by conducting focused vector control interventions that target high-risk households and containers in each season and by developing predictive models using climate and non-climate information. These findings provide the region's public health sector with key information for conducting time and location-specific vector control campaigns, and highlight the importance of local socio-ecological studies to understand dengue dynamics. See Text S1 for an executive summary in Spanish.

449) Spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti related to breeding container characteristics in coastal Ecuador: implications for dengue control
Autor: Schafrick, Nathaniel H.; Milbrath, Meghan O.; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Wilson, Mark L.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.
Assunto: Coastal zone; Human diseases; Pest control; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Breeding; Dengue; Dispersal; Containers; Households; Towns; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 4, p. 758-765, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Mosquito management within households remains central to the control of dengue virus transmission. An important factor in these management decisions is the spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti. We measured spatial clustering of Ae. aegypti in the town of Borbo Ecuador and assessed what characteristics of breeding containers influenced the clustering. We used logistic regression to assess the spatial extent of that clustering. We found strong evidence for juvenile mosquito clustering within 20 m and for adult mosquito clustering within 10 m, and stronger clustering associations for containers > or = 40 L than those < 40 L. Aedes aegypti clusters persisted after adjusting for various container characteristics, suggesting that patterns are likely attributable to short dispersal distances rather than shared characteristics of containers in cluster areas. These findings have implications for targeting Ae. aegypti control efforts.

450) Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti mosquito strains varying in vector competence to dengue virus
Autor: Charan, Shakti S.; Pawar, Kiran D.; Severson, David W.; Patole, Milind S.; Shouche, Yogesh S.
Assunto: Human diseases; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Community composition; Infectivity; Dengue; Gene libraries; Abundance; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; rRNA 16S; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Janthinobacterium; Rahnella; Pseudomonas; Pedobacter; Bacillus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 7, p. 2627-2637, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Differences in midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue viruses (DENV), might influence the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to infection by DENV. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, comparative analysis of bacterial communities from midguts of mosquito strains with differential genetic susceptibility to DENV was performed. 16S rRNA gene libraries and real-time PCR approaches were used to characterize midgut bacterial community composition and abundance in three Aedes aegypti strains: MOYO, MOYO-R, and MOYO-S. Although Pseudomonas spp.-related clones were predominant across all libraries, some interesting and potentially significant differences were found in midgut bacterial communities among the three strains. Pedobacter sp.- and Janthinobacterium sp.-related phylotypes were identified only in the MOYO-R strain libraries, while Bacillus sp. was detected only in the MOYO-S strain. Rahnella sp. was found in MOYO-R and MOYO strains libraries but was absent in MOYO-S libraries. Both 16S rRNA gene library and real-time PCR approaches confirmed the presence of Pedobacter sp. only in the MOYO-R strain. Further, real-time PCR-based quantification of 16S rRNA gene copies showed bacterial abundance in midguts of the MOYO-R strain mosquitoes to be at least 10-100-folds higher than in the MOYO-S and MOYO strain mosquitoes. Our study identified some putative bacteria with characteristic physiological properties that could affect the infectivity of dengue virus. This analysis represents the first report of comparisons of midgut bacterial communities with respect to refractoriness and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to DENV and will guide future efforts to address the potential interactive role of midgut bacteria of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in determining vectorial capacity for DENV.

451) A new ovitrap made of slow release natural materials containing pyriproxyfen for aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control
Autor: Juan, Laura; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana
Assunto: Aedes aegypti control; Dengue; Larvicide ovitrap; Pyriproxyfen
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal ff Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 4, p. 916-919, 2013
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: This initial study is aimed to measure the performance of incorporating pyriproxyfen in natural materials with low environmental impact to obtain slow release formulations that can be used as larvicidal or autocidal ovitraps avoiding hatched Aedes aegypti (L.) eggs to emerge as adults. Hollow candles made of beeswax or paraffin: stearin 1: 1 mixture containing pyriproxyfen 0.01 and 0.05% were prepared and used as holding water containers for larval bioassay. Pyriproxyfen was released quickly into the larvae-breeding water. Ae. aegypti larvae were introduced immediately after the addition of tap water to the hollow candles (t = 1 min) or after 1, 4, and 8 h. More than 40% of the larvae did not emerge as adults for t = 1 min, reaching 80-100% when the larvae were added after 1 or 4 h, respectively. The hollow candles were kept at room temperature, and water was replaced every 15 d. Bioassays performed every 30 d showed that the residual activity obtained for both matrices and both concentrations of pyriproxyfen was higher than 360 d, with 100% inhibition of adult emergence.

452) Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae
Autor: Figueira-Mansur, J.; Ferreira-Pereira, A.; Mansur, J. F.; Franco, T. A.; Alvarenga, E. S. L.; Sorgine, M. H. F.; Neves, B. C.; Melo, A. C. A.; Leal, W. S.; Masuda, H.; Moreira, M. F.
Assunto: Gene expression; Molecular biology; Insecticides; Insect larvae; Pest control; Toxicity; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Adenosinetriphosphatase; Vector-borne diseases; Disease transmission; Databases; P-Glycoprotein; Verapamil; Dengue; ATP-binding protein; Yellow fever; Quinidine; RNA-mediated interference; Polymerase chain reaction; Multidrug resistance; Larvicides; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Drosophila melanogaster; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 648-658, 2013.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Re-emergence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, which are both transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been correlated with insecticide resistance. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are ATP-dependent efflux pumps that are involved in the transport of substrates across membranes. Some of these proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we identified a putative P-glycoprotein in the Ae. aegypti database based on its significantly high identity with Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Drosophila melanogaster and human P-gps. The basal ATPase activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in larvae was significantly increased in the presence of MDR modulators (verapamil and quinidine). An eightfold increase in Ae. aegypti P-gp (AaegP-gp) gene expression was detected in temephos-treated larvae as determined by quantitative PCR. To analyse the potential role of AaegP-gp in insecticide efflux, a temephos larvicide assay was performed in the presence of verapamil. The results showed an increase of 24% in temephos toxicity, which is in agreement with the efflux reversing effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AaegP-gp gene caused a significant increase in temephos toxicity (57%). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time in insects that insecticide-induced P-gp expression can be involved in the modulation of insecticide efflux.

453) Essential Oil Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Clinopodium gracile (Benth) Matsum (Labiatae) Aerial Parts against the Aedes albopictus Mosquito
Autor: Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Xin Chao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Clinopodium gracile; Aedes albopictus; Larvicidal activity; Mosquito; Essential oil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 12, n. 5, p. 799-804, 2013
ISSN: 1596-5996
Resumo: Purpose: To determine larvicidal activity of essential oil derived from Clinopodium gracile (Benth.) Matsum. (Labiatae) aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse.Methods: Essential oil of C. gracile aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth larvae of A. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortality recorded at a various essential oil concentrations ranging from 12.5 -200.0 mu g/mL.Results: A total of 34 components of the essential oil of C. gracile were identified. The essential oil has higher content of sesquiterpenoids (70.49 %) than monoterpenoids (12.21 %). The other principal compounds of the essential oil were germacrene D (20.59 %), nootkatone (8.22 %), morillol (7.74 %), beta-elemene (7.38 %), alpha-bergamotene (6.08 %), cis-beta-farnesene (5.47 %) and caryophyllene (5.17 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal activity against A. albopictus with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 42.56 mu g/mL.Conclusion: The findings obtained indicate that the essential oil of C. gracile has potentials for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search for new, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

454) High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the southeast of France
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Caro, Valerie;Diancourt, Laure; Delaunay, Pascal; Grandadam, Marc;Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK) were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN) were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. Methodology and Principal Findings We used two strains of each virus, CHIK and DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM) was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Frejus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi). The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. Conclusions/Significance Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

455) Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of Toddalia asiatica roots against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Liu, Xin Chao; Dong, Hui Wen; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: T-aculeata pers; Culex-quinquefasciatus; Aegypti; Coumarin; Lam; Plants; Larvae; Constituents; Alkaloids; Anopheles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 3, p. 1197-1203, 2013
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from roots of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. and the isolated constituents against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of T. asiatica roots was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 58 components of the essential oil of T. asiatica roots were identified. The essential oil has almost same content of (35.41 %) of sesquiterpenoids and monoterpenoids (31.87 %). The principal compounds in T. asiatica essential oil were geraniol (9.84 %), d-limonene (7.52 %), isopimpinellin (6.62 %), alpha-gurjunene (6.25 %), and 4-vinylguaiacol (5.94 %). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, geraniol, d-limonene, and isopimpinellin were isolated from T. asiatica root essential oil. Geraniol, d-limonene, and isopimpinellin exhibited strong larvicidal activity against A. albopictus with LC50 values of 30.13, 19.84, and 32.05 mu g/ml, respectively, while the essential oil of T. asiatica had an LC50 value of 69.09 mu g/ml. The result indicated that the essential oil of T. asiatica roots and the three isolated constituents have potential for use in control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

456) Confusion, knock-down and kill of Aedes aegypti using metofluthrin in domestic settings: a powerful tool to prevent dengue transmission?
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Devine, Gregor J.
Assunto: Landing statistics; Labour; Parasites; Insecticides; Aquatic insects; Longevity; Mortality causes; Mortality; Resins; Vectors; Spraying; Disease transmission; Vapors; Colonies; Dengue; Biting behavior; Pyrethroids; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 1, 2013.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue control methods are reliant upon control of the vector, primarily Aedes aegypti. Current adulticiding methods in North Queensland include treating premises with residual synthetic pyrethroid insecticides (interior residual spraying; IRS), a laborious, intrusive task. The vapor active synthetic pyrethroid metofluthrin might offer an efficient alternative as some studies indicate that it prevents biting and has strong knockdown effects. However, its expellant and/or irritant effects, longevity, residual activity and the speed with which biting behavior is disrupted have not yet been characterized. Methods: We exposed cohorts of Cairns colony (F2-4) Ae. aegypti to rooms (17-24 m super(3)) treated with 5% and 10% AI metofluthrin emanators. Using free-flying and caged populations we measured biting (human landing rate), expulsion through unscreened windows, knockdown and death over periods ranging between a few minutes and 24 hrs. Observations of the behavior of single female Ae. aegypti exposed to metofluthrin were also made. Results: Female Ae. aegypti exposed to 5% or 10% metofluthrin formulations were almost entirely inhibited from biting. This was the result of rapid knockdown and mortality (80-90% in less than one hour) and to the behavioral impacts of exposure that, within minutes, caused female Ae. aegypti to become disoriented, stop landing on hosts, and seek resting sites. Exposed mosquitoes did not exhibit any increased propensity to exit treated rooms and the 10% AI resin remained fully active for at least 20 days. Conclusion: The new, high-dose, resin formulations of metofluthrin act quickly to prevent biting and to knockdown and kill free-flying female Ae. aegypti in our experimental rooms. There was no evidence that metofluthrin induced escape from treated areas. Resin-based metofluthrin emanators show great potential as a replacement for labor intensive IRS for dengue vector control.

457) Comparing autograft, allograft, and tricalcium phosphate ceramic in a goat instrumented posterolateral fusion model
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Delawi, Diyar; Kruyt, Moyo C; Huipin, Yuan; Vincken, Koen L; de Bruijn, Joost D; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter JÁ
Assunto: Animals, Goats, Imaging - Three-dimensional, Models - Animal, Spine - Drug effects, Spine - Radiography, Tomography - X-Ray Computed
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, v. 19, n. 11, p. 821-828, 2013.
ISSN: 1937-3384
Resumo: The most common application of bone grafts is spinal fusion surgery, in which the use of iliac crest autograft is the gold standard. Harvesting of autograft, however, requires an extra surgical procedure, which is associated with additional morbidity. Allograft is the well-known alternative, but it is generally considered less effective in posterior fusions. Therefore, the need for an effective alternative remains. Recently, it was shown that ceramics can be endowed with biologically instructive properties by changing the basic parameters of the material. In this study, we compared a novel tricalcium phosphate ceramic (TCP) to iliac crest autograft and allograft, in instrumented posterolateral fusions in a goat model. A total of nine goats were included, who underwent a two-level lumbar fusion. Each side of the spine was randomized into one type of graft: iliac crest autograft; fresh-frozen allograft; TCP alone; or TCP combined with local autograft (50:50). The fusion rates after 16 weeks were comparable between the groups (autograft 3/8, allograft 4/8, TCP 4/8, and TCP/local autograft 5/8). Calculation of the fusion volume on computed tomography images, showed significantly greater volume in the control groups (autograft 7.8 mL and allograft 8.9 mL) compared with the groups with TCP (TCP 6.1 mL and TCP/local autograft 6.0 mL). No adverse tissue response was seen on histological analysis and TCP was almost completely resorbed. The results demonstrate that TCP is capable of achieving fusion at a similar rate to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral fusions, while almost completely resorbing within 16 weeks. Despite the lower fusion volume, the TCP is a promising alternative circumventing the disadvantages of autograft and allograft. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

458) Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors
Autor: Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Thiyagarajan, Perumal; William, Samuel John
Assunto: Human diseases; Repellents; Leaves; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Methanol; Filariasis; Malaria; Infection; Morbidity; Hypersensitivity; Insecticides; Dengue; Yellow fever; Forearm; Mortality; Vectors; Toxicity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Acalypha; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 3, p. 1205-1219, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC50 values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm2 were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100 % with methanol extract of A. alnifolia was exerted at 125 and 300 ppm. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (water bodies system) of vector mosquitoes, and hence, these plant extracts are suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for mosquito vector management.These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito ovicidal, repellent and adulticidal activities of these plant extracts against mosquito vector species from India.

459) Essential role of amino acids in alpha D-beta 4 loop of a Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin in binding and complex formation on lipid membrane
Autor: Suktham, Kunat; Pathaichindachote, Wanwarang; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Cytolytic toxin; Membrane binding; Mutagenesis; Oligomerization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Toxicon, v. 74, p. 130-137, 2013
ISSN: 0041-0101
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis produces Cyt2Aa2 toxin that shows in vivo specific toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae but exhibits in vitro cytolytic activity to a broad-spectrum of cells including red blood cells. Two mutant toxins have been generated by introducing a small hydrophobic alanine into positions Thr-144 and Asn-145 in alpha D-beta 4 loop. Both mutants were highly expressed as crystalline inclusions that were solubilized in alkaline conditions and processed by chymotrypsin to yield activated products similar to that of the wild type protein. The T144A mutant shows lower hemolytic activity but exhibits larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae comparable to the wild type. In contrast, loss of mosquito-larvicidal and hemolytic activities was observed for the N145A mutant. Membrane interaction assays shows that the T144A mutant binds and forms complexes on liposomes, sheep red blood cells and brush border membrane fractions (BBMF) from A. aegypti larvae whereas the N145A mutant did not bind to these membranes. Our data suggested that amino acids in alpha D-beta 4 loop are important for specific binding and play a key role during toxin complex formation to lyse the targeted cell membranes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

460) Oviposition substrate selection by Florida mosquitoes in response to pathogen-infected conspecific larvae
Autor: Nalen, Catherine MZettel; Allan, Sandra A.; Becnel, James J.; Kaufman, Phillip E.
Assunto: Biological control; Pest control; Hosts; Spawning; Pathogens; Larval development; Oviposition; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Conspecifics; Vectors; Development; Eggs; Culex quinquefasciatus; Nuclear polyhedrosis virus; Aedes aegypti; Culex nigripalpus; Vavraia culicis; Edhazardia aedis; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 38, n. 1, p. 182-187, 2013.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The impact of the presence of larval mosquito pathogens with potential for biological control on oviposition choice was evaluated for three mosquito species/pathogen pairs present in Florida. These included Aedes aegypti infected with Edhazardia aedis, Aedes albopictus infected with Vavraia culicis, and Culex quinquefasciatus infected with Culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV). Two-choice oviposition bioassays were performed on each host and pathogen species with one oviposition cup containing infected larvae and the other cup containing uninfected larvae (control). Both uninfected and E. aedis-infected female Ae. aegypti laid significantly fewer eggs in oviposition cups containing infected larvae. Uninfected gravid female Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus oviposited equally in cups containing uninfected larvae or containing larvae infected with V. culicis or CuniNPV, respectively. Gravid female Ae. albopictus infected with V. culicis did not display ovarian development and did not lay eggs. The decreased oviposition by gravid Ae. aegypti in containers containing E. aedis-infected larvae may indicate that the infected larvae produce chemicals deterring oviposition.

461) The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology
Autor: Gulley, Melissa M.; Zhang, Xin; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Infectious disease; Serpin; Innate immunity; Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 2, p. 138-147, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: In vector-borne diseases, the complex interplay between pathogen and its vector's immune system determines the outcome of infection and therefore disease transmission. Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions. Their control over regulatory proteolytic cascades ultimately decides whether the recognition of a pathogen will lead to an appropriate immune response. In mosquitoes, serpins (SRPNs) regulate the activation of prophenoloxidase and thus melanization, contribute to malaria parasite lysis, and likely Toll pathway activation. Additionally, in culicine mosquitoes, SRPNs are able to regulate hemostasis in the vertebrate host, suggesting a crucial role during bloodfeeding. This review summarizes the annotation, transcriptional regulation, and current knowledge of SRPN function in the three mosquito species for which the complete genome sequence is available. Additionally, we give a brief overview of how SRPNs may be used to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases.

462) TALEN-based gene disruption in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Allelles; Nucleotide sequence; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Pigmentation; Gene disruption; KMO gene; Animal models; Nuclease; Vectors; Models; Dengue; DNA; Progeny; Embryos; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition to its role as the primary vector for dengue viruses, Aedes aegypti has a long history as a genetic model organism for other bloodfeeding mosquitoes, due to its ease of colonization, maintenance and reproductive productivity. Though its genome has been sequenced, functional characterization of many Ae. aegypti genes, pathways and behaviors has been slow. TALE nucleases (TALENs) have been used with great success in a number of organisms to generate site-specific DNA lesions. We evaluated the ability of a TALEN pair to target the Ae. aegypti kmo gene, whose protein product is essential in the production of eye pigmentation. Following injection into pre-blastoderm embryos, 20-40% of fertile survivors produced kmo alleles that failed to complement an existing khw mutation. Most of these individuals produced more than 20% white-eyed progeny, with some producing up to 75%. Mutant alleles were associated with lesions of 1-7 bp specifically at the selected target site. White-eyed individuals could also be recovered following a blind intercross of G1 progeny, yielding several new white-eyed strains in the genetic background of the sequenced Liverpool strain. We conclude that TALENs are highly active in the Ae. aegypti germline, and have the potential to transform how reverse genetic experiments are performed in this important disease vector.

463) Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic
Autor: Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Population genetics; Rainy season; Invasive Species; DNA; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Disease transmission; Geographical distribution; Data processing; Sympatric populations; Gene polymorphism; Abundance; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Forests; Habitat; Indigenous species; Mitochondrial DNA; nfestation; Haplotypes; Dengue; COI protein; Introduced species; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 2, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors of human arboviral diseases such as dengue and chikungunya. Ae. aegypti is indigenous in the Central African Republic (CAR), whereas Ae. Albopictus, originating from Asian forests, was first reported in 2009. To determine the consequences of this invasion of Ae. albopictus for epidemiological transmission of arboviruses, we conducted a comparative study in the early and late wet season in the capital, Bangui, and in the other main cities of the country to document infestation by the two species and their ecological preferences. In addition, we explored the geographical origin of populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes (COI and ND5). We demonstrate that Ae. aegypti predominates early and Ae. albopictus late in the wet season. Ae. albopictus was the most prevalent species in almost all the sites investigated, except Bouar, where only Ae. aegypti was found, suggesting that Ae. albopictus tends to supplant Ae. aegypti in sympatric areas. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus. Phylogeographical analysis with MtDNA COI gene suggested that Ae. albopictus in CAR came from multiple invasions and from multiple population sources.

464) Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana
Autor: Gois, Roberto Wagner da Silva; Sousa, Leoncio Mesquita de;Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues;Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos;Braz-Filho, Raimundo
Assunto: Molecular structure; Bioassays; Pesticides; Larvae; Metabolites; Toxicity tests; Mortality causes; Mortality; Data processing; Dichloromethane; Ethyl acetate; Methanol; Roots; Ethers; n-Hexane; Larvicides; Ethanol; Aedes aegypti; Bauhinia; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 7, p. 2753-2757, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 mu g/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 mu g/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC50 values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 plus or minus 1.8 mu g/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide.

465) A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model
Autor: Okamoto, Kenichi W.; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Strains; Aquatic insects; Damping; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Immigration; Vector-borne diseases; Vectors; Stochasticity; Genetic drift; Stochastic models; Migrants; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ;Aedes aegypti - Transmission; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population red