Mecanismos de imunopatogenicidade

1) Specific biomarkers associated with neurological complications and congenital central nervous system abnormalities from Zika Virus-Infected patients in Brazil
Autor: Kam, Yiu-Wing; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Lum, Fok-Moon; Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Lee, Bernett; Judice, Carla C.; Teixeira, Daniel Augusto de Toledo; Andreata-Santos, Robert; Vinolo, Marco A.; Angerami, Rodrigo; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Freitas, Andre Ricardo Ribas; Amaral, Eliana; Passini Junior, Renato; Costa, Maria Laura; Guida, José Paulo; Arns, Clarice Weis; Ferreira, Luis Carlos S.; Rénia, Laurent; Proença-Modena, Jose Luiz; Costa, Fabio T. M.
Assunto: Viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 216, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2017
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked to different levels of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild rash and fever to severe neurological complications and congenital malformations. We investigated the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the immune mediators profile in 95 acute ZIKV-infected adult patients from Campinas, Brazil. These patients included 6 pregnant women who later delivered during the course of this study. Clinical observations were recorded during hospitalization. Levels of 45 immune mediators were quantified using multiplex microbead-based immunoassays. Whereas 11.6% of patients had neurological complications, 88.4% displayed mild disease of rash and fever. Several immune mediators were specifically higher in ZIKV-infected patients, and levels of interleukin 10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and hepatocyte growth factor differentiated between patients with or without neurological complications. Interestingly, higher levels of interleukin 22, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, TNF-?, and IP-10 were observed in ZIKV-infected pregnant women carrying fetuses with fetal growth-associated malformations. Notably, infants with congenital central nervous system deformities had significantly higher levels of interleukin 18 and IP-10 but lower levels of hepatocyte growth factor than those without such abnormalities born to ZIKV-infected mothers. This study identified several key markers for the control of ZIKV pathogenesis. This will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection in patients.

2) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

3) Characteristics of dysphagia in infants with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika Virus infection, Brazil, 2015
Autor: Leal, Mariana C.; Linden, Vanessa van der; Bezerra, Thiago P.; Valois, Luciana de; Borges, Adriana C.G.; Antunes, Margarida M.C.; Brandt, Kátia G.; Moura, Catharina X.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Ximenes, Coeli R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 8, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Those delays, combined with marked oral dysfunction, increased the risk for aspiration of food, particularly liquid foods. Dysphagia resulting from congenital Zika virus syndrome microcephaly can develop in infants >3 months of age and is severe.

4) Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells mediate cross-protection against subsequent Zika virus challenge
Autor: Wen, Jinsheng; Ngono, Annie Elong; Regla-Nava, Jose Angel; Kim, Kenneth; Gorman, Matthew J.; Diamond, Michael S.; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Antibodies; CD8-positive T cells; Dengue virus; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Nature Communications, n. 1459, 2017
ISSN: 2041-1723
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. Whether pre-existing DENV immunity can cross-protect or enhance ZIKV infection during sequential infection of the same host is unknown. Here, we show that DENV-immune Ifnar1?/? or wild-type C57BL/6 mice infected with ZIKV have cross-reactive immunity to subsequent ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8+ T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV. In contrast, passive transfer studies suggest that DENV-immune serum does not protect against ZIKV infection. Thus, CD8+ T cell immunity generated during primary DENV infection can confer protection against secondary ZIKV infection in mice. Further optimization of current DENV vaccines for T cell responses might confer cross-protection and prevent antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection.

5) Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: a developmental study
Autor: Xavier-Neto, José; Carvalho, Murilo; Pascoalino, Bruno dos Santos; Cardoso, Alisson Campos; Costa, Ângela Maria Sousa; Pereira, Ana Helena Macedo; Santos, Luana Nunes; Saito, Ângela; Marques, Rafael Elias; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Bandeira, Carla; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Bajgelman, Marcio Chaim; Oliveira, Bajgelman, Paulo Sérgio; Cordeiro, Mario Tenorio; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Granato, Daniela Campos; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Freitas, Carolina Borsoi Moraes Holanda de; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Bevilacqua, Estela; Franchini, Kleber
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 2, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans) produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc) embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5-9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities correlated with damage to the placenta, particularly to the labyrinthine layer, suggesting that circulatory changes are integral to the altered phenotypes.

6) Presence and persistence of Zika Virus RNA in semen, United Kingdom, 2016
Autor: Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Aarons, Emma J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 4, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged

7) Congenital Zika Virus infection induces severe spinal cord injury
Autor: Ramalho, Fernando S.; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Silva, Luis L. da; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Rocha, Lenaldo B.; Neder, Luciano; Teixeira, Sara R.; Apolinário, Letícia A.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.; Silva, Deisy M.; Coutinho, Conrado M.; Melli, Patrícia P.; Augusto, Marlei J.; Santoro, Ligia B.; Duarte, Geraldo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Spinal cord injury; Cortical atrophy; Cerebellar aplasia
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 65, n. 4, p. 687-690, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: We report 2 fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss, and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for ZIKV RNA.

8) First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas
Autor: Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen,Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R.; Ladner, Jason T.; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya Virus - qRTPCR
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 6, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

9) Climate variability, vulnerability, and natural disasters: a case study of Zika Virus in Manabi, Ecuador following the 2016 earthquake
Autor: Sorensen, Cecilia J.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Calvello-Hynes, Emilie; Diaz, Avriel; Lemery, Jay; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: GeoHealth, v. 1, n. 8, p. 298-304, 2017
ISSN: 2471-1403
Resumo: Climate change presents complex and wide-reaching threats to human health. A variable and changing climate can amplify and unmask ecological and socio-political weaknesses and increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in socially vulnerable regions. When natural disasters occur in such areas, underlying climatic conditions may amplify the public health crisis. We describe an emerging epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Ecuador following the 2016 earthquake, which coincided with an exceptionally strong El Niño event. We hypothesize that the trigger of a natural disaster during anomalous climate conditions and underlying social vulnerabilities were force multipliers contributing to a dramatic increase in ZIKV cases postearthquake.

10) Evaluation of possible consequences of Zika Virus infection in the developing nervous system
Autor: Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Vedovello, Danila; Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Takada, Silvia Honda; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Whalley, Benjamin J.; Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki
Assunto: Neurodevelopment; Disease; Infection; Virulence; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Viral infections
Fonte: Molecular Neurobiology, 2017
ISSN: 1559-1182
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak that occurred in the northeast of Brazil in 2015 led to alarming numbers of babies born with microcephaly in this region. Since then, several studies have evaluated the relationship between ZIKV infection and development of the malformation although the specific mechanistic interaction between ZIKV and human physiological processes that ultimately manifest as microcephaly remains debated. Importantly, most current studies did not consider the specificities of the biology and life cycle of ZIKV. As a consequence, specificities of the infection on the developing central nervous system (CNS) were frequently disregarded. In order to begin to address this important gap in our knowledge, we have collated and critically reviewed the existing evidence in this area to identify any emerging consensus on this topic and thereafter describe possible mechanisms by which ZIKV infection could interfere with specific processes of CNS development, such as neuronal proliferation, and the complex interactions of immature neurons with radial glial cells. With this, we were able to present the current knowledge on this important topic in the neurobiology field.

11) Recurrent potent human neutralizing antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico
Autor: Robbiani, Davide F.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Keeffe, Jennifer R.; Khouri, Ricardo; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer-Babajew, Dennis; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Nogueira, Lilian; Patel, Roshni; Azzopardi, Stephanie A.; Uhl, Lion F.K.; Saeed, Mohsan; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E.; Agudelo, Marianna; Yao, Kai-Hui; Golijanin, Jovana; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; Hurley, Arlene; Caskey, Marina; Pai, Joy; Oliveira, Thiago; Wunder Jr., Elsio A.; Sacramento, Gielson; Nery Jr., Nivison; Orge, Cibele; Costa, Federico; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Thomas, Neena M.; Eisenreich, Thomas; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Almeida, Antonio R.P. de; West Jr., Anthony P.; Rice, Charles M.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ko, Albert I.; MacDonald, Margaret R.; Nussenzwe, Michel C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology
Fonte: Cell, v. 169, n. 4, p. 597-609, 2017
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans.

12) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

13) Structure of the immature Zika virus at 9 Å resolution
Autor: Prasad, Vidya Mangala; Miller, Andrew S.; Klose, Thomas; Sirohi, Devika; Buda, Geeta; Jiang, Wen; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.
Assunto: Electron microscopy; Virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; ZIKV - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; ZIKV - Epidemic
Fonte: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, v. 24, p. 184-186, 2017
ISSN: 1545-9993
Resumo: The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is characterized by severe pathogenicity in both children and adults. Sequence changes in ZIKV since its first isolation are apparent when pre-epidemic strains are compared with those causing the current epidemic. However, the residues that are responsible for ZIKV pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the immature ZIKV at 9-Å resolution. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. However, the immature ZIKV contains a partially ordered capsid protein shell that is less prominent in other immature flaviviruses. Furthermore, six amino acids near the interface between pr domains at the top of the spikes were found to be different between the pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV, possibly influencing the composition and structure of the resulting viruses.

14) Glaucoma and congenital Zika syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Freitas, Bruno de Paula; Ko, ; Khouri, Ricardo; Mayoral, Monica; Henrique, Daniele Freitas; Maia, Maurício; Belfort Jr., Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 0161-6420
Resumo:

15) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

16) Characterizing the pattern of anomalies in congenital Zika syndrome for pediatric clinicians
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moore, Cynthia A. ; Staples, J. Erin ; Dobyns, William B. ; Pessoa, André ; Ventura, Camila V. ; Fonseca, Eduardo Borges da ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Ventura, Liana O. ; Nogueira Neto, Norberto ; Arena, J. Fernando ; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Jama Pediatrics, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3628
Resumo: Zika virus infection can be prenatally passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that intrauterine Zika virus infection is a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies, but the full spectrum of anomalies has not been delineated. To inform pediatric clinicians who may be called on to evaluate and treat affected infants and children, we review the most recent evidence to better characterize congenital Zika syndrome. We reviewed published reports of congenital anomalies occurring in fetuses or infants with presumed or laboratory-confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection. We conducted a comprehensive search of the English literature using Medline and EMBASE for Zika from inception through September 30, 2016. Congenital anomalies were considered in the context of the presumed pathogenetic mechanism related to the neurotropic properties of the virus. We conclude that congenital Zika syndrome is a recognizable pattern of structural anomalies and functional disabilities secondary to central and, perhaps, peripheral nervous system damage. Although many of the components of this syndrome, such as cognitive, sensory, and motor disabilities, are shared by other congenital infections, there are 5 features that are rarely seen with other congenital infections or are unique to congenital Zika virus infection: (1) severe microcephaly with partially collapsed skull; (2) thin cerebral cortices with subcortical calcifications; (3) macular scarring and focal pigmentary retinal mottling; (4) congenital contractures; and (5) marked early hypertonia and symptoms of extrapyramidal involvement. Although the full spectrum of adverse reproductive outcomes caused by Zika virus infection is not yet etermined, a distinctive phenotype—the congenital Zika syndrome—has emerged. Recognition of this phenotype by clinicians for infants and children can help ensure appropriate etiologic evaluation and comprehensive clinical investigation to define the range of anomalies in an affected infant as well as determine essential follow-up and ongoing care

17) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

18) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

19) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

20) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

21) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

22) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

23) Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: African-Green Monkey; Aedes-Aegypti; Monoclonal-Antibodies; Phenotypic Characterization; Evolutionary Genetics; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Emergence; Transmission; Strains; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian Evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from approximate to 120 years to approximate to 315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted.

24) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

25) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Escobar, Luis E.; Qiao, Huijie; Peterson, A. Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa and Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers and the potential geographic spread of this disease.Methods: We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally and cases imported from other countries, and forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries and at finer scales, in terms of ecological features.Results: By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil and more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor and uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term "surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort and reporting.Conclusions: Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive and predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools and data that can inform early-warning systems and public health intelligence.

26) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

27) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

28) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

29) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

30) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

31) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

32) Zika virus and microcephaly: is the correlation, causal or coincidental?
Autor: Liuzzi Giuseppina,Puro Vincenzo,Vairo Francesco,Nicastri Emanuele,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Di Caro Antonino,Piacentini Mauro,Zumla Alimuddin,Ippolito Giuseppe
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The New Microbiologica, v. 39, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1121-7138
Resumo:

33) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

34) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

35) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y.; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, n. , p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHUN drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKN on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

36) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K,Cherpillod P,Kaiser L,Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya, Zika, dengue, diagnostic algorithm, outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

37) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

38) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

39) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

40) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

41) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

42) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

43) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

44) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

45) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

46) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

47) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

48) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

49) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study
Autor: Cauchemez Simon,Besnard Marianne,Bompard Priscillia,Dub Timothée,Guillemette-Artur Prisca,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique,Salje Henrik,Van Kerkhove Maria D,Abadie Véronique,Garel Catherine,Fontanet Arnaud,Mallet Henri-Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has coincided with increased reports of babies born with microcephaly. On Feb 1, 2016, WHO declared the suspected link between Zika virus and microcephaly to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This association, however, has not been precisely quantified. We retrospectively analysed data from a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, which was the largest documented outbreak before that in the Americas. We used serological and surveillance data to estimate the probability of infection with Zika virus for each week of the epidemic and searched medical records to identify all cases of microcephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were used to assess periods of risk in pregnancy when Zika virus might increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. The Zika virus outbreak began in October, 2013, and ended in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62-70) of the general population were infected. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the 4-month period March 1 to July 10, 2014. The timing of these cases was best explained by a period of risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the baseline prevalence of microcephaly was two cases (95% CI 0-8) per 10 000 neonates, and the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection was 95 cases (34-191) per 10 000 women infected in the first trimester. We could not rule out an increased risk of microcephaly from infection in other trimesters, but models that excluded the first trimester were not supported by the data. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and neonates whose mothers are infected with Zika virus. Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund, EU-PREDEMICS.

50) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

51) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

52) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno, Manoel, Sacramento, Gielson A., Khouri, Ricardo, do Rosário, Mateus S., Costa, Federico, Archanjo, Gracinda, Santos, Luciane A., Jr.Nery, Nivison, Vasilakis, Nikos, Ko, Albert I., de Almeida, Antonio R. P.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Hydrops fetalis, Microcephaly, Fetal growth retardation, Ultrasonic imaging, Case studies
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

53) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

54) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

55) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

56) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

57) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

58) Zika virus and microcephaly: Why is this situation a PHEIC?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heymann D.L., Hodgson A., Sall A.A., Freedman D.O., Staples J.E., Althabe F., Baruah K., Mahmud G., Kandun N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Bino S., Menon K.U.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 719-721, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

59) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

60) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

61) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

62) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

63) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi, Ouafae, Goorhuis, Abraham, Schinkel, Janke, Codrington, John, Vreden, Stephen Gerold S., Vermaat, Joost S., Stijnis, Cornelis, Grobusch, Martin Peter
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhage, Travel - Health aspects, Polymerase chain reaction - Diagnostic use, Intravenous immunoglobulins
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939-940, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the case of a Netherlands-based patient with Zika virus infection who presented with thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleeding. Topics discussed include complaints reported by the patient several days after traveling to Suriname, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and the management of thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulins.

64) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

65) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres C.F.J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

66) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

67) Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana, Hills, Susan L., Williams, Charnetta, Galang, Romeo R., Iyengar, Preetha, Hennenfent, Andrew K., Rabe, Ingrid B., Panella, Amanda, Oduyebo, Titilope, Honein, Margaret A., Zaki, Sherif, Lindsey, Nicole, Lehman, Jennifer A., Kwit, Natalie, Bertolli, Jeanne, Ellington, Sascha, Igbinosa, Irogue, Minta, Anna A., Petersen, Emily E., Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Pregnant women - Travel, Pregnancy, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Miscarriage
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

68) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

69) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

70) Zika virus : Another call for paradigm shift in disease control strategy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Banerjee, Amitav
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 288, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

71) Infection disease surveillance update.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zwizwai, Ruth
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Communicable diseases, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Public health, Vaccination
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 299, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

72) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

73) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

74) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubin, Eric J., Greene, Michael F., Baden, Lindsey R.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Infants - Health, Pregnancy complications, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working . . .

75) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

76) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

77) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas -- Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan, Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Flaviviral diseases, Prevention, Mosquito control, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n.3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about transmission of Zika virus among several regions of the U.S. in January 2016, is presented. Topics include identification of disease as mosquito-borne flavivirus in Uganda in 1947, observation of infection among travelers of the U.S., prevention of the disease including restriction of mosquito breeding areas, and suspension of travel plans by pregnant woman to avoid transmission.

78) Zika virus in the dock
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 265, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

79) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

80) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

81) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope, Petersen, Emily E., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Mead, Paul S., Meaney-Delman, Dana, Renquist, Christina M., Ellington, Sascha R., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Powers, Ann M., Villanueva, Julie, Galang, Romeo R., Dieke, Ada, Muñoz, Jorge L., Honein, Margaret A., Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Prenatal care, Medical care - United States, Serodiagnosis, Health boards, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and recommendation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for care providers to contact with health department for assistance with test interpretation.

82) Zika virus: Time to move from case reports to case control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Baud D.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

83) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

84) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

85) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E., Nelson, Jennifer M., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Karwowski, Mateusz P., Mead, Paul, Villanueva, Julie, Renquist, Christina M., Minta, Anna A., Jamieson, Denise J., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A., Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Flaviviral diseases, Microcephaly, Infants - Health, Children - Health, Viral diseases in children, Viral diseases in pregnancy, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 65, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article discusses the interim guidelines issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016 for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection. Topics include routine care of infants born to mothers who resided in or traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy, evaluation and testing of infants and children with possible congenital Zika virus infection and the steps to prevent Zika virus infection.

86) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

87) The Potential Hidden Toll of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Infants, Mental health, Zika virus infections, Schizophrenia in children, Mother & infant, Autism in children, Children, Bipolar disorder in children, Viral diseases in children, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57151, p. D1-D5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the possibility that infants born to mothers who were infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy may suffer from various mental health issues later in life, and it mentions how the Zika virus resembles infectious agents that have been linked to the development of medical and mental conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In utero illnesses and viral infections are examined, along with the health of children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

88) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

89) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

90) Zika could infect 4 million; U.S. impact likely small
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sullivan, Michele G.
Assunto: Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Internal Medicine News , v. 49, n. 3, p. 6, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

91) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

92) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor, Gil
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Rubella, Fetal development, Autism spectrum disorders
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, 2016
ISSN: 10467408
Resumo: The author discusses a study conducted by researchers in Brazil on link between Zika infection of pregnant women and microcephaly developmental abnormality of the brain cortex. He mentions the risk of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. He also mentions that the risk of fetal developmental problems such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be increased due to Maternal immune activation (MIA) as a result of microbial infections.

93) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

94) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

95) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

96) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

97) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

98) Zika virus.
Autor: Lopes Marta Heloisa,Miyaji Karina Takesaki,Infante Vanessa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista da Associac?a?o Me?dica Brasileira, v. 62, n. 1, p. 4-9, 2016
ISSN: 0104-4230
Resumo:

99) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

100) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor G.
Assunto: brain development, fetal brain, inflammation, placenta, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1600-0897 (electronic),1046-7408
Resumo:

101) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

102) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi O., Goorhuis A., Schinkel J., Codrington J., Vreden S.G.S., Vermaat J.S., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: bleeding, thrombocytopenia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939–940, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

103) CDC expands Zika virus travel warnings.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oakes, Kari.
Assunto: Obstetrics and gynecology; Medical specialties
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: OB GYN News, v. 51, n. 2, p. 2, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

104) Ocular symptoms accompany Zika microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Smith, Jennie
Assunto: Pediatrics; Medical specialties; Family medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Pediatric News, v. 50, n. 3, p. 18, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

105) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

106) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

107) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

108) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

109) Zika virus.
Autor: Basarab Marina,Bowman Conor,Aarons Emma J,Cropley Ian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

110) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016.
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

111) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

112) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

113) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

114) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.
Autor: de Paula Freitas Bruno,de Oliveira Dias João Rafael,Prazeres Juliana,Sacramento Gielson Almeida,Ko Albert Icksang,Maia Maurício,Belfort Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ?32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

115) Preventing Zika Virus Infections in Pregnant Women: An Urgent Public Health Priority.
Autor: Bell Beth P,Boyle Coleen A,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 589-590, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo:

116) Zika virus: a flavivirus caused pandemics in Latin America.
Autor: Liu Si-Qing,Zhang Bo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Virologica Sinica, 2016
ISSN: 1995-820X
Resumo:

117) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

118) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

119) The Emerging Zika Virus Epidemic in the Americas: Research Priorities.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Stringer Elizabeth M,de Silva Aravinda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

120) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

121) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

122) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

123) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

124) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

125) Fear of Zika Virus spreads To US
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, Opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Inflammation
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

126) Zika virus: medical countermeasure development challenges.
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

127) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

128) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

129) Zika virus infection.
Autor: MacFadden Derek R,Bogoch Isaac I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329
Resumo:

130) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

131) Zika virus in the dock.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, null, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Molecular diagnosis, Cross reactions (Immunology), Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n.3, p. 265, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

132) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

133) Time for global action on Zika virus epidemic.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: British Medical Association ,v. 352, p. 1781, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

134) New Study Links Zika Virus to Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Betsy
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus, Public health, Immunology
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

135) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

136) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

137) Zika virus outbreak: 'a perfect storm'.
Autor: Ai Jing-Wen,Zhang Ying,Zhang Wenhong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo:

138) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

139) Zika virus: management of infection and risk.
Autor: Ahmad Shazaad S Y,Amin Tejal N,Ustianowski Andrew
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: British Medical Association, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

140) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

141) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Autor: Roa Mónica
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

142) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

143) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

144) 4 facts to know about the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Medical practice management; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Economics, v. 93, n. 5, p. 23, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

145) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

146) Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015–January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth — Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Linden, Vanessa van der ; Pessoa, André ; Dobyns, William ; Barkovich, A. James ; Liden Júnior, Hélio van der ; Rolim Filho, Epitacio Leite ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho ; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo ; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco ; Ventura, Islane Verçosa; Camila ; Ramos, Regina Coeli ; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa ; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório ; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro ; Dott, Mary ; Hillard, Christina ; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 47, p. 1343-1348, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

147) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

148) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

149) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

150) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N,O'Connor Catherine,Kirkbride Hilary,Brooks Tim,Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

151) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

152) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

153) Rapid molecular detection of Zika virus in urine using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wahed, Ahmed Abd El ; Sanabani, Sabri S. ; Faye, Oumar ; Pessoa, Rodrigo ; Patriota, Joao-Veras ; Rodrigues-Giorgi, Rodrigues ; Patel, Pranav ; Boehlken-Fascher, Susanne ; Landt, Olfert ; Niedrig, Matthias ; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A. ; Czerny, Claus-Peter ; Sall, Amadou A. ; Weidmann, Manfred
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Viral infections ; ZIKV - RT-PCR ; ZIKV - PCR detection
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Currently detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92% while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering)

154) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

155) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

156) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

157) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland
Autor: Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko
Assunto: Zika virus; Dengue virus; False positive NS1 antigen; Traveller; Epidemic; Antibody; IGM
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, n. w14296 , 2016.
ISSN: 1424-7860
Resumo: We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceara state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG-antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture, an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG-antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

158) Thermo fisher scientific offers EUROIMMUN anti-Zika virus test kits
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Asian business; International business
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: BioSpectrum Asia, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

159) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

160) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

161) A lipidomics approachinthe characterization of zika - infected mosquito cells: potential targets for breakingthe transmission cycle
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues ; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de ; Lima, Estela de Oliveira ; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina ; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi ; Beck, Raissa Marques ; Padilla, Marina Aiello ; Milanez, Guilherme Paier ; Arns, Clarice Weis ; Proença-Modena, José Luiz ; Souza-Neto, Jayme Augusto ; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 10
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors. Thus, this study aims at establishing a lipidomics profile of infected mosquito cells compared to a control group to define potential targets for viral control in mosquitoes. Thirteen lipids were elected as specific markers for Zika virus infection (Brazilian strain), which were identified as putatively linked to the intracellular mechanism of viral replication and/or cell recognition. Our findings bring biochemical information that may translate into useful targets for breaking the transmission cycle

162) Zika virus infection damages the testes in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govero, Jennifer Govero; Esakky, Prabagaran ; Scheaffer, Suzanne M. ; Fernandez, Estefania ; Drury, Andrea ; Paltt, Derek J. ; Gorman, Matthew J. ; Richner, Justin M. ; Caine, Elizabeth A. ; Salazar, Vanessa ; Moley, Kelle H. ; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto: Viral pathogenesis ; Infection ; Virus-host interactions
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can cause congenital malformations including microcephaly, which has focused global attention on this emerging pathogen1. In addition to transmission by mosquitoes, ZIKV can be detected in the seminal fluid of affected males for extended periods of time and transmitted sexually2. Here, using a mouse-adapted African ZIKV strain (Dakar 41519), we evaluated the consequences of infection in the male reproductive tract of mice. We observed persistence of ZIKV, but not the closely related Dengue virus (DENV), in the testis and epididymis of male mice, and this was associated with tissue injury that caused diminished testosterone and inhibin B levels, and oligospermia. ZIKV preferentially infected spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, and Sertoli cells in the testis, resulting in cell death and destruction of the seminiferous tubules. Less damage was observed with a contemporary Asian ZIKV strain (H/PF/2013), in part because this virus replicates less efficiently in mice. The extent to which these observations in mice translate to humans remains unclear, but longitudinal studies of sperm function and viability in ZIKV-infected humans seem warranted

163) Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sapparapu, Gopal ; Ferandez, Estefania ; Kose, Nurgun ; Cao, Bin; Foz, Julie M. ; Bombardi, Robin G. ; Zhao, Haiyan Zhao ; Nelson, Christopher A. ; Bryan, Aubrey L. ; Barnes, Trevor ; Dabidsin, Edgar ; Mysorekar, Indira U. ; Fremont, Daved H. ; Doranz, Benjamin J. ; Diamond, Michael S. ; Crowe, James E.
Assunto: Virology ; Antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy1. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from subjects with prior ZIKV infection. A subset of mAbs recognized diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibited potently neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory mAbs, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African, Asian, and American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer–dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. mAb treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human mAbs can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts

164) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

165) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

166) Prolonged shedding of zika virus associated with congenital infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oliveira, Danielle B.L. ; Almeida, Flávia J. ; Durigon, Edison L. ; Mendes, Érica A. ; Braconi, Carla T. ; Marchetti, Ivan
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1202-1204, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

167) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

168) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

169) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

170) Fetal infection by zika virus in the third trimester – report of 2 cases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Antonio Soares de ; Dias, Cristiane Moraes ; Braga, Fernanda Del Campo Braojos ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda ; Oliani, Antonio Hélio ; Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique ; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de ; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de ; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda ; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: Zika virus infection acquired during pregnancy was associated with congenital microcephaly. We describe two cases of ZIKV infection in the 36th week of pregnancy whose fetuses had preserved head circumference at birth and findings of subependymal cysts and lenticulostriate vasculopathy in postnatal imaging. These represent the first signs of congenital brain injury acquired due to ZIKV in the third trimester

171) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

172) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

173) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

174) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

175) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

176) Texas enhances zika surveillance in the Rio Grande Valley
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Because of concerns about the Zika risk in an area of Texas where dengue outbreaks have occurred before, Texas state health officials urged medical providers to test pregnant women in six counties for the virus if they have symptoms, regardless of travel history. In other developments, Brazilian researchers who profiled 11 babies with Zika-linked microcephaly found a wide scope of problems, tests on macaques shed more light on how the virus might behave in humans, and Florida reported 6 more locally acquired Zika cases

177) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

178) Zika virus and neurological disease-approaches to the unknown
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solomon T., Baylis M., Brown D.
Assunto: neurologic disease, virus, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

179) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

180) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

181) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

182) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

183) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

184) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

185) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

186) Zika virus infection, the recent menace of the Aedes mosquito
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bajpai, Smrati; Nadkar, Milind Y.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, v. 64, p. 42-45, 2016.
ISSN: 0004-5772
Resumo: Mosquito-borne infections and viral outbreaks have bewildered physicians and population at large from time to time, there seems to be a constant cat and mouse race between the medical fraternity and these mosquito menaces. Zika virus and its vector Aedes aegyti are currently bothering the world population, this infection has affected pregnant women causing microcephaly in their new-borns and also has caused GBS-like manifestations in affected individuals. Currently the outbreak is concentrated in the countries of South American continent, but the omnipresence of its vector has made the world community cautious about the potential of its spread; thus the great emphasis is on prevention and vector control strategies to counter Zika virus attack. Consequently, Ministry of Health, Government of India has also taken cognizance of this and issued guidelines to tackle this problem.

187) Zika Fears Imperil Brazil’s Tourism Push.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Tourism, Public health, Virus diseases, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

188) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

189) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

190) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

191) Maintaining a safe blood supply in an era of emerging pathogens.
Autor: Marks Peter W,Epstein Jay S,Borio Luciana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

192) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, january 2016.
Autor: Rozé Benoît,Najioullah Fatiha,Fergé Jean-Louis,Apetse Kossivi,Brouste Yannick,Cesaire Raymond,Fagour Cédric,Fagour Laurence,Hochedez Patrick,Jeannin Séverine,Joux Julien,Mehdaoui Hossein,Valentino Ruddy,Signate Aïssatou,Cabié André,
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

193) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

194) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

195) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

196) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

197) Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meng, Qian; Yu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Meng-Long; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Zhou, Gui-Ling; Li, Xuan; Qin, Qi-Lian; Hu, Song-Nian; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Hepialus xiaojinensis; Ophiocordyceps sinensis; Transcriptome; Insect immunity; Phylogenetic analysis; Expression profiling; Fat body
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 1-15, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. However, little sequence information is available for this insect. A time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to O. sinensis infection. In total, 50,164 unigenes were obtained by assembling the reads from two high-throughput approaches: 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Hiseq2000. Hierarchical clustering and functional examination revealed four major gene clusters. Clusters 1-3 included transcripts markedly induced by the fungal infection within 72 h. Cluster 4, with a lower number of transcripts, was suppressed during the early phase of infection but returned to normal expression levels sometime before 1 year. Based on sequence similarity to orthologs known to participate in immune defenses, 258 candidate immunity-related transcripts were identified, and their functions were hypothesized. The genes were more primitive than those in other Lepidopteran insects. In addition, lineage-specific family expansion of the clip-domain serine proteases and C-type lectins were apparent and likely caused by selection pressures. Global expression profiles of immunity-related genes indicated that H. xiaojinensis was capable of a rapid response to an O. sinensis challenge; however, the larvae developed tolerance to the fungus after prolonged infection, probably due to immune suppression. Specifically, antimicrobial peptide mRNAs could not be detected after chronic infection, because key components of the Toll pathway (MyD88, Pelle and Cactus) were downregulated. Taken together, this study provides insights into the defense system of H. xiaojinensis, and a basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the interaction between the host and the entomopathogen. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

198) Molecular Characterization Of An Apolipophorin-Iii Gene From The Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea Pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Antheraea Pernyi; Apolipophorin III; Expression; Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 88, n. 3, p. 155-167, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein Sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

199) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

200) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

201) A critical role for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha 2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

202) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

203) Heat shock cognate protein 70 isoform D is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Japanese encephalitis virus in C6136 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chuang, Ching-Kai; Yang, Tsong-Han; Chen, Tien-Huang; Yang, Chao-Fu; Chen, Wei-June
Assunto: C6/36 Mosquito Cells; Mediated Endocytosis; Vero Cells; Molecular Evolution; Bafilomycin A1; Aedes-Aegypti; Entry; Hsc70; Infection; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 96, p. 793-803, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1317
Resumo: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), one of encephalitic flaviviruses, is naturally transmitted by mosquitoes. During infection, JEV generally enters host cells via receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis that requires the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70). Heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) is one member of the Hsp70 family and is constitutively expressed; thus, it may be expressed under physiological conditions. In C6/36 cells, Hsc70 is upregulated in response to JEV infection. Since Hsc70 shows no relationship with viruses attaching to the cell surface, it probably does not serve as the receptor according to our results in the present study. In contrast, Hsc70 is evidently associated with virus penetration into the cell and resultant acidification of intracellular vesicles. It suggests that Hsc70 is highly involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, particularly at the late stage of viral entry into host cells. Furthermore, we found that Hsc70 is composed of at least three isoforms, including B, C and D; of these, isoform D helps JEV to penetrate C6/36 cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This study provides relevant evidence that sheds light on the regulatory mechanisms of JEV infection in host cells, especially on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

204) Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori
Assunto: Cell line; Mosquito; Armigeres subalbatus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, v. 51, n. 7, p. 672-679, 2015
ISSN: 1071-2690
Resumo: Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

205) Genome mining offers a new starting point for Parasitology Research
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao
Assunto: Genomics; Parasite; Host; Drug; Vaccine; Diagnosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 399-409, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical Vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and Vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

206) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

207) Impact of human mobility on the emergence of dengue epidemics in Pakistan
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wesolowski, Amy; Qureshi, Taimur; Boni, Maciej F.; Sundsoy, Pal Roe; Johansson, Michael A.; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Engo-Monsen, Kenth; Buckee, Caroline O.
Assunto: Dengue; Human Mobility; Pakistan; Mobile Phones; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 38, p. 11887-11892, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: The recent emergence of dengue viruses into new susceptible human populations throughout Asia and the Middle East, driven in part by human travel on both local and global scales, represents a significant global health risk, particularly in Areas with changing climatic suitability for the mosquito vector. In Pakistan, dengue has been endemic for decades in the southern port city of Karachi, but large epidemics in the northeast have emerged only since 2011. Pakistan is therefore representative of many countries on the verge of countrywide endemic dengue transmission, where prevention, surveillance, and preparedness are key priorities in previously dengue-free regions. We analyze spatially explicit dengue case data from a large outbreak in Pakistan in 2013 and compare the dynamics of the epidemic to an epidemiological model of dengue virus transmission based on climate and mobility data from similar to 40 million mobile phone subscribers. We find that mobile phone-based mobility estimates predict the geographic spread and timing of epidemics in both recently epidemic and emerging locations. We combine transmission suitability maps with estimates of seasonal dengue virus importation to generate fine-scale dynamic risk maps with direct application to dengue containment and epidemic preparedness.

208) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

209) Innate Antiviral Immunity against Dengue Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Makhluf, Huda; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Interferon; STAT1; STAT2; IRF; ISG
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Critical Reviews in Immunology, v. 35, n. 3, p. 253-260, 2015
ISSN: 1040-8401
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans worldwide, causes dengue fever, a mild form of the disease, as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, a more severe form which can be life-threatening. The four serotypes of DENV (DENV1-4) are positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Together, they are estimated to cause almost 100 million symptomatic cases, 2.1 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, and 21,000 deaths per year worldwide. There are currently no effective Vaccines or antiviral treatment for DENV. Innate immune defenses play a key role in controlling DENV infection in the early stages. Herein we review the innate antiviral immunity against DENV by delineating the intracellular mechanisms of the immune response and the evasion mechanisms evolved by the virus. A better understanding of the innate immune response will impact the development of novel animal models, antiviral drugs as well as potential targeted adjuvants for DENV Vaccines.

210) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle ; Zorrilla, Pilar ; Guidez, Amandine ; Issaly, Jean ; Girod, Romain ; Guillaumot, Laurent ; Robello, Carlos ; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Insecticides, Mutations, Pest control, Home range, Public health, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

211) Live virus Vaccines based on a yellow fever Vaccine backbone: Standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Monath, Thomas P.; Seligman, Stephen J.; Robertson, James S.; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B.; Condit, Richard C.; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T.
Assunto: Vaccines; Yellow fever vaccine; Viral vector; Brighton Collaboration; Risk/benefit assessment; Vaccine safety
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 1, p. 62-72, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral Vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus Vaccines"). Many viral vector Vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such Vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a Vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed Vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this Vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar Vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue Vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This Vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric Vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D Vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus Vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D Vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector Vaccines. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

212) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob B., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: dengue (diagnosis), endemic disease, virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145-146, jul. 2015
ISSN: 0974-6005 (electronic),1755-6783
Resumo:

213) Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ferguson, Neil M.; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Clapham, Hannah; Aguas, Ricardo; Vu Tuan Trung; Tran Nguyen Bich Chau; Popovici, Jean; Ryan, Peter A.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Vo Thi Long; Le Thi Dui; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Population; Mosquito; Establishment; Survival; Fever; Host
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science Translational Medicine, v. 7, n. 279, 2015
ISSN: 1946-6234
Resumo: Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. wMel conferred less resistance to infection of mosquito abdomen tissue, but it did reduce the prevalence of mosquitoes with infectious saliva. A mathematical model of DENV transmission incorporating the dynamics of viral infection in humans and mosquitoes was fitted to the data collected. Model predictions suggested that wMel would reduce the basic reproduction number, R-0, of DENV transmission by 66 to 75%. Our results suggest that establishment of wMelPop-infected A. aegypti at a high frequency in a dengue-endemic setting would result in the complete abatement of DENV transmission. Establishment of wMel-infected A. aegypti is also predicted to have a substantial effect on transmission that would be sufficient to eliminate dengue in low or moderate transmission settings but may be insufficient to achieve complete control in settings where R0 is high. These findings develop a framework for selecting Wolbachia strains for field releases and for calculating their likely impact.

214) Co-infection with zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dupont-Rouzeyrol M., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Daures M., John M., Grangeon J.-P., Gourinat A.-C.
Assunto: Dengue virus, mixed infection, virus, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 381-382, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

215) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

216) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 911-913, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

217) Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pinheiro-Silva, Renato; Borges, Lara; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdes, James J.; do Rosario, Virgilio; de la Fuente, Jose; Domingos, Ana
Assunto: Anopheles Coluzzii; Salivary Glands; Plasmodium Berghei; Sporozoite; RNA-Seq; Glucose Transporter; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 485, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria is a devastating infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Salivary glands are the only mosquito tissue invaded by Plasmodium sporozoites, being a key stage for the effective parasite transmission, making the study of Anopheles sialome highly relevant.Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to compare differential gene expression in salivary glands of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. RNA-seq results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The transmembrane glucose transporter gene AGAP007752 was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The effect of gene silencing on infection level was evaluated. The putative function and tertiary structure of the protein was assessed.Results: RNA-seq data showed that 2588 genes were differentially expressed in mosquitoes salivary glands in response to P. berghei infection, being 1578 upregulated and 1010 downregulated. Metabolism, Immunity, Replication/Transcription/Translation, Proteolysis and Transport were the mosquito gene functional classes more affected by parasite infection. Endopeptidase coding genes were the most abundant within the differentially expressed genes in infected salivary glands (P < 0.001). Based on its putative function and expression level, the transmembrane glucose transporter gene, AGAP007752, was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The results demonstrated that the number of sporozoites was 44.3 % lower in mosquitoes fed on infected mice after AGAPP007752 gene knockdown when compared to control (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the protein encoded by the gene AGAPP007752 may play a role on An. coluzzii salivary glands infection by Plasmodium parasite, working as a sporozoite receptor and/or promoting a favorable environment for the capacity of sporozoites.

218) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

219) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

220) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

221) Twenty-three years after the first record of Aedes albopictus in Nigeria: its current distribution and potential epidemiological implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Adeleke, M. A.; Sam-Wobo, S. O.; Garza-Hernandez, J. A.; Oluwole, A. S.; Mafiana, C. F.; Reyes-Villanueva, F.; Rodriguez-Perez, M. A.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Distribution; Competition; Nigeria
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology , v. 23, n. 2, p. 348-355, 2015
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was first recorded in Nigeria in 1991 during a post epidemiological surveillance of yellow fever epidemics in Delta State. In this report, we present a map of the current distribution of Ae. albopictus and its possible epidemiological implications based on accessible records of mosquito fauna in Nigeria using electronic e-journal searching engines. We also report the results of a field study on population dominance between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in a woodland habitat in southwestern Nigeria between March and November 2002. Of over 100 accessible papers on mosquito fauna in Nigeria, only 18 have reported information on Ae. albopictus. Literature shows that Ae. albopictus became well established in southeastern Nigeria and then spread to other southern regions. There was no information about the species in northern Nigeria except Kano where a record of its breeding was reported. Data showed dominance of Ae. albopictus over Ae. aegypti in southeastern Nigeria but the reverse was observed during a field investigation at Ikenne farmsettlement in southwestern Nigeria. Aedes albopictus was perhaps involved in the transmission of arboviral infections and Bancroftian filariasis in southern Nigeria. Data show that Ae. albopictus is well established in southern Nigeria but not in arid zones of the country. Its establishment and role as a vector of arboviral infections and Bancroftian filariasis in southern Nigeria should be a source of concern. The present report therefore serves as a baseline map for future epidemiological surveillance and the understanding of ecological distribution of Ae. albopictus in the country.

222) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

223) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

224) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

225) Heme Signaling Impacts Global Gene Expression, Immunity and Dengue Virus Infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Drosophila-Melanogaster; Bloodsucking Insect; Rhodnius-Prolixus; Anopheles-Gambiae; Oxidative Stress; Binding Protein; Genome-Wide; Blood Meal; Mosquito; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron-and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

226) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

227) Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Mosquito experimental infection; Cambodia; Aedes aegypti; Human-to-mosquito transmission; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 47, p. 14688-14693, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

228) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

229) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Puerto Rico; Population - Dynamics; Diptera - Culicidae; Oral infection; Transmission; Mosquitos; Susceptibility; America; Temperature; Maintenance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes.MethodsTo compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1-4 per os at viral titers of 5-6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution.ResultsAe. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus.ConclusionsThis study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs.

230) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

231) Parity and Longevity of Aedes aegypti According to Temperatures in Controlled Conditions and Consequences on Dengue Transmission Risks
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric; Gustave, Joel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Blood feeding behavior; L. diptera culicidae; French west indies; Virus transmission; Puerto rico; Vector; Fluctuations; Oviposition; Mosquitos; Patterns
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures (+/- 1.5 degrees C) of 24 degrees C, 27 degrees C and 30 degrees C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degrees C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

232) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I.
Assunto: virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

233) Comparative Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to Dengue Virus Infection After Feeding on Blood of Viremic Humans: Implications for Public Health
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Whitehorn, James; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Nguyet Minh Nguyen; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Kyrylos, Peter P.; Carrington, Lauren B.; Chau Nguyen Bich Tran; Nguyen Thanh Ha Quyen; Long Vo Thi; Dui Le Thi; Nguyen Thanh Truong; Tai Thi Hue Luong; Chau Van Vinh Nguyen; Wills, Bridget; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; susceptibility; transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 212, n. 8, p. 1182-1190, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is secondary to Aedes aegypti as a vector of dengue viruses (DENVs) in settings of endemicity, but it plays an important role in areas of dengue emergence. This study compared the susceptibility of these 2 species to DENV infection by performing 232 direct blood-feeding experiments on 118 viremic patients with dengue in Vietnam. Field-derived A. albopictus acquired DENV infections as readily as A. aegypti after blood feeding. Once infected, A. albopictus permitted higher concentrations of DENV RNA to accumulate in abdominal tissues, compared with A. aegypti. However, the odds of A. albopictus having infectious saliva were lower than the odds observed for A. aegypti (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, .52-.93). These results quantitate the susceptibility of A. albopictus to DENV infection and will assist parameterization of models for predicting disease risk in settings where A. albopictus is present.

234) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

235) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

236) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

237) Maternal Germline-Specific Genes in the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi: Characterization and Application for Disease Control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Pledger, David; James, Anthony A.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Vector Control; Vector-Borne Disease; Transcriptome; An. Stephensi; Gene Drive
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 2, p. 157-166, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: Anopheles stephensi is a principal vector of urban malaria on the Indian subcontinent and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito biology. To enhance our understanding of female mosquito reproduction, and to develop new tools for basic research and for genetic strategies to control mosquito-borne infectious diseases, we identified 79 genes that displayed previtellogenic germline-specific expression based on RNA-Seq data generated from 11 life stage-specific and sex-specific samples. Analysis of this gene set provided insights into the biology and Evolution of female reproduction. Promoters from two of these candidates, vitellogenin receptor and nanos, were used in independent transgenic cassettes for the expression of artificial microRNAs against suspected mosquito maternal-effect genes, discontinuous actin hexagon and myd88. We show these promoters have early germline-specific expression and demonstrate 73% and 42% knockdown of myd88 and discontinuous actin hexagon mRNA in ovaries 48 hr after blood meal, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate maternal-specific delivery of mRNA and protein to progeny embryos. We discuss the application of this system of maternal delivery of mRNA/miRNA/protein in research on mosquito reproduction and embryonic development, and for the development of a gene drive system based on maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest.

238) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

239) Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C, IV
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Adaptations; Pest control; Hygiene; Biopolymorphism; Nucleotides; Public health; Detoxification; Serotypes; Dengue; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Gene flow; Vectors; Evolutionary genetics; Pyrethroids; Migration; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance, Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

240) Mosquitocidal and oviposition repellent activities of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

241) Flavivirus sfRNA suppresses antiviral RNA interference in cultured cells and mosquitoes and directly interacts with the RNAi machinery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moon, Stephanie L.; Dodd, Benjamin J. T.; Brackney, Doug E.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Assunto: Flavivirus; Dengue virus; Kunjin virus; RNA interference; SfRNA; Mosquito; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 485, p. 322-329, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Productive arbovirus infections require mechanisms to suppress or circumvent the cellular RNA interference (RNA pathway, a major antiviral response in mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate that two flaviviruses, Dengue virus and Kunjin virus, significantly repress siRNA-mediated RNAi in infected human cells as well as during infection of the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses generate a small structured non-coding RNA from the viral 3' UTR referred to as sfRNA. Analysis of infections with a mutant Kunjin virus that is unable to generate appreciable amounts of the major sfRNA species indicated that RNAi suppression was associated with the generation of the non-coding sfRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation of sfRNA with RNAi mediators Dicer and Ago2 suggest a model for RNAi suppression. Collectively, these data help to establish a clear role for sfRNA in RNAi suppression and adds to the emerging impact of viral long non-coding RNAs in modulating aspects of anti-viral immune processes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

242) Susceptibility of indigenous and transplanted mosquito spp. to dengue virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Isawa, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Sawabe, Kyoko
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Interspecific relationships; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Aircraft; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

243) Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, S.; Beerntsen, B. T.
Assunto: Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins; RNA Interference; Bacterial Challenge; Survival; Antimicrobial Peptides; Toll And Immunodeficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 293-310, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP Sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial Peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.coli and M.luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.aegypti.

244) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

245) Insect Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins Are Negatively Regulated by Signal-Induced N-Terminal Degrons Absent within Viral IAP Proteins
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vandergaast, Rianna; Mitchell, Jonathan K.; Byers, Nathaniel M.; Friesen, Paul D.
Assunto: Dna-Damage Response; Nuclear Polyhedrosis-Virus; Cell-Lines; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Dominant Interference; Caspase Inhibitors; Promotes Apoptosis; Ubiquitin Ligase; Effector Caspase; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4481-4493, 2015
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key regulators of the innate antiviral response by virtue of their capacity to respond to signals affecting cell survival. In insects, wherein the host IAP provides a primary restriction to apoptosis, diverse viruses trigger rapid IAP depletion that initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis, thereby limiting virus multiplication. We report here that the N-terminal leader of two insect IAPs, Spodoptera frugiperda SfIAP and Drosophila melanogaster DIAP1, contain distinct instability motifs that regulate IAP turnover and apoptotic conSequences. Functioning as a protein degron, the cellular IAP leader dramatically shortened the life span of a long-lived viral IAP (Op-IAP3) when fused to its N terminus. The SfIAP degron contains mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK)-like regulatory sites, responsible for MAPK inhibitor-sensitive phosphorylation of SfIAP. Hyperphosphorylation correlated with increased SfIAP turnover independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of the SfIAP RING, which also regulated IAP stability. Together, our findings suggest that the SfIAP phospho-degron responds rapidly to a signal-activated kinase cascade, which regulates SfIAP levels and thus apoptosis. The N-terminal leader of dipteran DIAP1 also conferred virus-induced IAP depletion by a caspase-independent mechanism. DIAP1 instability mapped to previously unrecognized motifs that are not found in lepidopteran IAPs. Thus, the leaders of cellular IAPs from diverse insects carry unique signal-responsive degrons that control IAP turnover. Rapid response pathways that trigger IAP degradation and initiate apoptosis independent of canonical prodeath gene (Reaper-Grim-Hid) expression may provide important innate immune advantages. Furthermore, the elimination of these response motifs within viral IAPs, including those of baculoviruses, explains their unusual stability and their potent antiapoptotic activity.IMPORTANCEApoptosis is an effective means by which a host controls virus infection. In insects, inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins act as regulatory sentinels by responding to cellular signals that determine the fate of infected cells. We discovered that lepidopteran (moth and butterfly) IAPs, which are degraded upon baculovirus infection, are controlled by a conserved phosphorylation-sensitive degron within the IAP N-terminal leader. The degron likely responds to virus-induced kinase-specific signals for degradation through SKP1/Cullin/F-box complex-mediated ubiquitination. Such signal-induced destruction of cellular IAPs is distinct from degradation caused by well-known IAP antagonists, which act to expel IAP-bound caspases. The major implication of this study is that insects have multiple signal-responsive mechanisms by which the sentinel IAPs are actively degraded to initiate host apoptosis. Such diversity of pathways likely provides insects with rapid and efficient strategies for pathogen control. Furthermore, the absence of analogous degrons in virus-encoded IAPs explains their relative stability and antiapoptotic potency.

246) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

247) Bacterial exposure at the larval stage induced sexual immune dimorphism and priming in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moreno-Garcia, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramirez-Bello, Inci; Hernandez-Martinez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto
Assunto: Messenger - RNA expression; Yellow fever mosquito; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Escherichia -Coli; Nitric - Oxide; Trade - Offs; Antimicrobial peptides; Ecological immunology; Anopheles -Albimanus; Batemans principle
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage.

248) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

249) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

250) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Monroy-Martinez, Veronica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutierrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Dengue fever; West Nile virus; Vector competence; Proteins; Pathogenesis; Infections; Biomedical research
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. Aedes CSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to alpha -2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia- alpha -2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

251) Transmission activation in non-circulative virus transmission: a general concept?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Drucker, Martin; Then, Christiane
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 63-68, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Many viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors. An important mode of transmission is the noncirculative or mechanical transmission where viruses attach to the vector mouthparts for transport to a new host. It has long been assumed that noncirculative transmission is an unsophisticated mode of viral spread, and in the simplest case mere contamination of the vector mouthparts. However, emerging evidence strongly suggests that noncirculative transmission, like other transmission strategies, results from specific interactions between pathogens, hosts, and vectors. Recently, new insights into this concept have been obtained, by demonstrating that a plant virus responds instantly to the presence of its aphid vector on the host by forming transmission morphs. This novel concept, named Transmission Activation (TA), where viruses respond directly or via the host to the outside world, opens new research horizons.

252) Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bogoch I.I., Brady O.J., Kraemer M.U.G., German M., Creatore M.I., Kulkarni M.A., Brownstein J.S., Mekaru S.R., Hay S.I., Groot E., Watts A., Khan K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10016, p. 335–336, 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

253) Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Antibodies; CHIK; Chikungunya; Genotype; IgM; Meghalaya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 5, p. 591-597, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: hikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya.Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey.Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype.Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak.

254) Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Babaniyi O., Mwaba P., Mulenga D., Monze M., Songolo P., Mazaba-Liwewe M., Mweene-Ndumba I., Masaninga F., Chizema E., Eshetu-Shibeshi M., Malama C., Rudatsikira E., Siziya S.
Assunto: risk assessment, yellow fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-17, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

255) Cross-sectional community-based study of the socio-demographic factors associated with the prevalence of dengue in the eastern part of Sudan in 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Soghaier, Mohammed A.; Himatt, Sayed; Osman, Kamal ElDin; Okoued, Somia I.; Seidahmed, Osama E.; Beatty, Mark E.; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Khogali, Jeahan; Shingrai, Nijood H.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.
Assunto: Sero - Prevalence; Dengue; Social factors; Capture ELISA; Eastern Sudan
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 15, n. 558, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Dengue is caused by an arthropod-borne flavivirus. Infection can be either primary or secondary based on serology, with each stage of the disease characterized by specific serological conversion and antibody formation. Further study is needed to fully identify the factors associated with and predisposing to dengue infection. The objective of this study was to identify socio-demographic factors associated with the prevalence of dengue serotypes in Kassala State in the eastern part of Sudan in 2011.Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study with 530 participants who were randomly selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Dengue serotype prevalence was determined using capture Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA IgG. A multivariate logistic regression model was designed to measure the strength of associations between socio-demographic factors and dengue serotype prevalence. All participants who tested negative for dengue were used as the statistical reference group.Results: From this study, the prevalence of dengue in Kassala was estimated to be 9.4 % (95 % CI: 7.1-12.3). Lack of knowledge about dengue fever disease (OR 2.8, 95 % CI: 1.24-6.53) and a household density of more than 3 people per room (OR 2.1, 95 % CI: 1.06-4.09) were the most important factors associated with dengue infection among the study population.Conclusions: Community-oriented interventions are needed to modify existing social behaviors to reduce the risk of dengue in the eastern part of Sudan. Additional studies are also required in this field.

256) A novel Lozenge gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori regulates the melanization response of hemolymph
Autor: Xu, Man; Wang, Xue; Tan, Juan; Zhang, Kui; Guan, Xi; Patterson, Laurence H.; Ding, Hanfei; Cui, Hongjuan
Assunto: Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX); Lozenge; Melanization; Prophenoloxidases; Bombyx mori
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 191-198, 2015
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Runt-related (RUNX) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved either in vertebrate or invertebrate. Lozenge (Lz), a members of RUNX family as well as homologue of AML-1, functions as an important transcription factor regulating the hemocytes differentiation. In this paper, we identified and characterized RUNX family especially Lz in silkworm, which is a lepidopteran model insect. The gene expression analysis illustrated that BmLz was highly expressed in hemocytes throughout the whole development period, and reached a peak in glutonous stage. Over-expression of BmLz in silkworm accelerated the melanization process of hemolymph, and led to instantaneously up-regulation of prophenoloxidases (PPOs), which were key enzymes in the melanization process. Further down-regulation of BmLz expression by RNA interference resulted in the significant delay of melanization reaction of hemolymph. These findings suggested that BmLz regulated the melanization process of hemolymph by inducing PPOs expression, and played a critical role in innate immunity defense in silkworm. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

257) Physical and chemical aspects of water from Aedes aegypti breeding sites in the urban environment and the implications for dengue control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Arduino, Marylene de Brito; de Avila, Gabriela de Oliveira
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Breeding; Vector control; Physicochemical characteristics of water
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Patologia Tropical, v. 44, n. 1, p. 89-100, 2015
ISSN: 0301-0406
Resumo: Dengue fever is an infectious disease whose agent is an arbovirus, which has four serotypes. Despite the availability of a vaccine in an experimental stage and with promising results it is not yet available for the general population. Therefore, the control of dengue is still based on the reduction of vector density, eliminating containers with clean water that act as mosquito breeding sites. This study aimed to evaluate the types of breeding sites and water with the purpose of better understanding the containers colonized by this species and contributing to the improvement of control actions. In 14 months of collection, between October and April from 2003 to 2005, larvae and pupae were collected and the following variables were measured: volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, electrical conductivity and temperature of the water from the breeding sites. High rates of variation were observed for all measured parameters and larvae were recorded in water containing oil residue, rust, paint, salt and a high concentration of organic matter. These results show that the breeding sites of Ae. aegypti are not the classic "containers with clean water". These findings bring more difficulties and other implications for vector control. It is suggested that such knowledge should be included in the content of courses for health workers, as well as in campaigns and dengue prevention programs, helping to address the problem.

258) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

259) Households as Foci for Dengue Transmission in Highly Urban Vietnam
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anders, Katherine L.; Le Hong Nga; Nguyen Thi Van Thuy; Tran Van Ngoc; Cao Thi Tam; Luong Thi Hue Tai; Nguyen Thanh Truong; Huynh Thi Le Duyen; Vu Tuan Trung; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Marcel Wolbers; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Nguyen Dac Tho; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti; Virus Transmission; Thai Villages; Vector; Population; Infections; Dynamics; Cluster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue control programs commonly employ reactive insecticide spraying around houses of reported cases, with the assumption that most dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs in the home. Focal household transmission has been demonstrated in rural settings, but it is unclear whether this holds true in dense and mobile urban populations. We conducted a prospective study of dengue clustering around households in highly urban Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.MethodsWe enrolled 71 index cases with suspected dengue (subsequently classified as 52 dengue cases and 19 non-dengue controls); each initiated the enrollment of a cluster of 25-35 household members and neighbors who were followed up over 14 days. Incident DENV infections in cluster participants were identified by RT-PCR, NS1-ELISA, and/or DENV-IgM/IgG seroconversion, and recent infections by DENV-IgM positivity at baseline.Principal Findings/ConclusionsThere was no excess risk of DENV infection within dengue case clusters during the two-week follow-up, compared to control clusters, but the prevalence of recent DENV infection at baseline was two-fold higher in case clusters than controls (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1, p = 0.05). Prevalence of DENV infection in Aedes aegypti was similar in case and control houses, and low overall (1%). Our findings are broadly consistent with household clustering of dengue risk, but indicate that any clustering is at a short temporal scale rather than sustained chains of localized transmission. This suggests that reactive perifocal insecticide spraying may have a limited impact in this setting.

260) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

261) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

262) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

263) Dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Guzman, Maria G.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: Antibody - Dependent enhancement; Randomized controlled - Trial; Placebo - Controlled trial; Original antigenic sin; Cd8(+) T-Cells; Hemorrhagic - Fever; Virus - Infection; Aedes aegypti; Vascular leakage; Protective efficacy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 385, n. 9966, p. 453-465, 2015
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Dengue viruses have spread rapidly within countries and across regions in the past few decades, resulting in an increased frequency of epidemics and severe dengue disease, hyperendemicity of multiple dengue virus serotypes in many tropical countries, and autochthonous transmission in Europe and the USA. Today, dengue is regarded as the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease of human beings. Importantly, the past decade has also seen an upsurge in research on dengue virology, pathogenesis, and immunology and in development of antivirals, vaccines, and new vector-control strategies that can positively impact dengue control and prevention.

264) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

265) Production of Infectious Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti Is Dependent on the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: RNA Seq; Hemorrhagic fever; Unfolded protein; Gene expression; Stress response; Translation; Vector; Cells; Replication; Inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed upregulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector.

266) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

267) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology in Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

268) Infectious disease surveillance update.
Autor: Zwizwai Ruth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 12, p. 1385, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

269) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

270) A survey of the 2014 dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou, China
Autor: Yang, Liu; Chen, Yue; Yan, Huacheng; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Xiaoli; Tang, Boheng; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Ruiwen
Assunto: Clinical picture; Dengue virus; Diagnostics; Phylogenetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 57, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: In 2014, a serious dengue outbreak in Guangzhou occurred, consisting of 37 354 laboratory confirmed cases of infection. In this study, the clinical picture of dengue fever due to dengue virus (DENV) type 1 in Guangzhou was described. Clinical and laboratory data collected by studying 726 sera of suspected clinical cases from hospitals and 328 sera of healthy persons from two residence communities were analyzed during the outbreak, and 484 patients were diagnosed with an acute dengue infection. Fever, headache, congestion of the throat, and myalgia were the most typical symptoms in DENV-infected patients. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an increase in liver enzymes were significantly more common in the infected patients than in the healthy controls. Fourteen cases of silent infection were discovered among the 328 healthy persons, suggesting a DENV inapparent infection rate of 4.27% among healthy individuals. The data obtained by analyzing 212 positive sera with three methods indicated different results with different detection methods. DENV RNA should be used for early diagnoses during days 1-6 after symptom onset, immunoglobulin M (IgM) can be easily recognized after four days have passed since symptom onset and DENV isolation has a peak positive rate during days 1-3 after the onset of symptoms. A phylogenetic analysis of viral NS1 gene sequences from this outbreak indicated that the predominant isolates could be categorized as DENV-1 genotype III and had the highest homology with the India genotypes from 2009 to 2011. However, this analysis also revealed a co-epidemic of the 2013 Zhongshan and 2003 Singapore genotypes, both belonging to DENV-1 genotype I, which suggested multiple geographic origins for the 2014 epidemic of dengue 1 strains in Guangzhou.

271) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

272) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

273) Induction of defensin response to dengue infection in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Misse, Dorothee; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Antimicrobial Peptides; Antivirus Defense Mechanisms; Innate Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomological Science, v. 18, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1343-8786
Resumo: Innate immune-related defensin peptide expression, the major antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, was analyzed following infection by dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) (DENV-2). In vitro, the mosquito cell line C6/36 was exposed to dengue virus at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) in an hour; it was found that the expression level of defensin transcripts was dependent upon viral dose. In addition, using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting assays to determine defensin transcription and translation at a series of times post-inoculation, we found that the time course of defensin transcripts correlated with the expression of defensin peptide post-infection. In vitro, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed different meals (DENV-2 infected blood, non-infectious blood and sugar) at 14 days post-feeding, to determine defensin transcription in response to dengue infection, by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) assay. The results showed that a peak of 4.25kDa peptide, composed of defensin, was predominantly induced by DENV-2 infected blood-fed mosquitoes. We observed that DENV-2 could trigger the defensin peptide, defined molecularly as an innate immune response. Therefore, this peptide may be involved in dengue infection and/or transmission. Improved understanding of the mosquito's responses to dengue virus should strengthen our understanding of this vector's innate immune system.

274) Induction of defensin response to dengue infection in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Misse, Dorothee; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Peptides; Infection; Blood; Defensins; Dengue; Immune response; Antimicrobial peptides; Immune system; Antimicrobial agents; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomological Science, v. 18, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015.
ISSN: 1343-8786
Resumo: Innate immune-related defensin peptide expression, the major antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, was analyzed following infection by dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) (DENV-2). In vitro, the mosquito cell line C6/36 was exposed to dengue virus at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) in an hour; it was found that the expression level of defensin transcripts was dependent upon viral dose. In addition, using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting assays to determine defensin transcription and translation at a series of times post-inoculation, we found that the time course of defensin transcripts correlated with the expression of defensin peptide post-infection. In vitro, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed different meals (DENV-2 infected blood, non-infectious blood and sugar) at 14 days post-feeding, to determine defensin transcription in response to dengue infection, by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) assay. The results showed that a peak of 4.25 kDa peptide, composed of defensin, was predominantly induced by DENV-2 infected blood-fed mosquitoes. We observed that DENV-2 could trigger the defensin peptide, defined molecularly as an innate immune response. Therefore, this peptide may be involved in dengue infection and/or transmission. Improved understanding of the mosquito's responses to dengue virus should strengthen our understanding of this vector's innate immune system.

275) CD8(+) T cells control ross river virus infection in musculoskeletal tissues of infected mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Burrack, Kristina S.; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Homann, Dirk; Morrison, Thomas E.
Assunto: Neurovirulent Sindbis virus; Chikungunya virus; Mouse model; Epidemic Polyarthritis; Nonhematopoietic cells; Arthritogenic disease; Alphavirus infection; Hemorrhagic -Fever; Immune - Response; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Immunology, v. 194, n. 2, p. 678-689, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1767
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus, and related alphaviruses cause debilitating polyarthralgia and myalgia. Mouse models of RRV and chikungunya virus have demonstrated a role for the adaptive immune response in the control of these infections. However, questions remain regarding the role for T cells in viral control, including the magnitude, location, and dynamics of CD8(+) T cell responses. To address these questions, we generated a recombinant RRV expressing the H-2(b)-restricted glycoprotein 33 (gp33) determinant derived from the glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Using tetramers, we tracked gp33-specific CD8(+) T cells during RRV-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We found that acute RRV infection induces activation of CD8(+) T cell responses in lymphoid and musculoskeletal tissues that peak from 10-14 d postinoculation, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells contribute to control of acute RRV infection. Mice genetically deficient for CD8(+) T cells or wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells had elevated RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue, but not joint-associated tissues, at 14 d postinoculation, suggesting that the ability of CD8(+) T cells to control RRV infection is tissue dependent. Finally, adoptively transferred T cells were capable of reducing RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue of Rag1(-/-) A mice, indicating that T cells can contribute to the control of RRV infection in the absence of B cells and Ab. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for T cells in the control of RRV infection and suggest that the antiviral capacity of T cells is controlled in a tissue-specific manner.

276) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

277) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

278) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

279) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

280) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

281) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob, Beuy ; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145, 2015
ISSN:
Resumo:

282) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

283) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

284) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

285) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

286) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

287) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

288) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

289) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

290) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

291) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

292) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

293) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

294) Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?
Autor: Reavey, Catherine E.; Warnock, Neil D.; Garbett, Amy P.; Cotter, Sheena C.
Assunto: Aging; defensin; Ecological immunology; Insect; Lifespan; Lysozyme; Nicrophorus; Parental care; Phenoloxidase; Wounding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Ecology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 19, p. 4365-4375, 2015
ISSN: 2045-7758
Resumo: How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in staying alive in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

295) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

296) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

297) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

298) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

299) Anopheles gambiae blood feeding initiates an anticipatory defense response to plasmodium berghei
Autor: Upton, Leanna M.; Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Innate immunity; Ecdysone; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Innate Immunity, v. 7, n. 1, p. 74-86, 2015
ISSN: 1662-811X
Resumo: Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, the function of most family members is largely unknown. We screened Anopheles gambiae LRIMs by RNAi for effects on mosquito infection by rodent malaria and found that LRIM9 is a Plasmodium berghei antagonist with phenotypes distinct from family members LRIM1 and APL1C, which are key components of the mosquito complement-like pathway. LRIM9 transcript and protein levels are significantly increased after blood feeding but are unaffected by Plasmodium or midgut microbiota. Interestingly, LRIM9 in the hemolymph is strongly upregulated by direct injection of the ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Our data suggest that LRIM9 may define a novel anti-Plasmodium immune defense mechanism triggered by blood feeding and that hormonal changes may alert the mosquito to bolster its defenses in anticipation of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

300) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

301) Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Sequence alignment; Mosquitos; Infection; Transmission; Albopictus; Emergence; Outbreak; Patterns; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 635-641, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wildtype, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5,10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ac. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa.

302) Zika virus, French polynesia, South pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thane Hancock W., Marfel M., Bel M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

303) Viruses and the Microbiota
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Robinson, Christopher M.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.
Assunto: Virus; Microbiota; Bacteria; Innate immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Annual Review of Virology, v. 1, p. 55-69, 2014
ISSN: 2327-056X
Resumo: Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of this community on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection by some viruses and promote infection by others. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or the virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which microbiota influence mammalian virus infections. Furthermore, we suggest strategies for future research on how microbiota impact viruses. Overall, microbiota may influence a wide array of viruses through diverse mechanisms, making the study of virus-microbiota interactions a fertile area for future investigation.

304) Two cases of zika fever imported from french polynesia to Japan, December to January 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kutsuna S., Kato Y., Takasaki T., Moi M.L., Kotaki A., Uemura H., Matono T., Fujiya Y., Mawatari M., Takeshita N., Hayakawa K., Kanagawa S., Ohmagari N.
Assunto: import disease (epidemiology), virus infection (epidemiology), zika fever (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: We present two cases of imported Zika fever to Japan, in travellers returning from French Polynesia, where an outbreak due to Zika virus (ZIKV) is ongoing since week 41 of 2013. This report serves to raise awareness among healthcare professionals, that the differential diagnosis of febrile and subfebrile patients with rash should include ZIKV infection, especially in patients returning from areas affected by this virus.

305) Infection barriers and responses in mosquito-filarial worm interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bartholomay, Lyric C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 3, p. 37-42, 2014
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: As a function of size, migration trajectory through the body and developmental site, filarial worm parasites inflict significant damage on the mosquito host. Some mosquitoes are equipped with physical and physiological barriers that confer a refractory state to parasite infection. In a susceptible host, parasites migrate to a developmental site and achieve an intracellular existence; during this process, worms elicit canonical mosquito immune response elements, particularly melanization and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. It is clear now that the response to infection also involves mitigating stress and manipulation of host cell machinery to delay necrosis. This review focuses on mechanisms of refractoriness and resistance to Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis, with emphasis on infection in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

306) Crossing borders: one world, global Health
Autor: Brown, Clive M. ; Cetron, Martin S.
Assunto: Human diseases, Infectious diseases, Public health, Dengue, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 58, n. 7, p. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1058-4838
Resumo: Cetron and Amoroso comment on the case presented by Chen et al regarding global health. They say that the vulnerability of island countries and territories to new pathogens has been recently highlighted by the translocation of chikungunya virus in the northern Pacific (FSM) and Caribbean and the introduction of Zika virus in French Polynesia. Regional coordination of technical assistance is an important approach to addressing the needs of island jurisdictions. In the featured case, interagency coordination among regional partners in support of the Ministry of Health enabled a broad and complementary array of resources to be deployed during a recent dengue outbreak without duplication of effort or deployment of unnecessary resources.

307) Distribution of yellow fever vectors in Northwestern and Western Provinces, Zambia
Autor: Masaninga, Freddie; Muleba, Mbanga; Masendu, Hieronymo;Songolo, Peter; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Siziya, Seter; Ayorinde, Olusegun
Assunto: Viral diseases; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Canoes; Disease transmission; Public health; Light traps; Risk factors; Yellow fever; Polymerase chain reaction; Forests; Infection; Culex; Aedes; Anopheles; Mansonia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 7, supl.1, p. 88-92, 2014.
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To determine the distribution of yellow fever (YF) vectors species in Northwestern and Western of Zambia, which sampled mosquitoes inside and outside houses in rural, urban, peri-urban and forest areas. Methods: Back-pack aspirators spray catches and CDC light traps collected adult mosquitoes including 405 Aedes, 518 Anopheles, 471 Culex and 71 Mansonia. Morphological vector identification and PCR viral determination were done at a WHO Regional Reference Centre (Institute Pasteur Dakar), Senegal. Results: The two main YF vectors were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus. The first was collected in peri-urban areas and the later was in forest areas, both sparsely distributed in Northwestern Province, where the 0.43 Breteau and 1.92 container indexes, respectively implied low risk to YF. Aedes (Aedimorphus) mutilus; Aedes (Aedimorphus) minutus and Aedes (Finlaya) wellmani were also found in Northwestern, not in Western Province. No Aedes were collected from rural peri-domestic areas. Significantly more Aedes species (90.7%, n=398) than Anopheles (9.1%, n=40) were collected in forest areas (P<0.001) or Culex species (0.2%, n=2) (P<0.001). Ae. aegypti was found only in a discarded container but not in flower pots, old tyres, plant axils, discarded shallow wells, disused container bottles and canoes inspected. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti and Aedes africanus YF vectors were found in the study sites in the Northwestern Province of Zambia, where densities were low and distribution was sparse. The low Breteau index suggests low risk of YF in the Northwestern Province. The presence of Aedes in Northwestern Province and its absence in the Western Province could be due to differing ecological factors in the sampled areas. Universal coverage of vector control interventions could help to reduce YF vector population and the risk to arthropod-borne virus infections.

308) Recent findings from University Medical Center Provides new insights into flavivirus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Life sciences; Science and technology
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology
Fonte: Life Science Weekly, p. 776, 2014
ISSN: 1552-2466
Resumo:

309) Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of Aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Thioester - Containing proteins; Dengue hemorrhagic - Fever; Innate immune - Response; Nile – Virus - Infection; Jak - Stat
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

310) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa)--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard Gilda,Caron Mélanie,Mombo Illich Manfred,Nkoghe Dieudonné,Mboui Ondo Statiana,Jiolle Davy,Fontenille Didier,Paupy Christophe,Leroy Eric Maurice
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses. Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread. We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

311) Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain
Autor: Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Epithelial cells; Serotypes; Double-stranded RNA; Transgenes; Cell culture; Genotypes; Disease resistance; Infection; Homozygotes; Expression vectors; Integration; RNA; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. Expression of a DENV2 sequence-derived IR RNA in the mosquito midgut initiates an antiviral intracellular RNAi response that efficiently blocks DENV2 infection and profoundly impairs vector competence for that virus in Aedes aegypti. DENV2-specific IR RNA expression in the Carb109M strain has maintained the RNAi-based, refractory phenotype for 33 generations in laboratory culture. The two transgene integration sites were stable after multiple generations and following introgression into a genetically-diverse (GDLS) Ae. aegypti population. Introgression of the transgene into the GDLS genetic background changed GDLS from a DENV2 susceptible phenotype to a DENV2 refractory phenotype. The DENV2 refractory homozygous line, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ, exhibits (relative to GDLS) minimal fitness loss associated with the transgene. This line could be a potential candidate for proof-of-principle field studies.

312) Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-terminal domain
Autor: Carter, James R.; Keith, James H.; Fraser, Tresa S.; Dawson, James L.; Kucharski, Cheryl A.; Horne, Kate M.; Higgs, Stephen; Fraser, Malcolm J., Jr.
Assunto: Dengue; Trans - Splicing; Group I intron; Ribozyme; Mosquito; Antiviral; Suppression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 111, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of Delta N Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells. Targeting the conserved DENV circularization sequence (CS) by U143 intron trans-splicing activity appends a 3' exon RNA encoding Delta N Bax to the capsid coding region of the genomic RNA, resulting in a chimeric protein that induces premature cell death upon infection. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate an enhancement of DENV suppression for all DENV serotypes tested over the identical group I intron coupled with the non-apoptotic inducing firefly luciferase as the 3' exon. These cumulative results confirm the increased effectiveness of this aDENV-U143-Delta N Bax group I intron as a sequence specific antiviral that should be useful for suppression of DENV in transgenic mosquitoes. Annexin V staining, caspase 3 assays, and DNA ladder observations confirm DCA-Delta N Bax fusion protein expression induces apoptotic cell death. This report confirms the relative effectiveness of an anti-DENV group I intron coupled to an apoptosis-inducing Delta N Bax 3' exon that trans-splices conserved sequences of the 5' CS region of all DENV serotypes and induces apoptotic cell death upon infection. Our results confirm coupling the targeted ribozyme capabilities of the group I intron with the generation of an apoptosis-inducing transcript increases the effectiveness of infection suppression, improving the prospects of this unique approach as a means of inducing transgenic refractoriness in mosquitoes for all serotypes of this important disease

313) Characterizing the likelihood of dengue emergence and detection in naive populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.; Wearing, Helen J.
Assunto: Dengue; Transmission; Arbovirus; Heterogeneity of infectiousness; Human infectiousness; Dengue introduction; Stochastic modeling; Dengue model; Viremia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 282, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Vector-borne disease transmission is dependent on the many nuances of the contact event between infectious and susceptible hosts. Virus acquisition from a viremic human to a susceptible mosquito is often assumed to be nearly perfect and almost always uniform across the infectious period. Dengue transmission models that have previously addressed variability in human to vector transmission dynamics do not account for the variation in infectiousness of a single individual, and subsequent infection of naive mosquitoes. Understanding the contribution of this variability in human infectiousness is especially important in the context of introduction events where an infected individual carries the virus into a population of competent vectors. Furthermore, it could affect the ability to detect an epidemic (and the timing of detection) following introduction.Methods: We constructed a stochastic, compartmental model to describe the heterogeneity of human viremia and calculate the probability of a successful introduction, taking into account the viremia level (and thus acquisition potential) of the index case on, and after, the day of introduction into a susceptible population and varying contact rates between the human and mosquito populations. We then compared the results of this model with those generated by a simpler model that has the same average infectiousness but only a single infectious class.Results: We found that the infectivity of the index case as well as the contact rate affected the probability of emergence, but that contact rate had the most significant effect. We also found that the interaction between contact rate and the infectiousness of the index case affected the time to detection relative to the peak of the epidemic curve. Additionally, when compared to our model that accounts for variable infectiousness, a model with a single infectious class underestimates the probability of emergence and transmission intensity.Conclusion: Understanding the interplay between individual human heterogeneity of infectiousness and the rate of contact with the vector population will be important when predicting the likelihood, detection, and magnitude of an outbreak.

314) Effects of Amino Acid Deletion on the Antiplasmodial Activity of Angiotensin II
Autor: Rodrigues Ferreira, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Adriana Farias; Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Pedron, Cibele Nicolaski; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Vani Xavier, Jr.
Assunto: Malaria; Angiotensin II; Sporozoites; Plasmodium gallinaceum; SPPS; Structure-activity relationship
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, v. 20, n. 4, p. 553-564, 2014
ISSN: 1573-3149
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease for which effective treatment and prevention strategies remain limited. Our group recently reported that angiotensin II (AII) presents antiplasmodial activity and inhibits the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes aegypti. However, details concerning role of each amino acid residue in the antiplasmodial activity of the peptide and information about the minimal structure responsible for this activity remain unknown. In this work, we investigated the effects of specific deletions (i.e., mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-deletions) of AII amino acids on the antiplasmodial activity of this molecule. The peptides were synthesized on solid phase method using the t-Boc strategy, purified using high performance liquid chromatography and characterized using mass spectrometry. The lytic activity of the peptides was assessed in vitro using mature sporozoites extracted from the salivary glands of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results demonstrate that all of the deletions reduced antiplasmodial activity compared to native AII and that active analogs tend to adopt beta-turn conformations; however, the deletion of bulky hydrophobic residues causes greater reductions of bioactivity than the deletion of hydrophilic residues. Corroborating previous studies, we observed that analog extremities are susceptible to changes and can be carefully modified without compromising the activity of this compound. This research contributes to our understanding of the role of each AII amino acid residue in activity against Plasmodium gallinaceum and identifies two short analogs with similar antiplasmodial activity to AII. These analogs may be candidates for additional antimalarial assays because they are inexpensive and easy to synthesize.

315) Dengue virus infections among haitian and expatriate non-governmental organization workers - leogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012
Autor: Salyer, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Esther M.; Salomon, Corvil; Bron, Christophe; Juin, Stanley; Hemme, Ryan R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Jentes, Emily S.; Magloire, Roc; Tomashek, Kay M.; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Etienne, Lesly; Beltran, Manuela; Sharp, Tyler M.; Moffett, Daphne; Tappero, Jordan; Margolis, Harold S.; Katz, Mark A.
Assunto: Antibodies; Human diseases; Organizations; Endemism; Viral diseases; Pupae; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Workers; Bites; Non-governmental organizations; Dengue; Risk factors; Repellents; Immunoglobulin G; Infection; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Leogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Leogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and caused an estimated 390 million infections and 96 million cases in the tropics and subtropics in 2010. Over the last decade, the number of cases of dengue and the severity of dengue virus infections have increased in the Americas, including the Caribbean, yet little is still known about dengue in Haiti. Following an outbreak of dengue in mostly expatriate NGO workers, the investigators of this study took blood samples from expatriate and Haitian NGO workers living in two cities in Haiti and tested them for evidence of current, recent, and past dengue virus infection. They also investigated the amount and kinds of mosquitoes at homes and work sites. The study found recent infections among some Haitians and expatriates and widespread past infections among all Haitians and most expatriates. It also found that many people were not doing basic things to avoid mosquito bites, like applying mosquito repellent multiple times a day and wearing long sleeves or pants. These findings highlight the likely endemicity of dengue virus in Haiti, and the need to improve knowledge and awareness of dengue prevention among expatriates visiting Haiti and local Haitians.

316) First case of zika virus infection in a returning canadian traveler.
Autor: Fonseca Kevin,Meatherall Bonnie,Zarra Danielle,Drebot Michael,MacDonald Judy,Pabbaraju Kanti,Wong Sallene,Webster Patricia,Lindsay Robbin,Tellier Raymond
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

317) MicroRNA levels are modulated in Aedes aegypti after exposure to Dengue-2
Autor: Campbell, C. L.; Harrison, T.; Hess, A. M.; Ebel, G. D.
Assunto: Gene expression; Molecular biology; Viral diseases; Replication; Disease control; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Transduction; Public health; Data processing; Chromatin; Nucleotide sequence; miRNA; Algorithms; Mitochondria; Transcription; Infection; Dengue; Gene regulation; Signal transduction; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 132-139, 2014.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: To define microRNA (miRNA) involvement during arbovirus infection of Aedes aegypti, we mined deep sequencing libraries of Dengue type 2 (DENV2)-exposed mosquitoes. Three biological replicates for each timepoint [2, 4 and 9 days post-exposure (dpe)] and treatment group allowed us to remove the outliers associated with sample-to-sample variability. Using edgeR (R Bioconductor), designed for use with replicate deep sequencing data, we determined the log fold-change (logFC) of miRNA levels [18-23 nucleotides (nt)]. The number of significantly modulated miRNAs increased from less than or equal to 5 at 2 and 4 dpe to 23 unique miRNAs by 9 dpe. Putative miRNA targets were predicted by aligning miRNAs to the transcriptome, and the list was reduced to include the intersection of hits found using the Miranda, PITA, and TargetScan algorithms. To further reduce false-positives, putative targets were validated by cross-checking them with mRNAs reported in recent DENV2 host response transcriptome reports; 4076 targets were identified. Of these, 464 gene targets have predicted miRNA-binding sites in 3' untranslated regions. Context-specific target functional groups include proteins involved in transport, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, chromatin modification and signal transduction processes known to be required for viral replication and dissemination. The miRNA response is placed in context with other vector host response studies by comparing the predicted targets with those of transcriptome studies. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that profound and persistent changes to gene expression occur in DENV2-exposed mosquitoes.

318) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

319) Immunological Aspects of the Immune Response Induced by Mosquito Allergens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cantillo, Jose Fernando; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo
Assunto: Mosquito allergy; Aedes aegypti; Immunoglobulin E; Recombinant allergens; Cross-reactivity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, v. 165, n. 4, p. 271-282, 2014
ISSN: 1018-2438
Resumo: Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and Sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

320) Primera cita de mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), para Andalucia y primera corroboracion de los datos de la aplicacion Tigatrapp/First record of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Andalusia and first corroboration of the data from Tigatrapp application
Autor: Delacour-Estrella, Sarah ; Collantes, Francisco ; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio ; Alarcon-Elbal, Pedro Maria ; Delgado, Juan Antonio ; Eritja, Roger ; Bartumeus, Frederic ; Oltra, Aitana ; Palmer, John R. B. ; Lucientes, Javier
Assunto: Aedes albopictus , Andalusia , Citizen science , AtrapaelTigre.com project
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Anales de Biologia, v. 36, p. 93-96, 2014
ISSN: 1138-3399
Resumo: We analysed the data provided by citizens about the likely presence of Asian tiger mosquito by means of the Tigatrapp smartphone app, developed by the project AtrapaelTigre.com. We confirmed the presence of this invasive mosquito species in the municipality of Alhaurin de la Torre (Malaga). This work represents the first record of Aedes albopictus in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. In addition to its nuisances, this invasive species is an important epidemic vector of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses. Through its dispersal and establishment, it appears the real risk of autochtonous transmission of these diseases from imported cases of endemic areas.

321) Dengue transmission model by means of viremic adult immuno-competent mouse
Autor: Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Konishi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Makino, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Eshita, Yuki
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Mass-infection; Viremia; Immuno-competent mouse
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue virus infection manifests in three distinct forms in humans: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Infection with the virus is a fatal disease; no vaccine is available and prevention depends on interruption of the chain of transmission. The study of dengue viral transmission by mosquitoes is hindered due to the lack of an affordable animal model. In general, immuno-competent mice are used as a simple and inexpensive animal model, but mice are not susceptible to dengue virus infection and therefore viremia will not occur following the inoculation of the virus in such mice. Here, we report a method for creating artificial viremia in immuno-competent mice, and further demonstrate the use of viremic mice to simultaneously infect a large number of Aedes aegypti. Methods: We infected K562 cells with DENV-2 in the presence of an antibody against DENV-4. We then incubated the cells for 2 d before injecting the infected cells into C3H mice. After 5 h incubation, we allowed 100-150 female Aedes aegypti to feed on blood from the mice directly. We collected blood samples from the mice and from randomly selected Ae. aegypti at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-blood meal and screened the samples for DENV-2 genome as well as for virus concentration. Results: Our procedure provided high virus concentrations in the mice for at least 7 h after viral inoculation. We found that 13 out of 14 randomly picked mosquitoes were infected with DENV-2. High concentrations of virus were detected in the mosquitoes until at least 12 h post-infection. Conclusions: Using the viremic immuno-competent mouse, we show that mass infection of Ae. aegypti is achievable. Compared to other infection techniques using direct inoculation, membrane-feeding, or immuno-deficient/humanized mice, we are confident that this method will provide a simpler and more efficient infection technique.

322) In Silico Modeling and Immunoinformatics Probing Disclose the Epitope Based PeptideVaccine Against Zika Virus Envelope Glycoprotein
Autor: Shawan, Mohammad Mahfuz AliKhan , AlMahmud, Hafij ; Hasan, Md Mahmudul ; Parvin, Afroza ; Rahman, Md Nazibur ; Rahman, S. M. Badier
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, v. 2, n. 4, p. 44, 2014
ISSN: 2320-9267
Resumo: In this study, amino acid sequence of ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was obtained from a protein database and examined with in silico approaches to determine the most immunogenic epitopes for B cell and T cell which could induce humoral as well as cell mediated immune response. Both the linear and conformational epitopes for B cell were predicted by immunoinformatics tools housed in IEDB resources. The peptide sequence DAHAKRQTVVVLGSQEGAV from position 121 and peptide sequence from 117-137 amino acids were predicted as most potential B cell linear and conformational epitopes respectively. Epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell were also predicted by using tools within IEDB resource and peptide sequence MMLELDPPF from position 250-258 amino acids was predicted as most immunogenic CD8+ T cell epitope with immune response evoking ability prediction score (I pMHC) of 0.09139 and conservancy of 52.17%. The innate immune response for ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was determined by interferon (IFN)-gamma effectuation and mimicking capacity by immunoinformatics and molecular docking study respectively.

323) Lack of Clinical Manifestations in Asymptomatic Dengue Infection Is Attributed to Broad Down-Regulation and Selective Up-Regulation of Host Defence Response Genes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yeo, Adeline S. L.; Azhar, Nur Atiqah; Yeow, Wanyi; Talbot, C. Conover, Jr.; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Shankar, Esaki M.; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Azizan, Azliyati; Wang, Seok Mui; Lee, Siew Kim; Fong, Mun Yik; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi
Assunto: Necrosis-Factor-Alpha; C Virus-Infection; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Vascular Leakage; Dendritic Cells; Elevated Levels; Disease Pathogenesis; Feeding-Behavior; Interferon-Gamma; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue represents one of the most serious life-threatening vector-borne infectious diseases that afflicts approximately 50 million people across the globe annually. Whilst symptomatic infections are frequently reported, asymptomatic dengue remains largely unnoticed. Therefore, we sought to investigate the immune correlates conferring protection to individuals that remain clinically asymptomatic.Methods: We determined the levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and gene expression profiles of host immune factors in individuals with asymptomatic infections, and whose cognate household members showed symptoms consistent to clinical dengue infection.Results: We observed broad down-regulation of host defense response (innate, adaptive and matrix metalloprotease) genes in asymptomatic individuals as against symptomatic patients, with selective up-regulation of distinct genes that have been associated with protection. Selected down-regulated genes include: TNF alpha (TNF), IL8, C1S, factor B (CFB), IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL8, IL9, IL10 and IL13, CD80, CD28, and IL18, MMP8, MMP10, MMP12, MMP15, MMP16, and MMP24. Selected up-regulated genes include: RANTES (CCL5), MIP-1 alpha (CCL3L1/CCL3L3), MIP-1 beta (CCL4L1), TGF beta (TGF beta), and TIMP1.Conclusion: Our findings highlight the potential association of certain host genes conferring protection against clinical dengue. These data are valuable to better explore the mysteries behind the hitherto poorly understood immunopathogenesis of subclinical dengue infection.

324) First case of Zika virus infection in a returning Canadian Traveler
Autor: Fonseca, Kevin ; Meatherall, Bonnie ; Zarra, Danielle ; Drebot, Michael ; MacDonald, Judy ; Pabbaraju, Kanti ; Wong, Sallene ; Webster,Patricia ; Lindsay, Robbin ; Tellier, Raymond
Assunto: Antibodies, Urine, Nucleotide sequence, Emergencies, Public health, Malaria, Cell culture, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

325) Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong
Assunto: knowledge; Experience; Prevention - Control practice; Mosquito; Public health; Tibet
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 11, n. 9, p. 9919-9937, 2014
ISSN: 1660-4601
Resumo: Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude, latitude and longitude regions worldwide.

326) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the20th Century
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36-,2014.
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/" xlink:type="simple" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/</ext-link>) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. ©2014 Faye et al.

327) Knockdown of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes using antisense morpholinos
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pietri, J. E.; Cheung, K. W.; Luckhart, S.
Assunto: Mosquito; Insect; Morpholino; Knockdown; Malaria; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase; MAPK; Anopheles; Plasmodium
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 5, p. 558-565, 2014
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Arthropod-borne infectious diseases are responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually across the globe, with malaria responsible for >50% of these deaths. Recent efforts to enhance malaria control have focused on developing Genetically modified Anopheles mosquitoes that are resistant to malaria parasite infection by manipulating proteins that are essential to the immune response. Although this approach has shown promise, the lack of efficient genetic tools in the mosquito makes it difficult to investigate innate immunity using reverse Genetics. Current gene knockdown strategies based on small interfering RNA are typically labourious, inefficient, and require extensive training. In the present study, we describe the use of morpholino antisense oligomers to knockdown MEK-ERK signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi through a simple feeding protocol. Anti-MEK morpholino provided in a saline meal was readily ingested by female mosquitoes with minimal toxicity and resulted in knockdown of total MEK protein levels 3-4 days after morpholino feeding. Further, anti-MEK morpholino feeding attenuated inducible phosphorylation of the downstream kinase ERK and, as predicted by previous work, reduced parasite burden in mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of morpholino use for target protein knockdown via feeding in an insect vector. Our results suggest this method is not only efficient for studies of individual proteins, but also for studies of phenotypic control by complex cell signalling networks. As such, our protocol is an effective alternative to current methods for gene knockdown in arthropods.

328) Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hancock, W. Thane, Marfel, Maria ; Bel, Martin
Assunto: Public health; Epidemiology; Infectious diseases; Health and medicine; Government and political science; Diseases and conditions
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo:

329) Larval Competition Extends Developmental Time and Decreases Adult Size of wMelPop Wolbachia-Infected Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ross, Perran A.; Endersby, Nancy M.; Yeap, Heng Lin; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Life-Shortening Strain; Blood-Feeding Success; Cytoplasmic Incompatibility; Albopictus Diptera; Resource Competition; Drosophila-Simulans; Virulent Wolbachia; Dengue-Fever; Body-Size; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene, v. 91, n. 1, p. 198-205, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia has been artificially transinfected into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, where it is being investigated as a potential dengue Biological Control agent. Invasion of Wolbachia in natural populations depends upon the fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti relative to uninfected competitors. Although Wolbachia infections impose fitness costs on the adult host, effects at the immature stages are less clear, particularly in competitive situations. We look for effects of two Wolbachia infections, wMel and wMelPop, on intra-strain and inter-strain larval competition in Ae. aegypti. Development of Wolbachia-infected larvae is delayed in mixed cohorts with uninfected larvae under crowded-rearing conditions. Slow developing wMelPop-infected larvae have reduced adult size compared with uninfected larvae, and larvae with the wMel infection are somewhat larger and have greater viability relative to uninfected larvae when in mixed cohorts. Implications for successful invasion by these Wolbachia infections under field conditions are considered.

330) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections ? An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific2012?2014
Autor: Roth A., Mercier A., Lepers C., Hoy D., Duituturaga S., Benyon E., Guillaumot L., Souarès Y.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya Alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue Virus; Disease Surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic Distribution; Infection Risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public Health; Serotype; Virus Infection; Virus Transmission; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41,2014.
ISSN: 1025496X
Resumo: Since January2012, the Pacific Region has experienced28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. ©2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

331) Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alves Martins, Valquiria do Carmo; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; de Figueiredo, Regina Pinto; Lima Gimaque, Joao Bosco; Miranda Braga, Wornei Silva; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Nozawa, Sergio; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu; Gomes Mourao, Maria Paula
Assunto: Virus - Infection; Neurological manifestations; Molecular epidemiology; Nested - Pcr; Serotypes; Type-2; Circulation; Diagnosis; Mosquitos; Dynamics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 6, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously.Methodology: Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD), a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV), alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV) and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV).Principal Findings: Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%). Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1%) of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II.Conclusions: Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

332) Expression of Mosquito MicroRNA Aae-miR-2940-5p Is Downregulated in Response to West Nile Virus Infection To Restrict Viral Replication
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Asgari, Sassan; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Mammalian-Cells; Flavivirus Rna; Kunjin Virus; Wolbachia Uses; Noncoding Rna;Identification; Aegypti; Translation; Repression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 15, p. 8457-8467, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome from the Flaviviridae family. WNV is spread by mosquitoes and able to infect humans, causing encephalitis and meningitis that can be fatal; it therefore presents a significant risk for human health. In insects, innate response to RNA virus infection mostly relies on RNA interference and JAK/SAT pathways; however, some evidence indicates that it can also involve microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level and play an important role in a number of processes, including immunity and antiviral response. In this study, we focus on the miRNA-mediated response to WNV in mosquito cells. We demonstrate that in response to WNV infection the expression of a mosquito-specific miRNA, aae-miR-2940, is selectively downregulated in Aedes albopictus cells. This miRNA is known to upregulate the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which we have also shown to be required for efficient WNV replication. Correspondingly, downregulation of aae-miR-2940 reduced the metalloprotease level and restricted WNV replication. Thus, we have identified a novel miRNA-dependent mechanism of antiviral response to WNV in mosquitoes.IMPORTANCEA detailed understanding of vector-pathogen interactions is essential to address the problems posed by vector-borne diseases. Host and viral miRNAs play an important role in regulating expression of viral and host genes involved in endogenous processes, including antiviral response. There has been no evidence to date for the role of mosquito miRNAs in response to flaviviruses. In this study, we show that downregulation of aae-miR-2940 in mosquito cells acts as a potential antiviral mechanism in the mosquito host to inhibit WNV replication by repressing the expression of the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which is required for efficient WNV replication. This is the first identification of an miRNA-dependent antiviral mechanism in mosquitoes, which inhibits replication of WNV. Our findings should facilitate identification of targets in the mosquito genome that can be utilized to suppress vector population and/or limit WNV replication.

333) Design and testing of a novel, protective human-baited tent trap for the collection of anthropophilic disease vectors
Autor: Krajacich, Benjamin J.; Slade, Jeremiah R.; Mulligan, Robert T.; Labrecque, Brendan; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Gray, Meg; Kuklinski, Wojtek S.; Burton, Timothy A.; Seaman, Jonathan A.; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Vector; Trap; Tent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 253-263, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Currently, there exists a deficit of safe, active trapping methods for the collection of host-seeking Anopheles and other disease-causing arthropod vectors. The gold-standard approach for mosquito collection is that of human landing catch (HLC), in which an individual exposes bare skin to possibly infected vectors. Here, we present the development of a new method for mosquito collection, the Infoscitex tent, which uses modern tent materials coupled with a novel trap design. This provides an efficacious, a non-labor-intensive, and a safe method for vector collection. In these initial studies, we found it collected an average of 27.7 Anopheles gambiae s.l. per trap per night in rural villages in southeastern Senegal, and 43.8 Culex group V per trap per night in the semiurban town of Kedougou, Senegal. In direct comparisons with HLC, the tent was not statistically different for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in crepuscular sampling, but was significantly less efficacious at trapping the highly motile dusk-biter Aedes aegypti. These studies suggest that the Infoscitex tent is a viable and safe alternative to HLC for Anopheles and Culex sampling in areas of high vector-borne disease infection risk.

334) Factors associated with dengue fever IgG sero-prevalence in South Kordofan State, Sudan, in 2012: Reporting prevalence ratios
Autor: Soghaier, Mohammed A.; Mahmood, Syed F.; Pasha, Omrana; Azam, Syed I.; Karsani, Mubarak M.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Elmagboul, Babiker A.; Okoued, Somia I.; Shareeff, Sayed M.; Khogali, Hayat S.; Eltigai, Emad
Assunto: Dengue associated factors; Dengue Sudan; South Kordofan; Prevalence ratio
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 7, n. 1, p. 54-61, 2014
ISSN: 1876-0341
Resumo: Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. In this study, we identified the most important factors associated with the prevalence of IgG antibodies in a border state between Sudan and the new republic of South Sudan.Objectives: To quantify the association of specific factors with the prevalence of DF IgG antibodies in Lagawa among subjects aged 16-60 years in 2012.Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Lagawa in 2012.Results: Indoor mosquito breeding was the most significant predictor affecting DF IgG serology. Household water storage was also strongly associated with the presence of IgG antibodies. Residence in urban areas, younger age and a history of travel to the Red Sea State were significant predictors of DF IgG seroprevalence in South Kordofan state.Conclusion: Indoor (household) behaviors associated with DF infection should be modified to mitigate the infection risk in the study area. Awareness should be raised regarding DF in Lagawa to ensure community participation in all control measures, and the surveillance system at the border between Sudan and the republic of South Sudan should be strengthened. (C) 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

335) Blood feeding induces hemocyte proliferation and activation in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bryant, William B.; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Infectious disease; Innate immunity; Immunology; Phenoloxidase; Blood meal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 217, n. 8, p. 1238-1245, 2014
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: Malaria is a global public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles serves as the major vector for the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum Welch. One determinant of malaria vector competence is the mosquito's immune system. Hemocytes are a critical component as they produce soluble immune factors that either support or prevent malaria parasite development. However, despite their importance in vector competence, understanding of their basic biology is just developing. Applying novel technologies to the study of mosquito hemocytes, we investigated the effect of blood meal on hemocyte population dynamics, DNA replication and cell cycle progression. In contrast to prevailing published work, the data presented here demonstrate that hemocytes in adult mosquitoes continue to undergo low basal levels of replication. In addition, blood ingestion caused significant changes in hemocytes within 24 h. Hemocytes displayed an increase in cell number, size, granularity and Ras-MAPK signaling as well as altered cell surface moieties. As these changes are well-known markers of immune cell activation in mammals and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, we further investigated whether a blood meal changes the expression of hemocyte-derived immune factors. Indeed, hemocytes 24 h post-blood meal displayed higher levels of critical components of the complement and melanization immune reactions in mosquitoes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the normal physiological process of a blood meal activates the innate immune response in mosquitoes. This process is likely in part regulated by Ras-MAPK signaling, highlighting a novel mechanistic link between blood feeding and immunity.

336) Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; West nile virus; Langerhans cell migration; Borne Encephalitis virus; Aedes aegypti; Heparan sulfate; Immune response; Arbovirus transmission; Infection; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 1, p. 164-175, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

337) What does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Breaux, Jennifer A.; Schumacher, Molly K.; Juliano, Steven A.
Assunto: Vector-parasite interaction; Mosquito; Filarial infection; Life history; Infectious dose; Intraspecific competition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, v. 281, n. 1786, 2014
ISSN: 0962-8452
Resumo: For organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. For mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. Investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our understanding of the dynamics of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors. Using Aedes aegypti and the nematode parasite Brugia pahangi, we demonstrate dose dependency of fitness effects of B. pahangi infection on the mosquito, as well as interactions between competitive stress among larvae and infectious dose for resulting adults that affect the physiological and functional ability of mosquitoes to act as vectors. Contrary to results from studies on mosquito-arbovirus interactions, our results suggest that adults from crowded larvae may limit infection better than do adults from uncrowded controls, and that mosquitoes from high-quality larval environments are more physiologically and functionally capable vectors of B. pahangi. Our results provide another example of how the larval environment can have profound effects on vector potential of resulting adults.

338) Mosquito species diversity and malaria transmission in Ayos, an area of degraded forest targeted for universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in southern Cameroon
Autor: Akono, P. N.; Tonga, C.; Kekeunou, S.; Lehman, L. G.
Assunto: Anopheles; Transmission; Malaria; LLINs; Cameroon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology , v. 22, n. 3, p. 602-610, 2014
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: This study was conducted from January to December 2010 to evaluate the anopheline diversity and transmission of malaria in Ayos, a degraded forest area in the south of Cameroon, targeted for the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and endophilic female adult mosquitoes were captured on volunteers. Molecular techniques were used alongside morphological techniques for mosquito identification; ELISA was used for the detection of plasmodium circumsporozoite antigens. Ten mosquito species, including four Anopheles species (Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. funestus s.s., An. moucheti s.s. and An. hancocki), were identified. The mean biting rate of these Anopheles species was 12.7 bites per person per night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.s. (6.9 b/p/n) appeared to be the most aggressive species. Malaria transmission is mainly ensured by An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus ss. and An. moucheti s.s. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite transmitted. The mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) for these vectors was 0.7 infecting b/p/n. An. gambiae s.s. (65.6 %) is the major vector, with an annual EIR of 167.9 infectious b/p/n/year. The utilization of LLINs alongside other methods would highly contribute to effective malaria control in Ayos.

339) Detection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with dengue virus as a complementary method for increasing the sensitivity of surveillance: identification of serotypes 1, 2, and 4 by RT-PCR in Quintana Roo, Mexico
Autor: Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.; Gaitan-Burns, Alejandro; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E.; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A.; Garza, Carlos E. Medina de la; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Entomologists; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Polymerase chain reaction; Methodology; Public health; Serotypes; Infection; Sensitivity; Dengue; Households; Residential areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 39, n. 2, p. 307-316, 2014.
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Sensitivity of monitoring Aedes aegypti (L.) populations was determined to identify the distribution of dengue virus (DENV) during epidemics in Quintana Roo. From September to November 2012, we used a motorized aspirator to collect 2,144 female Ae. aegypti from 569 homes. These were grouped into 220 to use semi-nested RT-PCR for DENV, and positive groups were analyzed individually. Five groups (2.27%) were positive for DENV. Individual analysis yielded eight groups that tested positive, six with DENV-2, one DENV-1, and one DENV-4. The latter was not reported by the surveillance system that year. The mean number of female mosquitoes per household was 3.77 plus or minus 5.71, and the rate of viral infection of Ae. aegypti was 0.4%. Most infected mosquitoes (49%) were concentrated in 10% of the houses. Monitoring Ae. aegypti infected with DENV has the potential to complement the current system of clinical and entomological surveillance.

340) Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm applied to dengue control
Autor: Fiorentino, Helenice O.; Cantane, Daniela R.; Santos, Fernando L. P.; Bannwart, Bettina F.
Assunto: Dengue; Multiobjective optimization; Genetic algorithm
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Mathematical Biosciences, v. 258, n. , p. 77-84, 2014
ISSN: 0025-5564
Resumo: Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

341) Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (diptera: culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Viral diseases; Wings; Archipelagoes; Pest control; Hosts; Hygiene; Disease transmission; Public health; RNA; Survival; Vectors; Blood meals; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Aedes vittatus; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 635-641, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa.

342) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Yellow fever virus; 17D vaccine; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. , p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes.

343) Clone 13-infected Aedes aegypti salivary components inhibit Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Clone 13; Pathogenicity; Rift Valley fever virus; Salivary gland
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 16, n. 5, p. 439-444, 2014
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks among humans and domestic animals in Africa. RVFV Clone 13, a naturally attenuated clone, is a promising vaccine which was used during the 2009-2010 outbreak in South Africa and played a key role in the control of the disease. In this work, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with RVFV Clone 13 and prepared salivary gland extracts (SGE). C57BL/6-NRJ male mice were infected with a mixture of SGE infected by Clone 13 and the ZH548 RVFV strain. With the injection of increasing doses of Clone 13-infected SGE, all mice were protected. Our results suggest Clone 13 infected SGE contain unique antiviral components able to counteract the replication of RVFV when injected into vertebrates. (C) 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

344) Brucella Induced Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elzein, Fatehi Elnour; Mursi, Mohammed
Assunto: Symptoms; Hygiene; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Polyneuritis; Infection; Brucellosis; Campylobacter jejuni; Brucella
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Infectious diseases ;Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 6, p. 1179-1180, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Neurobrucellosis is relatively uncommon. In a prospective study of 530 patients with brucellosis, neurologic involvement was reported in only 1.7% of the patients. Unlike Campylobacter jejuni, the commonest infection implicated in Guillain-Barre syndrome, there are very few reports in the literature of Guillain-Barre syndrome in association with brucellosis. Out of 1,028 cases of brucellosis, polyneuritis was reported in only 2 out of 58 patients with neurological involvement.

345) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Mathematical model; Disease comparison; Vector-borne disease control; Emerging disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

346) Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy following malaria
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berkowitz, Aaron L.; Thakur, Kiran T.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Malaria; Nervous system; Neurological complications; Demyelination; Infection; Inflammation
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, v. 21, n. 4, p. 704-706, 2014
ISSN: 0967-5868
Resumo: Among the neurologic complications of malaria, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rarely reported phenomenon. We describe a patient with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy following malaria in a 26-year-old traveler to an endemic area and review the clinical features of all 23 previously reported patients. Malarial infection should be considered as a potential preceding trigger in patients residing in or travelers returning from malaria-endemic areas presenting with the clinical features of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in the setting of a recent or ongoing febrile illness.

347) Will people change their vector-control practices in the presence of an imperfect dengue vaccine?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Boccia, T. M. Q. R.; Burattini, M. N.; Coutinho, F. A. B.; Massad, E.
Assunto: Epidemiology; Health policy; Infectious disease control; Dengue fever; Vaccines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 142, n. 3, p. 625-633, 2014
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Human behaviours, which are influenced by social, cultural, economic and political factors, can increase or decrease the risk of dengue infection, depending on the relationship with the insect vector. Because no vaccine is currently available, the spread of dengue can only be curtailed by controlling vector populations (Aedes aegypti and others) and by protecting individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that dengue-affected populations are likely to relax their vector-control habits if a potentially protective vaccine becomes available. The hypothesis was tested using two approaches: a mathematical model designed to describe dengue transmission and an empirical field test in which the local population of an endemic area was interviewed about their vector-control habits given the presence of a theoretical vaccine. The model demonstrated that depending on the level of vector-control reduction, there is a threshold in vaccine efficacy below which it is better not to introduce the vaccine. The interview showed that people who were informed that a very effective vaccine is available would reduce their vector-control habits significantly compared to a group that was informed that the vaccine is not very effective.

348) Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila
Autor: Panda, Debasis; Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Dunagin, Margaret; Tudor, Matthew; Hopkins, Kaycie C.; Xu, Jie; Gold, Beth; Raj, Arjun; Capelson, Maya; Cherry, Sara
Assunto: Innate immunity; Nuclear pore; Nucleoporin; Pol II regulation; P-TEFb
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 111, n. 37, p. E3890-E3899, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are additional uncharacterized mechanisms at play. Our previous studies revealed that a rapidly-induced antiviral gene expression program is active against disparate human arthropod-borne viruses in Drosophila. Moreover, one-half of this program is regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing. Here we found that Nup98, a virus-induced gene, was antiviral against a panel of viruses both in cells and adult flies since its depletion significantly enhanced viral infection. Mechanistically, we found that Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression in Drosophila at the level of transcription. Expression profiling revealed that the virus-induced activation of 36 genes was abrogated upon loss of Nup98; and we found that a subset of these Nup98-dependent genes were antiviral. These Nup98-dependent virus-induced genes are Cdk9-dependent and translation-independent suggesting that these are rapidly induced primary response genes. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Nup98 is directly bound to the promoters of virus-induced genes, and that it promotes occupancy of the initiating form of RNA polymerase II at these promoters, which are rapidly induced on viral infection to restrict human arboviruses in insects.

349) High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Indian-Ocean; Concurrent Isolation; High Susceptibility; Florida Mosquitos; United-States; Infection; Fever; Outbreak; Coinfection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 11, p. 6294-6306, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_ 115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever.

350) Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California
Autor: Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Population structure; Simulation; Software; Genotype; Program
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is reemerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases.

351) Yellow fever vaccine attenuation revealed: loss of diversity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tangy, Frederic; Despres, Philippe
Assunto: Yellow fever virus; Live attenuated vaccine; Quasispecies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 209, n. 3, p. 318-320, 2014
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo:

352) Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K.
Assunto: Parasites , Binding sites , Crystal structure , Proteins , Ligands , Hydrogen bonds , Malaria , Erythrocytes , Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7527, p. 427-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents1. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions2. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN)3,4. Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro4-9, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

353) Wolbachia infection modifies the profile, shuttling and structure of MicroRNAs in a mosquito cell line
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mayoral, Jaime G.; Etebari, Kayvan; Hussain, Mazhar; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Gene expression; Small RNAs; Drosophila; Proteins; miRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Small RNA deep sequencing technology provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of the miRNA profile of a mosquito cell line from Aedes aegypti. We characterized the miRNA composition of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and compared it with the one of cells infected with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia strain wMelPop-CLA. We found an overall increase of small RNAs between 18 and 28 nucleotides in both cellular compartments in Wolbachia-infected cells and identified specific miRNAs induced and/or suppressed by the Wolbachia infection. We discuss the mechanisms that the cell may use to shuttle miRNAs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In addition, we identified piRNAs that changed their abundance in response to Wolbachia infection. The miRNAs and piRNAs identified in this study provide promising leads for investigations into the host-endosymbiont interactions and for better understanding of how Wolbachia manipulates the host miRNA machinery in order to facilitate its persistent replication in infected cells.

354) What's new in clinical dermatology ?
Autor: Barbaud A.
Assunto: 2 Methyl 4 Isothiazolin 3 One; Telaprevir; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Article; Bullous Pemphigoid; Contact Allergy; Dermatology; Disease Association; Dress Syndrome; Genetic Predisposition; Human; Neurologic Disease; Psoriasis; Skin Disease; Suppurative Hidradenitis; Classification; Dermatology; Skin Diseases; Trends; Dermatology; Humans; Skin Diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, v. 141, n. S4, p. S597-S609,2014.
ISSN: 1519638
Resumo: Dermatoses have been better characterized as hypochromic vitiligo in subjects with dark skin or the acquired racquet nails associated with hyperparathyroidism. The innate immunity has a central role in the new classification of auto inflammatory diseases, neutrophilic dermatoses, neutrophilic urticaria or pseudo-neutrophilic urticaria. Comorbidities have been studied e.g. cardiovascular co morbidities for psoriasis, IBD associated with hidradenitis suppurativa or neurological disorders associated with pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid could be renamed as cutaneous pemphigoid, it can be induced by drugs especially gliptins. Genetic predispositions are analyzed in auto inflammatory diseases, psoriasis (HLA), drug eruptions (HLA or cytokines). Telaprevir often induces rashes, which can be severe but other treatments against hepatitis C as interferon can also induce debilitating rashes, some eligible for drug tolerance induction. European guidelines for the definition, classification, diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria have been published. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions may be associated with severe systemic symptoms such as organ involvement in AGEP or the occurrence of a shock in DRESS. Allover Europe, there is now an epidemic of contact allergies to methylisothiazolinone (MIT), contained in cosmetics, wet wipes but also in paints. MIT should be tested at2.000 ppm in water, included in the standard series for patch tests. Its role has to be evoked in any case localized on the face or hand, airborne or generalized eczema. Among infectious diseases, skin manifestations due to Parvovirus have been specified, a febrile rash can be related to dengue infection or to Zika virus. ©2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

355) Genetic control of Aedes aegypti: data-driven modelling to assess the effect of releasing different life stages and the potential for long-term suppression
Autor: Winskill, Peter; Harris, Angela F.; Morgan, Sian A.; Stevenson, Jessica; Raduan, Norzahira; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew R.; Donnelly, Christl A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; RIDL; Transgenic; Sterile insect technique; SIT; Pupae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Control of the world's most important vector-borne viral disease, dengue, is a high priority. A lack of vaccines or effective vector control methods means that novel solutions to disease control are essential. The release of male insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL) is one such approach that could be employed to control Aedes aegypti. To maximise the potential of RIDL control, optimum release strategies for transgenic mosquitoes are needed. The use of field data to parameterise models allowing comparisons of the release of different life-stages is presented together with recommendations for effective long-term suppression of a wild Ae. aegypti population. Methods: A compartmental, deterministic model was designed and fitted to data from large-scale pupal mark release recapture (MRR) field experiments to determine the dynamics of a pupal release. Pulsed releases of adults, pupae or a combination of the two were simulated. The relative ability of different release methods to suppress a simulated wild population was examined and methods to maintain long-term suppression of a population explored. Results: The pupal model produced a good fit to field data from pupal MRR experiments. Simulations using this model indicated that adult-only releases outperform pupal-only or combined releases when releases are frequent. When releases were less frequent pupal-only or combined releases were a more effective method of distributing the insects. The rate at which pupae eclose and emerge from release devices had a large influence on the relative efficacy of pupal releases. The combined release approach allows long-term suppression to be maintained with smaller low-frequency releases than adult- or pupal-only release methods. Conclusions: Maximising the public health benefits of RIDL-based vector control will involve optimising all stages of the control programme. The release strategy can profoundly affect the outcome of a control effort. Adult-only, pupal-only and combined releases all have relative advantages in certain situations. This study successfully integrates field data with mathematical models to provide insight into which release strategies are best suited to different scenarios. Recommendations on effective approaches to achieve long-term suppression of a wild population using combined releases of adults and pupae are provided.

356) Molecular caracterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declere, Stephane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Central Africa; Aedes africanus; Zika virus; Genomic Characterization; Aedes opok
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus and Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, 2014.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

357) Assessing the relationship between vector indices and dengue transmission: a systematic review of the evidence
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bowman, Leigh R.; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; McCall, P. J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti - Diptera; Virus transmission; Culicidae production; Population - Dynamics; Global distribution; Backpack aspirator; Simulation - Model; Southeast - Asia; Human movement; Thai Villages
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Despite doubts about methods used and the association between vector density and dengue transmission, routine sampling of mosquito vector populations is common in dengue-endemic countries worldwide. This study examined the evidence from published studies for the existence of any quantitative relationship between vector indices and dengue cases.Methodology/Principal Findings: From a total of 1205 papers identified in database searches following Cochrane and PRISMA Group guidelines, 18 were included for review. Eligibility criteria included 3-month study duration and dengue case confirmation by WHO case definition and/or serology. A range of designs were seen, particularly in spatial sampling and analyses, and all but 3 were classed as weak study designs. Eleven of eighteen studies generated Stegomyia indices from combined larval and pupal data. Adult vector data were reported in only three studies. Of thirteen studies that investigated associations between vector indices and dengue cases, 4 reported positive correlations, 4 found no correlation and 5 reported ambiguous or inconclusive associations. Six out of 7 studies that measured Breteau Indices reported dengue transmission at levels below the currently accepted threshold of 5.Conclusions/Significance: There was little evidence of quantifiable associations between vector indices and dengue transmission that could reliably be used for outbreak prediction. This review highlighted the need for standardized sampling protocols that adequately consider dengue spatial heterogeneity. Recommendations for more appropriately designed studies include: standardized study design to elucidate the relationship between vector abundance and dengue transmission; adult mosquito sampling should be routine; single values of Breteau or other indices are not reliable universal dengue transmission thresholds; better knowledge of vector ecology is required.

358) Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-type lectins for dengue prevention
Autor: Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Lectins; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Galactose; Virions; Vectors; Life cycle; Infection; Immunization; Blood; Antibodies; Antisera; Cell membranes; Dengue; Risk factors; Vaccines; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; West Nile virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.

359) Identification and characterization of the expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Wenquan; Huang, Huicong; Xing, Cuicui; Li, Chunxiang; Tan, Feng; Liang, Shaohui
Assunto: MicroRNAs (miRNAs); Anopheles anthropophagus; Expression profile; Sexual differences; Stage-specific
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Anopheles anthropophagus, one of the most important mosquito-borne disease vectors in Asia, mainly takes blood meals from humans and transmits both malaria and filariae. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, and play a critical role in many cellular processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis and innate immunity.Methods: We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of male and female adults of A. anthropophagus using illumina Hiseq2000 sequencing combined with Northern blot.Results: By using the miRNAs of the closely-related species Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti as reference, we obtained 102 miRNAs candidates out of 12.43 million raw sequencing reads for male and 16.51 million reads for female, with 81 of them found as known miRNAs in An. gambiae and/or Ae. aegypti, and the remaining 21 miRNAs were considered as novel. By analyzing the revised read count of miRNAs in male and female, 29 known miRNAs show sexual difference expression: > 2-fold in the read count of the same miRNAs in male and female. Especially for miR-989, which is highly expressed in the female mosquitoes, but shows almost no detected expression in male mosquitoes, indicating that miR-989 may be involved in the physiological activity of female mosquito adults. The expression of four miRNAs in different growth stages of mosquito were further identified by Northern blot. Several miRNAs show the stage-specific expression, of which miR-2943 only expressed in the egg stage, suggesting that miR-2943 may be associated with the development of mosquito eggs.Conclusions: The present study represents the first global characterization of An. anthropophagus miRNAs in sexual differences and stage-specific functions. A better understanding of the functions of these miRNAs will offer new insights in mosquito biology and has implications for the effective control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

360) Are fish paratenic natural hosts of the caiman haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani?
Autor: Pereira, Glauber; Soares, Priscilla; Gomes, Marcelo; Viana, Lacio; Manso, Pedro; Machado, Marcelo; Paiva, Fernando; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Assunto: Parasites; Fishing vessels; Pest control; Cysts; Public health; Oocysts; Gametocytes; Blood meals; Inflammation; Hepatozoon; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Metynnis; Astyanax; Aedes fluviatilis; Aedes albopictus;
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 39-45, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The susceptibility of two fish and four mosquito species to the Caiman yacare haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani was experimentally investigated. Mosquitoes belonging to four species (Aedes fluviatilis, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were blood-fed on two naturally infected C. yacare from the Central-West Region of Brazil that exhibited distinct levels of parasitaemia: caimans A (11.05 %) and B (1.25 %). None of the engorged A. fluviatilis, A. albopictus or A. aegypti mosquitoes fed on caiman A survived for the duration of the sporogonic cycle; the great majority of the engorged mosquitoes died within 48 h of the blood meal. All A. aegypti fed on caiman B were negative, whereas 91.3 % of dissected C. quinquefasciatus fed on the same caiman contained oocysts. Characid fish-Metynnis sp. and Astyanax sp.-were individually fed with C. quinquefasciatus females previously engorged (21-23 days) on caiman B. No parasite was found in the Astyanax fish. By contrast, 100 % of the Metynnis fish depicted numerous cysts harbouring cystozoites identical to those of H. caimani, even more than 8 months after the ingestion of the infected mosquitoes. The cysts were located near the veins of the liver and, in some cases, close to the tunica intima of these vessels. No inflammatory reaction was observed. Gametocytes were observed in the blood smears of juvenile caimans that had ingested infected fish 9-12 weeks earlier. The potential role of fish as paratenic vertebrate hosts of H. caimani in nature is discussed.

361) Modelling interventions during a dengue outbreak
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barmak, D. H.; Dorso, C. O.; Otero, M.; Solari, H. G.
Assunto: Outbreaks; Infectious Disease Control; Dengue Fever; Mathematical Modelling; Spatial Modelling
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 142, n. 3, p. 545-561, 2014
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: We present a stochastic dynamical model for the transmission of dengue that considers the co-Evolution of the spatial dynamics of the vectors (Aedes aegypti) and hosts (human population), allowing the simulation of control strategies adapted to the actual Evolution of an epidemic outbreak. We observed that imposing restrictions on the movement of infected humans is not a highly effective strategy. In contrast, isolating infected individuals with high levels of compliance by the human population is efficient even when implemented with delays during an ongoing outbreak. We also studied insecticide-spraying strategies assuming different (hypothetical) efficiencies. We observed that highly efficient fumigation strategies seem to be effective during an outbreak. Nevertheless, taking into account the controversial results on the use of spraying as a single control strategy, we suggest that carrying out combined strategies of fumigation and isolation during an epidemic outbreak should account for a suitable strategy for the attenuation of epidemic outbreaks.

362) Spatiotemporal clustering, climate periodicity, and social-ecological risk factors for dengue during an outbreak in Machala, Ecuador, in 2010
Autor: Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Munoz, Angel G.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Ayala, Efrain Beltran; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Mejia, Raul; Ordonez, Tania; Recalde-Coronel, G. Cristina; Rivero, Keytia
Assunto: Dengue fever; Aedes aegypti; Social-ecological; Climate; Spatial; Temporal; Wavelet analysis; Early warning system
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 14, n. 1, p. 610, 2014.
ISSN: 1471-2334
Resumo: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is a rapidly emerging public health problem in Ecuador and throughout the tropics. However, we have a limited understanding of the disease transmission dynamics in these regions. Previous studies in southern coastal Ecuador have demonstrated the potential to develop a dengue early warning system (EWS) that incorporates climate and non-climate information. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics and climatic and social-ecological risk factors associated with the largest dengue epidemic to date in Machala, Ecuador, to inform the development of a dengue EWS. Methods: The following data from Machala were included in analyses: neighborhood-level georeferenced dengue cases, national census data, and entomological surveillance data from 2010; and time series of weekly dengue cases (aggregated to the city-level) and meteorological data from 2003 to 2012. We applied LISA and Moran's I to analyze the spatial distribution of the 2010 dengue cases, and developed multivariate logistic regression models through a multi-model selection process to identify census variables and entomological covariates associated with the presence of dengue at the neighborhood level. Using data aggregated at the city-level, we conducted a time-series (wavelet) analysis of weekly climate and dengue incidence (2003-2012) to identify significant time periods (e.g., annual, biannual) when climate co-varied with dengue, and to describe the climate conditions associated with the 2010 outbreak. Results: We found significant hotspots of dengue transmission near the center of Machala. The best-fit model to predict the presence of dengue included older age and female gender of the head of the household, greater access to piped water in the home, poor housing condition, and less distance to the central hospital. Wavelet analyses revealed that dengue transmission co-varied with rainfall and minimum temperature at annual and biannual cycles, and we found that anomalously high rainfall and temperatures were associated with the 2010 outbreak. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of geospatial information in dengue surveillance and the potential to develop a climate-driven spatiotemporal prediction model to inform disease prevention and control interventions. This study provides an operational methodological framework that can be applied to understand the drivers of local dengue risk.

363) Complex behaviour in a dengue model with a seasonally varying vector population
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McLennan-Smith, Timothy A.; Mercer, Geoffry N.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Seasonality; Multiple subclasses; Deterministic chaos; Mathematical model; 0–1 Test
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Mathematical Biosciences, v. 248, p. 22-30, 2014
ISSN: 0025-5564
Resumo: In recent decades, dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever have become a substantial public health concern in many subtropical and tropical countries throughout the world. Many of these regions have strong seasonal patterns in rainfall and temperature which are directly linked to the transmission of dengue through the mosquito vector population. Our study focuses on the development and analysis of a strongly seasonally forced, multi-subclass dengue model. This model is a compartment-based system of first-order ordinary differential equations with seasonal forcing in the vector population and also includes host population demographics. Our analysis of this model focuses particularly on the existence of deterministic chaos in regions of the parameter space which potentially hinders application of the model to predict and understand future outbreaks. The numerically efficient 0-1 test for deterministic chaos suggested by Gottwald and Melbourne (2004) [18] is used to analyze the long-term behaviour of the model as an alternative to Lyapunov exponents. Various solutions types were found to exist within the studied parameter range. Most notable are the existence of isola n-cycle solutions before the onset of deterministic chaos. Analysis of the seasonal model with the 0-1 test revealed the existence of three disconnected regions in parameter space where deterministic chaos exists in the single subclass model. Knowledge of these regions and how they relate to the parameters of the model gives greater confidence in the predictive power of the seasonal model. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

364) 2'-branched nucleosides for treatment of viral infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Novartis AG; Yokokawa, Fumiaki
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: US2014/65101 A1, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo: The present invention provides a compound of formula I: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is defined herein, which is a 2?-branched nucleoside useful for the treatment or prevention of viral infections, particularly dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Murray Valley encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Zika virus and Hepatitis C virus.

365) Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study
Autor: Quintero, Juliana; Brochero, Helena; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Basso, Cesar; Romero, Sonnia; Caprara, Andrea; De Lima Cunha, Jane Cris; Beltran - Ayala, Efrain; Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannnes; Petzold, Max
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vector breeding sites; Pupal indices; Urban settings; Ecobiosocial framework
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 14, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background: Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. Methods: In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. Results: The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and -except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and "dengue mosquitoes" was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and -particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. Conclusions: A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container types; 2) the need to raise public awareness about useful and effective interventions in productive container types specific to their area; and 3) the motivation for control services that-according to this and similar studies in Asia- dedicated, targeted vector management can make a difference in terms of reducing vector abundance.

366) Increased replicative fitness of a dengue virus 2 clade in native mosquitoes: potential contribution to a clade replacement event in Nicaragua
Autor: Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: Epidemics; Viral diseases; Viruses; Clinical isolates; Serotypes; Vectors; Dengue; Immune esponse; Evolution; Genetics; Climate change; Globalization; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, no. 22, pp. 13125-13134, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern. This is due to globalization, unplanned urbanization, and climate change, as well as host genetics and immune responses and viral genetic changes. DENV consists of four serotypes, in turn composed of genotypes and genetically distinct clades. What drives the frequent replacement of a previously circulating DENV clade by another is unclear. Here, we investigate the replicative fitness of two clades of DENV serotype 2 in Aedes aegypti cells and mosquitoes collected from the region where the viruses circulated and conclude that increased replicative fitness could have contributed to a DENV clade replacement event in Nicaragua. These findings provide insight into vector-driven evolution of DENV epidemics.

367) Chikungunya virus was isolated in Thailand, 2010
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sasayama, Mikiko; Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kawashita, Norihito; Rukmanee, Prasert; Sangmukdanun, Suntaree; Masrinoul, Promsin; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Puiprom, Orapim; Wuthisen, Pitak; Kurosu, Takeshi; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Maneekan, Pannamas; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Thailand; Virus replication; Genetic variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 49, n. 3, p. 485-489, 2014
ISSN: 0920-8569
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This disease re-emerged in Kenya in 2004, and spread to the countries in and around the Indian Ocean. The re-emerging epidemics rapidly spread to regions like India and Southeast Asia, and it was subsequently identified in Europe in 2007, probably as a result of importation of chikungunya cases. On the one hand, chikungunya is one of the neglected diseases and has only attracted strong attention during large outbreaks. In 2008-2009, there was a major outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand, resulting in the highest number of infections in any country in the region. However, no update of CHIKV circulating in Thailand has been published since 2009. In this study, we examined the viral growth kinetics and sequences of the structural genes derived from CHIKV clinical isolates obtained from the serum specimens of CHIKF-suspected patients in Central Thailand in 2010. We identified the CHIKV harboring two mutations E1-A226V and E2-I211T, indicating that the East, Central, and South African lineage of CHIKV was continuously circulating as an indigenous population in Thailand.

368) Analysis of early dengue virus infection in mice as modulated by Aedes aegypti probing
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Salivary - Gland extracts; Host immune - Response; Gene - Expression; Dendritic cells; Mosquito bite; Nonvascular delivery; Housekeeping genes; RNA virus; Interferon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 4, p. 1881-1889, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-gamma, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection.

369) Human to mosquito transmiss on of dengue viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Transmission; Aedes Aegypti; Aedes Albopictus; Viral Titer; Temperature; Symptomatic Vs. Asymptomatic Infections
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Frontiers in Immunology, v. 5, 2014
ISSN: 1664-3224
Resumo: The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that Vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito's susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host.

370) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio CM; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo MA; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Biological surveys; Recombination; Epidemics; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Public health; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Molecular evolution; Vectors; Forests; Glycosylation; Infection; Fever; Genetic relationship; Exanthema; Epidemiology; Envelope protein; Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes; Zika virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Proteins ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in nature and that, after it emerged from Uganda in the early of the 20th century, it moved to West Africa and Asia in the first half of the century, without any clear preference for host and vector species.

371) Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-Type lectins for dengue prevention
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.Author Summary Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is currently the most significant arbovirus afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. No vaccine or therapeutics are available, and dengue has rapidly spread over the last decade. Therefore, additional strategies to combat dengue are urgently needed. In this study, we characterized multiple C-type lectins as susceptibility factors for dengue infection in A. aegypti. These mosGCTLs directly interacted with dengue virus in vitro and in vivo. The combination of antisera against multiple mosGCTLs efficiently reduced DENV-2 infection after a blood meal, suggesting that it is feasible to develop a mosGCTL-based transmission-blocking vaccine to interrupt the life cycle of dengue virus and control disease burden in nature. This study substantially extends our understanding of dengue replication in vectors and provides a research avenue by which the development of therapeutics for preventing the dissemination of mosquito-borne viral diseases can be pursued in the future.

372) Evidence of Experimental Vertical Transmission of Emerging Novel ECSA Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Agarwal, Ankita; Dash, Paban Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Parida, Man Mohan; Reiter, Paul
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Trans-Ovarial Transmission; Yellow-Fever Virus; Diptera-Culicidae; Albopictus Mosquitos; Encephalitis-Virus; Reunion Island; Oral Infection; Indian-Ocean; South-India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not.Methodology/Principal Findings: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1:35.5) and 20.2 (1:49.5) respectively.Conclusion/Significance: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

373) Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pijlman, Gorben P.
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Aedes-Aegypti Mosquitos; Double-Stranded-Rna; Arbovirus Infection; Antiviral Immunity;Albopictus Cells; Subgenomic Rna; Messenger-Rna; Nss Protein; Interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 7, p. 55-60, 2014
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi.

374) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Virulence; Viral diseases; Mutations; DNA; Proteins; Public health; Chimeras; Infectivity; Envelope protein; Vectors; Embryos; Infection; Mutation; Mutagenesis; Culex; Yellow fever virus; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 1, p. 60, 2014.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. Findings: The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. Conclusions: While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes.

375) Increased Replicative Fitness of a Dengue Virus 2 Clade in Native Mosquitoes: Potential Contribution to a Clade Replacement Event in Nicaragua
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Naturally Infected Mosquitos; Original Antigenic Sin; Encephalitis-Virus; Dominant Genotype; Rna; Emergence; Transmission; Diversity; Dynamics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 22, p. 13125-13134, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua.IMPORTANCEDengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern. This is due to globalization, unplanned urbanization, and climate change, as well as host Genetics and immune responses and viral genetic changes. DENV consists of four serotypes, in turn composed of genotypes and Genetically distinct clades. What drives the frequent replacement of a previously circulating DENV clade by another is unclear. Here, we investigate the replicative fitness of two clades of DENV serotype 2 in Aedes aegypti cells and mosquitoes collected from the region where the viruses circulated and conclude that increased replicative fitness could have contributed to a DENV clade replacement event in Nicaragua. These findings provide insight into vector-driven Evolution of DENV epidemics.

376) Homodimerization propensity of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of Ultraspiracle from Aedes aegypti
Autor: Pieprzyk, Joanna; Zbela, Agnieszka; Jakob, Michal; Ozyhar, Andrzej; Orlowski, Marek
Assunto: Ultraspiracle protein; Aedes aegypti; Ecdysteroid receptor; Intrinsically disordered protein; N-terminal domain
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Proteins and Proteomics, v. 1844, n. 6, p. 1153-1166, 2014.
ISSN: 1570-9639
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue, one of the most devastating arthropod-borne viral infections in humans. The isoform specific A/B region, called the N-terminal domain (NTD), is hypervariable in sequence and length and is poorly conserved within the Ultraspiracle (Usp) family. The Usp protein together with ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) forms a heterodimeric complex. Up until now, there has been little data on the molecular properties of the isolated Usp-NTD. Here, we describe the biochemical and biophysical properties of the recombinant NTD of the Usp isoform B (aaUsp-NTD) from A. aegypti. These results, in combination with in silico bioinformatics approaches, indicate that aaUsp-NTD exhibits properties of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). We also present the first experimental evidence describing the dimerization propensity of the isolated NTD of Usp. These characteristics also appear for other members of the Usp family in different species, for example, in the Usp-NTD from Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. However, aaUsp-NTD exhibits the strongest homodimerization potential. We postulate that the unique dimerization of the NTD might be important for Usp function by providing an additional platform for interactions, in addition to the nuclear receptor superfamily dimerization via DNA binding domains and ligand binding domains that has already been extensively documented. Furthermore, the unique NTD-NTD interaction that was observed might contribute new insight into the dimerization propensities of nuclear receptors.

377) CPB1 of Aedes aegypti interacts with DENV2 e protein and regulates intracellular viral accumulation and release from midgut cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Carboxypeptidase; Yeast two - Hybrid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses-Basel, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5028-5046, 2014
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network.

378) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti, December 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wæhre T., Maagard A., Tappe D., Cadar D., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412-1414, 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

379) MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2 autoregulates its replication in mosquito cells
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: RNA; Immunoprecipitation; Pathogens; Serotypes; Vero cells; miRNA; RNA viruses; Dengue; Cloning; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 7, p. 2746-2751, 2014.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in most cellular processes. In the seemingly endless arms race between hosts and pathogens, viruses also encode miRNAs that facilitate successful infection. In search of functional miRNAs or viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) encoded by Dengue virus (DENV), deep sequencing data of virus-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. From six vsRNAs, with candidate stem-loop structures in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the viral genomic RNA, inhibition of DENV-vsRNA-5 led to significant increases in viral replication. Silencing of RNA interference (RNAi)/miRNA pathways' associated proteins showed that Argonaute 2 is mainly involved in DENV-vsRNA-5 biogenesis. Cloning of the precursor stem loop, immunoprecipitations, ectopic expression and detection in RNAi-deficient C6/36, and the mammalian Vero cell lines further confirmed DENV-vsRNA-5 production. Furthermore, significant impact of synthetic mimic and inhibitor of DENV-vsRNA-5 on DENV RNA levels revealed DENV-vsRNA-5's role in virus autoregulation by targeting the virus nonstructural protein 1 gene. Notably, DENV-vsRNA-5 homologous mimics from DENV serotypes 1 and 4, but not 3, inhibited DENV-2 replication. The results revealed that DENV is able to encode functional vsRNAs, and one of those, which resembles miRNAs, specifically targets a viral gene, opening an avenue for possible utilization of the small RNA to limit DENV replication.

380) Wolbachia infection modifies the profile, shuttling and structure of microRNAs in a mosquito cell line
Autor: Mayoral, Jaime G.; Etebari, Kayvan; Hussain, Mazhar; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Replication; Cytoplasm; Environmental impact; Immunity; Strains; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Development; Immune response; Nuclei; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Small RNA deep sequencing technology provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of the miRNA profile of a mosquito cell line from Aedes aegypti. We characterized the miRNA composition of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and compared it with the one of cells infected with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia strain wMelPop-CLA. We found an overall increase of small RNAs between 18 and 28 nucleotides in both cellular compartments in Wolbachia-infected cells and identified specific miRNAs induced and/or suppressed by the Wolbachia infection. We discuss the mechanisms that the cell may use to shuttle miRNAs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In addition, we identified piRNAs that changed their abundance in response to Wolbachia infection. The miRNAs and piRNAs identified in this study provide promising leads for investigations into the host-endosymbiont interactions and for better understanding of how Wolbachia manipulates the host miRNA machinery in order to facilitate its persistent replication in infected cells.

381) Deletion of the NSm virulence gene of rift valley fever virus inhibits virus replication in and dissemination from the Midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kading, Rebekah C.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Bird, Brian H.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.
Assunto: Culex - Pipiens; Saudi -Arabia; Lacking; Protein; Transmission; Infection; Transcription; Challenge; Tropisms; Animals
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background Previously, we investigated the role of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) virulence genes NSs and NSm in mosquitoes and demonstrated that deletion of NSm significantly reduced the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of RVFV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The specific aim of this study was to further characterize midgut infection and escape barriers of RVFV in Ae. aegypti infected with reverse genetics-generated wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) or RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-NSm) by examining sagittal sections of infected mosquitoes for viral antigen at various time points post-infection.Methodology and Principal FindingsAe. aegypti mosquitoes were fed an infectious blood meal containing either rRVF-wt or rRVF-NSm. On days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 post-infection, mosquitoes from each experimental group were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and examined for RVFV antigen by immunofluorescence assay. Remaining mosquitoes at day 14 were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. Disseminated infections were observed in mosquitoes as early as three days post infection for both virus strains. However, infection rates for rRVF-NSm were statistically significantly less than for rRVF-wt. Posterior midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections of mosquitoes infected with rRVF-NSm were confined to one or a few small foci.Conclusions/Significance Deletion of NSm resulted in the reduced ability of RVFV to enter, replicate, and disseminate from the midgut epithelial cells. NSm appears to have a functional role in the vector competence of mosquitoes for RVFV at the level of the midgut barrier.Author Summary Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Africa. Outbreaks of RVFV have resulted in devastating morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. A novel RVFV vaccine strain has been developed in which two virulence genes, NSs and NSm, have been deleted from the RVFV genome. Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of NSm also significantly reduced the ability of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to transmit RVFV. The objective of this study was to track the spread (dissemination) of wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) and RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-NSm) through different tissues in the mosquito body over time by staining lengthwise slices of infected mosquitoes with fluorescent antibody specific to RVFV. We found that midgut infections in mosquitoes exposed to rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF-NSm were confined to only one or a few small foci. Our data provide supporting evidence that the NSm virulence gene has a functional role in mosquitoes by helping RVFV establish an infection in, and escape from, the midgut.

382) A single-amino-acid polymorphism in chikungunya virus E2 glycoprotein influences glycosaminoglycan utilization
Autor: Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Dermody, Terence S.
Assunto: Surface heparin - Sulfate; Herpes simplex -Virus; Ross river virus; Sindbis - Virus; Encephalitis -Virus; Reunion Island; Aedes aegypti; Virulence attenuation; Japanese encephalitis; Attachment receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 5, p. 2385-2397, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Pre-incubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.IMPORTANCEChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection.

383) Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti Control; Asian Tiger Mosquito; Willingness-To-Pay; Information Packets; Health-Education; Control Program; Albopictus; Participation; Neighborhoods; Involvement
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 9, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of Emerging Infectious Diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two Areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment Areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control Areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal against peridomestic mosquitoes.

384) Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome: case report, French Polynesia, December 2013
Autor: Oehler, E.; Watrin, L.; Larre, P.; Leparc-Goffart, I.; Lastere, S.; Valour, F.; Baudouin, L.; Mallet, H. P.; Musso, D.; Ghawche, F.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes; Micronesia; Albopictus; Singapore; Fever; PCR
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 9, p. 4-6, 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arbo-viral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia.We report on a French Polynesian patient presenting a Zika virus (ZIKA) infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome GBS).

385) Capacity of mosquitoes to transmit malaria depends on larval environment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moller-Jacobs, Lillian L.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Thomas, Matthew B.
Assunto: Anopheles stephensi; Disease ecology; Food stress; Host - Parasite interactions; Nutrition; Plasmodium yoelii yoelii; Trans - Stadial effects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n.593, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Adult traits of holometabolous insects such as reproduction and survival can be shaped by conditions experienced during larval development. These "carry-over" effects influence not only individual life history and fitness, but can also impact interactions between insect hosts and parasites. Despite this, the implications of larval conditions for the transmission of human, wildlife and plant diseases that are vectored by insects remain poorly understood.Methods: We used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii yoelii, to investigate whether quality of larval habitat influenced vectorial capacity of adult mosquitoes. Larvae were reared under two dietary conditions; one group received a diet commonly used for colony maintenance (0.3 mg/individual/day of Tetrafin fish food) while the other group received a reduced food diet (0.1 mg/individual/day). Upon emergence, adults were provided an infectious blood feed. We assessed the effects of diet on a range of larval and adult traits including larval development times and survival, number of emerging adults, adult body size and survival, gonotrophic cycle length, and mating success. We also estimated the effects of larval diet on parasite infection rates and growth kinetics within the adult mosquitoes.Results: Larval dietary regime affected larval survival and development, as well as size, reproductive success and survival of adult mosquitoes. Larval diet also affected the intensity of initial Plasmodium infection (oocyst stage) and parasite replication, but without differences in overall infection prevalence at either the oocyst or sporozoite stage.Conclusions: Together, the combined effects led to a relative reduction in vectorial capacity (a measure of the transmission potential of a mosquito population) in the low food treatment of 70%. This study highlights the need to consider environmental variation at the larval stages to better understand transmission dynamics and control of vector-borne diseases.

386) Aedes mosquito salivary immune peptides: boost or block dengue viral infections
Autor: Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Dengue, Aedes, Mosquito immune, Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 2, n. 2, p. 163-168, 2014
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: Dengue virus, one of the most important arthropod borne viruses, infected to human can severely cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are expected about 50 million dengue infections and 500 000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue hemorrhagic fever, mainly in Southeast Asia, Pacific, and in Americas reported each year. The rapid expansion of global dengue is one of a major public health challenge, together with not yet successful solutions of dengue epidemic control strategies. Thus, these dynamic dengue viral infections exhibited high demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure impacts on human. This review aimed to highlight the current understanding of dengue mosquito immune responses and role of mosquito salivary glands on dengue infection. These information may provide a valuable knowledge of disease pathogenesis, especially in mosquito vector and dengue virus interaction, which may help to control awl prevent dengue distribution.

387) Characterization of aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: RNA interference response; Jak - Stat Pathway; Mosquito cells; Alphavirus replication; Arbovirus infection; Argonaute proteins; Anopheles - Gambiae; Disease vector; I Interferon; Defense
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways.

388) Exposure to L-cycloserine incurs survival costs and behavioral alterations in Aedes aegypti females
Autor: Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Wings; Glucose; Inhibitors; Survival; Pest control; Phenotypes; Mortality causes; Starvation; Carbohydrate metabolism; Ammonia; Muscles; Fat body; Vectors; Blood meals; Alanine transaminase; Supplementation; Acute effects; Blood; Motor activity; Carbohydrates; Metabolism; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: It was previously demonstrated that alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, EC 2.6.1.2) participates in maintaining the alanine-proline cycle between flight muscles and fat body during Aedes aegypti flight. ALAT is also actively involved in the metabolism of ammonia in A. aegypti. Here, we investigated the survival and behavioral costs of ALAT inhibition in A. aegypti females to better understand the role of ALAT in blood-fed mosquitoes. Methods: We analyzed how A. aegypti female mosquitoes respond to blood meals supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM L-cycloserine, a well-known inhibitor of ALAT in animals. Mosquitoes were also exposed to blood meals supplemented with L-cycloserine and different concentrations of glucose (0, 10 and 100 mM). Additionally, the effects of ALAT inhibitor and glucose in mosquitoes starved for 24 or 48 h were investigated. Survival and behavioral phenotypes were analyzed during a time course (1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding). Results: L-cycloserine at 10 mM resulted in high mortality relative to control, with an acute effect during the first 6 h after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of active mosquitoes coinciding with an increase in futile wing fanning during the first 24 h was observed at all inhibitor concentrations. A high occurrence of knockdown phenotype was also recorded at this time for both 5 and 10 mM L-cycloserine. The supplementation of glucose in the blood meal amplified the effects of the ALAT inhibitor. In particular, we observed a higher mortality rate concomitant with an increase in the knockdown phenotype. Starvation prior to blood feeding also increased the effects of L-cycloserine with a rapid increase in mortality. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that exposure of high doses of L-cycloserine during A. aegypti blood feeding affects mosquito survival and motor activity, suggesting an interference with carbohydrate and ammonia metabolism in a time-dependent manner.

389) Caracterización clínica del dengue en un hospital infantil de Cartagena (Colombia)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gómez Marrugo, Diana; Causil Garcés, Ceyla; Pinzón Redondo, Hernando; Suárez Causado, Amileth; Moneriz Pretell, Carlos
Assunto: Fiebre; Dengue; Niños; Arbovirus, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology
Fonte: Revista Salud Uninorte, v. 30, n. 3, p. 281-292, 2014
ISSN: 2011-7531
Resumo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínicas del dengue en pacientes pediátricos en una institución de salud de tercer nivel de Cartagena (Colombia). Estudio descriptivo por revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por dengue en el Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Se evaluaron 136 niños con cuadros febriles agudos de etiología inaparente. Se utilizaron pruebas serológicas para confirmar la infección por el virus del dengue. Se analizaron 98 casos de niños hospitalizados con diagnóstico de dengue. La edad osciló entre menores de 6 meses a 16 años, siendo el rango de edades con mayor frecuencia de la enfermedad de 10 a 16 años (33,7%). Los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron: exantema (49,0%), mialgia (35,7%), cefalea (33,7%), artralgia (33,7%), anorexia (24,5%), torniquete (19,4%), prurito (11,2%), escalofrío (8,2%), eritema facial (7,1%) y dolor retro ocular (6,1%). La edad continúa siendo el factor predominante en la gravedad intrahospitalaria del dengue. Por lo tanto se necesitan con urgencia medidas preventivas en la población pediátrica

390) Aedes aegypti Mos20 cells internalizes cry toxins by endocytosis, and actin has a role in the defense against Cry11Aa toxin
Autor: Vega-Cabrera, Adriana; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Porta, Helena; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana
Assunto: Toxicants; Actin; Defence mechanisms; Lysosomes; Detoxification; Cry11A toxin; Osmotic shock; Larvae; Vectors; Toxins; Cytoskeleton; Endocytosis; Dengue; Yellow fever; Insect cells; Immune response; Cry1Ab toxin; Aedes aegypti; Bacillus thuringiensis; Lepidoptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Toxins, v. 6, n. 2, p. 464-487, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are used to control Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue fever and yellow fever. Bt Cry toxin forms pores in the gut cells, provoking larvae death by osmotic shock. Little is known, however, about the endocytic and/or degradative cell processes that may counteract the toxin action at low doses. The purpose of this work is to describe the mechanisms of internalization and detoxification of Cry toxins, at low doses, into Mos20 cells from A. aegypti, following endocytotic and cytoskeletal markers or specific chemical inhibitors. Here, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis are involved in the internalization into Mos20 cells of Cry11Aa, a toxin specific for Dipteran, and Cry1Ab, a toxin specific for Lepidoptera. Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab are not directed to secretory lysosomes. Instead, Mos20 cells use the Rab5 and Rab11 pathways as a common mechanism, most probably for the expulsion of Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab toxins. In conclusion, we propose that endocytosis is a mechanism induced by Cry toxins independently of specificity, probably as part of a basal immune response. We found, however, that actin is necessary for defense-specific response to Cry11Aa, because actin-silenced Mos20 cells become more sensitive to the toxic action of Cry11A toxin. Cry toxin internalization analysis in insect cell lines may contribute to a better understanding to Cry resistance in mosquitoes.

391) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

392) Trouble in paradise
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brust K.B., Prince W.S., Fader R.C.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: IDCases, v. 1, n. 4, p. 95-96, 2014
ISSN: 2214-2509
Resumo:

393) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

394) Progress in infectious disease testing-NAT and beyond
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L., Dodd R.Y.
Assunto: blood transfusion, hematology, infection, organization, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ;
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 107, supl. 1, p. 5, june 2014
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Aims: To update membership on state-of-the-art testing technologies for infectious disease blood donation screening including new methods such as expanding NAT platforms, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays. Changes to testing algorithms with the availability of inactivation by pathogen reduction will also be highlighted. Background: Testing donated blood for markers of infectious disease plays a major role in establishing and maintaining blood safety. Minimal expectations worldwide are that blood is tested for syphilis, HIV, HCV and HBV. The norm for viral testing has been serology, but increasingly, nucleic acid testing is being implemented where resources allow, even for emerging infectious disease (EID) agents such as the chikungunya virus outbreak that started in Dec 2013 in the Caribbean, marking the first introduction of this virus in the Americas. The appropriate mix of tests and algorithms will depend on local epidemiology, infrastructure and economic considerations. Although NAT will detect acute infections, representing the greatest infectious threat, not all pathogens have adequate concentrations of nucleic acid for detection in the early acute or later chronic phases of infection (if chronicity is a feature of infection). Thus, for many agents, either serology only or a combination of serology and NAT exist. In developing test strategies, it is important to understand the actual risk of transfusion transmission and the impact of the test systems on such risk, especially where resources are limited. Methods: NAT has been implemented in over 30 nations worldwide as documented by an International Forum organized by the ISBT Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Disease Working Party that captured implementation from 1999 to 2009 for HCV, HIV and HBV (Roth et al., Vox Sang 2012;102:82-90). Testing has progressed from manual technologies using single markers to highly multiplexed automated assays. Routine NAT has been added, either as a required marker or under investigational studies for additional agents including, parvovirus B19, HAV, HEV, arboviruses including WNV, dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, the red-cell parasite, Babesia, and likely others. In addition to NAT, new technologies including pathogen reduction, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays will have an important impact on testing. Recently, the AABB EID working group has updated a listing of pathogen reduction technologies available including over 40 clinical trials in support of their safety and efficacy (http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/eidpostpub.aspx). The impact is either to prevent the need to introduce new tests, assuming availability of the technology to inactivate the component in which the agent is transmitted, and that the technology has sufficient robustness to produce an effective 'kill'. As an additional benefit, changes to existing testing algorithms may be feasible such that redundant tests may be eliminated. With respect to nucleic acid and protein microarrays, technological advances will allow the simultaneous detection and differentiation of hundreds of pathogens, but many hurdles prior to routine adoption exist. Conclusions: Blood systems worldwide must be ready to adapt to changes in their infectious disease epidemiology, emergence of new agents, and changes in their economic conditions and public expectations to accommodate the changing landscape of infectious disease testing.

395) Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors
Autor: Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Human diseases; Replication; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Chemical compounds; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Sugar; Mycophenolic acid; Double-stranded RNA; Vectors; Blood meals; Salivary gland; Infection; Longevity; Fecundity; Digestive tract; Insect cells; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; H super(+)-transporting ATPase; Gene silencing; Dengue; Machinery; Arthropods; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 mu M) and MPA (25 mu M) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. Arboviruses utilize homologous host factors of the mammalian and insect cellular machinery to complete the infection cycle. Studies in both mammalian and insect cell lines have shown that virus infection can be suppressed through inhibition of host factors by chemical compounds that therefore could be developed into transmission blocking agents. However, similar studies have not been conducted in adult mosquitoes. Here we investigated the effect of four chemical compounds (bafilomycin, mycophenolic acid, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin), known to inhibit the host factors vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and glucosidases, on dengue virus replication in adult mosquitoes. We found that bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid suppressed dengue virus replication in adult mosquito guts when they were injected prior to dengue virus infection; however, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin did not. Ingestion of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid also inhibited virus replication. We showed that the predicted target genes of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid function as virus host factors in adult mosquitoes through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Inhibition of vATPase also decreases mosquito longevity and fecundity, thereby further compromising vector capacity. Our study demonstrated that chemical compounds or double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) can be used to suppress virus infection through inhibition of host factors in adult mosquitoes, thereby rendering such approaches interesting for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies.

396) Vector competence in west african Aedes aegypti is flavivirus species and genotype dependent
Autor: Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Viruses; Pathogens; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Vector competence is defined as the intrinsic permissiveness of an arthropod vector for infection, dissemination, and transmission of a pathogen. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses worldwide and is divided into two subspecies: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. Aedes aegypti aegypti is found globally in tropical and subtropical regions, while Ae. aegypti formosus is mainly restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Aedes aegypti formosus is considered to be a poor vector for both yellow fever and dengue, but some of these original studies with yellow fever were performed with highly passaged viral isolates collected at different locations than the mosquitoes. Viral genetics is an important determinant of vector competence and virus/mosquito genetic specificity exists in Ae. aegypti aegypti. We compared the vector competence of multiple collections of Ae. aegypti from throughout Senegal for both yellow fever and dengue viruses to demonstrate that vector competence in Ae. aegypti formosus is dependent on viral genotype. In contrast to earlier claims, populations of Ae. aegypti in West Africa can be competent vectors of flaviviruses.

397) What's new in clinical dermatology ?
Titulo Alternativo: Quoi de neuf en dermatologie clinique ?
Autor: Barbaud A.
Assunto: dermatology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, v. 141, n. S4, p. S597-S609, dec. 2014
ISSN: 0151-9638
Resumo: Dermatoses have been better characterized as hypochromic vitiligo in subjects with dark skin or the acquired racquet nails associated with hyperparathyroidism. The innate immunity has a central role in the new classification of auto inflammatory diseases, neutrophilic dermatoses, neutrophilic urticaria or pseudo-neutrophilic urticaria. Comorbidities have been studied e.g. cardiovascular co morbidities for psoriasis, IBD associated with hidradenitis suppurativa or neurological disorders associated with pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid could be renamed as cutaneous pemphigoid, it can be induced by drugs especially gliptins. Genetic predispositions are analyzed in auto inflammatory diseases, psoriasis (HLA), drug eruptions (HLA or cytokines). Telaprevir often induces rashes, which can be severe but other treatments against hepatitis C as interferon can also induce debilitating rashes, some eligible for drug tolerance induction. European guidelines for the definition, classification, diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria have been published. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions may be associated with severe systemic symptoms such as organ involvement in AGEP or the occurrence of a shock in DRESS. Allover Europe, there is now an epidemic of contact allergies to methylisothiazolinone (MIT), contained in cosmetics, wet wipes but also in paints. MIT should be tested at 2.000 ppm in water, included in the standard series for patch tests. Its role has to be evoked in any case localized on the face or hand, airborne or generalized eczema. Among infectious diseases, skin manifestations due to Parvovirus have been specified, a febrile rash can be related to dengue infection or to Zika virus.

398) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Dengue virus; Sequence alignment; Recombinant sequences; Phylogenetic analysis; Envelope proteins; Genus flavivirus; Mosaic structure; Yellow-Fever; Missing data; RNA viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

399) Chlorophyll derivatives can be an efficient weapon in the fight against dengue
Autor: Azizullah, Azizullah; Rehman, Zia Ur; Ali, Imran; Murad, Waheed; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Waheed; Haeder, Donat-Peter
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Larvae; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Chlorophyll; Freshwater environments; Dengue; Vectors; chlorophyllin; Vaccines; Infection; Parasites; Insects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 12, p. 4321-4326, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.

400) Effects of ingested vertebrate-derived factors on insect immune responses
Autor: Pakpour, Nazzy; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 3, p. 1-5, 2014
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: During the process of blood feeding insect vectors are exposed to an array of vertebrate-derived blood factors ranging from byproducts of blood meal digestion to naturally occurring products in the blood including growth hormones, cytokines and factors derived from blood-borne pathogens themselves. In this review, we examine the ability of these ingested vertebrate blood factors to alter the innate pathogen defenses of insect vectors. The ability of these factors to modify the immune responses of insect vectors offers new intriguing targets for blocking or reducing transmission of human disease-causing pathogens.

401) Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Pest control; Disease transmission; Public health; Immune system; Vector-borne diseases; Disease control; Survival; Infection; Dengue; Midgut; Immune response; Larvae; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chromobacterium; Plasmodium falciparum; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

402) Using Wolbachia-based release for suppression of Aedes mosquitoes: insights from genetic data and population simulations
Autor: Rasic, Gordana; Endersby, Nancy M.; Williams, Craig; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Breeding containers; CIMSiM; Genetic isolation; Local climatic conditions; Microsatellites; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Ecological Applications, v. 24, n. 5, p. 1226-1234, 2014.
ISSN: 1051-0761
Resumo: A novel strategy for suppressing disease transmission by Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, uses releases of mosquitoes infected with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia are currently released to interfere with viral transmission, but there is also potential to use strains in mosquito suppression and elimination programs via the deleterious effects of the bacterium on the host. Mosquito suppression depends on target areas being relatively isolated to prevent reinvasion and on local climatic conditions. Here we explored the opportunity for suppression of A. aegypti in central Queensland, Australia, by using microsatellite data and simulations based on CIMSiM models of local weather conditions and breeding container data. Our results indicate that Wolbachia-induced extinctions in central Queensland are possible, although they may eventually be compromised by ongoing mosquito migration between towns until these sources are also suppressed. The results highlight a novel use of deleterious Wolbachia infections to achieve ecological as well as disease-related endpoints.

403) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential
Autor: Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklov, Joacim
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Climatic changes; Climate; Vectors; Mapping; Infection; Models; Diurnal variations; Historical account; Tropical environments; Temperature; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3 degree C when DTR was 0 degree C and at 20 degree C when DTR was 20 degree C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29 degree C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29 degree C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29 degree C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29 degree C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC.

404) Differential susceptibility of two field Aedes aegypti populations to a low infectious dose of dengue virus
Autor: Pongsiri, Arissara; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Serum; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Vectors; Viremia; Blood meals; Infection; Dengue; Dose-response effects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background The infectious dose required to infect mosquito vectors when they take a blood meal from a viremic person is a critical parameter underlying the probability of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Because experimental vector competence studies typically examine the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected at intermediate or high DENV infectious doses in the blood meal, the minimum blood meal titer required to infect mosquitoes is poorly documented. Understanding the factors influencing the lower infectiousness threshold is epidemiologically significant because it determines the transmission potential of humans with a low DENV viremia, possibly including inapparent infections, and during the onset and resolution of the viremic period of acutely infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the susceptibility of two field-derived Aedes aegypti populations from Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand when they were orally exposed to low titers of six DENV-2 isolates derived from the serum of naturally infected humans living in the same region. The infectious dose, time-point post-blood feeding, viral isolate and mosquito population, were significant predictors of the proportion of mosquitoes that became infected. Importantly, the dose-response profile differed significantly between the two Ae. aegypti populations. Although both mosquito populations had a similar 50% oral infectious dose (OID50), the slope of the dose-response was shallower in one population, resulting in a markedly higher susceptibility at low blood meal titers. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that mosquitoes in nature vary in their infectious dose-response to DENV. Thus, different mosquito populations have a differential ability to acquire DENV infection at low viremia levels. Future studies on human-to-mosquito DENV transmission should not be limited to OID50 values, but rather they should be expanded to account for the shape of the dose-response profile across a range of virus titers.

405) Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes
Autor: Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli; Jalali, Sushil; Puttaraju, Hosagavi
Assunto: Wolbachia; Mosquitoes; Dengue; Chickungunya; Malaria; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 4, n. 1, p. 78-81, 2014.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

406) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Quantitative distribution; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Risk factors; Reproduction; Evolution; Sensitivity; Mitigation; Sensitivity analysis; Invasions; Risk taking; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease.

407) Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection
Autor: Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid; Recognition gene; Niemann Pick-type C gene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 43, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2014
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type Cl (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted-in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito's immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

408) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

409) Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Viral diseases; Proteins; Peptides; AMP; Pest control; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Public health; Complement component C3; Defense mechanisms; Immunity; Infection; Antimicrobial peptides; Macroglobulins; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

410) Identification of the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK: A novel sample type for diagnostic purposes and support for a potential non-vectorborne route of transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hearn P.T., Atkinson B., Hewson R., Brooks T.
Assunto: diagnosis, fever, hygiene, society, tropical medicine, United Kingdom
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 62-63, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and normally causes a self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, headache, conjunctival suffusion, myalgia and joint pains. It was discovered in 1947 at Zika Forest, near to Entebbe, Uganda. More recently it has been found outside Africa in outbreaks such as those of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. We report the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK, highlight novel samples for testing and a theoretical mode of non-vector-borne transmission. A couple travelled to the Cook Islands during what was thought to be a Dengue outbreak in February 2014. Within 6 days of exposure, both 'Patient 1' and his wife, 'Patient 2', had developed fatigue, followed 48 hours later by fever, headache, aching joints and a widespread maculopapular rash. Both reported symptoms resolving by day 5 of rash onset. In 2011, Foy et al described likely sexual transmission of ZIKV. A scientist from Colorado, travelling back from Senegal whilst incubating the virus, reportedly passed it to his wife, in whom clinical and serological evidence supported the diagnosis. On day 1 of rash onset, Patient 1 had serum sent to the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton Down and a panel of serological tests based on stated travel was performed. Dengue testing revealed positive IgM, but negative IgG and PCR. This pattern has been reported previously due to cross-reactivity between the flaviviruses. The sample was then tested by PCR for ZIKV and found to be positive. Further samples were taken on day 28 after rash onset. Blood and urine from both patients were tested in parallel, along with a semen sample from Patient 1. The semen was the only sample found to be positive for ZIKV by PCR. The reasons for persistence in the semen are not yet clear, but this case is significant not only as the first case of Zika Fever imported to the UK, but also as support for the possibility of sexual transmission, though not in this case, and highlights an additional sample type for the confirmation of infection in the future.

411) Innate immunity to dengue virus infection and subversion of antiviral responses
Autor: Green, Angela M; Beatty, PRobert; Hadjilaou, Alexandros;Harris, Eva
Assunto: Innate immunity; Dengue virus; Antiviral Responses; Immune evasion
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Molecular Biology, v. 426, n. 6, p. 1148-1160, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2836
Resumo: Dengue is a major public health issue in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-DENV4) are spread primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, whose geographic range continues to expand. Humans are the only host for epidemic strains of DENV, and the virus has developed sophisticated mechanisms to evade human innate immune responses. The host cell's first line of defense begins with an intracellular signaling cascade resulting in production of interferon alpha / beta (IFN- alpha / beta ), which promotes intracellular antiviral responses and helps initiates the adaptive response during the course of DENV infection. In response, DENV has developed numerous ways to subvert these intracellular antiviral responses and directly inhibit cellular signaling cascades. Specifically, DENV manipulates the unfolded protein response and autophagy to counter cellular stress and delay apoptosis. The DENV non-structural protein NS4B and subgenomic flavivirus RNA interfere with the RNA interference pathway by inhibiting the RNase Dicer. During heterotypic secondary DENV infection, subneutralizing antibodies can enable viral uptake through Fc gamma receptors and down-regulate signaling cascades initiated via the pattern recognition receptors TLR-3 and MDA5/RIG-I, thus reducing the antiviral state of the cell. The DENV NS2B/3 protein cleaves human STING/MITA, interfering with induction of IFN- alpha / beta . Finally, DENV NS2A, NS4A, and NS4B complex together to block STAT1 phosphorylation, while NS5 binds and promotes degradation of human STAT2, thus preventing formation of the STAT1/STAT2 heterodimer and its transcriptional induction of interferon stimulating genes. Here, we discuss the host innate immune response to DENV and the mechanisms of immune evasion that DENV has developed to manipulate cellular antiviral responses.

412) Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Henry R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 6, p. 1090, june 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

413) Mosquito saliva serine protease enhances dissemination of dengue virus into the mammalian host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.
Assunto: Virology; Lymph; Serine; Public health; Infectivity; siRNA; Serine proteinase; Extracellular matrix; Cell migration; Saliva; Salivary gland; Lymph nodes; Disease transmission; Proteinase inhibitors; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, no. 1, p. 164-175, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

414) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20(th) Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, molecular evolution, nucleotide sequence, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. © 2014 Faye et al.

415) Multiobjective genetic algorithm applied to dengue control
Autor: Florentino, Helenice O.; Cantane, Daniela R.; Santos, Fernando L. P.; F., Bettina
Assunto: Dengue; Multiobjective optimization; Genetic algorithm
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Mathematical Biosciences, v. 258, p. 77-84, 2014.
ISSN: 0025-5564
Resumo: Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique.

416) Mosquitoes of Zika forest, Uganda: Species composition and relative abundance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Mutebi J.-P., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C., Akol A.M.
Assunto: biodiversity, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 104-113, jan. 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO(2)-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and thismaysuggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests a high potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

417) Aedes aegypti salivary protein "aegyptin" co-inoculation modulates dengue virus infection in the vertebrate host
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Grasperge, B. J.; Calvo, E.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: Aegyptin; Allergen; Dengue; Mosquito; Mouse; Saliva; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 468-470, p. 133-139, 2014
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted in the saliva of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti during blood meal acquisition. This saliva is composed of numerous proteins with the capacity to disrupt hemostasis or modulate the vertebrate immune response. One such protein, termed "aegyptin," is an allergen and inhibitor of clot formation, and has been found in decreased abundance in the saliva of DENV-infected mosquitoes. To examine the influence of aegyptin on DENV infection of the vertebrate, we inoculated IRF-3/7(-/- -/-) mice with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 with and without co-inoculation of aegyptin. Mice that received aegyptin exhibited decreased DENV titers in inoculation sites and in circulation, as well as increased concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-5, and IL-6, at 48 h post-inoculation when compared to mice that received inoculation of DENV alone. These and other data suggest that aegyptin impacts DENV perpetuation via elevated induction of the immune response. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

418) RE: Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

419) Imported zika virus infection from the Cook Islands into Australia, 2014.
Autor: Pyke Alyssa T,Daly Michelle T,Cameron Jane N,Moore Peter R,Taylor Carmel T,Hewitson Glen R,Humphreys Jan L,Gair Richard
Assunto: Arbovirus, Infectious disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Currents, v. 6, 2014
ISSN: 2157-3999
Resumo: A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

420) Isolation of midgut escape mutants of two American genotype dengue 2 viruses from Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khoo, Cynthia C. H.; Doty, Jeffrey B.; Held, Nicole L.; Olson, Ken E.; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Dengue virus type 2; American genotype; Aedes aegypti; Midgut escape mutant; Amino acid substitution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or inability to efficiently traverse membrane barriers encompassing organs such as the midgut or salivary glands are considered major factors negatively impacting viral fitness in the mosquito.Results: We analyzed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti for two American DENV2 strains, QR94 and PR159 originating from Mexico and Puerto-Rico, respectively. Both strains infected mosquito midguts following acquisition of infectious bloodmeals. However, DENV2-QR94 and DENV2-PR159 poorly disseminated from the midgut at 7 or 14 days post-bloodmeal (pbm). We detected one virus isolate, EM33, among 31 DENV2-QR94 infected mosquitoes, and one isolate, EM41, among 121 DENV2-PR159 infected mosquitoes, generating high virus titers in mosquito carcasses at 7 days pbm. In oral challenge experiments, EM33 and EM41 showed midgut dissemination rates of 40-50%. Replication efficiency of EM41 in secondary mosquito tissue was similar to that of a dissemination-competent control strain, whereas the replication efficiency of EM33 was significantly lower than that of the control virus. The genome Sequence of DENV2-QR94 encoded seven unique amino acids (aa), which were not found in 100 of the most closely related DENV2 strains. EM33 had one additional aa change, E202K, in the E protein. DENV2-PR159 encoded four unique aa residues, one of them E202K, whereas EM41 had two additional aa substitutions, Q77E in the E protein and E93D in NS3.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the midgut of Ae. aegypti acts as a selective sieve for DENV2 in which Genetically distinct, dissemination-competent virus variants are rapidly selected from the viral quasispecies to be transmitted to vertebrates.

421) Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval competition; Innate immunity; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; Antimicrobial peptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 6, p. 604-610, 2013
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Tollflind pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2 L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, RellA, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14 days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14 days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7 days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Tollflmd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up:regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SW infection suppresses Tbll/rind-pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the upregulation of cecropin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

422) Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.
Assunto: SDMA; Molecular Modeling; Genome; Gene Family; Tandem Duplication; Synteny; Ortholog; Gene Expression; Rnaseq; Bla G 1; ANG12; Allergen
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Genome Biology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 12, p. 2344-2358, 2013
ISSN: 1759-6653
Resumo: The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subSequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the Evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subSequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its Evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common Evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant Evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects.

423) Effect of wolbachia on replication of west nile virus in a mosquito cell line and adult mosquitoes
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Lu, Guangjin; Torres, Shessy; Edmonds, Judith H.; Kay, Brian H.; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Life - Shortening wolbachia; Aedes aegypti; Monoclonal - Antibodies; Gene - Expression; Dengue; Infection; Recognition; Populations; Competence; Lipophorin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 87, n. 2, p. 851-858, 2013
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. Recently, it has been shown that wMelpop and wMel strains of Wolbachia inhibit the replication of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., Plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. In this study, we tested the effect of Wolbachia on the replication of West Nile Virus (WNV). Surprisingly, accumulation of the genomic RNA of WNV for all three strains of WNV tested (New York 99, Kunjin, and New South Wales) was enhanced in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells (Aag2). However, the amount of secreted virus was significantly reduced in the presence of Wolbachia. Intrathoracic injections showed that replication of WNV in A. aegypti mosquitoes infected with wMel strain of Wolbachia was not inhibited, whereas wMelPop strain of Wolbachia significantly reduced the replication of WNV in mosquitoes. Further, when wMelPop mosquitoes were orally fed with WNV, virus infection, transmission, and dissemination rates were very low in Wolbachia-free mosquitoes and were completely inhibited in the presence of Wolbachia. The results suggest that (i) despite the enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the Wolbachia-infected cell line the production of secreted virus was significantly inhibited, (ii) the antiviral effect in intrathoracically infected mosquitoes depends on the strain of Wolbachia, and (iii) replication of the virus in orally fed mosquitoes was completely inhibited in wMelPop strain of Wolbachia.

424) IRES-driven Expression of the Capsid Protein of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus TC-83 Vaccine Strain Increases Its Attenuation and Safety
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Guerbois, Mathilde; Volkova, Eugenia; Forrester, Naomi L.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Innate Immune-System; Encephalomyelitis Virus; Vector Competence; Mosquito Transmission; Infection; Culicidae; Diptera; Cells; Ie; Susceptibility
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The live-attenuated TC-83 strain is the only licensed veterinary Vaccine available to protect equids against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and to protect humans indirectly by preventing equine amplification. However, TC-83 is reactogenic due to its reliance on only two attenuating point mutations and has infected mosquitoes following equine vaccination. To increase its stability and safety, a recombinant TC-83 was previously engineered by placing the expression of the viral structural proteins under the control of the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which drives translation inefficiently in insect cells. However, this Vaccine candidate was poorly immunogenic. Here we describe a second generation of the recombinant TC-83 in which the subgenomic promoter is maintained and only the capsid protein gene is translated from the IRES. This VEEV/IRES/C Vaccine candidate did not infect mosquitoes, was stable in its attenuation phenotype after serial murine passages, and was more attenuated in newborn mice but still as protective as TC-83 against VEEV challenge. Thus, by using the IRES to modulate TC-83 capsid protein expression, we generated a Vaccine candidate that combines efficient immunogenicity and efficacy with lower virulence and a reduced potential for spread in nature.

425) Inactivation of infectious virus and serological detection of virus antigen in Rift Valley fever virus-exposed mosquitoes fixed with paraformaldehyde
Autor: Kading, Rebekah; Crabtree, Mary; Miller, Barry
Assunto: Pathology; Rift valleys; Trypsin; Rift Valley fever; Infection; Antibodies; Infectivity; Aedes aegypti; Rift Valley fever virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 189, no. 1, p. 184-188, 2013.
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Formaldehyde is routinely used to fix tissues in preparation for pathology studies, however concerns remain that treatment of tissues with cellular fixatives may not entirely inactivate infectious virus particles. This concern is of particular regulatory importance for research involving viruses that are classified as select agents such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Therefore, the specific aims of this study were to (1) assay RVFV-exposed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for the presence of infectious RVFV particles at various time points following infection and (2) demonstrate the utility of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of RVFV antigen in various tissues of paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were administered an infectious blood meal containing one of two strains of RVFV, harvested at various time points following infection, intrathoracically inoculated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and fixed overnight at 4 degree C. The infection status of a subset of mosquitoes was verified by IFA on leg tissues prior to fixation, and infectivity of RVFV in fixed mosquito carcasses was determined by Vero cell plaque assay. Paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes harvested 14 days post infection were also paraffin-embedded and sectioned for detection of RVFV antigen to particular tissues by IFA. None of the RVFV-exposed mosquitoes tested by Vero cell plaque assay contained infectious RVFV after fixation. Furthermore, incubation of mosquito sections with trypsin prior to antibody staining is recommended for optimal visualization of RVFV antigen in infected mosquito tissues by IFA.

426) Vector and vector-borne disease research: need for coherence, vision and strategic planning
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christophides, George K.; Crisanti, Andrea
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 107, n. 8, p. 385-386, 2013
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo:

427) Effects of Aedes aegypti salivary components on dendritic cell and lymphocyte biology
Autor: Bizzarro, Bruna; Barros, Michele S.; Maciel, Ceres; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Lino, Ciro N.; Campopiano, Julia; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Calvo, Eric; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson
Assunto: Dendritic cells; T cells; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Apoptosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 329, 2013
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Saliva is a key element of interaction between hematophagous mosquitoes and their vertebrate hosts. In addition to allowing a successful blood meal by neutralizing or delaying hemostatic responses, the salivary cocktail is also able to modulate the effector mechanisms of host immune responses facilitating, in turn, the transmission of several types of microorganisms. Understanding how the mosquito uses its salivary components to circumvent host immunity might help to clarify the mechanisms of transmission of such pathogens and disease establishment.Methods: Flow cytometry was used to evaluate if increasing concentrations of A. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) affects bone marrow-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of SGE was estimated by a colorimetric assay. Western blot and Annexin V staining assays were used to assess apoptosis in these cells. Naive and memory cells from mosquito-bite exposed mice or OVA-immunized mice and their respective controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Concentration-response curves were employed to evaluate A. aegypti SGE effects on DC and lymphocyte biology. DCs differentiation from bone marrow precursors, their maturation and function were not directly affected by A. aegypti SGE (concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 40 mu g/mL). On the other hand, lymphocytes were very sensitive to the salivary components and died in the presence of A. aegypti SGE, even at concentrations as low as 0.1 mu g/mL. In addition, A. aegypti SGE was shown to induce apoptosis in all lymphocyte populations evaluated (CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and B cells) through a mechanism involving caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not Bim. By using different approaches to generate memory cells, we were able to verify that these cells are resistant to SGE effects. Our results show that lymphocytes, and not DCs, are the primary target of A. aegypti salivary components. In the presence of A. aegypti SGE, naive lymphocyte populations die by apoptosis in a caspase-3- and caspase-8-dependent pathway, while memory cells are selectively more resistant to its effects. The present work contributes to elucidate the activities of A. aegypti salivary molecules on the antigen presenting cell-lymphocyte axis and in the biology of these cells.

428) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M.; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 7, 2013
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

429) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Faye O., Diallo D., Diallo M., Weidmann M., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results: The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion: We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT - PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. © 2013 Faye et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

430) Functional and genetic characterization of neuropeptide Y-like receptors in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Liesch, Jeff; Bellani, Lindsay L.; Vosshall, Leslie B.
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Receptors; Peptides; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Spreading; Head; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Malaria; Blood meals; Neuropeptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 10, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Female mosquitoes are responsible for spreading many deadly infectious diseases including malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes require a blood meal to produce eggs and preferentially feed on humans, thereby spreading disease as they feed. Females of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti undergo a natural change in behavior after a blood meal in which they lose attraction to humans for over three days. We are interested in understanding this natural behavioral inhibition because it may provide an opportunity to control mosquito blood-feeding behavior. Previous work showed that a small protein called Head Peptide-I could mimic this behavioral inhibition when injected into non-blood-fed females, which normally show very high attraction to humans. In this work, we set out to find the Head Peptide-I receptor and ask if it causes this behavioral inhibition. By testing eight different candidate receptors, we found one called NPYLR1 that responds to Head-Peptide I but is much more sensitive to another peptide called sNPF-3. We made mutant mosquitoes that lack the npylr1 gene and found that the mutants showed normal sugar- and blood-feeding behavior. We conclude that there must be additional receptors and/or peptides that together cause this long-lasting inhibition of female mosquito attraction to humans.

431) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): A Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Singapore
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wong P.-S.J., Li M.-z.I., Chong C.-S., Ng L.-C., Tan C.-H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Arbovirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 8, p. 1-5, aug. 2013
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.Methodology/Principal Findings:To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose(50) assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.Conclusions/Significance:The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore. © 2013 Wong et al.

432) Blood meal induced microRNA regulates development and immune associated genes in the Dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: MicroRNA; Blood meal; Mosquito; Aae-miR-375; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 146-152, 2013
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a blood-feeding mosquito that transmits human pathogens such as Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and Chikungunya virus. Recently, dramatic changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti following a blood meal have been reported; however, the molecular factors involved in regulating these changes are largely unknown. In this study, we found induction of a number of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood fed (BF) mosquitoes. One of these miRNAs, aae-miR-375, was only detected in BF mosquitoes. Based on target analyses, we found six different genes involved in development and immunity being regulated by aae-miR-375 at the post-transcriptional level. We further confirmed the specific interaction of aae-miR-375 with the target sequences in the transcripts of two immune related genes, cactus and REL1, using a GFP-based reporter assay. Overall, results from this report indicate that miRNAs induced upon blood feeding can regulate the transcript levels of several genes that are important in development and immune responses in mosquitoes. In addition, we demonstrate that aae-miR-375 enhances Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in an Ae. aegypti cell line. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

433) Evaluation of laboratory tests for dengue diagnosis in clinical specimens from consecutive patients with suspected dengue in Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Autor: Ferraz, Fernanda Oliveira; Quaresma Bomfim, Maria Rosa; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Avila, Thiago Vinicius; Cisalpino, Daniel; Marques Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; de Souza, Danielle da Gloria; Teixeira Junior, Antonio Lucio; Nogueira, Mauriio Lacerda; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Teixeira, Mauro Martins
Assunto: Dengue diagnosis; Real-time PCR; NS1; Anti-dengue IgM; ELISA; Lateral flow immunochromatographic assays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 58, n. 1, p. 41-46, 2013
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Background: Dengue is a widely spread arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue fever presents clinical characteristics similar to other febrile illness. Thus laboratory diagnosis is important for adequate management of the disease.Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time PCR and serological methods for dengue in a real epidemic context.Study design: Clinical data and blood samples were collected from consecutive patients with suspected dengue who attended a primary health care unit in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Serologic methods and real-time PCR were performed in serum samples to confirm dengue diagnosis.Results: Among the 181 consecutive patients enrolled in this study with suspected dengue, 146 were considered positive by serological criteria (positive NS1 ELISA and/or anti-dengue IgM ELISA) and 138 were positive by real-time PCR. Clinical criteria were not sufficient for distinguishing between dengue and non-dengue febrile illness. The PCR reaction was pre-optimized using samples from patients with known viral infection. It had similar sensitivity compared to NS1 ELISA (88% and 89%, respectively). We also evaluated three commercial lateral flow immunochromatographic tests for NS1 detection (BIOEASY, BIORAD and PANBIO). All three tests showed high sensitivity (94%, 91% and 81%, respectively) for dengue diagnosis.Conclusion: According to our results it can be suggested that lateral flow tests for NS1 detection are the most feasible methods for early diagnosis of dengue. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

434) Climate and human health: the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases, paphos, cyprus (17-19 october 2012)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waldock, Joanna; Parham, Paul E.; Lelieveld, Jos; Christophides, George K.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 107, n. 8, p. 387-392, 2013
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo:

435) Specificity of resistance to dengue virus isolates is associated with genotypes of the mosquito antiviral gene Dicer-2
Autor: Lambrechts, Louis; Quillery, Elsa; Noeel, Valerie; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Scott, Thomas W.; Chevillon, Christine
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Genotype-by-genotype interactiong; Dicer-2; RNAi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, v. 280, n. 1751, 2013.
ISSN: 0962-8452
Resumo: In contrast to the prevailing view that invertebrate immunity relies on broad-spectrum recognition and effector mechanisms, intrinsic genetic compatibility between invertebrate hosts and their pathogens is often highly specific in nature. Solving this puzzle requires a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying observed patterns of invertebrate host-pathogen genetic specificity, broadly referred to as genotype-by-genotype interactions. Here, we identify an invertebrate immune gene in which natural polymorphism is associated with isolate-specific resistance to an RNA virus. Dicer-2 (dcr2) encodes a key protein upstream of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, a major antiviral component of innate immunity in invertebrates. We surveyed allelic polymorphism at the dcr2 locus in a wild-type outbred population and in three derived isofemale families of the mosquito Aedes aegypti that were experimentally exposed to several, genetically distinct isolates of dengue virus. We found that dcr2 genotype was associated with resistance to dengue virus in a virus isolate-specific manner. By contrast, no such association was found for genotypes at two control loci flanking dcr2, making it likely that dcr2 contains the yet-unidentified causal polymorphism(s). This result supports the idea that host-pathogen compatibility in this system depends, in part, on a genotype-by-genotype interaction between dcr2 and the viral genome, and points to the RNAi pathway as a potentially important determinant of intrinsic insect-virus genetic specificity.

436) Reduction of Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus under large temperature fluctuations
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; Diurnal variations; Dengue; Temperature; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 4, p. 689-697, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6 [degrees]C around a 26[degrees]C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6 [degrees]C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV transmission dynamics will come with improved knowledge of temperature effects on mosquito-virus interactions.

437) The effect of sterilization on the mechanical properties of intact rabbit humeri in three-point bending, four-point bending and torsion
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Russell, Nicholas A; Rives, Alain; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bruce, Warwick J; Walsh, William R.
Assunto: Animals, Biomechanical phenomena, Bone transplantation - Methods, Dose - Response relationship, Drug , Dose - Response relationship, Radiation, Humerus - Microbiology, Rabbits, Weight -Bearing - Physiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Banking, v. 14, n. 2, p. 231-242, 2013.
ISSN: 1389-9333
Resumo: Load bearing bone allografts are used to replace the mechanical function of bone that has been removed or to augment bone that has been damaged in trauma. In order to minimize the risk of infection and immune response, the bone is delipidated and terminally sterilized prior to implantation. The optimal method for bone graft sterilization has been the topic of considerable research. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatments have been shown to terminally sterilize bone against a range of bacteria and viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SCCO2 treatment compared with two doses of gamma irradiation, on the mechanical properties of whole bone. Paired rabbit humeri were dissected and randomly assigned into either SCCO2 control, SCCO2 additive or gamma irradiation at 10 or 25 kGy treatment groups. The bones were mechanically tested in three-point and four-point bending and torsion, with the lefts acting as controls for the treated rights. Maximum load, energy to failure and stiffness were evaluated. This study found that SCCO2 treatment with or without additive did not alter maximum load, energy to failure or stiffness significantly under any loading modality. Gamma irradiation had a deleterious dose dependant effect, with statistically significant decreases in all mechanical tests at 25 kGy; while at 10 kGy there were reductions in all loading profiles, though only reaching statistical significance in torsion. This study highlights the expediency of SCCO2 treatment for bone allograft processing as terminal sterilization can be achieved while maintaining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the graft.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

438) Larval rearing temperature influences the effect of malathion on Aedes aegypti life history traits and immune responses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Temperature; Malathion; Adult emergence; Fitness
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Chemosphere, v. 92, n. 9, p. 1111-1116, 2013
ISSN: 0045-6535
Resumo: The effects of anthropogenic chemical contaminants on aquatic organisms are largely influenced by underlying environmental conditions. This study evaluated how larval rearing temperature influences the impact of malathion on the fitness of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to water control, and low (0.03 mg/L) or high (0.05 mg/L) malathion dose at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C and emergence rate, time to emergence, female fecundity and expression of genes encoding two antimicrobial Peptides (defensin, cecropin) and an iron-binding protein (transferrin) quantified. High malathion dose at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C resulted in significantly lower emergence rates compared to control and low malathion dose but this effect was not observed at 20 degrees C. Female time to emergence was inversely proportional to temperature and was significantly shorter in high malathion dose than in control and low malathion dose at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C but not at 20 degrees C. Regardless of temperature treatment, females from high malathion dose were significantly larger and laid more eggs than their counterparts in control and low malathion dose. Relative to the controls, two immune genes were significantly over-expressed in adult females from malathion-exposed treatments at 20 degrees C (defensin and cecropin) and 25 degrees C (defensin and transferrin) and one gene (defensin) was significantly under-expressed at 30 degrees C. These findings suggest that larval rearing temperature can modify the effect of malathion on fitness traits in mosquitoes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

439) Evolutionarily conserved Wolbachia-encoded factors control pattern of stem-cell niche tropism in Drosophila ovaries and favor infection
Autor: Toomey, Michelle E.; Panaram, Kanchana; Fast, Eva M.; Beatty, Catherine; Frydman, Horacio M.
Assunto: Endosymbiont; Maternal Transmission; Microbial Tissue Tropism; Germline Stem Cell Niche; Somatic Stem Cell Niche
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 110, n. 26, p. 10788-10793, 2013
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that infect invertebrates at pandemic levels, including insect vectors of devastating infectious diseases. Although Wolbachia are providing novel strategies for the control of several human pathogens, the processes underlying Wolbachia's successful propagation within and across species remain elusive. Wolbachia are mainly vertically transmitted; however, there is also evidence of extensive horizontal transmission. Here, we provide several lines of evidence supporting Wolbachia's targeting of ovarian stemcell niches-referred to as "niche tropism"-as a previously overlooked strategy for Wolbachia thriving in nature. Niche tropism is pervasive in Wolbachia infecting the Drosophila genus, and different patterns of niche tropismare evolutionarily conserved. Phylogenetic analysis, confirmed by hybrid introgression and transinfection experiments, demonstrates that bacterial factors are the major determinants of differential patterns of niche tropism. Furthermore, bacterial load is increased in germ-line cells passing through infected niches, supporting previous suggestions of a contribution of Wolbachia from stem-cell niches toward vertical transmission. These results support the role of stem-cell niches as a key component for the spreading of Wolbachia in the Drosophila genus and provide mechanistic insights into this unique tissue tropism.

440) Use of anti-Aedes aegypti Salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Cardenas, Lucio D.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Wesson, Dawn M.; McCracken, Michael K.; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free'' area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence.

441) Case report: Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwong J.C., Druce J.D., Leder K.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (etiology), travel, Zika virus infection (etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, sept. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

442) First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012
Autor: Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio
Assunto: Biological surveys; Insect larvae; Pupae; Tanks; Pest control; Hosts; Carbon dioxide; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Growth regulators; Aircraft; Yellow fever; Basins; Traps; Vectors; Fenitrothion; Airports; Larvicides; Eggs; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 66, n. 3, p. 189-194, 2013.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO sub(2) traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5z fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5zpyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport.

443) Post-Infectious Sequelae of Travelers' Diarrhea
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Connor, Bradley A.; Riddle, Mark S.
Assunto: Symptoms; Endocrinology; Therapy; Antibiotics; Pathogens
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 20, n. 5, p. 303-312, 2013
ISSN: 1195-1982
Resumo: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has generally been considered a self-limited disorder which resolves more quickly with expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy given bacteria are the most frequently identified cause. However, epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence identifying a number of chronic health conditions related to these infections has recently emerged which challenges this current paradigm. These include serious and potentially disabling enteric and extra-intestinal long-term complications. Among these are rheumatologic, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature pertaining to three of these post-infectious disorders: reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the relationship of these conditions to diarrhea associated with travel as well as to diarrhea associated with gastroenteritis which may not be specifically travel related but relevant by shared microbial pathogens. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine. Data for this article were identified by searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, and references from relevant articles using search terms "travelers' diarrhea" "reactive arthritis" "Guillain-Barre syndrome" "Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Abstracts were included when related to previously published work. A review of the published literature reveals that potential consequences of travelers' diarrhea may extend beyond the acute illness and these post-infectious complications may be more common than currently recognized. In addition since TD is such a common occurrence it would be helpful to be able to identify those who might be at greater risk of post-infectious sequelae in order to target more aggressive prophylactic or therapeutic approaches to such individuals. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine.

444) Quiescent innate response to infective filariae by human langerhans cells suggests a strategy of immune evasion
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B.; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei
Assunto: Brugia malayi; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Toxoplasma gondii; T-cells; Skin; Expression; Stage; Differentiation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Infection and Immunity, v. 81, n. 5, p. 1420-1429, 2013
ISSN: 0019-9567
Resumo: Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin(+) E-cadherin(+) CD1a(+)) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1 alpha, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite.

445) Natural, Persistent Oscillations in a Spatial Multi-Strain Disease System with Application to Dengue
Autor: Lourenco, Jose; Recker, Mario
Assunto: Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes aegypti; Transmission dynamics; Southern Vietnam; Immunological determinants; Demographic stochasticity; Dependent enhancement; Traveling waves; Virus serotype; Epidemics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos Computational Biology, v. 9, n. 10, p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7358
Resumo: Many infectious diseases are not maintained in a state of equilibrium but exhibit significant fluctuations in prevalence over time. For pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic types or strains, such as influenza, malaria or dengue, these fluctuations often take on the form of regular or irregular epidemic outbreaks in addition to oscillatory prevalence levels of the constituent strains. To explain the observed temporal dynamics and structuring in pathogen populations, epidemiological multi-strain models have commonly evoked strong immune interactions between strains as the predominant driver. Here, with specific reference to dengue, we show how spatially explicit, multi-strain systems can exhibit all of the described epidemiological dynamics even in the absence of immune competition. Instead, amplification of natural stochastic differences in disease transmission, can give rise to persistent oscillations comprising semi-regular epidemic outbreaks and sequential dominance of dengue's four serotypes. Not only can this mechanism explain observed differences in serotype and disease distributions between neighbouring geographical areas, it also has important implications for inferring the nature and epidemiological consequences of immune mediated competition in multi-strain pathogen systems.

446) Transinfected Wolbachia have minimal effects on male reproductive success in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Turley, Andrew P.; Zalucki, Myron P.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Mosquito; Fecundity; Symbiont; Multiple mating; Larval nutrition Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, 2013
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate the reproductive success of their insect hosts. Uninfected females that mate with Wolbachia infected males do not reproduce due to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI results in the increased frequency of Wolbachia-infected individuals in populations. Recently, two Wolbachia strains, the benign wMel and virulent wMelPop have been artificially transinfected into the primary vector of dengue virus, the mosquito Ae. aegypti where they have formed stable infections. These Wolbachia infections are being developed for a biological control strategy against dengue virus transmission. While the effects of Wolbachia on female Ae. aegypti have been examined the effects on males are less well characterised. Here we ascertain and compare the effects of the two strains on male fitness in resource-limited environments that may better approximate the natural environment.Methods: A series of population mating trials were conducted to examine the effect of Wolbachia infection status (with strains wMel and wMelPop) and male larval nutrition on insemination frequency, remating rates, the fecundity of females, the hatch rates of eggs and the wing length and fertility of males.Results: wMel and wMelPop infections reduce the fecundity of infected females and wMelPop reduces the viability of eggs. Low nutrition diets for males in the larval phase affects the fecundity of wMel-infected females. Neither strain of Wolbachia affected sperm quality or viability or the ability of males to successfully mate multiple females.Conclusions: The benign strain of Wolbachia, wMel causes similar reductions in fecundity as the more virulent, wMelPop, and neither are too great that they should not still spread given the action of CI. The ability of Wolbachia-infected males to repeat mate as frequently as wildtype mosquitoes indicates that they will be very good agents of delivering CI in field release populations.

447) Novel Estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Population Size and Adult Survival Based on Wolbachia Releases
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Montgomery, Brian L.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Dengue; BGS trap; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 3, p. 624-631, 2013
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximate to 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission.

448) Insecticidal effects of 4-hexylresorcinol on the lesser mulberry snout moth, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sharifi, Mahboobeh; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Sajedi, Reza H.; Zavareh, Mohsen; Sheikhnejad, Hadi
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, v. 46, n. 4, p. 423-435, 2013
ISSN: 0323-5408
Resumo: Insect phenoloxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is the key enzyme in the development and immunity of insects, and its inhibition provides a new target for pest control. The Glyphodes pyloalis Walker is an important pest of mulberry trees in north of Iran and this pest interferes with the sericulture by feeding on mulberry leaves. In this investigation of alternative insect control agents, we have bioassayed 4-hexylresorcinol against G. pyloalis under laboratory conditions. Lethal dose (LD50) for the last instar larvae was estimated as 5.03 g/l after 96 h exposure. Also, the effects of 4-hexylresorcinol concentrations on glutathione S-transferase and phenoloxidase activities were measured, and the results showed that by increasing the concentration of 4-hexylresorcinol the activity of both enzymes is decreased. The IC50 of quercetin, kojic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol on haemolymph phenoloxidase activity, partially purified using gel filtration, was 7.39, 25.98 and 4.35 mu M, respectively. The inhibitory potency of 4-hexylresorcinol was 5.03- and 1.5-fold higher than kojic acid and quercetin, respectively. Also, optimal pH for the haemolymph phenoloxidase was 7.

449) Nucleotide substitutions in dengue virus serotypes from Asian and American countries: insights into intracodon recombination and purifying selection
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Nucleotide substitution; Codon usage; Serotype; Intracodon recombination; Purifying selection; Fixed mutations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Microbiology, v. 13, n. , p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1471-2180
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection represents a significant public health problem in many subtropical and tropical countries. Although genetically closely related, the four serotypes of DENV differ in antigenicity for which cross protection among serotypes is limited. It is also believed that both multi-serotype infection as well as the evolution of viral antigenicity may have confounding effects in increased dengue epidemics. Numerous studies have been performed that investigated genetic diversity of DENV, but the precise mechanism(s) of dengue virus evolution are not well understood. We investigated genome-wide genetic diversity and nucleotide substitution patterns in the four serotypes among samples collected from different countries in Asia and Central and South America and sequenced as part of the Genome Sequencing Center for Infectious Diseases at the Broad Institute. We applied bioinformatics, statistical and coalescent simulation methods to investigate diversity of codon sequences of DENV samples representing the four serotypes. We show that fixation of nucleotide substitutions is more prominent among the inter-continental isolates (Asian and American) of serotypes 1, 2 and 3 compared to serotype 4 isolates (South and Central America) and are distributed in a non-random manner among the genes encoded by the virus. Nearly one third of the negatively selected sites are associated with fixed mutation sites within serotypes. Our results further show that of all the sites showing evidence of recombination, the majority (similar to 84%) correspond to sites under purifying selection in the four serotypes. The analysis further shows that genetic recombination occurs within specific codons, albeit with low frequency (< 5% of all recombination sites) throughout the DENV genome of the four serotypes and reveals significant enrichment (p < 0.05) among sites under purifying selection in the virus. The study provides the first evidence for intracodon recombination in DENV and suggests that within codons, genetic recombination has a significant role in maintaining extensive purifying selection of DENV in natural populations. Our study also suggests that fixation of beneficial mutations may lead to virus evolution via translational selection of specific sites in the DENV genome.

450) Molecular Characterization of the Carboxypeptidase B1 of Anopheles stephensi and Its Evaluation as a Target for Transmission-Blocking Vaccines
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Raz, Abbasali; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Zakeri, Sedigheh
Assunto: Glossina-Morsitans-Morsitans; Plasmodium-Falciparum; Rat Carboxypeptidase; Kinetic-Properties; Continuous Culture; Malaria Vector; Vivax Malaria; Aedes-Aegypti; Gene Family; Gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Infection and Immunity, v. 81, n. 6, p. 2206-2216, 2013
ISSN: 0019-9567
Resumo: Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, and it has many economic and social impacts on populations, especially in poor countries. Transmission-blocking Vaccines (TBVs) are valuable tools for malaria eradication. A study on Anopheles gambiae revealed that polyclonal antibodies to carboxypeptidase B1 of A. gambiae can block sexual parasite development in the mosquito midgut. Hence, it was introduced as a TBV target in regions where A. gambiae is the main malaria vector. However, in Iran and neighboring countries as far as China, the main malaria vector is Anopheles stephensi. Also, the genome of this organism has not been Sequenced yet. Therefore, in this study, carboxypeptidase B1 of A. stephensi was characterized by genomic and proteomic approaches. Furthermore, its expression pattern after ingestion of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and the effect of anti-CPBAs1 antibodies on sexual parasite development were evaluated. Our results revealed that the cpbAs1 expression level was increased after ingestion of the mature gametocytes of P. falciparum and that anti-CPBAs1 directed antibodies could significantly reduce the mosquito infection rate in the test group compared with the control group. Therefore, according to our findings and with respect to the high similarity of carboxypeptidase enzymes between the two main malaria vectors in Africa (A. gambiae) and Asia (A. stephensi) and the presence of other sympatric vectors, CPBAs1 could be introduced as a TBV candidate in regions where A. stephensi is the main malaria vector, and this will broaden the scope for the potential wider application of CPBAs1 antigen homologs/orthologs.

451) Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.
Autor: Kwong Jason C,Druce Julian D,Leder Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, 2013
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

452) Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy
Assunto: Soapnut; Botanical insecticide; Insect immunity; Hemocytes; Phagocytosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 126, n. 3, p. 249-255, 2013
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3 h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

453) Spatiotemporal patterns of Aedes aegypti populations in Cairns, Australia: assessing drivers of dengue transmission
Autor: Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Davis, Joe; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Spatial; Temporal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 18, n. 7, p. 839-849, 2013.
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: To identify the meteorological drivers of dengue vector density and determine high- and low-risk transmission zones for dengue prevention and control in Cairns, Australia. Weekly adult female Ae. aegypti data were obtained from 79 double sticky ovitraps (SOs) located in Cairns for the period September 2007-May 2012. Maximum temperature, total rainfall and average relative humidity data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for the study period. Time series-distributed lag nonlinear models were used to assess the relationship between meteorological variables and vector density. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed via semivariography, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to predict vector density in Cairns. Ae. aegypti density was associated with temperature and rainfall. However, these relationships differed between short (0-6 weeks) and long (0-30 weeks) lag periods. Semivariograms showed that vector distributions were spatially autocorrelated in September 2007-May 2008 and January 2009-May 2009, and vector density maps identified high transmission zones in the most populated parts of Cairns city, as well as Machans Beach. Spatiotemporal patterns of Ae. aegypti in Cairns are complex, showing spatial autocorrelation and associations with temperature and rainfall. Sticky ovitraps should be placed no more than 1.2 km apart to ensure entomological coverage and efficient use of resources. Vector density maps provide evidence for the targeting of prevention and control activities. Further research is needed to explore the possibility of developing an early warning system of dengue based on meteorological and environmental factors.Original Abstract: Identifier les determinants meteorologiques de la densite du vecteur de la dengue et determiner les zones de haut et de bas risque de transmission pour la prevention et le control de la dengue a Cairns, en Australie. Les donnees hebdomadaires sur les femelles adultes d'Ae. aegypti ont ete obtenues a partir de 79 pondoirs pieges a doubles collants situes a Cairns durant la periode de septembre 2007 a mai 2012. La temperature maximale, les precipitations totales et la moyenne des donnees d'humidite relative ont ete obtenues aupres du Bureau Australien de la Meteorologie pour la periode d'etude. Des modeles de distribution non lineaire des series de latence ont ete utilises pour evaluer la relation entre les variables meteorologiques et la densite du vecteur. L'autocorrelation spatiale evaluee par semivariography et par krigeage ordinaire a ete entreprise afin de predire la densite du vecteur a Cairns. La densite d'Ae. aegypti a ete associee avec la temperature et les precipitations. Cependant, ces relations differaient entre les periodes de latence courte (0-6 semaines) et longue (0-30 semaines). Les semivariogrammes ont montre que les distributions du vecteur etaient spatialement autocorrelees dans la periode de septembre 2007 a mai 2008 et de janvier 2009 a mai 2009, et les cartes de densite du vecteur ont identifie des zones de haute transmission dans les zones les plus peuplees de la ville de Cairns, ainsi que de Machans Beach. Les tendances spatio-temporelles d'Ae. aegypti a Cairns sont complexes, montrant une autocorrelation spatiale et des associations avec la temperature et les precipitations. Les pondoirs pieges collants ne doivent pas etre places a plus d'1,2 km les uns des autres afin d'assurer une couverture entomologique et l'utilisation efficace des ressources. Les cartes de densite vectorielle fournissent des preuves pour le ciblage des activites de prevention et de controle. Des recherches supplementaires sont necessaires pour explorer la possibilite de developper un systeme d'alerte precoce de la dengue basee sur les facteurs meteorologiques et environnementaux. Identificar los factores meteorologicos con influencia sobre la densidad del vector del dengue y determinar las zonas de alto y bajo riesgo de transmision para la prevencion del dengue y su control en Cairns, Australia. Semanalmente se obtuvieron datos sobre hembras adultas de Ae. aegypti data de 79 trampas pegajosas dobles (TP) localizadas en Cairns entre Septiembre 2007 - Mayo 2012. Datos para el periodo del estudio de temperatura maxima, precipitacion total y datos promedio de humedad relativa se obtuvieron de la Oficina Australiana de Meteorologia. Se utilizaron modelos de retardos distribuidos de series temporales no lineales para evaluar la relacion entre las variables meteorologicas y la densidad vectorial. La autocorrelacion espacial se evaluo mediante semivariografia y se realizo un kriging ordinario para predecir la densidad vectorial en Cairns. La densidad de Ae. aegypti estaba asociada con la temperatura y las precipitaciones. Sin embargo, esta relacion diferia entre periodos de tiempo cortos (0-6 semanas) y largos (0-30 semanas). Los semivariogramas mostraban que las distribuciones vectoriales estaban espacialmente autocorrelacionadas entre Septiembre 2007 - Mayo 2008 y Enero 2009 - Mayo 2009 y los mapas de densidad vectorial identificaron areas de transmision alta en las partes mas pobladas de la ciudad de Cairns, al igual que en la playa de Machans. Los patrones espaciotemporales de Ae. aegypti en Cairns son complejos, mostrando una autocorrelacion espacial y asociaciones con la temperatura y las precipitaciones. Las trampas pegajosas deberian de colocarse con un maximo de 1.2 km de separacion entre ellas, con el fin de asegurar la cobertura entomologica y un uso eficiente de recursos. Los mapas de densidad vectorial aportan evidencia para afinar en las actividades de prevencion y de control. Se requieren mas estudios para explorar la posibilidad de desarrollar un sistema de advertencia temprana para el dengue, basado en factores meteorologicos y ambientales.

454) Genetic variation in the 3' untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil
Autor: de Castro, Marcia Goncalves; de Nogueira, Fernanda Bruycker; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto
Assunto: Dengue virus type 3; Aedes aegypti; 3'UTR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Summary: Background: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors. Methods: Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3' UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program. Results: Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully sequenced. As an 8- nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11- nucleotides (nts) insertion on the variable region (VR) from the 3'UTR in this isolate, we further sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3'UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains presenting the 11-nts insertion were similar in the predicted secondary structure. Conclusions: The phylogeny based on the analysis of the complete genome and 3'UTR characterized the DENV-3 isolated from both vector and human host as belonging to Genotype III (GIII), despite the differences observed on the 3' UTR. Further studies are needed to address the role of those mutations in the transmission of the different viral populations and vector competence.

455) Isolation of midgut escape mutants of two American genotype dengue 2 viruses from Aedes aegypti
Autor: Khoo, Cynthia C. H.; Doty, Jeffrey B.; Held, Nicole L.; Olson, Ken E.; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Viruses; Pest control; Strains; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Carcasses; Dengue; Nucleotide sequence; Vectors; Midgut; Salivary gland; E protein; Amino acid sequence; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 1, p. 257, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or inability to efficiently traverse membrane barriers encompassing organs such as the midgut or salivary glands are considered major factors negatively impacting viral fitness in the mosquito. Results: We analyzed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti for two American DENV2 strains, QR94 and PR159 originating from Mexico and Puerto-Rico, respectively. Both strains infected mosquito midguts following acquisition of infectious bloodmeals. However, DENV2-QR94 and DENV2-PR159 poorly disseminated from the midgut at 7 or 14 days post-bloodmeal (pbm). We detected one virus isolate, EM33, among 31 DENV2-QR94 infected mosquitoes, and one isolate, EM41, among 121 DENV2-PR159 infected mosquitoes, generating high virus titers in mosquito carcasses at 7 days pbm. In oral challenge experiments, EM33 and EM41 showed midgut dissemination rates of 40-50%. Replication efficiency of EM41 in secondary mosquito tissue was similar to that of a dissemination-competent control strain, whereas the replication efficiency of EM33 was significantly lower than that of the control virus. The genome sequence of DENV2-QR94 encoded seven unique amino acids (aa), which were not found in 100 of the most closely related DENV2 strains. EM33 had one additional aa change, E202K, in the E protein. DENV2-PR159 encoded four unique aa residues, one of them E202K, whereas EM41 had two additional aa substitutions, Q77E in the E protein and E93D in NS3. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the midgut of Ae. aegypti acts as a selective sieve for DENV2 in which genetically distinct, dissemination-competent virus variants are rapidly selected from the viral quasispecies to be transmitted to vertebrates.

456) Application of real-time RT-PCR in vector surveillance and assessment of replication kinetics of an emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Agarwal, Ankita; Singh, Anil K.; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Thakur, Ashish K.; Gopalan, N.; Parida, M. M.; Rao, P. V. L.; Dash, Paban K.
Assunto: Chikungunya; Aedes aegypti; Dissemination; Transmission; RT-PCR; Vector surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 193, n. 2, p. 419-425, 2013
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Chikungunya has emerged as one of the most important arboviral infection of global significance. Expansion of Chikungunya virus endemic areas can be ascribed to naive population, increasing vector population and adaptability of virus to new vector. In this study, a SYBR Green I based quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed. The assay was found to be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and no cross reactivity was observed with related alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The detection efficiency of the assay was impervious to mosquitoes of different pool sizes. Vector surveillance has resulted in detection of CHIICV RNA in Aedes aegypti, confirming its vectorial potential for CHIKV in northern India. The assessment of the assay was further carried out by studying the competence of Indian Ae. aegypti for CHIKV, which revealed 100% infection rate and dissemination rate with 60% transmission rate. The replication kinetics of CHIKV in different anatomical sites of Ae. aegypti revealed highest titre at day 6 post infection in midgut and at day 10 post infection in saliva, legs and wings. The implementation of the assay in detecting lower viral load makes it a remarkable tool for surveillance of virus activity in mosquitoes. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

457) Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema
Autor: Nuckols, J. T.; Ziegler, S. A.; Huang, Y. J. S.; McAuley, A. J.; Vanlandingham, D. L.; Klowden, M. J.; Spratt, H.; Davey, R. A.; Higgs, S.
Assunto: Titration; Tissue culture; Fluorescence microscopy; Hemocoel; Green fluorescent protein; Inoculation; Immune response; Midgut; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 13, n. 2, p. 103-110, 2013.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10 super(6.95) tissue culture infective dose sub(50) (TCID sub(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito.

458) Rapid Sequential Spread of Two Wolbachia Variants in Drosophila simulans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kriesner, Peter; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Lee, Siu F.; Turelli, Michael; Weeks, Andrew R.
Assunto: Cytoplasmic Incompatibility; Mitochondrial DNA; Natural populations; Unidirectional incompatibility; Infection frequencies; Comparative genomics; Eastern australia; Typing system; Aedes aegypti; Dynamics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 9, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: The maternally inherited intracellular bacteria Wolbachia can manipulate host reproduction in various ways that foster frequency increases within and among host populations. Manipulations involving cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), where matings between infected males and uninfected females produce non-viable embryos, are common in arthropods and produce a reproductive advantage for infected females. CI was associated with the spread of Wolbachia variant wRi in Californian populations of Drosophila simulans, which was interpreted as a bistable wave, in which local infection frequencies tend to increase only once the infection becomes sufficiently common to offset imperfect maternal transmission and infection costs. However, maternally inherited Wolbachia are expected to evolve towards mutualism, and they are known to increase host fitness by protecting against infectious microbes or increasing fecundity. We describe the sequential spread over approximately 20 years in natural populations of D. simulans on the east coast of Australia of two Wolbachia variants (wAu and wRi), only one of which causes significant CI, with wRi displacing wAu since 2004. Wolbachia and mtDNA frequency data and analyses suggest that these dynamics, as well as the earlier spread in California, are best understood as Fisherian waves of favourable variants, in which local spread tends to occur from arbitrarily low frequencies. We discuss implications for Wolbachia-host dynamics and coevolution and for applications of Wolbachia to disease control.

459) A unique Y gene in the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi encodes a small lysine-rich protein and is transcribed at the onset of embryonic development
Autor: Criscione, F.; Qi, Y.; Saunders, R.; Hall, B.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Male; Maternal-to-zygotic transition; Vector - Borne infectious disease; Y chromosome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 4, p. 433-441, 2013
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: In many organisms the Y chromosome initiates sex determination and regulates male fertility and mating behaviour. However, molecular characterization of Y genes is rare outside of a few model species because it is difficult to clone and analyse repeat-rich heterochromatic Y sequences. In insects, Y genes are only well characterized in a small number of Drosophila species. Here we report the discovery of GUY1 (gene unique to the Y), a gene unique to the Y chromosome in the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, using an approach that compares Illumina sequences separately obtained from male and female genomic DNA. Experimental evidence confirmed that GUY1 is a single copy gene found only on the Y chromosome. GUY1 is transcribed at the very onset of zygotic transcription and encodes a small lysine-rich protein that forms two alpha helices and shows DNA-binding properties. Interestingly, three helix-loop-helix proteins are key factors that determine sex in the early embryo in Drosophila melanogaster. Single embryo analysis indicated that GUY1 is only transcribed in male embryos and that the GUY1 promoter is functional in the early embryos. GUY1 may be used as a paternally inherited molecular marker. Further investigation of GUY1 will contribute to the genetic approaches to control mosquito-borne diseases.

460) P53-Mediated Rapid Induction of Apoptosis Conveys Resistance to Viral Infection in Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Bo; Behura, Susanta K.; Clem, Rollie J.; Schneemann, Anette; Becnel, James; Severson, David W.; Zhou, Lei
Assunto: Flock house virus; Mosquito Aedes aegypti; Baculovirus infection; Antiviral response; Dengue 2 virus; DNA damage; Cells; Protein; Gene; Replication
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 2, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Arthropod-borne pathogens account for millions of deaths each year. Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling vector susceptibility to pathogens has profound implications for developing novel strategies for controlling insect-transmitted infectious diseases. The fact that many viruses carry genes that have anti-apoptotic activity has long led to the hypothesis that induction of apoptosis could be a fundamental innate immune response. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating the induction of apoptosis following viral infection remained enigmatic, which has prevented experimental verification of the functional significance of apoptosis in limiting viral infection in insects. In addition, studies with cultured insect cells have shown that there is sometimes a lack of apoptosis, or the pro-apoptotic response happens relatively late, thus casting doubt on the functional significance of apoptosis as an innate immunity. Using in vivo mosquito models and the native route of infection, we found that there is a rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes within a few hours following exposure to DNA or RNA viruses. Recapitulating a similar response in Drosophila, we found that this rapid induction of apoptosis requires the function of P53 and is mediated by a stress-responsive regulatory region upstream of reaper. More importantly, we showed that the rapid induction of apoptosis is responsible for preventing the expression of viral genes and blocking the infection. Genetic changes influencing this rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes led to significant differences in susceptibility to viral infection.

461) Risks of dengue secondary infective biting associated with Aedes aegypti in home environments in Monterrey, Mexico
Autor: Ramirez-Jimenez, Rocio; Zarate-Nahon, Ewry Arvid; Alvarado-Moreno, Marcela Selene; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Olga Sarai; Torres-Zapata, Raul; Rivas-Estilla, Ana Maria; Ramos-Jimenez, Javier; Garza, Carlos Medina de la; Villareal-Perez, Jesus Zacarias; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Resource management; Pest control; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Habitat; Oviposition; Containers; Laboratory testing; Larvae; Sustainability; Education; Prevention; Gender; Residential areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 38, n. 1, p. 99-108, 2013.
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Secondary dengue virus infections are a major risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever. Recent exposure to infectious bites of Aedes aegypti (L.) females in previously diagnosed dengue cases fulfills the epidemiological model of dengue hemorrhagic fever. A study was comprised of 357 (89.2%) dengue and 43 (10.8%) dengue hemorrhagic fever cases confirmed by laboratory tests and clinical manifestations. An entomological survey was done in homes and backyards. Concurrently, a questionnaire was used to assess the impact of healthpromotion campaigns through knowledge of the vector and its epidemiological role. Seventy-six (28.4%) of the 268 (67.0%) total wet or dry oviposition sites were positive for the presence of larvae or pupae, while adult Ae. aegypti were found in 32 (8.0%). One hundred thirty-two (33%) householders who formerly had dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever had knowledge of either larval or adult dengue vector stages. According to gender distribution, 145 (36.2%) and 14 (3.5%) of the males confirmed with cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever lived in houses with 17.9 and 2% of the Ae. aegypti larval and pupal habitats. Houses with females who had dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever were 212 (53%) and 29 (7.3%), with containers with immature Ae. aegypti in 19.4 and 7%, respectively. Lack of sustainability of government-targeted health education campaigns is the major problem for involving communities in prevention and control of dengue.

462) House-to-house human movement drives dengue virus transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stoddard, Steven T.; Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Astete, Helvio; Reiner, Robert C., Jr.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Infectious Disease; Spatial Epidemiology; Arthropod-Borne Virus; Emerging Infections; Disease Ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 110, n. 3, p. 994-999, 2013
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of growing global health importance. Prevention efforts focus on mosquito control, with limited success. New insights into the spatiotemporal drivers of dengue dynamics are needed to design improved disease-prevention strategies. Given the restricted range of movement of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, local human movements may be an important driver of dengue virus (DENV) amplification and spread. Using contact-site cluster investigations in a case-control design, we demonstrate that, at an individual level, risk for human infection is defined by visits to places where contact with infected mosquitoes is likely, independent of distance from the home. Our data indicate that house-to-house human movements underlie spatial patterns of DENV incidence, causing marked heterogeneity in transmission rates. At a collective level, transmission appears to be shaped by social connections because routine movements among the same places, such as the homes of family and friends, are often similar for the infected individual and their contacts. Thus, routine, house-to-house human movements do play a key role in spread of this vector-borne pathogen at fine spatial scales. This finding has important implications for dengue prevention, challenging the appropriateness of current approaches to vector control. We argue that reexamination of existing paradigms regarding the spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV and other vector-borne pathogens, especially the importance of human movement, will lead to improvements in disease prevention.

463) The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology
Autor: Gulley, Melissa M.; Zhang, Xin; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Infectious disease; Serpin; Innate immunity; Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 2, p. 138-147, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: In vector-borne diseases, the complex interplay between pathogen and its vector's immune system determines the outcome of infection and therefore disease transmission. Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions. Their control over regulatory proteolytic cascades ultimately decides whether the recognition of a pathogen will lead to an appropriate immune response. In mosquitoes, serpins (SRPNs) regulate the activation of prophenoloxidase and thus melanization, contribute to malaria parasite lysis, and likely Toll pathway activation. Additionally, in culicine mosquitoes, SRPNs are able to regulate hemostasis in the vertebrate host, suggesting a crucial role during bloodfeeding. This review summarizes the annotation, transcriptional regulation, and current knowledge of SRPN function in the three mosquito species for which the complete genome sequence is available. Additionally, we give a brief overview of how SRPNs may be used to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases.

464) Towards a Casa Segura: a consumer product study of the effect of insecticide-treated curtains on Aedes aegypti and dengue virus infections in the home
Autor: Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nunez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Najera-Vazquez, Maria del Rosario; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K.; Black, William C., IV; Keefe, Thomas J.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.
Assunto: Human diseases; Consumers; Pest control; Environmental factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Consumer products; Best practices; Intervention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 2, p. 385-397, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Merida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission.

465) A hierarchical network approach for modeling rift valley fever epidemics with applications in North America
Autor: Xue, Ling; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Scott, H. Morgan; Scoglio, Caterina
Assunto: Mosquitos diptera - Culicidae; Aedes aegypti diptera; West ? Nile - Virus; Host; Transmission; Disease; Dynamics; Survival; Climate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Rift Valley fever is a vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes high morbidity and mortality in livestock. In the event Rift Valley fever virus is introduced to the United States or other non-endemic areas, understanding the potential patterns of spread and the areas at risk based on disease vectors and hosts will be vital for developing mitigation strategies. Presented here is a general network-based mathematical model of Rift Valley fever. Given a lack of empirical data on disease vector species and their vector competence, this discrete time epidemic model uses stochastic parameters following several PERT distributions to model the dynamic interactions between hosts and likely North American mosquito vectors in dispersed geographic areas. Spatial effects and climate factors are also addressed in the model. The model is applied to a large directed asymmetric network of 3,621 nodes based on actual farms to examine a hypothetical introduction to some counties of Texas, an important ranching area in the United States of America. The nodes of the networks represent livestock farms, livestock markets, and feedlots, and the links represent cattle movements and mosquito diffusion between different nodes. Cattle and mosquito (Aedes and Culex) populations are treated with different contact networks to assess virus propagation. Rift Valley fever virus spread is assessed under various initial infection conditions (infected mosquito eggs, adults or cattle). A surprising trend is fewer initial infectious organisms result in a longer delay before a larger and more prolonged outbreak. The delay is likely caused by a lack of herd immunity while the infection expands geographically before becoming an epidemic involving many dispersed farms and animals almost simultaneously. Cattle movement between farms is a large driver of virus expansion, thus quarantines can be efficient mitigation strategy to prevent further geographic spread.

466) Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nguyet Minh Nguyen; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Trung Vu Tuan; Nguyen Than Ha Quyen; Tran, Chau N. B.; Long Vo Thi; Dui Le Thi; Hoa Lan Nguyen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Truong Thanh Nguyen; Huong Thi Cam Nguyen; Lan Thi Hong Nguyen; Mai Phuong Pham; Hung The Nguyen; Tai Thi Hue Luong; Wills, Bridget; Chau Van Vinh Nguyen; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Infectious Disease; Virology; Entomology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 110, n. 22, p. 9072-9077, 2013
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. The host and virus variables associated with dengue virus (DENV) transmission from symptomatic dengue cases (n = 208) to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during 407 independent exposure events was defined. The 50% mosquito infectious dose for each ofDENV-1-4 ranged from 6.29 to 7.52 log10 RNA copies/mL of plasma. Increasing day of illness, declining viremia, and rising antibody titers were independently associated with reduced risk of DENV transmission. High early DENV plasma viremia levels in patients were a marker of the duration of human infectiousness, and blood meals containing high concentrations of DENV were positively associated with the prevalence of infectious mosquitoes 14 d after blood feeding. Ambulatory dengue cases had lower viremia levels compared with hospitalized dengue cases but nonetheless at levels predicted to be infectious to mosquitoes. These data define serotype-specific viremia levels that Vaccines or drugs must inhibit to prevent DENV transmission.

467) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti for dengue virus type 2 is reduced with co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae
Autor: Garza-Hernandez, Javier A.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Blood; Fecundity; Head; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Midgut; Infection; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Metarhizium anisopliae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a worldwide public health problem. There is not an effective vaccine yet; the chemical struggle against its transmitter, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is onerous and erratic, and the community participation to eliminate vector breeding sites is unconfident. Here, we examined mosquitoes fed on human blood mixed with the Dengue virus, by exposure to the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to test whether the fungus halts the viral dissemination from midgut to head in co-infected (CI) insects. We found an overall viral infection rate in CI mosquitoes of 76% but infected or not, most (78%) died before or at day six post-infection; only six (12%) out of 50, survivors had virus in head and were potentially infectious at day seven post-infection. A higher infection (84%) was observed in single-virus infected mosquitoes, but they suffered only 6% mortality after 6 days and 32 (64%) survivors tested positive for virus in head after 7 days. Survival, fecundity and ovaric cycle of CI mosquitoes were reduced in 70, 52 and 40% in comparison to the ones of control. Therefore, if the fungus caused a 5-fold reduction in the number of infectious mosquitoes, it has potential to be evaluated against the Dengue transmitter in field.

468) Inactivation of infectious virus and serological detection of virus antigen in Rift Valley fever virus-exposed mosquitoes fixed with paraformaldehyde
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kading, Rebekah; Crabtree, Mary; Miller, Barry
Assunto: Rift Valley fever virus; Paraformaldehyde fixation; Trypsin; Mosquito; Pathology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 189, n. 1, p. 184-188, 2013
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Formaldehyde is routinely used to fix tissues in preparation for pathology studies, however concerns remain that treatment of tissues with cellular fixatives may not entirely inactivate infectious virus particles. This concern is of particular regulatory importance for research involving viruses that are classified as select agents such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Therefore, the specific aims of this study were to (1) assay RVFV-exposed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for the presence of infectious RVFV particles at various time points following infection and (2) demonstrate the utility of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of RVFV antigen in various tissues of paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were administered an infectious blood meal containing one of two strains of RVFV, harvested at various time points following infection, intrathoracically inoculated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and fixed overnight at 4 degrees C. The infection status of a subset of mosquitoes was verified by IFA on leg tissues prior to fixation, and infectivity of RVFV in fixed mosquito carcasses was determined by Vero cell plaque assay. Paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes harvested 14 days post infection were also paraffin-embedded and sectioned for detection of RVFV antigen to particular tissues by IFA. None of the RVFV-exposed mosquitoes tested by Vero cell plaque assay contained infectious RVFV after fixation. Furthermore, incubation of mosquito sections with trypsin prior to antibody staining is recommended for optimal visualization of RVFV antigen in infected mosquito tissues by IFA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

469) Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus
Autor: Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De;Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan
Assunto: Antigens; Viral diseases; Glands; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Epidemiology; Dengue; Polymerase chain reaction; Vectors; Blood meals; Immunofluorescence; Midgut; Salivary gland; Infection; Reverse transcription; Viruses; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 128, n. 3, p. 566-570, 2013.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t = 2.893, df = 7, P = 0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

470) Overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog improves fitness and decreases Plasmodium falciparum development in Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hauck, Eric S.; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Drexler, Anna; Pietri, Jose; Pakpour, Nazzy; Liu, Darin; Blacutt, Jacob; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley
Assunto: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN); Plasmodium falciparum; Mosquito; Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS); Malaria; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 15, n. 12, p. 775-787, 2013
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (ITS) cascade is highly conserved and regulates diverse physiological processes such as metabolism, lifespan, reproduction and immunity. Transgenic overexpression of Akt, a critical regulator of IIS, was previously shown to shorten mosquito lifespan and increase resistance to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To further understand how IIS controls mosquito physiology and resistance to malaria parasite infection, we overexpressed an inhibitor of IIS, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), in the Anopheles stephensi midgut. PTEN overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of the ITS protein FOXO, an expected target for PTEN, in the midgut of A. stephensi. Further, PTEN overexpression extended mosquito lifespan and increased resistance to P. falciparum development. The reduction in parasite development did not appear to be due to alterations in an innate immune response, but rather was associated with increased expression of genes regulating autophagy and stem cell maintenance in the midgut and with enhanced midgut barrier integrity. In light of previous success in genetically targeting the ITS pathway to alter mosquito lifespan and malaria parasite transmission, these data confirm that multiple strategies to genetically manipulate US can be leveraged to generate fit, resistant mosquitoes for malaria control. (C) 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

471) A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva
Autor: Sakhon, Olivia S.; Severo, Maiara S.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H. F.
Assunto: Nod-like receptors; Inflammasome; Vector-borne pathogens; Vector-borne diseases; Arthropod saliva; Salivary proteins
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 4, n. 308, 2013
ISSN: 1664-302X
Resumo: Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR) sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome - a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

472) Yellow fever: reemerging in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mascheretti, Melissa; Tengan, Cilea H.; Sato, Helena Keiko; Suzuki, Akemi; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Maeda, Marina; Brasil, Roosecelis; Pereira, Mariza; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Wanderley, Dalva M. V.; Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Carlos Magno; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Saude Publica, v. 47, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 0034-8910
Resumo: State of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken.METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti. Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation.RESULTS: Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaia, Piraju, Tejupa, Avare, and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Hg. janthinomys/capricornii, and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus. Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported.CONCLUSIONS: The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but further studies are required to clarify the dynamics of the spread of this disease.

473) Evidence of circulation of selected arboviruses in ijara and marigat districts, Kenya
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ofula V.O., Oundo J., Irura Z., Chepkorir E., Tigoi C., Lwande O., Ongus J., Schoepp R., Rossi C., Wurapa E.K., Sonde H., Sang R.
Assunto: Arbovirus, hygiene, Kenya, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 278, nov. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods with humans becoming infected during blood feeding by infected mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies. Characterization of arbovirus circulation and transmission in industrialized countries has been well documented, but there are many knowledge gaps in developing nations. Entomological surveys conducted so far have indicated circulation of arboviruses of significant public health importance in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species in vast populations in Kenya, suggesting the presence of competent vector systems. The human involvement in the transmission cycle of these viruses has however not been demonstrated. This study sought to determine the sero-prevalence of a range of arboviruses including; Chikungunya, Dengue, Sindbis, Sandfly Naples, Sandfly Sicilian, Uganda S, West Nile and Zika viruses in Ijara and Marigat Districts where vector surveillance has been done. A total of 351 patient serum samples were analyzed using IgG ELISA, of these 193 (54.9%) were male and 158 (45.1%) were female with age ranging between 3 and 73. The overall arbovirus prevalence was 53/351 (15.1%) with a prevalence of 7% (10/143) in Marigat and 21% (43/208) in Ijara. Of the positives, Flaviviruses were 69%, alpha viruses 29.6% and Bunyaviridae 1.4%. Uganda S virus was the most prevalent with 10%, followed by West Nile virus 6%, Sindbis 5%, Dengue 2%, Chikungunya 1.1%, Sandfly Naples 0.2% respectively. Semliki-forest virus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 3/351 (0.85%) persons tested. Antibodies against Sandfly Sicilian and Zika viruses were not detected. This study constitutes the first detection of antibodies against Sandfly Naples virus in Kenya. The study has demonstrated the circulation of the selected arboviruses in the two sites amongst human population. These findings will improve our understanding of impact of Arboviruses on public health in the regions so that preventive actions and awareness among clinicians in patient' recognition and management can be enhanced.

474) Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lee, S. Seirin; Baker, R. E.; Gaffney, E. A.; White, S. M.
Assunto: Biological control; Aedes aegypti; RIDL; SIT; Transgenic insects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 331, p. 78-90, 2013
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

475) Proteomic profiling of serum samples from chikungunya-infected patients provides insights into host response
Autor: Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Sreenivasamurthy, Sreelakshmi K.; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Harsha, H. C.; Ganjiwale, Anjali; Broor, Shobha; Pandey, Akhilesh; Narayana, Jayasuryan; Prasad, T. S. Keshava
Assunto: Serum; Profiling; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Public health; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Proteomics, v. 10, n. 1, p. 14, 2013.
ISSN: 1559-0275
Resumo: Chikungunya is a highly debilitating febrile illness caused by Chikungunya virus, a single-stranded RNA virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito species. The pathogenesis and host responses in individuals infected with the chikungunya virus are not well understood at the molecular level. We carried out proteomic profiling of serum samples from chikungunya patients in order to identify molecules associated with the host response to infection by this virus. Results: Proteomic profiling of serum obtained from the infected individuals resulted in identification of 569 proteins. Of these, 63 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (> or = 2-fold) in patient as compared to control sera. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in various processes such as lipid metabolism, immune response, transport, signal transduction and apoptosis. Conclusions: This is the first report providing a global proteomic profile of serum samples from individuals infected with the chikungunya virus. Our data provide an insight into the proteins that are involved as host response factors during an infection. These proteins include clusterin, apolipoproteins and S100A family of proteins.

476) Insect Antiviral Innate Immunity: Pathways, Effectors, and Connections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kingsolver, Megan B.; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Rnai; Jak-STAT; Nf-Kappa B; Autophagy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Journal of Molecular Biology, v. 425, n. 24, p. 4921-4936, 2013
ISSN: 0022-2836
Resumo: Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the small, interfering RNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived double-stranded RNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, and Jak-STAT and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

477) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Diallo, Mawlouth; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT-PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection.

478) High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the southeast of France
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Caro, Valerie;Diancourt, Laure; Delaunay, Pascal; Grandadam, Marc;Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK) were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN) were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. Methodology and Principal Findings We used two strains of each virus, CHIK and DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM) was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Frejus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi). The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. Conclusions/Significance Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

479) Blood meal induced microRNA regulates development and immune associated genes in the Dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: MicroRNA; Blood meal; Mosquito; aae-miR-375; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 146-152, 2013.
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a blood-feeding mosquito that transmits human pathogens such as Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and Chikungunya virus. Recently, dramatic changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti following a blood meal have been reported; however, the molecular factors involved in regulating these changes are largely unknown. In this study, we found induction of a number of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood fed (BF) mosquitoes. One of these miRNAs, aae-miR-375, was only detected in BF mosquitoes. Based on target analyses, we found six different genes involved in development and immunity being regulated by aae-miR-375 at the post-transcriptional level. We further confirmed the specific interaction of aae-miR-375 with the target sequences in the transcripts of two immune related genes, cactus and REL1, using a GFP-based reporter assay. Overall, results from this report indicate that miRNAs induced upon blood feeding can regulate the transcript levels of several genes that are important in development and immune responses in mosquitoes. In addition, we demonstrate that aae-miR-375 enhances Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in an Ae. aegypti cell line.

480) Fever versus fever: The role of host and vector susceptibility and interspecific competition in shaping the current and future distributions of the sylvatic cycles of dengue virus and yellow fever virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hanley, Kathryn A.; Monath, Thomas P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Richman, Rebecca L.; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto: Dengue virus; Yellow fever virus; Aedes aegypti; Sylvatic; Arbovirus; Emerging infectious disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Infection Genetics And Evolution, v. 19, p. 292-311, 2013
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Two different species of flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), that originated in sylvatic cycles maintained in non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes have emerged repeatedly into sustained human-to-human transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sylvatic cycles of both viruses remain active, and where the two viruses overlap in West Africa they utilize similar suites of monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes. These extensive similarities render the differences in the biogeography and epidemiology of the two viruses all the more striking. First, the sylvatic cycle of YFV originated in Africa and was introduced into the New World, probably as a result of the slave trade, but is absent in Asia; in contrast, sylvatic DENV likely originated in Asia and has spread to Africa but not to the New World. Second, while sylvatic YFV can emerge into extensive urban outbreaks in humans, these invariably die out, whereas four different types of DENV have established human transmission cycles that are ecologically and Evolutionarily distinct from their sylvatic ancestors. Finally, transmission of YFV among humans has been documented only in Africa and the Americas, whereas DENV is transmitted among humans across most of the range of competent Aedes vectors, which in the last decade has included every continent save Antarctica. This review summarizes current understanding of sylvatic transmission cycles of YFV and DENV, considers possible explanations for their disjunct distributions, and speculates on the potential conSequences of future establishment of a sylvatic cycle of DENV in the Americas. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

481) Molecular investigations of dengue virus during outbreaks in Orissa state, Eastern India from 2010 to 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Das, Biswadeep; Das, Mumani; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K.; Hazra, Rupenangshu K.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Orissa; Ae. albopictus; RT-PCR; Phylogenetics; Maximum likelihood estimate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Infection Genetics And Evolution v. 16, n. , p. 401-410, 2013
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases in India. Orissa state in Eastern India reported the first dengue outbreak in 2010, followed by extensive outbreaks in 2011, affecting large number of people. Detailed entomological, serological and phylogenetic investigations were performed in mosquitoes and patients serum collected from dengue virus (DENV) affected Areas of Orissa. The combination of DENV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) detected high DENV positivity in serum samples. DENV was detected in mosquitoes reared from field caught pupae by RT-PCR, which confirmed the vertical transmission of DENV that may have an important role in the recurrence of dengue outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the circulation of Indian lineage of DENV-2 (genotype-IV) and DENV-3 (genotype-III) in vectors and patients serum in Orissa from 2010 to 2011, DENV-2 being the prevailing serotype. Selection analyses within the C-prM region showed that the emergence of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in Orissa was constrained by purifying selection which suggested the role of ecological factors like mosquito density and behavior in the recurrent outbreaks. Aedes albopictus was found to be the most abundant vector in the Areas surveyed, followed by Aedes aegypti. Indoor breeding spots (earthen pots) were most abundant, with high pupal productivity (38.50) and contributed maximum Aedes species in the affected Areas. The DENV infection rate estimated by maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) was high for indoor breeding Aedes (4.87; 95% CI: 1.82, 10.78) in comparison to outdoor breeding Aedes (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.55). The high MLE in Ae. albopictus (4.72; 95% CI: 1.94, 9.80) in comparison to Ae. aegypti (1.55; 95% Cl: 0.09, 7.54) indicated that Ae. albopictus was the main DENV vector responsible for the outbreaks. The results indicated the circulation of two virulent serotypes of DENV in Orissa, mainly by Ae. albopictus with the implication for implementation of intradomecile vector control measures to prevent the spread of dengue. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

482) Avian hosts of west nile virus in Arizona
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Young, Ginger R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Levy, Craig E.
Assunto: Louis encephalitis - Virus; Diptera -Culicidae; Infection; Disease; California; Birds; Epidemiology; Transmission; Competence; Mosquitos
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 474-481, 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer, domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove. (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined. by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix.

483) Detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen in infected Aedes aegypti Using a commercially available kit
Autor: Voge, Natalia V.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Blair, Carol D.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Antigens; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Epidemics; Dengue; Control programs; Vectors; Vaccines; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 2, p. 260-266, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Epidemic dengue has emerged throughout the tropical world. In the continued absence of a vaccine against dengue virus (DENV), mosquito vector surveillance and control programs are essential to reduce human infections. An effective test to detect DENV in infected mosquitoes would be a valuable addition to the surveillance effort. We investigated DENV detection in infected Aedes aegypti using a commercially available DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) ELISA kit (Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag), and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation assays. The DENV-infected mosquitoes were subjected to field-relevant conditions and assayed individually and pooled with uninfected mosquitoes. Overall, DENV NS1 antigen was detected in 98% of infected mosquitoes/ pools versus 79% for RT-PCR and 29% for virus isolation. Our results indicate that NS1 is an excellent analyte for detection of DENV in Ae. aegypti and that the tested NS1 antigen kit provides a sensitive, rapid, and convenient test for DENV surveillance in mosquitoes.

484) Computer-aided identification, design and synthesis of a novel series of compounds with selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bassetto, Marcella; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Delang, Leen; Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Zonta, Nicola; Gatti, Valerio; Colombano, Giampiero; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Tron, Gian Cesare; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Brancale, Andrea
Assunto: Antiviral; Chikungunya; CHIKV; Homology model; Molecular dynamics; Virtual screening
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 98, n. 1, p. 12-18, 2013
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Arbovirus that is transmitted to humans primarily by the mosquito species Aedes aegypti. Infection with this pathogen is often associated with fever, rash and arthralgia. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral drug is available for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Albeit considered a tropical pathogen, adaptation of the virus to the mosquito species Aedes albopictus, which is also very common in temperate zones, has resulted in recent outbreaks in Europe and the US. In the present study, we report on the discovery of a novel series of compounds that inhibit CHIKV replication in the low mu M range. In particular, we initially performed a virtual screening simulation of similar to 5 million compounds on the CHIKV nsP2, the viral protease, after which we investigated and explored the Structure-Activity Relationships of the hit identified in silico. Overall, a series of 26 compounds, including the original hit, was evaluated in a virus-cell-based CPE reduction assay. The study of such selective inhibitors will contribute to a better understanding of the CHIKV replication cycle and may represents a first step towards the development of a clinical candidate drug for the treatment of this disease. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

485) Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia
Autor: Caragata, Eric P.; Rances, Edwige; Hedges, Lauren M.; Gofton, Alexander W.; Johnson, Karyn N.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Virulence; Viral diseases; Pest control; Immunity; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Immune response; Cholesterol; Infection; Wolbachia pipientis; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Drosophila C virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 6, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV), a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

486) Autoimmunity in dengue pathogenesis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Wang, Shuying; Ling, Pin; Anderson, Robert; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lin, Yee-Shin
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Dengue; Immunopathogenesis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 112, n. 1, p. 3-11, 2013
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne viral diseases. With climate change and the convenience of travel, dengue is spreading beyond its usual tropical and subtropical boundaries. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) causes diseases ranging widely in severity, from self-limited dengue fever to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are the major clinical manifestations associated with severe DENV infection, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Besides the direct effects of the virus, immunopathogenesis is also involved in the development of dengue disease. Antibody-dependent enhancement increases the efficiency of virus infection and may suppress type I interferon-mediated antiviral responses. Aberrant activation of T cells and overproduction of soluble factors cause an increase in vascular permeability. DENV-induced autoantibodies against endothelial cells, platelets, and coagulatory molecules lead to their abnormal activation or dysfunction. Molecular mimicry between DENV proteins and host proteins may explain the cross-reactivity of DENV-induced autoantibodies. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under development. For the development of a safe and effective dengue vaccine, the immunopathogenic complications of dengue disease need to be considered. Copyright (C) 2012, Elsevier Taiwan LLC Et Formosan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

487) Meeting report of the Mosquito Kolymbari Meeting 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 107, n. 8, p. 393-399, 2013
ISSN: 2047-7724
Resumo:

488) Genetic variation in the 3 ' untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Castro, Marcia Goncalves; de Nogueira, Fernanda Bruycker; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita Maria; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto
Assunto: Dengue virus type 3; Aedes aegypti; 3 ' UTR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 3, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors.Methods: Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we Sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3' UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program.Results: Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop c