Mecanismos de imunopatogenicidade

1) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
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Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
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2) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

3) Glaucoma and congenital Zika syndrome
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Autor: Freitas, Bruno de Paula; Ko, ; Khouri, Ricardo; Mayoral, Monica; Henrique, Daniele Freitas; Maia, Maurício; Belfort Jr., Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 0161-6420
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4) Characterizing the pattern of anomalies in congenital Zika syndrome for pediatric clinicians
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Autor: Moore, Cynthia A. ; Staples, J. Erin ; Dobyns, William B. ; Pessoa, André ; Ventura, Camila V. ; Fonseca, Eduardo Borges da ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Ventura, Liana O. ; Nogueira Neto, Norberto ; Arena, J. Fernando ; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Jama Pediatrics, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3628
Resumo: Zika virus infection can be prenatally passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that intrauterine Zika virus infection is a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies, but the full spectrum of anomalies has not been delineated. To inform pediatric clinicians who may be called on to evaluate and treat affected infants and children, we review the most recent evidence to better characterize congenital Zika syndrome. We reviewed published reports of congenital anomalies occurring in fetuses or infants with presumed or laboratory-confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection. We conducted a comprehensive search of the English literature using Medline and EMBASE for Zika from inception through September 30, 2016. Congenital anomalies were considered in the context of the presumed pathogenetic mechanism related to the neurotropic properties of the virus. We conclude that congenital Zika syndrome is a recognizable pattern of structural anomalies and functional disabilities secondary to central and, perhaps, peripheral nervous system damage. Although many of the components of this syndrome, such as cognitive, sensory, and motor disabilities, are shared by other congenital infections, there are 5 features that are rarely seen with other congenital infections or are unique to congenital Zika virus infection: (1) severe microcephaly with partially collapsed skull; (2) thin cerebral cortices with subcortical calcifications; (3) macular scarring and focal pigmentary retinal mottling; (4) congenital contractures; and (5) marked early hypertonia and symptoms of extrapyramidal involvement. Although the full spectrum of adverse reproductive outcomes caused by Zika virus infection is not yet etermined, a distinctive phenotype—the congenital Zika syndrome—has emerged. Recognition of this phenotype by clinicians for infants and children can help ensure appropriate etiologic evaluation and comprehensive clinical investigation to define the range of anomalies in an affected infant as well as determine essential follow-up and ongoing care

5) Zika virus : Another call for paradigm shift in disease control strategy
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Autor: Banerjee, Amitav
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 288, 2016
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6) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
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Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

7) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland
Autor: Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko
Assunto: Zika virus; Dengue virus; False positive NS1 antigen; Traveller; Epidemic; Antibody; IGM
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, n. w14296 , 2016.
ISSN: 1424-7860
Resumo: We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceara state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG-antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture, an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG-antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

8) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

9) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
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Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

10) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
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Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

11) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

12) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
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Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

13) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.
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Autor: Sarno, Manoel, Sacramento, Gielson A., Khouri, Ricardo, do Rosário, Mateus S., Costa, Federico, Archanjo, Gracinda, Santos, Luciane A., Jr.Nery, Nivison, Vasilakis, Nikos, Ko, Albert I., de Almeida, Antonio R. P.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Hydrops fetalis, Microcephaly, Fetal growth retardation, Ultrasonic imaging, Case studies
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

14) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

15) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
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Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

16) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

17) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
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Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

18) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
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Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

19) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection.
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Autor: Karimi, Ouafae, Goorhuis, Abraham, Schinkel, Janke, Codrington, John, Vreden, Stephen Gerold S., Vermaat, Joost S., Stijnis, Cornelis, Grobusch, Martin Peter
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhage, Travel - Health aspects, Polymerase chain reaction - Diagnostic use, Intravenous immunoglobulins
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939-940, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the case of a Netherlands-based patient with Zika virus infection who presented with thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleeding. Topics discussed include complaints reported by the patient several days after traveling to Suriname, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and the management of thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulins.

20) Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.
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Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana, Hills, Susan L., Williams, Charnetta, Galang, Romeo R., Iyengar, Preetha, Hennenfent, Andrew K., Rabe, Ingrid B., Panella, Amanda, Oduyebo, Titilope, Honein, Margaret A., Zaki, Sherif, Lindsey, Nicole, Lehman, Jennifer A., Kwit, Natalie, Bertolli, Jeanne, Ellington, Sascha, Igbinosa, Irogue, Minta, Anna A., Petersen, Emily E., Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Pregnant women - Travel, Pregnancy, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Miscarriage
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

21) Infection disease surveillance update.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zwizwai, Ruth
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Communicable diseases, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Public health, Vaccination
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 299, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

22) Zika virus in the dock
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 265, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

23) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

24) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

25) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubin, Eric J., Greene, Michael F., Baden, Lindsey R.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Infants - Health, Pregnancy complications, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working . . .

26) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas -- Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan, Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Flaviviral diseases, Prevention, Mosquito control, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n.3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about transmission of Zika virus among several regions of the U.S. in January 2016, is presented. Topics include identification of disease as mosquito-borne flavivirus in Uganda in 1947, observation of infection among travelers of the U.S., prevention of the disease including restriction of mosquito breeding areas, and suspension of travel plans by pregnant woman to avoid transmission.

27) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

28) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope, Petersen, Emily E., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Mead, Paul S., Meaney-Delman, Dana, Renquist, Christina M., Ellington, Sascha R., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Powers, Ann M., Villanueva, Julie, Galang, Romeo R., Dieke, Ada, Muñoz, Jorge L., Honein, Margaret A., Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Prenatal care, Medical care - United States, Serodiagnosis, Health boards, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and recommendation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for care providers to contact with health department for assistance with test interpretation.

29) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

30) Zika virus: Time to move from case reports to case control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Baud D.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

31) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

32) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E., Nelson, Jennifer M., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Karwowski, Mateusz P., Mead, Paul, Villanueva, Julie, Renquist, Christina M., Minta, Anna A., Jamieson, Denise J., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A., Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Flaviviral diseases, Microcephaly, Infants - Health, Children - Health, Viral diseases in children, Viral diseases in pregnancy, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 65, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article discusses the interim guidelines issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016 for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection. Topics include routine care of infants born to mothers who resided in or traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy, evaluation and testing of infants and children with possible congenital Zika virus infection and the steps to prevent Zika virus infection.

33) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

34) The Potential Hidden Toll of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Infants, Mental health, Zika virus infections, Schizophrenia in children, Mother & infant, Autism in children, Children, Bipolar disorder in children, Viral diseases in children, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57151, p. D1-D5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the possibility that infants born to mothers who were infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy may suffer from various mental health issues later in life, and it mentions how the Zika virus resembles infectious agents that have been linked to the development of medical and mental conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In utero illnesses and viral infections are examined, along with the health of children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

35) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

36) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

37) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

38) Zika could infect 4 million; U.S. impact likely small
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sullivan, Michele G.
Assunto: Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Internal Medicine News , v. 49, n. 3, p. 6, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

39) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor, Gil
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Rubella, Fetal development, Autism spectrum disorders
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, 2016
ISSN: 10467408
Resumo: The author discusses a study conducted by researchers in Brazil on link between Zika infection of pregnant women and microcephaly developmental abnormality of the brain cortex. He mentions the risk of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. He also mentions that the risk of fetal developmental problems such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be increased due to Maternal immune activation (MIA) as a result of microbial infections.

40) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

41) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

42) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

43) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

44) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

45) Zika virus.
Autor: Lopes Marta Heloisa,Miyaji Karina Takesaki,Infante Vanessa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista da Associac?a?o Me?dica Brasileira, v. 62, n. 1, p. 4-9, 2016
ISSN: 0104-4230
Resumo:

46) CDC expands Zika virus travel warnings.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oakes, Kari.
Assunto: Obstetrics and gynecology; Medical specialties
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: OB GYN News, v. 51, n. 2, p. 2, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

47) Ocular symptoms accompany Zika microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Smith, Jennie
Assunto: Pediatrics; Medical specialties; Family medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Pediatric News, v. 50, n. 3, p. 18, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

48) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

49) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

50) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

51) Zika virus.
Autor: Basarab Marina,Bowman Conor,Aarons Emma J,Cropley Ian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

52) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

53) Preventing Zika Virus Infections in Pregnant Women: An Urgent Public Health Priority.
Autor: Bell Beth P,Boyle Coleen A,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 589-590, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo:

54) Zika virus: a flavivirus caused pandemics in Latin America.
Autor: Liu Si-Qing,Zhang Bo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Virologica Sinica, 2016
ISSN: 1995-820X
Resumo:

55) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

56) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

57) The Emerging Zika Virus Epidemic in the Americas: Research Priorities.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Stringer Elizabeth M,de Silva Aravinda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

58) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

59) Fear of Zika Virus spreads To US
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, Opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Inflammation
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

60) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

61) Zika virus: medical countermeasure development challenges.
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

62) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

63) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

64) Time for global action on Zika virus epidemic.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: British Medical Association ,v. 352, p. 1781, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

65) New Study Links Zika Virus to Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Betsy
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus, Public health, Immunology
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

66) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

67) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.
Autor: de Paula Freitas Bruno,de Oliveira Dias João Rafael,Prazeres Juliana,Sacramento Gielson Almeida,Ko Albert Icksang,Maia Maurício,Belfort Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ?32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

68) Zika virus outbreak: 'a perfect storm'.
Autor: Ai Jing-Wen,Zhang Ying,Zhang Wenhong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo:

69) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

70) Zika virus: management of infection and risk.
Autor: Ahmad Shazaad S Y,Amin Tejal N,Ustianowski Andrew
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: British Medical Association, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

71) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

72) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

73) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Autor: Roa Mónica
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

74) Zika virus infection.
Autor: MacFadden Derek R,Bogoch Isaac I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329
Resumo:

75) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

76) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

77) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

78) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

79) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

80) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N,O'Connor Catherine,Kirkbride Hilary,Brooks Tim,Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

81) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

82) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

83) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

84) Thermo fisher scientific offers EUROIMMUN anti-Zika virus test kits
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Asian business; International business
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: BioSpectrum Asia, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

85) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

86) Zika virus in the dock.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, null, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Molecular diagnosis, Cross reactions (Immunology), Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n.3, p. 265, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

87) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

88) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

89) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

90) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

91) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

92) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

93) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

94) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

95) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

96) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

97) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

98) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

99) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

100) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

101) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

102) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

103) 4 facts to know about the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Medical practice management; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Economics, v. 93, n. 5, p. 23, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

104) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

105) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

106) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

107) Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015–January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth — Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Linden, Vanessa van der ; Pessoa, André ; Dobyns, William ; Barkovich, A. James ; Liden Júnior, Hélio van der ; Rolim Filho, Epitacio Leite ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho ; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo ; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco ; Ventura, Islane Verçosa; Camila ; Ramos, Regina Coeli ; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa ; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório ; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro ; Dott, Mary ; Hillard, Christina ; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 47, p. 1343-1348, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

108) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

109) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

110) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

111) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

112) Rapid molecular detection of Zika virus in urine using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wahed, Ahmed Abd El ; Sanabani, Sabri S. ; Faye, Oumar ; Pessoa, Rodrigo ; Patriota, Joao-Veras ; Rodrigues-Giorgi, Rodrigues ; Patel, Pranav ; Boehlken-Fascher, Susanne ; Landt, Olfert ; Niedrig, Matthias ; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A. ; Czerny, Claus-Peter ; Sall, Amadou A. ; Weidmann, Manfred
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Viral infections ; ZIKV - RT-PCR ; ZIKV - PCR detection
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Currently detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92% while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering)

113) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

114) Zika Fears Imperil Brazil’s Tourism Push.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Tourism, Public health, Virus diseases, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

115) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

116) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

117) Maintaining a safe blood supply in an era of emerging pathogens.
Autor: Marks Peter W,Epstein Jay S,Borio Luciana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

118) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, january 2016.
Autor: Rozé Benoît,Najioullah Fatiha,Fergé Jean-Louis,Apetse Kossivi,Brouste Yannick,Cesaire Raymond,Fagour Cédric,Fagour Laurence,Hochedez Patrick,Jeannin Séverine,Joux Julien,Mehdaoui Hossein,Valentino Ruddy,Signate Aïssatou,Cabié André,
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

119) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

120) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

121) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

122) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

123) Zika virus and microcephaly: is the correlation, causal or coincidental?
Autor: Liuzzi Giuseppina,Puro Vincenzo,Vairo Francesco,Nicastri Emanuele,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Di Caro Antonino,Piacentini Mauro,Zumla Alimuddin,Ippolito Giuseppe
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The New Microbiologica, v. 39, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1121-7138
Resumo:

124) A lipidomics approachinthe characterization of zika - infected mosquito cells: potential targets for breakingthe transmission cycle
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues ; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de ; Lima, Estela de Oliveira ; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina ; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi ; Beck, Raissa Marques ; Padilla, Marina Aiello ; Milanez, Guilherme Paier ; Arns, Clarice Weis ; Proença-Modena, José Luiz ; Souza-Neto, Jayme Augusto ; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 10
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors. Thus, this study aims at establishing a lipidomics profile of infected mosquito cells compared to a control group to define potential targets for viral control in mosquitoes. Thirteen lipids were elected as specific markers for Zika virus infection (Brazilian strain), which were identified as putatively linked to the intracellular mechanism of viral replication and/or cell recognition. Our findings bring biochemical information that may translate into useful targets for breaking the transmission cycle

125) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

126) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

127) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

128) Zika virus infection damages the testes in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govero, Jennifer Govero; Esakky, Prabagaran ; Scheaffer, Suzanne M. ; Fernandez, Estefania ; Drury, Andrea ; Paltt, Derek J. ; Gorman, Matthew J. ; Richner, Justin M. ; Caine, Elizabeth A. ; Salazar, Vanessa ; Moley, Kelle H. ; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto: Viral pathogenesis ; Infection ; Virus-host interactions
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can cause congenital malformations including microcephaly, which has focused global attention on this emerging pathogen1. In addition to transmission by mosquitoes, ZIKV can be detected in the seminal fluid of affected males for extended periods of time and transmitted sexually2. Here, using a mouse-adapted African ZIKV strain (Dakar 41519), we evaluated the consequences of infection in the male reproductive tract of mice. We observed persistence of ZIKV, but not the closely related Dengue virus (DENV), in the testis and epididymis of male mice, and this was associated with tissue injury that caused diminished testosterone and inhibin B levels, and oligospermia. ZIKV preferentially infected spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, and Sertoli cells in the testis, resulting in cell death and destruction of the seminiferous tubules. Less damage was observed with a contemporary Asian ZIKV strain (H/PF/2013), in part because this virus replicates less efficiently in mice. The extent to which these observations in mice translate to humans remains unclear, but longitudinal studies of sperm function and viability in ZIKV-infected humans seem warranted

129) Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sapparapu, Gopal ; Ferandez, Estefania ; Kose, Nurgun ; Cao, Bin; Foz, Julie M. ; Bombardi, Robin G. ; Zhao, Haiyan Zhao ; Nelson, Christopher A. ; Bryan, Aubrey L. ; Barnes, Trevor ; Dabidsin, Edgar ; Mysorekar, Indira U. ; Fremont, Daved H. ; Doranz, Benjamin J. ; Diamond, Michael S. ; Crowe, James E.
Assunto: Virology ; Antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy1. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from subjects with prior ZIKV infection. A subset of mAbs recognized diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibited potently neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory mAbs, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African, Asian, and American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer–dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. mAb treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human mAbs can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts

130) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

131) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

132) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

133) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

134) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

135) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

136) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

137) Prolonged shedding of zika virus associated with congenital infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oliveira, Danielle B.L. ; Almeida, Flávia J. ; Durigon, Edison L. ; Mendes, Érica A. ; Braconi, Carla T. ; Marchetti, Ivan
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1202-1204, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

138) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

139) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

140) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K,Cherpillod P,Kaiser L,Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya, Zika, dengue, diagnostic algorithm, outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

141) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

142) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

143) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

144) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

145) Fetal infection by zika virus in the third trimester – report of 2 cases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Antonio Soares de ; Dias, Cristiane Moraes ; Braga, Fernanda Del Campo Braojos ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda ; Oliani, Antonio Hélio ; Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique ; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de ; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de ; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda ; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: Zika virus infection acquired during pregnancy was associated with congenital microcephaly. We describe two cases of ZIKV infection in the 36th week of pregnancy whose fetuses had preserved head circumference at birth and findings of subependymal cysts and lenticulostriate vasculopathy in postnatal imaging. These represent the first signs of congenital brain injury acquired due to ZIKV in the third trimester

146) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

147) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

148) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

149) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study
Autor: Cauchemez Simon,Besnard Marianne,Bompard Priscillia,Dub Timothée,Guillemette-Artur Prisca,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique,Salje Henrik,Van Kerkhove Maria D,Abadie Véronique,Garel Catherine,Fontanet Arnaud,Mallet Henri-Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has coincided with increased reports of babies born with microcephaly. On Feb 1, 2016, WHO declared the suspected link between Zika virus and microcephaly to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This association, however, has not been precisely quantified. We retrospectively analysed data from a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, which was the largest documented outbreak before that in the Americas. We used serological and surveillance data to estimate the probability of infection with Zika virus for each week of the epidemic and searched medical records to identify all cases of microcephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were used to assess periods of risk in pregnancy when Zika virus might increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. The Zika virus outbreak began in October, 2013, and ended in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62-70) of the general population were infected. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the 4-month period March 1 to July 10, 2014. The timing of these cases was best explained by a period of risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the baseline prevalence of microcephaly was two cases (95% CI 0-8) per 10 000 neonates, and the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection was 95 cases (34-191) per 10 000 women infected in the first trimester. We could not rule out an increased risk of microcephaly from infection in other trimesters, but models that excluded the first trimester were not supported by the data. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and neonates whose mothers are infected with Zika virus. Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund, EU-PREDEMICS.

150) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

151) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

152) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

153) Texas enhances zika surveillance in the Rio Grande Valley
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Because of concerns about the Zika risk in an area of Texas where dengue outbreaks have occurred before, Texas state health officials urged medical providers to test pregnant women in six counties for the virus if they have symptoms, regardless of travel history. In other developments, Brazilian researchers who profiled 11 babies with Zika-linked microcephaly found a wide scope of problems, tests on macaques shed more light on how the virus might behave in humans, and Florida reported 6 more locally acquired Zika cases

154) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

155) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

156) Zika virus and neurological disease-approaches to the unknown
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solomon T., Baylis M., Brown D.
Assunto: neurologic disease, virus, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

157) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi O., Goorhuis A., Schinkel J., Codrington J., Vreden S.G.S., Vermaat J.S., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: bleeding, thrombocytopenia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939–940, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

158) Zika virus and microcephaly: Why is this situation a PHEIC?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heymann D.L., Hodgson A., Sall A.A., Freedman D.O., Staples J.E., Althabe F., Baruah K., Mahmud G., Kandun N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Bino S., Menon K.U.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 719-721, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

159) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

160) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

161) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

162) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

163) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

164) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres C.F.J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

165) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

166) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor G.
Assunto: brain development, fetal brain, inflammation, placenta, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1600-0897 (electronic),1046-7408
Resumo:

167) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

168) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

169) Zika virus infection, the recent menace of the Aedes mosquito
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bajpai, Smrati; Nadkar, Milind Y.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, v. 64, p. 42-45, 2016.
ISSN: 0004-5772
Resumo: Mosquito-borne infections and viral outbreaks have bewildered physicians and population at large from time to time, there seems to be a constant cat and mouse race between the medical fraternity and these mosquito menaces. Zika virus and its vector Aedes aegyti are currently bothering the world population, this infection has affected pregnant women causing microcephaly in their new-borns and also has caused GBS-like manifestations in affected individuals. Currently the outbreak is concentrated in the countries of South American continent, but the omnipresence of its vector has made the world community cautious about the potential of its spread; thus the great emphasis is on prevention and vector control strategies to counter Zika virus attack. Consequently, Ministry of Health, Government of India has also taken cognizance of this and issued guidelines to tackle this problem.

170) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

171) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

172) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

173) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

174) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

175) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

176) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

177) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

178) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

179) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

180) Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C, IV
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Adaptations; Pest control; Hygiene; Biopolymorphism; Nucleotides; Public health; Detoxification; Serotypes; Dengue; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Gene flow; Vectors; Evolutionary genetics; Pyrethroids; Migration; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance, Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

181) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

182) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

183) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

184) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

185) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

186) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

187) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

188) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

189) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

190) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

191) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

192) Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Finke J., Teissier A., Roche C., Broult J., Paulous S., Desprès P., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood donor, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 41, p. 11-12, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

193) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

194) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

195) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob B., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: dengue (diagnosis), endemic disease, virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145-146, jul. 2015
ISSN: 0974-6005 (electronic),1755-6783
Resumo:

196) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

197) Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori
Assunto: Cell line; Mosquito; Armigeres subalbatus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, v. 51, n. 7, p. 672-679, 2015
ISSN: 1071-2690
Resumo: Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

198) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

199) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

200) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

201) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

202) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

203) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

204) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Campos G.S., Bandeira A.C., Sardi S.I.
Assunto: virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

205) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

206) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

207) Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bogoch I.I., Brady O.J., Kraemer M.U.G., German M., Creatore M.I., Kulkarni M.A., Brownstein J.S., Mekaru S.R., Hay S.I., Groot E., Watts A., Khan K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10016, p. 335–336, 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

208) Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Nachtigall S., Kapaun A., Schnitzler P., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection, zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 911-913, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

209) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

210) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

211) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

212) Infectious disease surveillance update.
Autor: Zwizwai Ruth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 12, p. 1385, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

213) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

214) Co-infection with zika and dengue viruses in 2 patients, New Caledonia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dupont-Rouzeyrol M., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Daures M., John M., Grangeon J.-P., Gourinat A.-C.
Assunto: Dengue virus, mixed infection, virus, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 381-382, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

215) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

216) Zika virus: Following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Gubler D.J.
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

217) A novel Lozenge gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori regulates the melanization response of hemolymph
Autor: Xu, Man; Wang, Xue; Tan, Juan; Zhang, Kui; Guan, Xi; Patterson, Laurence H.; Ding, Hanfei; Cui, Hongjuan
Assunto: Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX); Lozenge; Melanization; Prophenoloxidases; Bombyx mori
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 191-198, 2015
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Runt-related (RUNX) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved either in vertebrate or invertebrate. Lozenge (Lz), a members of RUNX family as well as homologue of AML-1, functions as an important transcription factor regulating the hemocytes differentiation. In this paper, we identified and characterized RUNX family especially Lz in silkworm, which is a lepidopteran model insect. The gene expression analysis illustrated that BmLz was highly expressed in hemocytes throughout the whole development period, and reached a peak in glutonous stage. Over-expression of BmLz in silkworm accelerated the melanization process of hemolymph, and led to instantaneously up-regulation of prophenoloxidases (PPOs), which were key enzymes in the melanization process. Further down-regulation of BmLz expression by RNA interference resulted in the significant delay of melanization reaction of hemolymph. These findings suggested that BmLz regulated the melanization process of hemolymph by inducing PPOs expression, and played a critical role in innate immunity defense in silkworm. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

218) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

219) Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Babaniyi O., Mwaba P., Mulenga D., Monze M., Songolo P., Mazaba-Liwewe M., Mweene-Ndumba I., Masaninga F., Chizema E., Eshetu-Shibeshi M., Malama C., Rudatsikira E., Siziya S.
Assunto: risk assessment, yellow fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 7, n. 1, p. 11-17, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0%) samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1%) for Dengue, 370 (10.2%) for West Nile and 217 (6.0%) for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

220) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

221) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

222) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

223) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

224) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

225) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

226) A survey of the 2014 dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou, China
Autor: Yang, Liu; Chen, Yue; Yan, Huacheng; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Xiaoli; Tang, Boheng; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Ruiwen
Assunto: Clinical picture; Dengue virus; Diagnostics; Phylogenetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 57, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: In 2014, a serious dengue outbreak in Guangzhou occurred, consisting of 37 354 laboratory confirmed cases of infection. In this study, the clinical picture of dengue fever due to dengue virus (DENV) type 1 in Guangzhou was described. Clinical and laboratory data collected by studying 726 sera of suspected clinical cases from hospitals and 328 sera of healthy persons from two residence communities were analyzed during the outbreak, and 484 patients were diagnosed with an acute dengue infection. Fever, headache, congestion of the throat, and myalgia were the most typical symptoms in DENV-infected patients. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an increase in liver enzymes were significantly more common in the infected patients than in the healthy controls. Fourteen cases of silent infection were discovered among the 328 healthy persons, suggesting a DENV inapparent infection rate of 4.27% among healthy individuals. The data obtained by analyzing 212 positive sera with three methods indicated different results with different detection methods. DENV RNA should be used for early diagnoses during days 1-6 after symptom onset, immunoglobulin M (IgM) can be easily recognized after four days have passed since symptom onset and DENV isolation has a peak positive rate during days 1-3 after the onset of symptoms. A phylogenetic analysis of viral NS1 gene sequences from this outbreak indicated that the predominant isolates could be categorized as DENV-1 genotype III and had the highest homology with the India genotypes from 2009 to 2011. However, this analysis also revealed a co-epidemic of the 2013 Zhongshan and 2003 Singapore genotypes, both belonging to DENV-1 genotype I, which suggested multiple geographic origins for the 2014 epidemic of dengue 1 strains in Guangzhou.

227) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

228) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

229) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

230) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

231) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

232) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

233) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob, Beuy ; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145, 2015
ISSN:
Resumo:

234) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

235) A critical role for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha 2-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

236) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

237) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

238) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

239) Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?
Autor: Reavey, Catherine E.; Warnock, Neil D.; Garbett, Amy P.; Cotter, Sheena C.
Assunto: Aging; defensin; Ecological immunology; Insect; Lifespan; Lysozyme; Nicrophorus; Parental care; Phenoloxidase; Wounding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Ecology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 19, p. 4365-4375, 2015
ISSN: 2045-7758
Resumo: How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in staying alive in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

240) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle ; Zorrilla, Pilar ; Guidez, Amandine ; Issaly, Jean ; Girod, Romain ; Guillaumot, Laurent ; Robello, Carlos ; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Insecticides, Mutations, Pest control, Home range, Public health, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

241) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

242) Anopheles gambiae blood feeding initiates an anticipatory defense response to plasmodium berghei
Autor: Upton, Leanna M.; Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Innate immunity; Ecdysone; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Innate Immunity, v. 7, n. 1, p. 74-86, 2015
ISSN: 1662-811X
Resumo: Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, the function of most family members is largely unknown. We screened Anopheles gambiae LRIMs by RNAi for effects on mosquito infection by rodent malaria and found that LRIM9 is a Plasmodium berghei antagonist with phenotypes distinct from family members LRIM1 and APL1C, which are key components of the mosquito complement-like pathway. LRIM9 transcript and protein levels are significantly increased after blood feeding but are unaffected by Plasmodium or midgut microbiota. Interestingly, LRIM9 in the hemolymph is strongly upregulated by direct injection of the ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Our data suggest that LRIM9 may define a novel anti-Plasmodium immune defense mechanism triggered by blood feeding and that hormonal changes may alert the mosquito to bolster its defenses in anticipation of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

243) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

244) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

245) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

246) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

247) Differential susceptibility of two field Aedes aegypti populations to a low infectious dose of dengue virus
Autor: Pongsiri, Arissara; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Serum; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Vectors; Viremia; Blood meals; Infection; Dengue; Dose-response effects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background The infectious dose required to infect mosquito vectors when they take a blood meal from a viremic person is a critical parameter underlying the probability of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Because experimental vector competence studies typically examine the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected at intermediate or high DENV infectious doses in the blood meal, the minimum blood meal titer required to infect mosquitoes is poorly documented. Understanding the factors influencing the lower infectiousness threshold is epidemiologically significant because it determines the transmission potential of humans with a low DENV viremia, possibly including inapparent infections, and during the onset and resolution of the viremic period of acutely infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the susceptibility of two field-derived Aedes aegypti populations from Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand when they were orally exposed to low titers of six DENV-2 isolates derived from the serum of naturally infected humans living in the same region. The infectious dose, time-point post-blood feeding, viral isolate and mosquito population, were significant predictors of the proportion of mosquitoes that became infected. Importantly, the dose-response profile differed significantly between the two Ae. aegypti populations. Although both mosquito populations had a similar 50% oral infectious dose (OID50), the slope of the dose-response was shallower in one population, resulting in a markedly higher susceptibility at low blood meal titers. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that mosquitoes in nature vary in their infectious dose-response to DENV. Thus, different mosquito populations have a differential ability to acquire DENV infection at low viremia levels. Future studies on human-to-mosquito DENV transmission should not be limited to OID50 values, but rather they should be expanded to account for the shape of the dose-response profile across a range of virus titers.

248) Two cases of zika fever imported from french polynesia to Japan, December to January 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kutsuna S., Kato Y., Takasaki T., Moi M.L., Kotaki A., Uemura H., Matono T., Fujiya Y., Mawatari M., Takeshita N., Hayakawa K., Kanagawa S., Ohmagari N.
Assunto: import disease (epidemiology), virus infection (epidemiology), zika fever (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: We present two cases of imported Zika fever to Japan, in travellers returning from French Polynesia, where an outbreak due to Zika virus (ZIKV) is ongoing since week 41 of 2013. This report serves to raise awareness among healthcare professionals, that the differential diagnosis of febrile and subfebrile patients with rash should include ZIKV infection, especially in patients returning from areas affected by this virus.

249) Analysis of early dengue virus infection in mice as modulated by Aedes aegypti probing
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Salivary - Gland extracts; Host immune - Response; Gene - Expression; Dendritic cells; Mosquito bite; Nonvascular delivery; Housekeeping genes; RNA virus; Interferon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 4, p. 1881-1889, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-gamma, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection.

250) Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-terminal domain
Autor: Carter, James R.; Keith, James H.; Fraser, Tresa S.; Dawson, James L.; Kucharski, Cheryl A.; Horne, Kate M.; Higgs, Stephen; Fraser, Malcolm J., Jr.
Assunto: Dengue; Trans - Splicing; Group I intron; Ribozyme; Mosquito; Antiviral; Suppression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 111, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of Delta N Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells. Targeting the conserved DENV circularization sequence (CS) by U143 intron trans-splicing activity appends a 3' exon RNA encoding Delta N Bax to the capsid coding region of the genomic RNA, resulting in a chimeric protein that induces premature cell death upon infection. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate an enhancement of DENV suppression for all DENV serotypes tested over the identical group I intron coupled with the non-apoptotic inducing firefly luciferase as the 3' exon. These cumulative results confirm the increased effectiveness of this aDENV-U143-Delta N Bax group I intron as a sequence specific antiviral that should be useful for suppression of DENV in transgenic mosquitoes. Annexin V staining, caspase 3 assays, and DNA ladder observations confirm DCA-Delta N Bax fusion protein expression induces apoptotic cell death. This report confirms the relative effectiveness of an anti-DENV group I intron coupled to an apoptosis-inducing Delta N Bax 3' exon that trans-splices conserved sequences of the 5' CS region of all DENV serotypes and induces apoptotic cell death upon infection. Our results confirm coupling the targeted ribozyme capabilities of the group I intron with the generation of an apoptosis-inducing transcript increases the effectiveness of infection suppression, improving the prospects of this unique approach as a means of inducing transgenic refractoriness in mosquitoes for all serotypes of this important disease

251) Effects of Amino Acid Deletion on the Antiplasmodial Activity of Angiotensin II
Autor: Rodrigues Ferreira, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Adriana Farias; Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Pedron, Cibele Nicolaski; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Vani Xavier, Jr.
Assunto: Malaria; Angiotensin II; Sporozoites; Plasmodium gallinaceum; SPPS; Structure-activity relationship
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, v. 20, n. 4, p. 553-564, 2014
ISSN: 1573-3149
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease for which effective treatment and prevention strategies remain limited. Our group recently reported that angiotensin II (AII) presents antiplasmodial activity and inhibits the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes aegypti. However, details concerning role of each amino acid residue in the antiplasmodial activity of the peptide and information about the minimal structure responsible for this activity remain unknown. In this work, we investigated the effects of specific deletions (i.e., mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-deletions) of AII amino acids on the antiplasmodial activity of this molecule. The peptides were synthesized on solid phase method using the t-Boc strategy, purified using high performance liquid chromatography and characterized using mass spectrometry. The lytic activity of the peptides was assessed in vitro using mature sporozoites extracted from the salivary glands of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results demonstrate that all of the deletions reduced antiplasmodial activity compared to native AII and that active analogs tend to adopt beta-turn conformations; however, the deletion of bulky hydrophobic residues causes greater reductions of bioactivity than the deletion of hydrophilic residues. Corroborating previous studies, we observed that analog extremities are susceptible to changes and can be carefully modified without compromising the activity of this compound. This research contributes to our understanding of the role of each AII amino acid residue in activity against Plasmodium gallinaceum and identifies two short analogs with similar antiplasmodial activity to AII. These analogs may be candidates for additional antimalarial assays because they are inexpensive and easy to synthesize.

252) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Quantitative distribution; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Risk factors; Reproduction; Evolution; Sensitivity; Mitigation; Sensitivity analysis; Invasions; Risk taking; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease.

253) Effects of NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte phagocytic activity of larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Deepalakshmi, Ramadoss; Ammu, Manoharan; Rajalakshmi, Arumugam
Assunto: Azadirachtin; Neem; Mosquito control; Esterases; Phosphatases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, v. 17, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2014
ISSN: 1226-8615
Resumo: Many of the neem based botanical biocides are currently studied to a greater extent because of the possibility of their use in eco-friendly control of pests and vectors. However, no report was available to assess the impact of neem based formulation, NeemAzal on marker enzymes and hemocyte mediated cellular immune responses of important vector mosquito A. aegypti. The NeemAzal found to exert larvicidal and pupicidal activities against A. aegypti developmental stages. The pupae appear to be more susceptible to the treatment. Further, a significant increase in the level of total protein (31%), alpha-carboxylesterase (121%), beta-carboxylesterase (46%), acid phosphatase (62%) and alkaline phosphatase (37%) was observed in larvae upon exposure to NeemAzal. Moreover, treated pupae showed increased level of acetylcholinesterase (116%) and acid phosphatase (43%) while alpha-carboxylesterase (34%), beta-carboxylesterase (12%) levels were simultaneously decreased, and no significant changes in alkaline phosphatase were noticed. Qualitative analysis also revealed that the exposure considerably modulated the larval beta-carboxylesterase isoenzyme profile whereas little changes were noticed on phosphatases. On the other hand hemocyte viability of larvae (18%) and pupae (16%) as well as phagocytic ability of larval (48%) and pupal hemocytes (44%) against yeast target was significantly reduced upon NeemAzal exposure. We demonstrated for the first time that the NeemAzal differentially affected the marker enzymes and created immuno-suppressive state by reducing the phagocytic ability of hemocytes of larvae and pupae of A aegypti. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

254) What's new in clinical dermatology ?
Autor: Barbaud A.
Assunto: 2 Methyl 4 Isothiazolin 3 One; Telaprevir; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Article; Bullous Pemphigoid; Contact Allergy; Dermatology; Disease Association; Dress Syndrome; Genetic Predisposition; Human; Neurologic Disease; Psoriasis; Skin Disease; Suppurative Hidradenitis; Classification; Dermatology; Skin Diseases; Trends; Dermatology; Humans; Skin Diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, v. 141, n. S4, p. S597-S609,2014.
ISSN: 1519638
Resumo: Dermatoses have been better characterized as hypochromic vitiligo in subjects with dark skin or the acquired racquet nails associated with hyperparathyroidism. The innate immunity has a central role in the new classification of auto inflammatory diseases, neutrophilic dermatoses, neutrophilic urticaria or pseudo-neutrophilic urticaria. Comorbidities have been studied e.g. cardiovascular co morbidities for psoriasis, IBD associated with hidradenitis suppurativa or neurological disorders associated with pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid could be renamed as cutaneous pemphigoid, it can be induced by drugs especially gliptins. Genetic predispositions are analyzed in auto inflammatory diseases, psoriasis (HLA), drug eruptions (HLA or cytokines). Telaprevir often induces rashes, which can be severe but other treatments against hepatitis C as interferon can also induce debilitating rashes, some eligible for drug tolerance induction. European guidelines for the definition, classification, diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria have been published. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions may be associated with severe systemic symptoms such as organ involvement in AGEP or the occurrence of a shock in DRESS. Allover Europe, there is now an epidemic of contact allergies to methylisothiazolinone (MIT), contained in cosmetics, wet wipes but also in paints. MIT should be tested at2.000 ppm in water, included in the standard series for patch tests. Its role has to be evoked in any case localized on the face or hand, airborne or generalized eczema. Among infectious diseases, skin manifestations due to Parvovirus have been specified, a febrile rash can be related to dengue infection or to Zika virus. ©2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

255) Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes
Autor: Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli; Jalali, Sushil; Puttaraju, Hosagavi
Assunto: Wolbachia; Mosquitoes; Dengue; Chickungunya; Malaria; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 4, n. 1, p. 78-81, 2014.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

256) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential
Autor: Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklov, Joacim
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Climatic changes; Climate; Vectors; Mapping; Infection; Models; Diurnal variations; Historical account; Tropical environments; Temperature; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3 degree C when DTR was 0 degree C and at 20 degree C when DTR was 20 degree C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29 degree C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29 degree C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29 degree C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29 degree C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC.

257) Wolbachia infection modifies the profile, shuttling and structure of microRNAs in a mosquito cell line
Autor: Mayoral, Jaime G.; Etebari, Kayvan; Hussain, Mazhar; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Replication; Cytoplasm; Environmental impact; Immunity; Strains; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Development; Immune response; Nuclei; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Small RNA deep sequencing technology provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of the miRNA profile of a mosquito cell line from Aedes aegypti. We characterized the miRNA composition of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and compared it with the one of cells infected with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia strain wMelPop-CLA. We found an overall increase of small RNAs between 18 and 28 nucleotides in both cellular compartments in Wolbachia-infected cells and identified specific miRNAs induced and/or suppressed by the Wolbachia infection. We discuss the mechanisms that the cell may use to shuttle miRNAs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In addition, we identified piRNAs that changed their abundance in response to Wolbachia infection. The miRNAs and piRNAs identified in this study provide promising leads for investigations into the host-endosymbiont interactions and for better understanding of how Wolbachia manipulates the host miRNA machinery in order to facilitate its persistent replication in infected cells.

258) Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Henry R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 6, p. 1090, june 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

259) Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors
Autor: Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Human diseases; Replication; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Chemical compounds; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Sugar; Mycophenolic acid; Double-stranded RNA; Vectors; Blood meals; Salivary gland; Infection; Longevity; Fecundity; Digestive tract; Insect cells; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; H super(+)-transporting ATPase; Gene silencing; Dengue; Machinery; Arthropods; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 mu M) and MPA (25 mu M) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. Arboviruses utilize homologous host factors of the mammalian and insect cellular machinery to complete the infection cycle. Studies in both mammalian and insect cell lines have shown that virus infection can be suppressed through inhibition of host factors by chemical compounds that therefore could be developed into transmission blocking agents. However, similar studies have not been conducted in adult mosquitoes. Here we investigated the effect of four chemical compounds (bafilomycin, mycophenolic acid, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin), known to inhibit the host factors vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and glucosidases, on dengue virus replication in adult mosquitoes. We found that bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid suppressed dengue virus replication in adult mosquito guts when they were injected prior to dengue virus infection; however, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin did not. Ingestion of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid also inhibited virus replication. We showed that the predicted target genes of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid function as virus host factors in adult mosquitoes through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Inhibition of vATPase also decreases mosquito longevity and fecundity, thereby further compromising vector capacity. Our study demonstrated that chemical compounds or double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) can be used to suppress virus infection through inhibition of host factors in adult mosquitoes, thereby rendering such approaches interesting for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies.

260) Vector competence in west african Aedes aegypti is flavivirus species and genotype dependent
Autor: Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Viruses; Pathogens; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Vector competence is defined as the intrinsic permissiveness of an arthropod vector for infection, dissemination, and transmission of a pathogen. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses worldwide and is divided into two subspecies: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. Aedes aegypti aegypti is found globally in tropical and subtropical regions, while Ae. aegypti formosus is mainly restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Aedes aegypti formosus is considered to be a poor vector for both yellow fever and dengue, but some of these original studies with yellow fever were performed with highly passaged viral isolates collected at different locations than the mosquitoes. Viral genetics is an important determinant of vector competence and virus/mosquito genetic specificity exists in Ae. aegypti aegypti. We compared the vector competence of multiple collections of Ae. aegypti from throughout Senegal for both yellow fever and dengue viruses to demonstrate that vector competence in Ae. aegypti formosus is dependent on viral genotype. In contrast to earlier claims, populations of Ae. aegypti in West Africa can be competent vectors of flaviviruses.

261) Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Viral diseases; Proteins; Peptides; AMP; Pest control; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Public health; Complement component C3; Defense mechanisms; Immunity; Infection; Antimicrobial peptides; Macroglobulins; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 4, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

262) Zika virus, French polynesia, South pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thane Hancock W., Marfel M., Bel M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

263) Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain
Autor: Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Epithelial cells; Serotypes; Double-stranded RNA; Transgenes; Cell culture; Genotypes; Disease resistance; Infection; Homozygotes; Expression vectors; Integration; RNA; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. Expression of a DENV2 sequence-derived IR RNA in the mosquito midgut initiates an antiviral intracellular RNAi response that efficiently blocks DENV2 infection and profoundly impairs vector competence for that virus in Aedes aegypti. DENV2-specific IR RNA expression in the Carb109M strain has maintained the RNAi-based, refractory phenotype for 33 generations in laboratory culture. The two transgene integration sites were stable after multiple generations and following introgression into a genetically-diverse (GDLS) Ae. aegypti population. Introgression of the transgene into the GDLS genetic background changed GDLS from a DENV2 susceptible phenotype to a DENV2 refractory phenotype. The DENV2 refractory homozygous line, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ, exhibits (relative to GDLS) minimal fitness loss associated with the transgene. This line could be a potential candidate for proof-of-principle field studies.

264) Evidence of Experimental Vertical Transmission of Emerging Novel ECSA Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Agarwal, Ankita; Dash, Paban Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Parida, Man Mohan; Reiter, Paul
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Trans-Ovarial Transmission; Yellow-Fever Virus; Diptera-Culicidae; Albopictus Mosquitos; Encephalitis-Virus; Reunion Island; Oral Infection; Indian-Ocean; South-India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not.Methodology/Principal Findings: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1:35.5) and 20.2 (1:49.5) respectively.Conclusion/Significance: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

265) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the20th Century
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36-,2014.
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/" xlink:type="simple" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/</ext-link>) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. ©2014 Faye et al.

266) Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hancock, W. Thane, Marfel, Maria ; Bel, Martin
Assunto: Public health; Epidemiology; Infectious diseases; Health and medicine; Government and political science; Diseases and conditions
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, p. 1960, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo:

267) Expression of Mosquito MicroRNA Aae-miR-2940-5p Is Downregulated in Response to West Nile Virus Infection To Restrict Viral Replication
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Asgari, Sassan; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Mammalian-Cells; Flavivirus Rna; Kunjin Virus; Wolbachia Uses; Noncoding Rna;Identification; Aegypti; Translation; Repression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 15, p. 8457-8467, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome from the Flaviviridae family. WNV is spread by mosquitoes and able to infect humans, causing encephalitis and meningitis that can be fatal; it therefore presents a significant risk for human health. In insects, innate response to RNA virus infection mostly relies on RNA interference and JAK/SAT pathways; however, some evidence indicates that it can also involve microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level and play an important role in a number of processes, including immunity and antiviral response. In this study, we focus on the miRNA-mediated response to WNV in mosquito cells. We demonstrate that in response to WNV infection the expression of a mosquito-specific miRNA, aae-miR-2940, is selectively downregulated in Aedes albopictus cells. This miRNA is known to upregulate the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which we have also shown to be required for efficient WNV replication. Correspondingly, downregulation of aae-miR-2940 reduced the metalloprotease level and restricted WNV replication. Thus, we have identified a novel miRNA-dependent mechanism of antiviral response to WNV in mosquitoes.IMPORTANCEA detailed understanding of vector-pathogen interactions is essential to address the problems posed by vector-borne diseases. Host and viral miRNAs play an important role in regulating expression of viral and host genes involved in endogenous processes, including antiviral response. There has been no evidence to date for the role of mosquito miRNAs in response to flaviviruses. In this study, we show that downregulation of aae-miR-2940 in mosquito cells acts as a potential antiviral mechanism in the mosquito host to inhibit WNV replication by repressing the expression of the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which is required for efficient WNV replication. This is the first identification of an miRNA-dependent antiviral mechanism in mosquitoes, which inhibits replication of WNV. Our findings should facilitate identification of targets in the mosquito genome that can be utilized to suppress vector population and/or limit WNV replication.

268) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections ? An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific2012?2014
Autor: Roth A., Mercier A., Lepers C., Hoy D., Duituturaga S., Benyon E., Guillaumot L., Souarès Y.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya Alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue Virus; Disease Surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic Distribution; Infection Risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public Health; Serotype; Virus Infection; Virus Transmission; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41,2014.
ISSN: 1025496X
Resumo: Since January2012, the Pacific Region has experienced28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. ©2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

269) Factors associated with dengue fever IgG sero-prevalence in South Kordofan State, Sudan, in 2012: Reporting prevalence ratios
Autor: Soghaier, Mohammed A.; Mahmood, Syed F.; Pasha, Omrana; Azam, Syed I.; Karsani, Mubarak M.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Elmagboul, Babiker A.; Okoued, Somia I.; Shareeff, Sayed M.; Khogali, Hayat S.; Eltigai, Emad
Assunto: Dengue associated factors; Dengue Sudan; South Kordofan; Prevalence ratio
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 7, n. 1, p. 54-61, 2014
ISSN: 1876-0341
Resumo: Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. In this study, we identified the most important factors associated with the prevalence of IgG antibodies in a border state between Sudan and the new republic of South Sudan.Objectives: To quantify the association of specific factors with the prevalence of DF IgG antibodies in Lagawa among subjects aged 16-60 years in 2012.Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Lagawa in 2012.Results: Indoor mosquito breeding was the most significant predictor affecting DF IgG serology. Household water storage was also strongly associated with the presence of IgG antibodies. Residence in urban areas, younger age and a history of travel to the Red Sea State were significant predictors of DF IgG seroprevalence in South Kordofan state.Conclusion: Indoor (household) behaviors associated with DF infection should be modified to mitigate the infection risk in the study area. Awareness should be raised regarding DF in Lagawa to ensure community participation in all control measures, and the surveillance system at the border between Sudan and the republic of South Sudan should be strengthened. (C) 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

270) Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; West nile virus; Langerhans cell migration; Borne Encephalitis virus; Aedes aegypti; Heparan sulfate; Immune response; Arbovirus transmission; Infection; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 1, p. 164-175, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

271) Mosquito species diversity and malaria transmission in Ayos, an area of degraded forest targeted for universal long-lasting insecticidal net distribution in southern Cameroon
Autor: Akono, P. N.; Tonga, C.; Kekeunou, S.; Lehman, L. G.
Assunto: Anopheles; Transmission; Malaria; LLINs; Cameroon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology , v. 22, n. 3, p. 602-610, 2014
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: This study was conducted from January to December 2010 to evaluate the anopheline diversity and transmission of malaria in Ayos, a degraded forest area in the south of Cameroon, targeted for the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and endophilic female adult mosquitoes were captured on volunteers. Molecular techniques were used alongside morphological techniques for mosquito identification; ELISA was used for the detection of plasmodium circumsporozoite antigens. Ten mosquito species, including four Anopheles species (Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. funestus s.s., An. moucheti s.s. and An. hancocki), were identified. The mean biting rate of these Anopheles species was 12.7 bites per person per night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.s. (6.9 b/p/n) appeared to be the most aggressive species. Malaria transmission is mainly ensured by An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus ss. and An. moucheti s.s. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite transmitted. The mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) for these vectors was 0.7 infecting b/p/n. An. gambiae s.s. (65.6 %) is the major vector, with an annual EIR of 167.9 infectious b/p/n/year. The utilization of LLINs alongside other methods would highly contribute to effective malaria control in Ayos.

272) Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm applied to dengue control
Autor: Fiorentino, Helenice O.; Cantane, Daniela R.; Santos, Fernando L. P.; Bannwart, Bettina F.
Assunto: Dengue; Multiobjective optimization; Genetic algorithm
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Mathematical Biosciences, v. 258, n. , p. 77-84, 2014
ISSN: 0025-5564
Resumo: Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

273) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Yellow fever virus; 17D vaccine; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. , p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes.

274) Brucella Induced Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elzein, Fatehi Elnour; Mursi, Mohammed
Assunto: Symptoms; Hygiene; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Polyneuritis; Infection; Brucellosis; Campylobacter jejuni; Brucella
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Infectious diseases ;Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 6, p. 1179-1180, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Neurobrucellosis is relatively uncommon. In a prospective study of 530 patients with brucellosis, neurologic involvement was reported in only 1.7% of the patients. Unlike Campylobacter jejuni, the commonest infection implicated in Guillain-Barre syndrome, there are very few reports in the literature of Guillain-Barre syndrome in association with brucellosis. Out of 1,028 cases of brucellosis, polyneuritis was reported in only 2 out of 58 patients with neurological involvement.

275) Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy following malaria
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berkowitz, Aaron L.; Thakur, Kiran T.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Malaria; Nervous system; Neurological complications; Demyelination; Infection; Inflammation
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, v. 21, n. 4, p. 704-706, 2014
ISSN: 0967-5868
Resumo: Among the neurologic complications of malaria, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rarely reported phenomenon. We describe a patient with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy following malaria in a 26-year-old traveler to an endemic area and review the clinical features of all 23 previously reported patients. Malarial infection should be considered as a potential preceding trigger in patients residing in or travelers returning from malaria-endemic areas presenting with the clinical features of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in the setting of a recent or ongoing febrile illness.

276) Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression to restrict RNA viral infection in Drosophila
Autor: Panda, Debasis; Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Dunagin, Margaret; Tudor, Matthew; Hopkins, Kaycie C.; Xu, Jie; Gold, Beth; Raj, Arjun; Capelson, Maya; Cherry, Sara
Assunto: Innate immunity; Nuclear pore; Nucleoporin; Pol II regulation; P-TEFb
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 111, n. 37, p. E3890-E3899, 2014
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: In response to infection, the innate immune system rapidly activates an elaborate and tightly orchestrated gene expression program to induce critical antimicrobial genes. While many key players in this program have been identified in disparate biological systems, it is clear that there are additional uncharacterized mechanisms at play. Our previous studies revealed that a rapidly-induced antiviral gene expression program is active against disparate human arthropod-borne viruses in Drosophila. Moreover, one-half of this program is regulated at the level of transcriptional pausing. Here we found that Nup98, a virus-induced gene, was antiviral against a panel of viruses both in cells and adult flies since its depletion significantly enhanced viral infection. Mechanistically, we found that Nup98 promotes antiviral gene expression in Drosophila at the level of transcription. Expression profiling revealed that the virus-induced activation of 36 genes was abrogated upon loss of Nup98; and we found that a subset of these Nup98-dependent genes were antiviral. These Nup98-dependent virus-induced genes are Cdk9-dependent and translation-independent suggesting that these are rapidly induced primary response genes. Biochemically, we demonstrate that Nup98 is directly bound to the promoters of virus-induced genes, and that it promotes occupancy of the initiating form of RNA polymerase II at these promoters, which are rapidly induced on viral infection to restrict human arboviruses in insects.

277) Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California
Autor: Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Population structure; Simulation; Software; Genotype; Program
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is reemerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases.

278) Dengue transmission model by means of viremic adult immuno-competent mouse
Autor: Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Konishi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Makino, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Eshita, Yuki
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Mass-infection; Viremia; Immuno-competent mouse
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue virus infection manifests in three distinct forms in humans: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Infection with the virus is a fatal disease; no vaccine is available and prevention depends on interruption of the chain of transmission. The study of dengue viral transmission by mosquitoes is hindered due to the lack of an affordable animal model. In general, immuno-competent mice are used as a simple and inexpensive animal model, but mice are not susceptible to dengue virus infection and therefore viremia will not occur following the inoculation of the virus in such mice. Here, we report a method for creating artificial viremia in immuno-competent mice, and further demonstrate the use of viremic mice to simultaneously infect a large number of Aedes aegypti. Methods: We infected K562 cells with DENV-2 in the presence of an antibody against DENV-4. We then incubated the cells for 2 d before injecting the infected cells into C3H mice. After 5 h incubation, we allowed 100-150 female Aedes aegypti to feed on blood from the mice directly. We collected blood samples from the mice and from randomly selected Ae. aegypti at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-blood meal and screened the samples for DENV-2 genome as well as for virus concentration. Results: Our procedure provided high virus concentrations in the mice for at least 7 h after viral inoculation. We found that 13 out of 14 randomly picked mosquitoes were infected with DENV-2. High concentrations of virus were detected in the mosquitoes until at least 12 h post-infection. Conclusions: Using the viremic immuno-competent mouse, we show that mass infection of Ae. aegypti is achievable. Compared to other infection techniques using direct inoculation, membrane-feeding, or immuno-deficient/humanized mice, we are confident that this method will provide a simpler and more efficient infection technique.

279) Primera cita de mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), para Andalucia y primera corroboracion de los datos de la aplicacion Tigatrapp/First record of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Andalusia and first corroboration of the data from Tigatrapp application
Autor: Delacour-Estrella, Sarah ; Collantes, Francisco ; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio ; Alarcon-Elbal, Pedro Maria ; Delgado, Juan Antonio ; Eritja, Roger ; Bartumeus, Frederic ; Oltra, Aitana ; Palmer, John R. B. ; Lucientes, Javier
Assunto: Aedes albopictus , Andalusia , Citizen science , AtrapaelTigre.com project
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Anales de Biologia, v. 36, p. 93-96, 2014
ISSN: 1138-3399
Resumo: We analysed the data provided by citizens about the likely presence of Asian tiger mosquito by means of the Tigatrapp smartphone app, developed by the project AtrapaelTigre.com. We confirmed the presence of this invasive mosquito species in the municipality of Alhaurin de la Torre (Malaga). This work represents the first record of Aedes albopictus in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. In addition to its nuisances, this invasive species is an important epidemic vector of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses. Through its dispersal and establishment, it appears the real risk of autochtonous transmission of these diseases from imported cases of endemic areas.

280) Identification of the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK: A novel sample type for diagnostic purposes and support for a potential non-vectorborne route of transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hearn P.T., Atkinson B., Hewson R., Brooks T.
Assunto: diagnosis, fever, hygiene, society, tropical medicine, United Kingdom
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 62-63, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and normally causes a self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, headache, conjunctival suffusion, myalgia and joint pains. It was discovered in 1947 at Zika Forest, near to Entebbe, Uganda. More recently it has been found outside Africa in outbreaks such as those of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. We report the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK, highlight novel samples for testing and a theoretical mode of non-vector-borne transmission. A couple travelled to the Cook Islands during what was thought to be a Dengue outbreak in February 2014. Within 6 days of exposure, both 'Patient 1' and his wife, 'Patient 2', had developed fatigue, followed 48 hours later by fever, headache, aching joints and a widespread maculopapular rash. Both reported symptoms resolving by day 5 of rash onset. In 2011, Foy et al described likely sexual transmission of ZIKV. A scientist from Colorado, travelling back from Senegal whilst incubating the virus, reportedly passed it to his wife, in whom clinical and serological evidence supported the diagnosis. On day 1 of rash onset, Patient 1 had serum sent to the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton Down and a panel of serological tests based on stated travel was performed. Dengue testing revealed positive IgM, but negative IgG and PCR. This pattern has been reported previously due to cross-reactivity between the flaviviruses. The sample was then tested by PCR for ZIKV and found to be positive. Further samples were taken on day 28 after rash onset. Blood and urine from both patients were tested in parallel, along with a semen sample from Patient 1. The semen was the only sample found to be positive for ZIKV by PCR. The reasons for persistence in the semen are not yet clear, but this case is significant not only as the first case of Zika Fever imported to the UK, but also as support for the possibility of sexual transmission, though not in this case, and highlights an additional sample type for the confirmation of infection in the future.

281) Molecular caracterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declere, Stephane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Central Africa; Aedes africanus; Zika virus; Genomic Characterization; Aedes opok
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus and Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, 2014.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

282) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti, December 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wæhre T., Maagard A., Tappe D., Cadar D., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412-1414, 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

283) Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome: case report, French Polynesia, December 2013
Autor: Oehler, E.; Watrin, L.; Larre, P.; Leparc-Goffart, I.; Lastere, S.; Valour, F.; Baudouin, L.; Mallet, H. P.; Musso, D.; Ghawche, F.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes; Micronesia; Albopictus; Singapore; Fever; PCR
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 9, p. 4-6, 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arbo-viral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia.We report on a French Polynesian patient presenting a Zika virus (ZIKA) infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome GBS).

284) 2'-branched nucleosides for treatment of viral infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Novartis AG; Yokokawa, Fumiaki
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: US2014/65101 A1, 2014
ISSN:
Resumo: The present invention provides a compound of formula I: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is defined herein, which is a 2?-branched nucleoside useful for the treatment or prevention of viral infections, particularly dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Murray Valley encephalitis, St Louis encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Zika virus and Hepatitis C virus.

285) RE: Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 11, nov. 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

286) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio CM; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo MA; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Biological surveys; Recombination; Epidemics; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Public health; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Molecular evolution; Vectors; Forests; Glycosylation; Infection; Fever; Genetic relationship; Exanthema; Epidemiology; Envelope protein; Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes; Zika virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Proteins ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in nature and that, after it emerged from Uganda in the early of the 20th century, it moved to West Africa and Asia in the first half of the century, without any clear preference for host and vector species.

287) Trouble in paradise
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brust K.B., Prince W.S., Fader R.C.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika fever (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: IDCases, v. 1, n. 4, p. 95-96, 2014
ISSN: 2214-2509
Resumo:

288) Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K.
Assunto: Parasites , Binding sites , Crystal structure , Proteins , Ligands , Hydrogen bonds , Malaria , Erythrocytes , Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7527, p. 427-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents1. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions2. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN)3,4. Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro4-9, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

289) Genetic control of Aedes aegypti: data-driven modelling to assess the effect of releasing different life stages and the potential for long-term suppression
Autor: Winskill, Peter; Harris, Angela F.; Morgan, Sian A.; Stevenson, Jessica; Raduan, Norzahira; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew R.; Donnelly, Christl A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; RIDL; Transgenic; Sterile insect technique; SIT; Pupae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Control of the world's most important vector-borne viral disease, dengue, is a high priority. A lack of vaccines or effective vector control methods means that novel solutions to disease control are essential. The release of male insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL) is one such approach that could be employed to control Aedes aegypti. To maximise the potential of RIDL control, optimum release strategies for transgenic mosquitoes are needed. The use of field data to parameterise models allowing comparisons of the release of different life-stages is presented together with recommendations for effective long-term suppression of a wild Ae. aegypti population. Methods: A compartmental, deterministic model was designed and fitted to data from large-scale pupal mark release recapture (MRR) field experiments to determine the dynamics of a pupal release. Pulsed releases of adults, pupae or a combination of the two were simulated. The relative ability of different release methods to suppress a simulated wild population was examined and methods to maintain long-term suppression of a population explored. Results: The pupal model produced a good fit to field data from pupal MRR experiments. Simulations using this model indicated that adult-only releases outperform pupal-only or combined releases when releases are frequent. When releases were less frequent pupal-only or combined releases were a more effective method of distributing the insects. The rate at which pupae eclose and emerge from release devices had a large influence on the relative efficacy of pupal releases. The combined release approach allows long-term suppression to be maintained with smaller low-frequency releases than adult- or pupal-only release methods. Conclusions: Maximising the public health benefits of RIDL-based vector control will involve optimising all stages of the control programme. The release strategy can profoundly affect the outcome of a control effort. Adult-only, pupal-only and combined releases all have relative advantages in certain situations. This study successfully integrates field data with mathematical models to provide insight into which release strategies are best suited to different scenarios. Recommendations on effective approaches to achieve long-term suppression of a wild population using combined releases of adults and pupae are provided.

290) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

291) A single-amino-acid polymorphism in chikungunya virus E2 glycoprotein influences glycosaminoglycan utilization
Autor: Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Dermody, Terence S.
Assunto: Surface heparin - Sulfate; Herpes simplex -Virus; Ross river virus; Sindbis - Virus; Encephalitis -Virus; Reunion Island; Aedes aegypti; Virulence attenuation; Japanese encephalitis; Attachment receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 5, p. 2385-2397, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Pre-incubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.IMPORTANCEChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection.

292) First case of Zika virus infection in a returning Canadian Traveler
Autor: Fonseca, Kevin ; Meatherall, Bonnie ; Zarra, Danielle ; Drebot, Michael ; MacDonald, Judy ; Pabbaraju, Kanti ; Wong, Sallene ; Webster,Patricia ; Lindsay, Robbin ; Tellier, Raymond
Assunto: Antibodies, Urine, Nucleotide sequence, Emergencies, Public health, Malaria, Cell culture, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

293) What's new in clinical dermatology ?
Titulo Alternativo: Quoi de neuf en dermatologie clinique ?
Autor: Barbaud A.
Assunto: dermatology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, v. 141, n. S4, p. S597-S609, dec. 2014
ISSN: 0151-9638
Resumo: Dermatoses have been better characterized as hypochromic vitiligo in subjects with dark skin or the acquired racquet nails associated with hyperparathyroidism. The innate immunity has a central role in the new classification of auto inflammatory diseases, neutrophilic dermatoses, neutrophilic urticaria or pseudo-neutrophilic urticaria. Comorbidities have been studied e.g. cardiovascular co morbidities for psoriasis, IBD associated with hidradenitis suppurativa or neurological disorders associated with pemphigoid. Bullous pemphigoid could be renamed as cutaneous pemphigoid, it can be induced by drugs especially gliptins. Genetic predispositions are analyzed in auto inflammatory diseases, psoriasis (HLA), drug eruptions (HLA or cytokines). Telaprevir often induces rashes, which can be severe but other treatments against hepatitis C as interferon can also induce debilitating rashes, some eligible for drug tolerance induction. European guidelines for the definition, classification, diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria have been published. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions may be associated with severe systemic symptoms such as organ involvement in AGEP or the occurrence of a shock in DRESS. Allover Europe, there is now an epidemic of contact allergies to methylisothiazolinone (MIT), contained in cosmetics, wet wipes but also in paints. MIT should be tested at 2.000 ppm in water, included in the standard series for patch tests. Its role has to be evoked in any case localized on the face or hand, airborne or generalized eczema. Among infectious diseases, skin manifestations due to Parvovirus have been specified, a febrile rash can be related to dengue infection or to Zika virus.

294) Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study
Autor: Quintero, Juliana; Brochero, Helena; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Basso, Cesar; Romero, Sonnia; Caprara, Andrea; De Lima Cunha, Jane Cris; Beltran - Ayala, Efrain; Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannnes; Petzold, Max
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vector breeding sites; Pupal indices; Urban settings; Ecobiosocial framework
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 14, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background: Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. Methods: In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. Results: The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and -except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and "dengue mosquitoes" was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and -particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. Conclusions: A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container types; 2) the need to raise public awareness about useful and effective interventions in productive container types specific to their area; and 3) the motivation for control services that-according to this and similar studies in Asia- dedicated, targeted vector management can make a difference in terms of reducing vector abundance.

295) Distribution of yellow fever vectors in Northwestern and Western Provinces, Zambia
Autor: Masaninga, Freddie; Muleba, Mbanga; Masendu, Hieronymo;Songolo, Peter; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Siziya, Seter; Ayorinde, Olusegun
Assunto: Viral diseases; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Canoes; Disease transmission; Public health; Light traps; Risk factors; Yellow fever; Polymerase chain reaction; Forests; Infection; Culex; Aedes; Anopheles; Mansonia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 7, supl.1, p. 88-92, 2014.
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To determine the distribution of yellow fever (YF) vectors species in Northwestern and Western of Zambia, which sampled mosquitoes inside and outside houses in rural, urban, peri-urban and forest areas. Methods: Back-pack aspirators spray catches and CDC light traps collected adult mosquitoes including 405 Aedes, 518 Anopheles, 471 Culex and 71 Mansonia. Morphological vector identification and PCR viral determination were done at a WHO Regional Reference Centre (Institute Pasteur Dakar), Senegal. Results: The two main YF vectors were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus. The first was collected in peri-urban areas and the later was in forest areas, both sparsely distributed in Northwestern Province, where the 0.43 Breteau and 1.92 container indexes, respectively implied low risk to YF. Aedes (Aedimorphus) mutilus; Aedes (Aedimorphus) minutus and Aedes (Finlaya) wellmani were also found in Northwestern, not in Western Province. No Aedes were collected from rural peri-domestic areas. Significantly more Aedes species (90.7%, n=398) than Anopheles (9.1%, n=40) were collected in forest areas (P<0.001) or Culex species (0.2%, n=2) (P<0.001). Ae. aegypti was found only in a discarded container but not in flower pots, old tyres, plant axils, discarded shallow wells, disused container bottles and canoes inspected. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti and Aedes africanus YF vectors were found in the study sites in the Northwestern Province of Zambia, where densities were low and distribution was sparse. The low Breteau index suggests low risk of YF in the Northwestern Province. The presence of Aedes in Northwestern Province and its absence in the Western Province could be due to differing ecological factors in the sampled areas. Universal coverage of vector control interventions could help to reduce YF vector population and the risk to arthropod-borne virus infections.

296) MicroRNA levels are modulated in Aedes aegypti after exposure to Dengue-2
Autor: Campbell, C. L.; Harrison, T.; Hess, A. M.; Ebel, G. D.
Assunto: Gene expression; Molecular biology; Viral diseases; Replication; Disease control; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Transduction; Public health; Data processing; Chromatin; Nucleotide sequence; miRNA; Algorithms; Mitochondria; Transcription; Infection; Dengue; Gene regulation; Signal transduction; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 132-139, 2014.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: To define microRNA (miRNA) involvement during arbovirus infection of Aedes aegypti, we mined deep sequencing libraries of Dengue type 2 (DENV2)-exposed mosquitoes. Three biological replicates for each timepoint [2, 4 and 9 days post-exposure (dpe)] and treatment group allowed us to remove the outliers associated with sample-to-sample variability. Using edgeR (R Bioconductor), designed for use with replicate deep sequencing data, we determined the log fold-change (logFC) of miRNA levels [18-23 nucleotides (nt)]. The number of significantly modulated miRNAs increased from less than or equal to 5 at 2 and 4 dpe to 23 unique miRNAs by 9 dpe. Putative miRNA targets were predicted by aligning miRNAs to the transcriptome, and the list was reduced to include the intersection of hits found using the Miranda, PITA, and TargetScan algorithms. To further reduce false-positives, putative targets were validated by cross-checking them with mRNAs reported in recent DENV2 host response transcriptome reports; 4076 targets were identified. Of these, 464 gene targets have predicted miRNA-binding sites in 3' untranslated regions. Context-specific target functional groups include proteins involved in transport, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, chromatin modification and signal transduction processes known to be required for viral replication and dissemination. The miRNA response is placed in context with other vector host response studies by comparing the predicted targets with those of transcriptome studies. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that profound and persistent changes to gene expression occur in DENV2-exposed mosquitoes.

297) Design and testing of a novel, protective human-baited tent trap for the collection of anthropophilic disease vectors
Autor: Krajacich, Benjamin J.; Slade, Jeremiah R.; Mulligan, Robert T.; Labrecque, Brendan; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Gray, Meg; Kuklinski, Wojtek S.; Burton, Timothy A.; Seaman, Jonathan A.; Sylla, Massamba; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Vector; Trap; Tent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 253-263, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Currently, there exists a deficit of safe, active trapping methods for the collection of host-seeking Anopheles and other disease-causing arthropod vectors. The gold-standard approach for mosquito collection is that of human landing catch (HLC), in which an individual exposes bare skin to possibly infected vectors. Here, we present the development of a new method for mosquito collection, the Infoscitex tent, which uses modern tent materials coupled with a novel trap design. This provides an efficacious, a non-labor-intensive, and a safe method for vector collection. In these initial studies, we found it collected an average of 27.7 Anopheles gambiae s.l. per trap per night in rural villages in southeastern Senegal, and 43.8 Culex group V per trap per night in the semiurban town of Kedougou, Senegal. In direct comparisons with HLC, the tent was not statistically different for collection of Culex quinquefasciatus in crepuscular sampling, but was significantly less efficacious at trapping the highly motile dusk-biter Aedes aegypti. These studies suggest that the Infoscitex tent is a viable and safe alternative to HLC for Anopheles and Culex sampling in areas of high vector-borne disease infection risk.

298) MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2 autoregulates its replication in mosquito cells
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: RNA; Immunoprecipitation; Pathogens; Serotypes; Vero cells; miRNA; RNA viruses; Dengue; Cloning; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 7, p. 2746-2751, 2014.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in most cellular processes. In the seemingly endless arms race between hosts and pathogens, viruses also encode miRNAs that facilitate successful infection. In search of functional miRNAs or viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) encoded by Dengue virus (DENV), deep sequencing data of virus-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. From six vsRNAs, with candidate stem-loop structures in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the viral genomic RNA, inhibition of DENV-vsRNA-5 led to significant increases in viral replication. Silencing of RNA interference (RNAi)/miRNA pathways' associated proteins showed that Argonaute 2 is mainly involved in DENV-vsRNA-5 biogenesis. Cloning of the precursor stem loop, immunoprecipitations, ectopic expression and detection in RNAi-deficient C6/36, and the mammalian Vero cell lines further confirmed DENV-vsRNA-5 production. Furthermore, significant impact of synthetic mimic and inhibitor of DENV-vsRNA-5 on DENV RNA levels revealed DENV-vsRNA-5's role in virus autoregulation by targeting the virus nonstructural protein 1 gene. Notably, DENV-vsRNA-5 homologous mimics from DENV serotypes 1 and 4, but not 3, inhibited DENV-2 replication. The results revealed that DENV is able to encode functional vsRNAs, and one of those, which resembles miRNAs, specifically targets a viral gene, opening an avenue for possible utilization of the small RNA to limit DENV replication.

299) Detection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with dengue virus as a complementary method for increasing the sensitivity of surveillance: identification of serotypes 1, 2, and 4 by RT-PCR in Quintana Roo, Mexico
Autor: Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.; Gaitan-Burns, Alejandro; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E.; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A.; Garza, Carlos E. Medina de la; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Entomologists; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Polymerase chain reaction; Methodology; Public health; Serotypes; Infection; Sensitivity; Dengue; Households; Residential areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 39, n. 2, p. 307-316, 2014.
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Sensitivity of monitoring Aedes aegypti (L.) populations was determined to identify the distribution of dengue virus (DENV) during epidemics in Quintana Roo. From September to November 2012, we used a motorized aspirator to collect 2,144 female Ae. aegypti from 569 homes. These were grouped into 220 to use semi-nested RT-PCR for DENV, and positive groups were analyzed individually. Five groups (2.27%) were positive for DENV. Individual analysis yielded eight groups that tested positive, six with DENV-2, one DENV-1, and one DENV-4. The latter was not reported by the surveillance system that year. The mean number of female mosquitoes per household was 3.77 plus or minus 5.71, and the rate of viral infection of Ae. aegypti was 0.4%. Most infected mosquitoes (49%) were concentrated in 10% of the houses. Monitoring Ae. aegypti infected with DENV has the potential to complement the current system of clinical and entomological surveillance.

300) Dengue virus infections among haitian and expatriate non-governmental organization workers - leogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012
Autor: Salyer, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Esther M.; Salomon, Corvil; Bron, Christophe; Juin, Stanley; Hemme, Ryan R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Jentes, Emily S.; Magloire, Roc; Tomashek, Kay M.; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Etienne, Lesly; Beltran, Manuela; Sharp, Tyler M.; Moffett, Daphne; Tappero, Jordan; Margolis, Harold S.; Katz, Mark A.
Assunto: Antibodies; Human diseases; Organizations; Endemism; Viral diseases; Pupae; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Workers; Bites; Non-governmental organizations; Dengue; Risk factors; Repellents; Immunoglobulin G; Infection; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Leogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Leogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and caused an estimated 390 million infections and 96 million cases in the tropics and subtropics in 2010. Over the last decade, the number of cases of dengue and the severity of dengue virus infections have increased in the Americas, including the Caribbean, yet little is still known about dengue in Haiti. Following an outbreak of dengue in mostly expatriate NGO workers, the investigators of this study took blood samples from expatriate and Haitian NGO workers living in two cities in Haiti and tested them for evidence of current, recent, and past dengue virus infection. They also investigated the amount and kinds of mosquitoes at homes and work sites. The study found recent infections among some Haitians and expatriates and widespread past infections among all Haitians and most expatriates. It also found that many people were not doing basic things to avoid mosquito bites, like applying mosquito repellent multiple times a day and wearing long sleeves or pants. These findings highlight the likely endemicity of dengue virus in Haiti, and the need to improve knowledge and awareness of dengue prevention among expatriates visiting Haiti and local Haitians.

301) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20(th) Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, molecular evolution, nucleotide sequence, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. © 2014 Faye et al.

302) First case of zika virus infection in a returning canadian traveler.
Autor: Fonseca Kevin,Meatherall Bonnie,Zarra Danielle,Drebot Michael,MacDonald Judy,Pabbaraju Kanti,Wong Sallene,Webster Patricia,Lindsay Robbin,Tellier Raymond
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

303) Progress in infectious disease testing-NAT and beyond
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L., Dodd R.Y.
Assunto: blood transfusion, hematology, infection, organization, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ;
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 107, supl. 1, p. 5, june 2014
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Aims: To update membership on state-of-the-art testing technologies for infectious disease blood donation screening including new methods such as expanding NAT platforms, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays. Changes to testing algorithms with the availability of inactivation by pathogen reduction will also be highlighted. Background: Testing donated blood for markers of infectious disease plays a major role in establishing and maintaining blood safety. Minimal expectations worldwide are that blood is tested for syphilis, HIV, HCV and HBV. The norm for viral testing has been serology, but increasingly, nucleic acid testing is being implemented where resources allow, even for emerging infectious disease (EID) agents such as the chikungunya virus outbreak that started in Dec 2013 in the Caribbean, marking the first introduction of this virus in the Americas. The appropriate mix of tests and algorithms will depend on local epidemiology, infrastructure and economic considerations. Although NAT will detect acute infections, representing the greatest infectious threat, not all pathogens have adequate concentrations of nucleic acid for detection in the early acute or later chronic phases of infection (if chronicity is a feature of infection). Thus, for many agents, either serology only or a combination of serology and NAT exist. In developing test strategies, it is important to understand the actual risk of transfusion transmission and the impact of the test systems on such risk, especially where resources are limited. Methods: NAT has been implemented in over 30 nations worldwide as documented by an International Forum organized by the ISBT Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Disease Working Party that captured implementation from 1999 to 2009 for HCV, HIV and HBV (Roth et al., Vox Sang 2012;102:82-90). Testing has progressed from manual technologies using single markers to highly multiplexed automated assays. Routine NAT has been added, either as a required marker or under investigational studies for additional agents including, parvovirus B19, HAV, HEV, arboviruses including WNV, dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, the red-cell parasite, Babesia, and likely others. In addition to NAT, new technologies including pathogen reduction, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays will have an important impact on testing. Recently, the AABB EID working group has updated a listing of pathogen reduction technologies available including over 40 clinical trials in support of their safety and efficacy (http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/eidpostpub.aspx). The impact is either to prevent the need to introduce new tests, assuming availability of the technology to inactivate the component in which the agent is transmitted, and that the technology has sufficient robustness to produce an effective 'kill'. As an additional benefit, changes to existing testing algorithms may be feasible such that redundant tests may be eliminated. With respect to nucleic acid and protein microarrays, technological advances will allow the simultaneous detection and differentiation of hundreds of pathogens, but many hurdles prior to routine adoption exist. Conclusions: Blood systems worldwide must be ready to adapt to changes in their infectious disease epidemiology, emergence of new agents, and changes in their economic conditions and public expectations to accommodate the changing landscape of infectious disease testing.

304) Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Pest control; Disease transmission; Public health; Immune system; Vector-borne diseases; Disease control; Survival; Infection; Dengue; Midgut; Immune response; Larvae; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chromobacterium; Plasmodium falciparum; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

305) Aedes mosquito salivary immune peptides: boost or block dengue viral infections
Autor: Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Dengue, Aedes, Mosquito immune, Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 2, n. 2, p. 163-168, 2014
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: Dengue virus, one of the most important arthropod borne viruses, infected to human can severely cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are expected about 50 million dengue infections and 500 000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue hemorrhagic fever, mainly in Southeast Asia, Pacific, and in Americas reported each year. The rapid expansion of global dengue is one of a major public health challenge, together with not yet successful solutions of dengue epidemic control strategies. Thus, these dynamic dengue viral infections exhibited high demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure impacts on human. This review aimed to highlight the current understanding of dengue mosquito immune responses and role of mosquito salivary glands on dengue infection. These information may provide a valuable knowledge of disease pathogenesis, especially in mosquito vector and dengue virus interaction, which may help to control awl prevent dengue distribution.

306) Effects of ingested vertebrate-derived factors on insect immune responses
Autor: Pakpour, Nazzy; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 3, p. 1-5, 2014
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: During the process of blood feeding insect vectors are exposed to an array of vertebrate-derived blood factors ranging from byproducts of blood meal digestion to naturally occurring products in the blood including growth hormones, cytokines and factors derived from blood-borne pathogens themselves. In this review, we examine the ability of these ingested vertebrate blood factors to alter the innate pathogen defenses of insect vectors. The ability of these factors to modify the immune responses of insect vectors offers new intriguing targets for blocking or reducing transmission of human disease-causing pathogens.

307) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

308) Crossing borders: one world, global Health
Autor: Brown, Clive M. ; Cetron, Martin S.
Assunto: Human diseases, Infectious diseases, Public health, Dengue, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 58, n. 7, p. 1, 2014
ISSN: 1058-4838
Resumo: Cetron and Amoroso comment on the case presented by Chen et al regarding global health. They say that the vulnerability of island countries and territories to new pathogens has been recently highlighted by the translocation of chikungunya virus in the northern Pacific (FSM) and Caribbean and the introduction of Zika virus in French Polynesia. Regional coordination of technical assistance is an important approach to addressing the needs of island jurisdictions. In the featured case, interagency coordination among regional partners in support of the Ministry of Health enabled a broad and complementary array of resources to be deployed during a recent dengue outbreak without duplication of effort or deployment of unnecessary resources.

309) Aedes aegypti salivary protein "aegyptin" co-inoculation modulates dengue virus infection in the vertebrate host
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Grasperge, B. J.; Calvo, E.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: Aegyptin; Allergen; Dengue; Mosquito; Mouse; Saliva; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 468-470, p. 133-139, 2014
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted in the saliva of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti during blood meal acquisition. This saliva is composed of numerous proteins with the capacity to disrupt hemostasis or modulate the vertebrate immune response. One such protein, termed "aegyptin," is an allergen and inhibitor of clot formation, and has been found in decreased abundance in the saliva of DENV-infected mosquitoes. To examine the influence of aegyptin on DENV infection of the vertebrate, we inoculated IRF-3/7(-/- -/-) mice with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 with and without co-inoculation of aegyptin. Mice that received aegyptin exhibited decreased DENV titers in inoculation sites and in circulation, as well as increased concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-5, and IL-6, at 48 h post-inoculation when compared to mice that received inoculation of DENV alone. These and other data suggest that aegyptin impacts DENV perpetuation via elevated induction of the immune response. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

310) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

311) Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection
Autor: Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid; Recognition gene; Niemann Pick-type C gene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 43, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2014
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type Cl (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted-in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito's immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

312) Exposure to L-cycloserine incurs survival costs and behavioral alterations in Aedes aegypti females
Autor: Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Wings; Glucose; Inhibitors; Survival; Pest control; Phenotypes; Mortality causes; Starvation; Carbohydrate metabolism; Ammonia; Muscles; Fat body; Vectors; Blood meals; Alanine transaminase; Supplementation; Acute effects; Blood; Motor activity; Carbohydrates; Metabolism; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: It was previously demonstrated that alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, EC 2.6.1.2) participates in maintaining the alanine-proline cycle between flight muscles and fat body during Aedes aegypti flight. ALAT is also actively involved in the metabolism of ammonia in A. aegypti. Here, we investigated the survival and behavioral costs of ALAT inhibition in A. aegypti females to better understand the role of ALAT in blood-fed mosquitoes. Methods: We analyzed how A. aegypti female mosquitoes respond to blood meals supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM L-cycloserine, a well-known inhibitor of ALAT in animals. Mosquitoes were also exposed to blood meals supplemented with L-cycloserine and different concentrations of glucose (0, 10 and 100 mM). Additionally, the effects of ALAT inhibitor and glucose in mosquitoes starved for 24 or 48 h were investigated. Survival and behavioral phenotypes were analyzed during a time course (1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding). Results: L-cycloserine at 10 mM resulted in high mortality relative to control, with an acute effect during the first 6 h after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of active mosquitoes coinciding with an increase in futile wing fanning during the first 24 h was observed at all inhibitor concentrations. A high occurrence of knockdown phenotype was also recorded at this time for both 5 and 10 mM L-cycloserine. The supplementation of glucose in the blood meal amplified the effects of the ALAT inhibitor. In particular, we observed a higher mortality rate concomitant with an increase in the knockdown phenotype. Starvation prior to blood feeding also increased the effects of L-cycloserine with a rapid increase in mortality. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that exposure of high doses of L-cycloserine during A. aegypti blood feeding affects mosquito survival and motor activity, suggesting an interference with carbohydrate and ammonia metabolism in a time-dependent manner.

313) Aedes aegypti Mos20 cells internalizes cry toxins by endocytosis, and actin has a role in the defense against Cry11Aa toxin
Autor: Vega-Cabrera, Adriana; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Porta, Helena; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana
Assunto: Toxicants; Actin; Defence mechanisms; Lysosomes; Detoxification; Cry11A toxin; Osmotic shock; Larvae; Vectors; Toxins; Cytoskeleton; Endocytosis; Dengue; Yellow fever; Insect cells; Immune response; Cry1Ab toxin; Aedes aegypti; Bacillus thuringiensis; Lepidoptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Toxins, v. 6, n. 2, p. 464-487, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are used to control Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue fever and yellow fever. Bt Cry toxin forms pores in the gut cells, provoking larvae death by osmotic shock. Little is known, however, about the endocytic and/or degradative cell processes that may counteract the toxin action at low doses. The purpose of this work is to describe the mechanisms of internalization and detoxification of Cry toxins, at low doses, into Mos20 cells from A. aegypti, following endocytotic and cytoskeletal markers or specific chemical inhibitors. Here, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis are involved in the internalization into Mos20 cells of Cry11Aa, a toxin specific for Dipteran, and Cry1Ab, a toxin specific for Lepidoptera. Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab are not directed to secretory lysosomes. Instead, Mos20 cells use the Rab5 and Rab11 pathways as a common mechanism, most probably for the expulsion of Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab toxins. In conclusion, we propose that endocytosis is a mechanism induced by Cry toxins independently of specificity, probably as part of a basal immune response. We found, however, that actin is necessary for defense-specific response to Cry11Aa, because actin-silenced Mos20 cells become more sensitive to the toxic action of Cry11A toxin. Cry toxin internalization analysis in insect cell lines may contribute to a better understanding to Cry resistance in mosquitoes.

314) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa)--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard Gilda,Caron Mélanie,Mombo Illich Manfred,Nkoghe Dieudonné,Mboui Ondo Statiana,Jiolle Davy,Fontenille Didier,Paupy Christophe,Leroy Eric Maurice
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses. Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread. We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

315) Are fish paratenic natural hosts of the caiman haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani?
Autor: Pereira, Glauber; Soares, Priscilla; Gomes, Marcelo; Viana, Lacio; Manso, Pedro; Machado, Marcelo; Paiva, Fernando; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Assunto: Parasites; Fishing vessels; Pest control; Cysts; Public health; Oocysts; Gametocytes; Blood meals; Inflammation; Hepatozoon; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Metynnis; Astyanax; Aedes fluviatilis; Aedes albopictus;
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 1, p. 39-45, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The susceptibility of two fish and four mosquito species to the Caiman yacare haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani was experimentally investigated. Mosquitoes belonging to four species (Aedes fluviatilis, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were blood-fed on two naturally infected C. yacare from the Central-West Region of Brazil that exhibited distinct levels of parasitaemia: caimans A (11.05 %) and B (1.25 %). None of the engorged A. fluviatilis, A. albopictus or A. aegypti mosquitoes fed on caiman A survived for the duration of the sporogonic cycle; the great majority of the engorged mosquitoes died within 48 h of the blood meal. All A. aegypti fed on caiman B were negative, whereas 91.3 % of dissected C. quinquefasciatus fed on the same caiman contained oocysts. Characid fish-Metynnis sp. and Astyanax sp.-were individually fed with C. quinquefasciatus females previously engorged (21-23 days) on caiman B. No parasite was found in the Astyanax fish. By contrast, 100 % of the Metynnis fish depicted numerous cysts harbouring cystozoites identical to those of H. caimani, even more than 8 months after the ingestion of the infected mosquitoes. The cysts were located near the veins of the liver and, in some cases, close to the tunica intima of these vessels. No inflammatory reaction was observed. Gametocytes were observed in the blood smears of juvenile caimans that had ingested infected fish 9-12 weeks earlier. The potential role of fish as paratenic vertebrate hosts of H. caimani in nature is discussed.

316) Recent findings from University Medical Center Provides new insights into flavivirus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Life sciences; Science and technology
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology
Fonte: Life Science Weekly, p. 776, 2014
ISSN: 1552-2466
Resumo:

317) In Silico Modeling and Immunoinformatics Probing Disclose the Epitope Based PeptideVaccine Against Zika Virus Envelope Glycoprotein
Autor: Shawan, Mohammad Mahfuz AliKhan , AlMahmud, Hafij ; Hasan, Md Mahmudul ; Parvin, Afroza ; Rahman, Md Nazibur ; Rahman, S. M. Badier
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, v. 2, n. 4, p. 44, 2014
ISSN: 2320-9267
Resumo: In this study, amino acid sequence of ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was obtained from a protein database and examined with in silico approaches to determine the most immunogenic epitopes for B cell and T cell which could induce humoral as well as cell mediated immune response. Both the linear and conformational epitopes for B cell were predicted by immunoinformatics tools housed in IEDB resources. The peptide sequence DAHAKRQTVVVLGSQEGAV from position 121 and peptide sequence from 117-137 amino acids were predicted as most potential B cell linear and conformational epitopes respectively. Epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell were also predicted by using tools within IEDB resource and peptide sequence MMLELDPPF from position 250-258 amino acids was predicted as most immunogenic CD8+ T cell epitope with immune response evoking ability prediction score (I pMHC) of 0.09139 and conservancy of 52.17%. The innate immune response for ZIKV envelope glycoprotein was determined by interferon (IFN)-gamma effectuation and mimicking capacity by immunoinformatics and molecular docking study respectively.

318) Mosquitoes of Zika forest, Uganda: Species composition and relative abundance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaddumukasa M.A., Mutebi J.-P., Lutwama J.J., Masembe C., Akol A.M.
Assunto: biodiversity, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 104-113, jan. 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO(2)-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and thismaysuggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests a high potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

319) Imported zika virus infection from the Cook Islands into Australia, 2014.
Autor: Pyke Alyssa T,Daly Michelle T,Cameron Jane N,Moore Peter R,Taylor Carmel T,Hewitson Glen R,Humphreys Jan L,Gair Richard
Assunto: Arbovirus, Infectious disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Currents, v. 6, 2014
ISSN: 2157-3999
Resumo: A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

320) Chlorophyll derivatives can be an efficient weapon in the fight against dengue
Autor: Azizullah, Azizullah; Rehman, Zia Ur; Ali, Imran; Murad, Waheed; Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Waheed; Haeder, Donat-Peter
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Larvae; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Chlorophyll; Freshwater environments; Dengue; Vectors; chlorophyllin; Vaccines; Infection; Parasites; Insects
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 113, n. 12, p. 4321-4326, 2014.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.

321) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Dengue virus; Sequence alignment; Recombinant sequences; Phylogenetic analysis; Envelope proteins; Genus flavivirus; Mosaic structure; Yellow-Fever; Missing data; RNA viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

322) Susceptibility of larval Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) to dengue virus
Autor: Bara, J. J.; Clark, T. M.; Remold, S. K.
Assunto: Viral diseases; Larvae; Pest control; Tissue culture; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 1, p. 179-184, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquitoes vertically transmit many arthropod borne viruses, and as a consequence arboviruses are often present within the larval environment. We tested the hypothesis that Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae were susceptible to dengue virus through two infection methods: exposure to dengue in the larval growth environment via viral supernatant, and exposure to infected tissue culture along with viral supernatant. In addition to investigating for the first time the susceptibility of larval Ae. albopictus to dengue virus, we analyzed the infection rate and viral titer of infected pools of Ae. aegypti when exposed to multiple serotypes of dengue. We found that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were susceptible to the three dengue virus serotypes to which they were exposed regardless of the exposure method and that there were significant differences between the serotypes in infection titer and infection rate. The finding that larval Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to dengue indicates that dengue might be able to spread among larvae within the larval habitat potentially contributing to the persistence of dengue in the environment.

323) Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval competition; Innate immunity; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; Antimicrobial peptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 6, p. 604-610, 2013
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Tollflind pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2 L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, RellA, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14 days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14 days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7 days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Tollflmd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up:regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SW infection suppresses Tbll/rind-pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the upregulation of cecropin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

324) Effect of wolbachia on replication of west nile virus in a mosquito cell line and adult mosquitoes
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Lu, Guangjin; Torres, Shessy; Edmonds, Judith H.; Kay, Brian H.; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Life - Shortening wolbachia; Aedes aegypti; Monoclonal - Antibodies; Gene - Expression; Dengue; Infection; Recognition; Populations; Competence; Lipophorin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 87, n. 2, p. 851-858, 2013
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. Recently, it has been shown that wMelpop and wMel strains of Wolbachia inhibit the replication of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., Plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. In this study, we tested the effect of Wolbachia on the replication of West Nile Virus (WNV). Surprisingly, accumulation of the genomic RNA of WNV for all three strains of WNV tested (New York 99, Kunjin, and New South Wales) was enhanced in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells (Aag2). However, the amount of secreted virus was significantly reduced in the presence of Wolbachia. Intrathoracic injections showed that replication of WNV in A. aegypti mosquitoes infected with wMel strain of Wolbachia was not inhibited, whereas wMelPop strain of Wolbachia significantly reduced the replication of WNV in mosquitoes. Further, when wMelPop mosquitoes were orally fed with WNV, virus infection, transmission, and dissemination rates were very low in Wolbachia-free mosquitoes and were completely inhibited in the presence of Wolbachia. The results suggest that (i) despite the enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the Wolbachia-infected cell line the production of secreted virus was significantly inhibited, (ii) the antiviral effect in intrathoracically infected mosquitoes depends on the strain of Wolbachia, and (iii) replication of the virus in orally fed mosquitoes was completely inhibited in wMelPop strain of Wolbachia.

325) A unique Y gene in the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi encodes a small lysine-rich protein and is transcribed at the onset of embryonic development
Autor: Criscione, F.; Qi, Y.; Saunders, R.; Hall, B.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Male; Maternal-to-zygotic transition; Vector - Borne infectious disease; Y chromosome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 22, n. 4, p. 433-441, 2013
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: In many organisms the Y chromosome initiates sex determination and regulates male fertility and mating behaviour. However, molecular characterization of Y genes is rare outside of a few model species because it is difficult to clone and analyse repeat-rich heterochromatic Y sequences. In insects, Y genes are only well characterized in a small number of Drosophila species. Here we report the discovery of GUY1 (gene unique to the Y), a gene unique to the Y chromosome in the Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, using an approach that compares Illumina sequences separately obtained from male and female genomic DNA. Experimental evidence confirmed that GUY1 is a single copy gene found only on the Y chromosome. GUY1 is transcribed at the very onset of zygotic transcription and encodes a small lysine-rich protein that forms two alpha helices and shows DNA-binding properties. Interestingly, three helix-loop-helix proteins are key factors that determine sex in the early embryo in Drosophila melanogaster. Single embryo analysis indicated that GUY1 is only transcribed in male embryos and that the GUY1 promoter is functional in the early embryos. GUY1 may be used as a paternally inherited molecular marker. Further investigation of GUY1 will contribute to the genetic approaches to control mosquito-borne diseases.

326) Effects of Aedes aegypti salivary components on dendritic cell and lymphocyte biology
Autor: Bizzarro, Bruna; Barros, Michele S.; Maciel, Ceres; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Lino, Ciro N.; Campopiano, Julia; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Calvo, Eric; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sa-Nunes, Anderson
Assunto: Dendritic cells; T cells; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Apoptosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 329, 2013
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Saliva is a key element of interaction between hematophagous mosquitoes and their vertebrate hosts. In addition to allowing a successful blood meal by neutralizing or delaying hemostatic responses, the salivary cocktail is also able to modulate the effector mechanisms of host immune responses facilitating, in turn, the transmission of several types of microorganisms. Understanding how the mosquito uses its salivary components to circumvent host immunity might help to clarify the mechanisms of transmission of such pathogens and disease establishment.Methods: Flow cytometry was used to evaluate if increasing concentrations of A. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) affects bone marrow-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of SGE was estimated by a colorimetric assay. Western blot and Annexin V staining assays were used to assess apoptosis in these cells. Naive and memory cells from mosquito-bite exposed mice or OVA-immunized mice and their respective controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Concentration-response curves were employed to evaluate A. aegypti SGE effects on DC and lymphocyte biology. DCs differentiation from bone marrow precursors, their maturation and function were not directly affected by A. aegypti SGE (concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 40 mu g/mL). On the other hand, lymphocytes were very sensitive to the salivary components and died in the presence of A. aegypti SGE, even at concentrations as low as 0.1 mu g/mL. In addition, A. aegypti SGE was shown to induce apoptosis in all lymphocyte populations evaluated (CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and B cells) through a mechanism involving caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not Bim. By using different approaches to generate memory cells, we were able to verify that these cells are resistant to SGE effects. Our results show that lymphocytes, and not DCs, are the primary target of A. aegypti salivary components. In the presence of A. aegypti SGE, naive lymphocyte populations die by apoptosis in a caspase-3- and caspase-8-dependent pathway, while memory cells are selectively more resistant to its effects. The present work contributes to elucidate the activities of A. aegypti salivary molecules on the antigen presenting cell-lymphocyte axis and in the biology of these cells.

327) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Faye O., Diallo D., Diallo M., Weidmann M., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results: The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion: We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT - PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. © 2013 Faye et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

328) Comparison of R sub( 0) from different models for dengue fever in Pakistan
Autor: Badshah, Noor; Javid, Muhammad; Shah, Hassan; Adil, Muhammad
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reproduction; Computer applications; Hospitals; Models; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering, v. 4, n. 1, p. 39-43, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease, which is spread by a female mosquito Aedes aegypti. In order to ascertain the strength of this ailment in certain region, basic reproduction number R sub( 0) is used for this purpose. We calculated R sub( 0) by applying models to the confirmed cases of dengue fever for different hospitals of the Punjab, province of Pakistan. For the best calculated values of R sub( 0) we will justify that, whether the disease is endemic, epidemic in Punjab or the region is disease free. In the last we suggest the role of different parameters to control the disease.

329) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): A Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Singapore
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wong P.-S.J., Li M.-z.I., Chong C.-S., Ng L.-C., Tan C.-H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Arbovirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 8, p. 1-5, aug. 2013
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.Methodology/Principal Findings:To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose(50) assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.Conclusions/Significance:The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore. © 2013 Wong et al.

330) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti for dengue virus type 2 is reduced with co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae
Autor: Garza-Hernandez, Javier A.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Breeding sites; Viral diseases; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Blood; Fecundity; Head; Dengue; Vectors; Vaccines; Midgut; Infection; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Metarhizium anisopliae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a worldwide public health problem. There is not an effective vaccine yet; the chemical struggle against its transmitter, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is onerous and erratic, and the community participation to eliminate vector breeding sites is unconfident. Here, we examined mosquitoes fed on human blood mixed with the Dengue virus, by exposure to the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to test whether the fungus halts the viral dissemination from midgut to head in co-infected (CI) insects. We found an overall viral infection rate in CI mosquitoes of 76% but infected or not, most (78%) died before or at day six post-infection; only six (12%) out of 50, survivors had virus in head and were potentially infectious at day seven post-infection. A higher infection (84%) was observed in single-virus infected mosquitoes, but they suffered only 6% mortality after 6 days and 32 (64%) survivors tested positive for virus in head after 7 days. Survival, fecundity and ovaric cycle of CI mosquitoes were reduced in 70, 52 and 40% in comparison to the ones of control. Therefore, if the fungus caused a 5-fold reduction in the number of infectious mosquitoes, it has potential to be evaluated against the Dengue transmitter in field.

331) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Abundance; Genetic diversity; Disease resistance; Infection; DNA microarrays; Gene expression; Colonies; Dengue; Gene regulation; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Gene silencing; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 7, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. Genetic variations among Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can greatly influence their ability to transmit human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). Some of these variations between mosquito populations are represented by differences in the expression of specific genes that control susceptibility to a pathogen. We have compared susceptibilities to dengue virus infection and the genome-wide gene expression patterns between laboratory-maintained Aedes aegypti strains as well as field-derived colonies collected from geographically-distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. These analyses in conjunction with functional gene silencing assays showed that the basal immune activity is a likely determinant of resistance to the dengue virus, along with other novel factors. Our study also identified two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor, thereby elucidating novel aspects of dengue virus - mosquito interactions.

332) Subgenomic reporter RNA system for detection of Alphavirus infection in mosquitoes
Autor: Steel, J Jordan; Franz, Alexander WE; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Geiss, Brian J
Assunto: Genomes; Recombinants; Promoters; Viral diseases; Replication; Viruses; Aquatic insects; Public health; RNA; Reporter gene; Nucleotide sequence; Cell culture; RNA viruses; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Sindbis virus; Alphavirus; Togaviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae) infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.

333) Evaluation of laboratory tests for dengue diagnosis in clinical specimens from consecutive patients with suspected dengue in Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Autor: Ferraz, Fernanda Oliveira; Quaresma Bomfim, Maria Rosa; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Avila, Thiago Vinicius; Cisalpino, Daniel; Marques Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; de Souza, Danielle da Gloria; Teixeira Junior, Antonio Lucio; Nogueira, Mauriio Lacerda; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Teixeira, Mauro Martins
Assunto: Dengue diagnosis; Real-time PCR; NS1; Anti-dengue IgM; ELISA; Lateral flow immunochromatographic assays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 58, n. 1, p. 41-46, 2013
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Background: Dengue is a widely spread arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue fever presents clinical characteristics similar to other febrile illness. Thus laboratory diagnosis is important for adequate management of the disease.Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time PCR and serological methods for dengue in a real epidemic context.Study design: Clinical data and blood samples were collected from consecutive patients with suspected dengue who attended a primary health care unit in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Serologic methods and real-time PCR were performed in serum samples to confirm dengue diagnosis.Results: Among the 181 consecutive patients enrolled in this study with suspected dengue, 146 were considered positive by serological criteria (positive NS1 ELISA and/or anti-dengue IgM ELISA) and 138 were positive by real-time PCR. Clinical criteria were not sufficient for distinguishing between dengue and non-dengue febrile illness. The PCR reaction was pre-optimized using samples from patients with known viral infection. It had similar sensitivity compared to NS1 ELISA (88% and 89%, respectively). We also evaluated three commercial lateral flow immunochromatographic tests for NS1 detection (BIOEASY, BIORAD and PANBIO). All three tests showed high sensitivity (94%, 91% and 81%, respectively) for dengue diagnosis.Conclusion: According to our results it can be suggested that lateral flow tests for NS1 detection are the most feasible methods for early diagnosis of dengue. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

334) Evolutionarily conserved Wolbachia-encoded factors control pattern of stem-cell niche tropism in Drosophila ovaries and favor infection
Autor: Toomey, Michelle E.; Panaram, Kanchana; Fast, Eva M.; Beatty, Catherine; Frydman, Horacio M.
Assunto: Endosymbiont; Maternal Transmission; Microbial Tissue Tropism; Germline Stem Cell Niche; Somatic Stem Cell Niche
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 110, n. 26, p. 10788-10793, 2013
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that infect invertebrates at pandemic levels, including insect vectors of devastating infectious diseases. Although Wolbachia are providing novel strategies for the control of several human pathogens, the processes underlying Wolbachia's successful propagation within and across species remain elusive. Wolbachia are mainly vertically transmitted; however, there is also evidence of extensive horizontal transmission. Here, we provide several lines of evidence supporting Wolbachia's targeting of ovarian stemcell niches-referred to as "niche tropism"-as a previously overlooked strategy for Wolbachia thriving in nature. Niche tropism is pervasive in Wolbachia infecting the Drosophila genus, and different patterns of niche tropismare evolutionarily conserved. Phylogenetic analysis, confirmed by hybrid introgression and transinfection experiments, demonstrates that bacterial factors are the major determinants of differential patterns of niche tropism. Furthermore, bacterial load is increased in germ-line cells passing through infected niches, supporting previous suggestions of a contribution of Wolbachia from stem-cell niches toward vertical transmission. These results support the role of stem-cell niches as a key component for the spreading of Wolbachia in the Drosophila genus and provide mechanistic insights into this unique tissue tropism.

335) Case report: Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwong J.C., Druce J.D., Leder K.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (etiology), travel, Zika virus infection (etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, sept. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

336) Genetic variation in the 3' untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil
Autor: de Castro, Marcia Goncalves; de Nogueira, Fernanda Bruycker; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto
Assunto: Dengue virus type 3; Aedes aegypti; 3'UTR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Summary: Background: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors. Methods: Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3' UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program. Results: Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully sequenced. As an 8- nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11- nucleotides (nts) insertion on the variable region (VR) from the 3'UTR in this isolate, we further sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3'UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains presenting the 11-nts insertion were similar in the predicted secondary structure. Conclusions: The phylogeny based on the analysis of the complete genome and 3'UTR characterized the DENV-3 isolated from both vector and human host as belonging to Genotype III (GIII), despite the differences observed on the 3' UTR. Further studies are needed to address the role of those mutations in the transmission of the different viral populations and vector competence.

337) Post-Infectious Sequelae of Travelers' Diarrhea
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Connor, Bradley A.; Riddle, Mark S.
Assunto: Symptoms; Endocrinology; Therapy; Antibiotics; Pathogens
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 20, n. 5, p. 303-312, 2013
ISSN: 1195-1982
Resumo: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has generally been considered a self-limited disorder which resolves more quickly with expeditious and appropriate antibiotic therapy given bacteria are the most frequently identified cause. However, epidemiological, clinical, and basic science evidence identifying a number of chronic health conditions related to these infections has recently emerged which challenges this current paradigm. These include serious and potentially disabling enteric and extra-intestinal long-term complications. Among these are rheumatologic, neurologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine disorders. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature pertaining to three of these post-infectious disorders: reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and the relationship of these conditions to diarrhea associated with travel as well as to diarrhea associated with gastroenteritis which may not be specifically travel related but relevant by shared microbial pathogens. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine. Data for this article were identified by searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, and references from relevant articles using search terms "travelers' diarrhea" "reactive arthritis" "Guillain-Barre syndrome" "Post-Infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Abstracts were included when related to previously published work. A review of the published literature reveals that potential consequences of travelers' diarrhea may extend beyond the acute illness and these post-infectious complications may be more common than currently recognized. In addition since TD is such a common occurrence it would be helpful to be able to identify those who might be at greater risk of post-infectious sequelae in order to target more aggressive prophylactic or therapeutic approaches to such individuals. It is hoped this review will allow clinicians who see travelers to be aware of these post-infectious sequelae thus adding to our body of knowledge in travel medicine.

338) Natural, Persistent Oscillations in a Spatial Multi-Strain Disease System with Application to Dengue
Autor: Lourenco, Jose; Recker, Mario
Assunto: Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes aegypti; Transmission dynamics; Southern Vietnam; Immunological determinants; Demographic stochasticity; Dependent enhancement; Traveling waves; Virus serotype; Epidemics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos Computational Biology, v. 9, n. 10, p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7358
Resumo: Many infectious diseases are not maintained in a state of equilibrium but exhibit significant fluctuations in prevalence over time. For pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic types or strains, such as influenza, malaria or dengue, these fluctuations often take on the form of regular or irregular epidemic outbreaks in addition to oscillatory prevalence levels of the constituent strains. To explain the observed temporal dynamics and structuring in pathogen populations, epidemiological multi-strain models have commonly evoked strong immune interactions between strains as the predominant driver. Here, with specific reference to dengue, we show how spatially explicit, multi-strain systems can exhibit all of the described epidemiological dynamics even in the absence of immune competition. Instead, amplification of natural stochastic differences in disease transmission, can give rise to persistent oscillations comprising semi-regular epidemic outbreaks and sequential dominance of dengue's four serotypes. Not only can this mechanism explain observed differences in serotype and disease distributions between neighbouring geographical areas, it also has important implications for inferring the nature and epidemiological consequences of immune mediated competition in multi-strain pathogen systems.

339) Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.
Autor: Kwong Jason C,Druce Julian D,Leder Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, 2013
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

340) Novel Estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Population Size and Adult Survival Based on Wolbachia Releases
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Montgomery, Brian L.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Dengue; BGS trap; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 3, p. 624-631, 2013
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximate to 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission.

341) Nucleotide substitutions in dengue virus serotypes from Asian and American countries: insights into intracodon recombination and purifying selection
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Nucleotide substitution; Codon usage; Serotype; Intracodon recombination; Purifying selection; Fixed mutations
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Microbiology, v. 13, n. , p. -, 2013
ISSN: 1471-2180
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection represents a significant public health problem in many subtropical and tropical countries. Although genetically closely related, the four serotypes of DENV differ in antigenicity for which cross protection among serotypes is limited. It is also believed that both multi-serotype infection as well as the evolution of viral antigenicity may have confounding effects in increased dengue epidemics. Numerous studies have been performed that investigated genetic diversity of DENV, but the precise mechanism(s) of dengue virus evolution are not well understood. We investigated genome-wide genetic diversity and nucleotide substitution patterns in the four serotypes among samples collected from different countries in Asia and Central and South America and sequenced as part of the Genome Sequencing Center for Infectious Diseases at the Broad Institute. We applied bioinformatics, statistical and coalescent simulation methods to investigate diversity of codon sequences of DENV samples representing the four serotypes. We show that fixation of nucleotide substitutions is more prominent among the inter-continental isolates (Asian and American) of serotypes 1, 2 and 3 compared to serotype 4 isolates (South and Central America) and are distributed in a non-random manner among the genes encoded by the virus. Nearly one third of the negatively selected sites are associated with fixed mutation sites within serotypes. Our results further show that of all the sites showing evidence of recombination, the majority (similar to 84%) correspond to sites under purifying selection in the four serotypes. The analysis further shows that genetic recombination occurs within specific codons, albeit with low frequency (< 5% of all recombination sites) throughout the DENV genome of the four serotypes and reveals significant enrichment (p < 0.05) among sites under purifying selection in the virus. The study provides the first evidence for intracodon recombination in DENV and suggests that within codons, genetic recombination has a significant role in maintaining extensive purifying selection of DENV in natural populations. Our study also suggests that fixation of beneficial mutations may lead to virus evolution via translational selection of specific sites in the DENV genome.

342) Genetic mapping of specific interactions between Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue viruses
Autor: Fansiri, Thanyalak; Fontaine, Albin; Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valerie; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H;Jarman, Richard G; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Genomes; Human diseases; Viruses; Genotypes; Hosts; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Molecular modelling; Genetic factors; Data processing; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Genetics, v. 9, n. 8, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Specific interactions between host genotypes and pathogen genotypes (GG interactions) are commonly observed in invertebrate systems. Such specificity challenges our current understanding of invertebrate defenses against pathogens because it contrasts the limited discriminatory power of known invertebrate immune responses. Lack of a mechanistic explanation, however, has questioned the nature of host factors underlying GG interactions. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GG interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes aegypti vectors in nature can be mapped to discrete loci in the mosquito genome and to document their genetic architecture. We developed an innovative genetic mapping strategy to survey GG interactions using outbred mosquito families that were experimentally exposed to genetically distinct isolates of two dengue virus serotypes derived from human patients. Genetic loci associated with vector competence indices were detected in multiple regions of the mosquito genome. Importantly, correlation between genotype and phenotype was virus isolate-specific at several of these loci, indicating GG interactions. The relatively high percentage of phenotypic variation explained by the markers associated with GG interactions (ranging from 7.8% to 16.5%) is consistent with large-effect host genetic factors. Our data demonstrate that GG interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions of the mosquito genome, some of which have a large effect on the phenotype. This finding establishes the existence of tangible host genetic factors underlying specific interactions between invertebrates and their pathogens in a natural system. Fine mapping of the uncovered genetic loci will elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mosquito-virus specificity.

343) A hierarchical network approach for modeling rift valley fever epidemics with applications in North America
Autor: Xue, Ling; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Scott, H. Morgan; Scoglio, Caterina
Assunto: Mosquitos diptera - Culicidae; Aedes aegypti diptera; West ? Nile - Virus; Host; Transmission; Disease; Dynamics; Survival; Climate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Rift Valley fever is a vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes high morbidity and mortality in livestock. In the event Rift Valley fever virus is introduced to the United States or other non-endemic areas, understanding the potential patterns of spread and the areas at risk based on disease vectors and hosts will be vital for developing mitigation strategies. Presented here is a general network-based mathematical model of Rift Valley fever. Given a lack of empirical data on disease vector species and their vector competence, this discrete time epidemic model uses stochastic parameters following several PERT distributions to model the dynamic interactions between hosts and likely North American mosquito vectors in dispersed geographic areas. Spatial effects and climate factors are also addressed in the model. The model is applied to a large directed asymmetric network of 3,621 nodes based on actual farms to examine a hypothetical introduction to some counties of Texas, an important ranching area in the United States of America. The nodes of the networks represent livestock farms, livestock markets, and feedlots, and the links represent cattle movements and mosquito diffusion between different nodes. Cattle and mosquito (Aedes and Culex) populations are treated with different contact networks to assess virus propagation. Rift Valley fever virus spread is assessed under various initial infection conditions (infected mosquito eggs, adults or cattle). A surprising trend is fewer initial infectious organisms result in a longer delay before a larger and more prolonged outbreak. The delay is likely caused by a lack of herd immunity while the infection expands geographically before becoming an epidemic involving many dispersed farms and animals almost simultaneously. Cattle movement between farms is a large driver of virus expansion, thus quarantines can be efficient mitigation strategy to prevent further geographic spread.

344) High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the southeast of France
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Caro, Valerie;Diancourt, Laure; Delaunay, Pascal; Grandadam, Marc;Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK) were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN) were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. Methodology and Principal Findings We used two strains of each virus, CHIK and DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM) was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Frejus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi). The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. Conclusions/Significance Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

345) Evidence of circulation of selected arboviruses in ijara and marigat districts, Kenya
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ofula V.O., Oundo J., Irura Z., Chepkorir E., Tigoi C., Lwande O., Ongus J., Schoepp R., Rossi C., Wurapa E.K., Sonde H., Sang R.
Assunto: Arbovirus, hygiene, Kenya, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 278, nov. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods with humans becoming infected during blood feeding by infected mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies. Characterization of arbovirus circulation and transmission in industrialized countries has been well documented, but there are many knowledge gaps in developing nations. Entomological surveys conducted so far have indicated circulation of arboviruses of significant public health importance in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species in vast populations in Kenya, suggesting the presence of competent vector systems. The human involvement in the transmission cycle of these viruses has however not been demonstrated. This study sought to determine the sero-prevalence of a range of arboviruses including; Chikungunya, Dengue, Sindbis, Sandfly Naples, Sandfly Sicilian, Uganda S, West Nile and Zika viruses in Ijara and Marigat Districts where vector surveillance has been done. A total of 351 patient serum samples were analyzed using IgG ELISA, of these 193 (54.9%) were male and 158 (45.1%) were female with age ranging between 3 and 73. The overall arbovirus prevalence was 53/351 (15.1%) with a prevalence of 7% (10/143) in Marigat and 21% (43/208) in Ijara. Of the positives, Flaviviruses were 69%, alpha viruses 29.6% and Bunyaviridae 1.4%. Uganda S virus was the most prevalent with 10%, followed by West Nile virus 6%, Sindbis 5%, Dengue 2%, Chikungunya 1.1%, Sandfly Naples 0.2% respectively. Semliki-forest virus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 3/351 (0.85%) persons tested. Antibodies against Sandfly Sicilian and Zika viruses were not detected. This study constitutes the first detection of antibodies against Sandfly Naples virus in Kenya. The study has demonstrated the circulation of the selected arboviruses in the two sites amongst human population. These findings will improve our understanding of impact of Arboviruses on public health in the regions so that preventive actions and awareness among clinicians in patient' recognition and management can be enhanced.

346) The effect of sterilization on the mechanical properties of intact rabbit humeri in three-point bending, four-point bending and torsion
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Russell, Nicholas A; Rives, Alain; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bruce, Warwick J; Walsh, William R.
Assunto: Animals, Biomechanical phenomena, Bone transplantation - Methods, Dose - Response relationship, Drug , Dose - Response relationship, Radiation, Humerus - Microbiology, Rabbits, Weight -Bearing - Physiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Banking, v. 14, n. 2, p. 231-242, 2013.
ISSN: 1389-9333
Resumo: Load bearing bone allografts are used to replace the mechanical function of bone that has been removed or to augment bone that has been damaged in trauma. In order to minimize the risk of infection and immune response, the bone is delipidated and terminally sterilized prior to implantation. The optimal method for bone graft sterilization has been the topic of considerable research. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatments have been shown to terminally sterilize bone against a range of bacteria and viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SCCO2 treatment compared with two doses of gamma irradiation, on the mechanical properties of whole bone. Paired rabbit humeri were dissected and randomly assigned into either SCCO2 control, SCCO2 additive or gamma irradiation at 10 or 25 kGy treatment groups. The bones were mechanically tested in three-point and four-point bending and torsion, with the lefts acting as controls for the treated rights. Maximum load, energy to failure and stiffness were evaluated. This study found that SCCO2 treatment with or without additive did not alter maximum load, energy to failure or stiffness significantly under any loading modality. Gamma irradiation had a deleterious dose dependant effect, with statistically significant decreases in all mechanical tests at 25 kGy; while at 10 kGy there were reductions in all loading profiles, though only reaching statistical significance in torsion. This study highlights the expediency of SCCO2 treatment for bone allograft processing as terminal sterilization can be achieved while maintaining the intrinsic mechanical properties of the graft.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

347) Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors
Autor: Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Thiyagarajan, Perumal; William, Samuel John
Assunto: Human diseases; Repellents; Leaves; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Methanol; Filariasis; Malaria; Infection; Morbidity; Hypersensitivity; Insecticides; Dengue; Yellow fever; Forearm; Mortality; Vectors; Toxicity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Acalypha; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 3, p. 1205-1219, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC50 values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm2 were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100 % with methanol extract of A. alnifolia was exerted at 125 and 300 ppm. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (water bodies system) of vector mosquitoes, and hence, these plant extracts are suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for mosquito vector management.These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This study provides first report on the mosquito ovicidal, repellent and adulticidal activities of these plant extracts against mosquito vector species from India.

348) Reduction of Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus under large temperature fluctuations
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; Diurnal variations; Dengue; Temperature; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 4, p. 689-697, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6 [degrees]C around a 26[degrees]C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6 [degrees]C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV transmission dynamics will come with improved knowledge of temperature effects on mosquito-virus interactions.

349) A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva
Autor: Sakhon, Olivia S.; Severo, Maiara S.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H. F.
Assunto: Nod-like receptors; Inflammasome; Vector-borne pathogens; Vector-borne diseases; Arthropod saliva; Salivary proteins
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 4, n. 308, 2013
ISSN: 1664-302X
Resumo: Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR) sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome - a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

350) An explosive epidemic of DENV-3 in Cairns, Australia
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Day, Andrew; Mores, Christopher N.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Gubler, Duane J.; Bennett, Shannon N.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue virus Type-2; North Queensland; Puerto Rico; Model development; Lethal ovitrap; Vector control; Transmission; Mosquito; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 7, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: From November 2008-May 2009 Cairns Queensland Australia was struck by an explosive epidemic of DENV-3 that exceeded the capacity of highly skilled dengue control team to control it. We describe the environmental, virological and entomological factors associated with this outbreak to better understand the circumstances leading to its occurrence. Patient interviews, serological results and viral sequencing strongly suggest that the imported index case was infected in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A delay in notification of 27 days from importation of the index case until Queensland Health was notified of dengue transmission allowed the virus to amplify and spread unchecked through November 2008. Unseasonably warm weather, with daily mean temperatures exceeding 30 degrees C, occurred in late November and would have shortened the extrinsic incubation period of the virus and enhanced transmission. Analysis of case movements early in the outbreak indicated that the total incubation period was as low as 9-11 days. This was supported by laboratory vector competence studies that found transmission by Aedes aegypti occurred within 5 days post exposure at 28 degrees C. Effective vector competence rates calculated from these transmission studies indicate that early transmission contributed to the explosive dengue transmission observed in this outbreak. Collections from BG sentinel traps and double sticky ovitraps showed that large populations of the vector Ae. aegypti occurred in the transmission areas from November - December 2008. Finally, the seasonal movement of people around the Christmas holiday season enhanced the spread of DENV-3. These results suggest that a strain of DENV-3 with an unusually rapid transmission cycle was able to outpace vector control efforts, especially those reliant upon delayed action control such as lethal ovitraps.

351) Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis of mosquito larvae: a verdict of accidental death
Autor: Butt, Tariq M; Greenfield, Bethany PJ; Greig, Carolyn;Maffeis, Thierry GG; Taylor, James WD; Piasecka, Justyna;Dudley, Ed; Abdulla, Ahmed; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada
Assunto: Insect larvae; Inhibitors; Pest control; Pathogens; Mortality causes; Public health; Disease transmission; Adhesins; Mortality; Proteinase inhibitors; Cuticles; Infection; Cecropin; Dengue; Oxidative stress; Yellow fever; Autolysis; Caspase; Immune response; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Metarhizium anisopliae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungal pathogen of terrestrial arthropods, kills the aquatic larvae of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. The fungus kills without adhering to the host cuticle. Ingested conidia also fail to germinate and are expelled in fecal pellets. This study investigates the mechanism by which this fungus adapted to terrestrial hosts kills aquatic mosquito larvae. Genes associated with the M. anisopliae early pathogenic response (proteinases Pr1 and Pr2, and adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2) are upregulated in the presence of larvae, but the established infection process observed in terrestrial hosts does not progress and insecticidal destruxins were not detected. Protease inhibitors reduce larval mortality indicating the importance of proteases in the host interaction. The Ae. aegypti immune response to M. anisopliae appears limited, whilst the oxidative stress response gene encoding for thiol peroxidase is upregulated. Cecropin and Hsp70 genes are downregulated as larval death occurs, and insect mortality appears to be linked to autolysis through caspase activity regulated by Hsp70 and inhibited, in infected larvae, by protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented that a traditional host-pathogen response does not occur as the species have not evolved to interact. M. anisopliae retains pre-formed pathogenic determinants which mediate host mortality, but unlike true aquatic fungal pathogens, does not recognise and colonise the larval host.

352) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Diallo, Mawlouth; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT-PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection.

353) First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012
Autor: Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio
Assunto: Biological surveys; Insect larvae; Pupae; Tanks; Pest control; Hosts; Carbon dioxide; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Growth regulators; Aircraft; Yellow fever; Basins; Traps; Vectors; Fenitrothion; Airports; Larvicides; Eggs; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 66, n. 3, p. 189-194, 2013.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO sub(2) traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5z fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5zpyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport.

354) Functional and genetic characterization of neuropeptide Y-like receptors in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Liesch, Jeff; Bellani, Lindsay L.; Vosshall, Leslie B.
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Receptors; Peptides; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Spreading; Head; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Malaria; Blood meals; Neuropeptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 10, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Female mosquitoes are responsible for spreading many deadly infectious diseases including malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes require a blood meal to produce eggs and preferentially feed on humans, thereby spreading disease as they feed. Females of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti undergo a natural change in behavior after a blood meal in which they lose attraction to humans for over three days. We are interested in understanding this natural behavioral inhibition because it may provide an opportunity to control mosquito blood-feeding behavior. Previous work showed that a small protein called Head Peptide-I could mimic this behavioral inhibition when injected into non-blood-fed females, which normally show very high attraction to humans. In this work, we set out to find the Head Peptide-I receptor and ask if it causes this behavioral inhibition. By testing eight different candidate receptors, we found one called NPYLR1 that responds to Head-Peptide I but is much more sensitive to another peptide called sNPF-3. We made mutant mosquitoes that lack the npylr1 gene and found that the mutants showed normal sugar- and blood-feeding behavior. We conclude that there must be additional receptors and/or peptides that together cause this long-lasting inhibition of female mosquito attraction to humans.

355) Comparing autograft, allograft, and tricalcium phosphate ceramic in a goat instrumented posterolateral fusion model
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Delawi, Diyar; Kruyt, Moyo C; Huipin, Yuan; Vincken, Koen L; de Bruijn, Joost D; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter JÁ
Assunto: Animals, Goats, Imaging - Three-dimensional, Models - Animal, Spine - Drug effects, Spine - Radiography, Tomography - X-Ray Computed
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, v. 19, n. 11, p. 821-828, 2013.
ISSN: 1937-3384
Resumo: The most common application of bone grafts is spinal fusion surgery, in which the use of iliac crest autograft is the gold standard. Harvesting of autograft, however, requires an extra surgical procedure, which is associated with additional morbidity. Allograft is the well-known alternative, but it is generally considered less effective in posterior fusions. Therefore, the need for an effective alternative remains. Recently, it was shown that ceramics can be endowed with biologically instructive properties by changing the basic parameters of the material. In this study, we compared a novel tricalcium phosphate ceramic (TCP) to iliac crest autograft and allograft, in instrumented posterolateral fusions in a goat model. A total of nine goats were included, who underwent a two-level lumbar fusion. Each side of the spine was randomized into one type of graft: iliac crest autograft; fresh-frozen allograft; TCP alone; or TCP combined with local autograft (50:50). The fusion rates after 16 weeks were comparable between the groups (autograft 3/8, allograft 4/8, TCP 4/8, and TCP/local autograft 5/8). Calculation of the fusion volume on computed tomography images, showed significantly greater volume in the control groups (autograft 7.8 mL and allograft 8.9 mL) compared with the groups with TCP (TCP 6.1 mL and TCP/local autograft 6.0 mL). No adverse tissue response was seen on histological analysis and TCP was almost completely resorbed. The results demonstrate that TCP is capable of achieving fusion at a similar rate to iliac crest autograft in posterolateral fusions, while almost completely resorbing within 16 weeks. Despite the lower fusion volume, the TCP is a promising alternative circumventing the disadvantages of autograft and allograft. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

356) Detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen in infected Aedes aegypti Using a commercially available kit
Autor: Voge, Natalia V.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Blair, Carol D.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Antigens; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Epidemics; Dengue; Control programs; Vectors; Vaccines; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 2, p. 260-266, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Epidemic dengue has emerged throughout the tropical world. In the continued absence of a vaccine against dengue virus (DENV), mosquito vector surveillance and control programs are essential to reduce human infections. An effective test to detect DENV in infected mosquitoes would be a valuable addition to the surveillance effort. We investigated DENV detection in infected Aedes aegypti using a commercially available DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) ELISA kit (Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag), and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation assays. The DENV-infected mosquitoes were subjected to field-relevant conditions and assayed individually and pooled with uninfected mosquitoes. Overall, DENV NS1 antigen was detected in 98% of infected mosquitoes/ pools versus 79% for RT-PCR and 29% for virus isolation. Our results indicate that NS1 is an excellent analyte for detection of DENV in Ae. aegypti and that the tested NS1 antigen kit provides a sensitive, rapid, and convenient test for DENV surveillance in mosquitoes.

357) Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia
Autor: Caragata, Eric P.; Rances, Edwige; Hedges, Lauren M.; Gofton, Alexander W.; Johnson, Karyn N.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Virulence; Viral diseases; Pest control; Immunity; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Immune response; Cholesterol; Infection; Wolbachia pipientis; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Drosophila C virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 6, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV), a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

358) The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology
Autor: Gulley, Melissa M.; Zhang, Xin; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Infectious disease; Serpin; Innate immunity; Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 2, p. 138-147, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: In vector-borne diseases, the complex interplay between pathogen and its vector's immune system determines the outcome of infection and therefore disease transmission. Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions. Their control over regulatory proteolytic cascades ultimately decides whether the recognition of a pathogen will lead to an appropriate immune response. In mosquitoes, serpins (SRPNs) regulate the activation of prophenoloxidase and thus melanization, contribute to malaria parasite lysis, and likely Toll pathway activation. Additionally, in culicine mosquitoes, SRPNs are able to regulate hemostasis in the vertebrate host, suggesting a crucial role during bloodfeeding. This review summarizes the annotation, transcriptional regulation, and current knowledge of SRPN function in the three mosquito species for which the complete genome sequence is available. Additionally, we give a brief overview of how SRPNs may be used to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases.

359) Blood meal induced microRNA regulates development and immune associated genes in the Dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: MicroRNA; Blood meal; Mosquito; aae-miR-375; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 146-152, 2013.
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a blood-feeding mosquito that transmits human pathogens such as Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and Chikungunya virus. Recently, dramatic changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti following a blood meal have been reported; however, the molecular factors involved in regulating these changes are largely unknown. In this study, we found induction of a number of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood fed (BF) mosquitoes. One of these miRNAs, aae-miR-375, was only detected in BF mosquitoes. Based on target analyses, we found six different genes involved in development and immunity being regulated by aae-miR-375 at the post-transcriptional level. We further confirmed the specific interaction of aae-miR-375 with the target sequences in the transcripts of two immune related genes, cactus and REL1, using a GFP-based reporter assay. Overall, results from this report indicate that miRNAs induced upon blood feeding can regulate the transcript levels of several genes that are important in development and immune responses in mosquitoes. In addition, we demonstrate that aae-miR-375 enhances Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in an Ae. aegypti cell line.

360) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of zika virus in singapore
Autor: Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-zhi Irene; Chong, Chee-Seng; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Cheong-Huat
Assunto: Yellow - Fever; Chikungunya; Micronesia; State
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 8, 2013
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV. To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 degrees C and 80-85% RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi). Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose(50) assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious. The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore

361) Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Li M.I., Wong P.S.J., Ng L.C., Tan C.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Flavivirus, host susceptibility, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 8, aug. 2012
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings: To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50) (TCID(50)) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance: This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV. © 2012 Li et al.

362) A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balm M.N., Lee C.K., Lee H.K., Chiu L., Koay E.S., Tang J.W.
Assunto: Flavivirus, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus detection, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 84, n. 9, p. 1501-1505, sept. 2012
ISSN: 0146-6615,1096-9071 (electronic)
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Infection results in a dengue-like illness with fever, headache, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. Nearly all cases are mild and self-limiting but in 2007, a large outbreak of ZIKV was reported from the island of Yap (in Micronesia, northwest of Indonesia). Singapore is already endemic for dengue, and its impact on public health and economic burden is significant. Other dengue-like infections (e.g., Chikungunya virus) are present. Yet only 10% of reported dengue cases have laboratory confirmation. The identification and control of other dengue-like, mosquito-transmitted infections is thus important for the health of Singapore's population, as well as its economy. Given that ZIKV shares the same Aedes mosquito vector with both dengue and Chikungunya, it is possible that this virus is present in Singapore and causing some of the mild dengue-like illness. A specific and sensitive one-step, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with an internal control (IC) was designed and tested on 88 archived samples of dengue-negative, Chikungunya-negative sera from patients presenting to our hospital with a dengue-like illness, to determine the presence of ZIKV in Singapore. The assay was specific for detection of ZIKV and displayed a lower limit of detection (LoD) of 140 copies viral RNA/reaction when tested on synthetic RNA standards prepared using pooled negative patient plasma. Of the 88 samples tested, none were positive for ZIKV RNA, however, the vast majority of these were from patients admitted to hospital and further study may be warranted in community-based environments. J. Med. Virol. 84:1501-1505, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

363) Dengue virus and other arboviruses: A global view of the risks
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rios M., Añ ez G., Chancey C., Grinev A.
Assunto: Arbovirus, blood transfusion, Dengue virus, risk, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 103, supl. 1, p. 62-63, jul. 2012
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are an ecological group of viruses from different families (e.g. Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae and Togaviridae) that use arthropods such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks as vectors for transmission between different hosts. The superb plasticity of these viruses allows propagation to different host systems including both invertebrates and vertebrates. More than 500 species of arboviruses have been described and are listed in the international Catalogue of Arboviruses (http: //www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dvbid/arbovirus.html), many of which are of medical importance. Globally, arbovirus infections have become increasingly common and human diseases caused by arbovirus infections have expanded their frontiers in the last few decades emerging in places with no previous history of epidemic activity or localized transmission of a specific arbovirus. One example is the recent arrival of the West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere and its subsequent propagation in the Americas. Arboviral diseases are also re-emerging in places where the disease had previously been well-controlled or eradicated, resulting in an increasing number of cases and more severe forms of disease in endemic regions. Human infections with arboviruses are mostly asymptomatic but symptomatic infections can range from malaise, mild febrile illness (with flu-like symptoms) to severe disease that progresses to long-term physical or cognitive impairment and/or mortality. For most arboviruses, there is neither vaccine nor specific antiviral treatment currently available. Arboviral infections, like other viral infections, have an incubation period during which viral replication with a viremic phase takes place in the absence of symptoms. Moreover, a large proportion of human infections by most arboviruses remain asymptomatic until the body clears the viruses from circulation. Viremic blood has the potential to transmit infection to blood recipients and therefore arboviruses can pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. For instance, during an epidemic, asymptomatic individuals may donate blood and, in the absence of blood screening tests, transmit the infection to blood component recipients. Among the arboviral infections that have been on the radar for increased activity in the last decade are: WNV, Dengue viruses (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In addition, other arboviral infections such as Yellow Fever, Saint Louis encephalitis, Tick-borne encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis, Powassan, Murray Valley encephalitis and Zika fever have been reported as emerging or re-emerging in various areas around the globe. Alertness and surveillance are required to allow implementation of measures to mitigate risk of transmission to blood recipients including blood screening tests when available and appropriate. In addition, the evidence of increased arbovirus activity worldwide points to the critical need for development of affordable diagnostic and screening assays with high sensitivity and specificity as well as new vaccines and therapies, since most populations at risk reside in less privileged parts of the world. The need for these tools is pressed by the imminent possibility of outbreaks in any part of the world due to the combination of expanding distribution of vectors and increased mobility of infected hosts by travel and trade.

364) Genetic characterization of Zika virus strains: geographic expansion of the Asian lineage.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Haddow, Andrew D.; Schuh, Amy J.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Kasper, Matthew R.; Heang, Vireak; Huy, Rekol; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Virus ; Africa; Animal; Article; Asia; Classification; Cluster analysis; DNA sequence; Federated States of Micronesia; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Genetics; Genotype; Human; Isolation and purification; Molecular epidemiology; Molecular genetics; Phylogeography; Virology ; Africa; Animals; Asia; Cluster Analysis; Flavivirus; Flavivirus Infections; Genotype; Humans; Micronesia; Molecular Epidemiology; Molecular Sequence Data; Phylogeography; RNA, Viral; Sequence Analysis, Nucleotide sequences - glycosylation
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, v. 6, n. 2, 2012.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed throughout much of Africa and Asia. Infection with the virus may cause acute febrile illness that clinically resembles dengue fever. A recent study indicated the existence of three geographically distinct viral lineages; however this analysis utilized only a single viral gene. Although ZIKV has been known to circulate in both Africa and Asia since at least the 1950s, little is known about the genetic relationships between geographically distinct virus strains. Moreover, the geographic origin of the strains responsible for the epidemic that occurred on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, and a 2010 pediatric case in Cambodia, has not been determined. To elucidate the genetic relationships of geographically distinct ZIKV strains and the origin of the strains responsible for the 2007 outbreak on Yap Island and a 2010 Cambodian pediatric case of ZIKV infection, the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frame of five isolates from Cambodia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Senegal collected between 1947 and 2010 were determined. Phylogenetic analyses of these and previously published ZIKV sequences revealed the existence of two main virus lineages (African and Asian) and that the strain responsible for the Yap epidemic and the Cambodian case most likely originated in Southeast Asia. Examination of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments revealed the loss of a potential glycosylation site in some of the virus strains, which may correlate with the passage history of the virus. The basal position of the ZIKV strain isolated in Malaysia in 1966 suggests that the recent outbreak in Micronesia was initiated by a strain from Southeast Asia. Because ZIKV infection in humans produces an illness clinically similar to dengue fever and many other tropical infectious diseases, it is likely greatly misdiagnosed and underreported.

365) Yellow fever virus susceptibility of two mosquito vectors from Kenya, East Africa
Autor: Ellis, Brett R.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Horne, Kate McElroy; Higgs, Stephen; Wesson, Dawn M.
Assunto: Yellow fever; Arboviruses; Aedes; Emerging infectious diseases; Vector-borne disease; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 106, n. 6, p. 387-389, 2012.
ISSN: 0035-9203
Resumo: Yellow fever is an unpredictable disease of increasing epidemic threat in East Africa. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti has never been implicated as a vector in this region and recent outbreaks have involved a newly emerging virus genotype (East African). To better understand the increasing epidemic risk of yellow fever in East Africa, this study is the first to investigate the vector competence for an emerging East African virus genotype in Kenyan A. aegypti sensu latu (s.l) and A. (Stegomyia) simpsoni s.l. mosquito species. Using first filial generation mosquitoes and a low passage yellow fever virus, this study demonstrated that although A. aegypti s.l. is a competent vector, A. simpsoni s.l. is likely a more efficient vector.

366) Wolbachia induces density-dependent inhibition to dengue virus in mosquito cells
Autor: Lu, Peng; Bian, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling; Xi, Zhiyong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Control resistance; Disease transmission; Public health; Biological control; Travel; Genomes; Vectors; Cell culture; Antibiotics; Disease resistance; Pathogens; Salivary gland; Infection; Insecticides; Dengue; Genetic control; Reproduction; Midgut; Vaccines; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 7, 2012.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Wolbachia is a maternal transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium that is estimated to infect up to 65% of insect species. The ability of Wolbachia to both induce viral interference and spread into mosquito vector population makes it possible to develop Wolbachia as a biological control agent for dengue control. While Wolbachia induces resistance to dengue virus in the transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, a similar effect was not observed in Aedes albopictus, which naturally carries Wolbachia infection but still serves as a dengue vector. In order to understand the mechanism of this lack of Wolbachia-mediated viral interference, we used both Ae. albopictus cell line (Aa23) and mosquitoes to characterize the impact of Wolbachia on dengue infection. A serial of sub-lethal doses of antibiotic treatment was used to partially remove Wolbachia in Aa23 cells and generate cell cultures with Wolbachia at different densities. We show that there is a strong negative linear correlation between the genome copy of Wolbachia and dengue virus with a dengue infection completely removed when Wolbacha density reaches a certain level. We then compared Wolbachia density between transinfected Ae. aegypti and naturally infected Ae. albopictus. The results show that Wolbachia density in midgut, fatbody and salivary gland of Ae. albopictus is 80-, 18-, and 24-fold less than that of Ae. aegypti, respectively. We provide evidence that Wolbachia density in somatic tissues of Ae. albopictus is too low to induce resistance to dengue virus. Our results will aid in understanding the mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated pathogen interference and developing novel methods to block disease transmission by mosquitoes carrying native Wolbachia infections. Transmitted by mosquitoes, dengue virus causes the most important arbovirus disease in humans. Increasing problems in insecticide resistance and the lack of drugs and vaccines make it urgent to develop novel strategies for dengue control. Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted Gram-negative endosymbiotic bacterium that infects approximately 28% of mosquito species. It can not only spread within mosquito populations through its unique ability to manipulate mosquito reproduction but can also induce resistance to dengue virus in mosquito vectors. This leads to a genetic control strategy in which mosquito hosts are made to be inhospitable to dengue virus through population replacement. However, it is challenged by the fact that Ae. albopictus naturally carries Wolbachia infections but still services as a dengue vector. In this study we show the native Wolbachia induces a resistance to dengue virus in Wolbachia density-dependent manner in Ae. albopictus. With a decrease in Wolbachia density within the host cells, dengue infection increases dramatically. We provide evidence that a very low Wolbachia density in mosquito tissues where dengue virus will reside and travel could contribute to absence of Wolbachia-mediated resistance to dengue virus in Ae. albopictus.

367) Wolbachia strain wMel induces cytoplasmic incompatibility and blocks dengue transmission in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Blagrove, Marcus S. C.; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Pathogens; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Dengue; Vectors; Immunological tolerance; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 109, n. 1, p. 255-260, 2012.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Wolbachia inherited bacteria are able to invade insect populations using cytoplasmic incompatibility and provide new strategies for controlling mosquito-borne tropical diseases, such as dengue. The overreplicating wMelPop strain was recently shown to strongly inhibit the replication of dengue virus when introduced into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as well as to stimulate chronic immune up-regulation. Here we show that stable introduction of the wMel strain of Drosophila melanogaster into Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue and other arboviruses, abolished the transmission capacity of dengue virus-challenged mosquitoes. Immune up-regulation was observed in the transinfected line, but at a much lower level than that previously found for transinfected Ae. aegypti. Transient infection experiments suggest that this difference is related to Ae. albopictus immunotolerance of Wolbachia, rather than to the Wolbachia strain used. This study provides an example of strong pathogen inhibition in a naturally Wolbachia-infected mosquito species, demonstrating that this inhibition is not limited to naturally naieve species, and suggests that the Wolbachia strain is more important than host background for viral inhibition. Complete bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility was observed with WT strains infected with the naturally occurring Ae. albopictus Wolbachia, and this provides a mechanism for introducing wMel into natural populations of this species.

368) Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites
Autor: Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, Francois; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sebastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Herve, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothee; Favier, Francois; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck
Assunto: Immuno-epidemiologic tool; Adult female mosquito; Chikungunya fever; Anopheles-gambiae; Gland proteins; Aegypti; Marker; Peptide; Culicidae; Infection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 2, 2012
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs.Methodology/Principal Findings: We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders.Conclusion/Significance: Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a "salivary" biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies.

369) Event history analysis of dengue fever epidemic and inter-epidemic spells in Barbados, Brazil, and Thailand
Autor: Parker, Daniel; Holman, Darryl
Assunto: Dengue; Climate; Environment; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 11, p. E793-E798, 2012
ISSN: 1201-9712
Resumo: Objective: This study investigated meteorological and demographic factors affecting the length of dengue fever epidemics and the length of time between epidemics in Barbados, Brazil, and Thailand.Methods: Region-specific meteorological and demographic data were collected for 104 sites from public sources. Fixed effects piecewise logistic event history analysis was used to quantify the effects of time-varying covariates on the duration of inter-epidemic spells and for the duration of epidemics.Results: Mean monthly temperature was the most important factor affecting the duration of both inter-epidemic spells (beta = 0.543; confidence interval (CI) 0.4954, 0.5906) and epidemic spells (beta = -0.648; CI -0.7553, -0.5405). Drought conditions increased the time between epidemics. Increased temperature hastened the onset of an epidemic, and during an epidemic, higher mean temperature increased the duration of the epidemic.Conclusions: By using a duration analysis, this study offers a novel approach for investigating the dynamics of dengue fever epidemiology. Furthermore, these results offer new insights into prior findings of a correlation between temperature and the geographic range and vector efficiency of dengue fever. (C) 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

370) Evidence in Australia for a Case of Airport Dengue
Autor: Whelan, Peter; Huy Nguyen; Hajkowicz, Krispin; Davis, Josh; Smith, David; Pyke, Alyssa; Krause, Vicki; Markey, Peter
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 9, p. -, 2012
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo:

371) Composition of the essential oil constituents from leaves and stems of Korean Coriandrum sativum and their immunotoxicity activity on the Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Chung, I.-M.; Ahmad, A.; Kim, S.-J.; Naik, P. M.; Nagella, P.
Assunto: Oil and gas industry; Leaves; Pollution effects; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Immunotoxicity; Data processing; Chemical composition; Larvae; Essential oils; Immune response; Spectroscopy; Stems; Aedes aegypti; Coriandrum sativum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, v. 34, n. 1, p. 170-174, 2012.
ISSN: 0892-3973
Resumo: The leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of C. sativum leaves and stems. Thirty-nine components representing 99.62% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are cyclododecanol (23.11%), tetradecanal (17.86%), 2-dodecenal (9.93%), 1-decanol (7.24%), 13-tetradecenal (6.85%), 1-dodecanol (6.54%), dodecanal (5.16%), 1-undecanol (2.28%), and decanal (2.33%). Thirty-eight components representing 98.46% of the total oil were identified from the stems of the coriander. The major components are phytol (61.86%), 15-methyltricyclo[6.5.2(13, 14), 0(7, 15)]-pentadeca-1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13-heptene (7.01%), dodecanal (3.18%), and 1-dodecanol (2.47%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC sub(50) value of 26.93 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 37.69 ppm and the stem oil has toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC sub(50) value of 29.39 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 39.95 ppm. Also, the above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils.

372) Zika virus infection, Cambodia, 2010
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heang V., Yasuda C.Y., Sovann L., Haddow A.D., da Rosa A.P.T., Tesh R.B., Kasper M.R.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 18, n. 2, p. 349-351, feb. 2012
ISSN: 1080-6040,1080-6059 (electronic)
Resumo:

373) Fossil rhabdoviral sequences integrated into arthropod genomes: ontogeny, evolution, and potential functionality
Autor: Fort, Philippe; Albertini, Aurelie; Van-Hua, Aurelie; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Roche, Stephane; Delsuc, Frederic; Pasteur, Nicole; Capy, Pierre; Gaudin, Yves; Weill, Mylene
Assunto: Biological surveys; Phylogeny; Genomes; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; Ontogeny; Aquatic insects; Nucleic acids; Evolution; Integration;Fossils; RNA-directed RNA polymerase; Nucleoproteins; DNA; RNA viruses; Glycoproteins; Aedes aegypti; Retrovirus; Arthropoda; Rhabdoviridae; Mononegavirales; Ixodidae; Rhabdovirus; Ixodes scapularis; Filoviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Molecular Biology and Evolution, v. 29, n. 1, p. 381-390, 2012.
ISSN: 0737-4038
Resumo: Retroelements represent a considerable fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and are considered major drives for adaptive genetic innovations. Recent discoveries showed that despite not normally using DNA intermediates like retroviruses do, Mononegaviruses (i.e., viruses with nonsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes) can integrate gene fragments into the genomes of their hosts. This was shown for Bornaviridae and Filoviridae, the sequences of which have been found integrated into the germ line cells of many vertebrate hosts. Here, we show that Rhabdoviridae sequences, the major Mononegavirales family, have integrated only into the genomes of arthropod species. We identified 185 integrated rhabdoviral elements (IREs) coding for nucleoproteins, glycoproteins, or RNA-dependent RNA polymerases; they were mostly found in the genomes of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that most IREs in A. aegypti derived from multiple independent integration events. Since RNA viruses are submitted to much higher substitution rates as compared with their hosts, IREs thus represent fossil traces of the diversity of extinct Rhabdoviruses. Furthermore, analyses of orthologous IREs in A. aegypti field mosquitoes sampled worldwide identified an integrated polymerase IRE fragment that appeared under purifying selection within several million years, which supports a functional role in the host's biology. These results show that A. aegypti was subjected to repeated Rhabdovirus infectious episodes during its evolution history, which led to the accumulation of many integrated sequences. They also suggest that like retroviruses, integrated rhabdoviral sequences may participate actively in the evolution of their hosts.

374) Mouse models for Chikungunya virus: deciphering immune mechanisms responsible for disease and pathology
Autor: Teo, Teck-Hui; Lum, Fok-Moon; Lee, Wendy W. L.; Ng, Lisa F. P.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Infection; Immunity; Pathogenesis; Mouse models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Immunologic Research, v. 53, n. 42430, p. 136-147, 2012
ISSN: 0257-277X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus, has been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks with serious economic and social impact during the last 6 years. Transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, it causes Chikungunya fever, an acute illness in patients with a stooped posture often associated with chronic and incapacitating arthralgia. The unprecedented re-emergence has stimulated renewed interest in CHIKV. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different animal models for CHIKV infections and their importance to study the role of the immune system in different pathologies caused by CHIKV. We also reveal how such studies still present a difficult challenge, but are indispensible for mechanistic studies to further understand the pathophysiology of CHIKV infections.

375) A simple protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars
Autor: Stoepler, Teresa M.; Castillo, Julio C.; Lill, John T.; Eleftherianos, Ioannis
Assunto: Cellular biology; Anatomy; Immunology; Biology; Zoology; Entomology; Cellular immunity; hemocytes; Wild caterpillars; Non-model insects; Lepidoptera; Lithacodes fasciola; Euclea delphinii; Hemolymph; Ecoimmunology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Visualized Experiments, n. 69, 2012
ISSN: 1940-087X
Resumo: Insect hemocytes (equivalent to mammalian white blood cells) play an important role in several physiological processes throughout an insect's life cycle 1. In larval stages of insects belonging to the orders of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and Diptera (true flies), hemocytes are formed from the lymph gland (a specialized hematopoietic organ) or embryonic cells and can be carried through to the adult stage. Embryonic hemocytes are involved in cell migration during development and chemotaxis regulation during inflammation. They also take part in cell apoptosis and are essential for embryogenesis 2. Hemocytes mediate the cellular arm of the insect innate immune response that includes several functions, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, formation of nodules, phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign invaders 3. They are also responsible for orchestrating specific insect humoral defenses during infection, such as the production of antimicrobial peptides and other effector molecules 4, 5. Hemocyte morphology and function have mainly been studied in genetic or physiological insect models, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster 6, 7, the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae 8, 9 and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta 10, 11. However, little information currently exists about the diversity, classification, morphology and function of hemocytes in non-model insect species, especially those collected from the wild 12.Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars. We use penultimate instar Lithacodes fasciola (yellow-shouldered slug moth) (Figure 1) and Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug) caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and show that sufficient volumes of hemolymph (insect blood) can be isolated and hemocyte numbers counted from individual larvae. This method can be used to efficiently study hemocyte types in these species as well as in other related lepidopteran caterpillars harvested from the field, or it can be readily combined with immunological assays designed to investigate hemocyte function following infection with microbial or parasitic organisms 13.

376) New genetic variation of Aedes albopictus densovirus isolated from mosquito C6/36 cell line
Autor: Sangdee, Kusavadee; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Densovirus; C6/36; Genetic variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health , v. 43, n. 5, p. 1122-1133, 2012
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Densovirus (DNV) is a small single-stranded DNA, non-enveloped virus belonging to the subfamily Densovirinae of the Parvoviridae family. This group of invertebrate viruses infects exclusively insects. Two of the major densoviruses, Aedes aegypti (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus (AalDNV), infect mosquitoes that carry viruses responsible for two important public health diseases, namely, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. The present study describes cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a new densovirus, AalDNV-4, from infected Ae. albopictus C6/36 cell line. The total nucleotide sequence (3.9 kb) of AalDNV-4 was obtained from sequencing of DNA fragments, and is 98% homologous to the initial AalDNV previously isolated, and distinguishable from other AalDNVs reported earlier. This full-length viral genome contains a 40-bp deletion at the left terminal region, 12 substitutions and 3 indels. Phylogenetic analysis of AalDNV-4 genome indicates that this virus is more closely related to the original AalDNV found in C6/36 cell line than to AaeDNV isolated from other mosquitoes. It was concluded that AalDNV-4 may have been derived from the original DNV found in the C6/36 cell line and has transferred worldwide from the exchange of this cell line among laboratories.

377) An update on mosquito cell expressed dengue virus receptor proteins
Autor: Smith, D. R.
Assunto: Aedes; Endocytosis; Flavivirus; Prohibitin; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 21, n. 1, p. 1-7, 2012
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Dengue is the most important mosquito transmitted viral disease of humans worldwide. Despite intensive study over several decades, many of the fine details of the dengue virus (DENV) replication cycle remain unknown, although generally more is known about the phase of the replication cycle in mammalian cells as compared to the phase in mosquito cells. This results from a combination of less research emphasis on the mosquito stage, as well as fewer tools such as specific antibodies against mosquito proteins and insect informatics databases. The binding of a virus to a host cell is a first and critical stage in the infectious process and the mechanism and identity of cellular proteins involved in this process remains largely unknown. This short review aims to provide an update on our current understanding of the proteins expressed by mosquito cells that mediate DENV binding as a prerequisite to DENV entry and replication.

378) Genetic characterization of zika virus strains: Geographic expansion of the asian lineage
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Haddow A.D., Schuh A.J., Yasuda C.Y., Kasper M.R., Heang V., Huy R., Guzman H., Tesh R.B., Weaver S.C.
Assunto: Flavivirus, genetic trait, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 2, feb. 2012
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed throughout much of Africa and Asia. Infection with the virus may cause acute febrile illness that clinically resembles dengue fever. A recent study indicated the existence of three geographically distinct viral lineages; however this analysis utilized only a single viral gene. Although ZIKV has been known to circulate in both Africa and Asia since at least the 1950s, little is known about the genetic relationships between geographically distinct virus strains. Moreover, the geographic origin of the strains responsible for the epidemic that occurred on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, and a 2010 pediatric case in Cambodia, has not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings: To elucidate the genetic relationships of geographically distinct ZIKV strains and the origin of the strains responsible for the 2007 outbreak on Yap Island and a 2010 Cambodian pediatric case of ZIKV infection, the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frame of five isolates from Cambodia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Senegal collected between 1947 and 2010 were determined. Phylogenetic analyses of these and previously published ZIKV sequences revealed the existence of two main virus lineages (African and Asian) and that the strain responsible for the Yap epidemic and the Cambodian case most likely originated in Southeast Asia. Examination of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments revealed the loss of a potential glycosylation site in some of the virus strains, which may correlate with the passage history of the virus. Conclusions/Significance: The basal position of the ZIKV strain isolated in Malaysia in 1966 suggests that the recent outbreak in Micronesia was initiated by a strain from Southeast Asia. Because ZIKV infection in humans produces an illness clinically similar to dengue fever and many other tropical infectious diseases, it is likely greatly misdiagnosed and underreported.

379) Obligate Symbionts Activate Immune System Development in the Tsetse Fly
Autor: Weiss, Brian L.; Maltz, Michele; Aksoy, Serap
Assunto: Life shortening wolbachia; Anopheles gambiae; Wigglesworthia glossinidia; Aedes aegypti; Mutualist wigglesworthia; Drosophila melanogaster; Bacterial infection; Vector competence; Host; Morsitans
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Immunology, v. 188, n. 7, p. 3395-3403, 2012
ISSN: 0022-1767
Resumo: Many insects rely on the presence of symbiotic bacteria for proper immune system function. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Adult tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house three symbiotic bacteria that are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring during this insect's unique viviparous mode of reproduction. Larval tsetse that undergo intrauterine development in the absence of their obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, exhibit a compromised immune system during adulthood. In this study, we characterize the immune phenotype of tsetse that develop in the absence of all of their endogenous symbiotic microbes. Aposymbiotic tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans [Gmm(Apo)]) present a severely compromised immune system that is characterized by the absence of phagocytic hemocytes and atypical expression of immunity-related genes. Correspondingly, these flies quickly succumb to infection with normally nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. The susceptible phenotype exhibited by Gmm(Apo) adults can be reversed when they receive hemocytes transplanted from wild-type donor flies prior to infection. Furthermore, the process of immune system development can be restored in intrauterine Gmm(Apo) larvae when their mothers are fed a diet supplemented with Wigglesworthia cell extracts. Our finding that molecular components of Wigglesworthia exhibit immunostimulatory activity within tsetse is representative of a novel evolutionary adaptation that steadfastly links an obligate symbiont with its host. The Journal of Immunology, 2012, 188: 3395-3403.

380) Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus
Autor: Li, MeiZhi Irene; Wong, Pei Sze Jeslyn; Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat
Assunto: West nile virus; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus; Dengue 2 virus; Geographic strains; D¡ptera culicidae; Vector competence; Yellow fever; Infection; Mosquitos; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 8, p. -, 2012
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 degrees C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50) (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

381) Constraints on the use of lifespan-shortening Wolbachia to control dengue fever
Autor: Schraiber, Joshua G.; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N.; Kwok, Ricky; Park, Miran; Silverstein, Rachel; Rutaganira, Florentine U.; Aggarwal, Taruna; Schwemmer, Michael A.; Hom, Carole L.; Grosberg, Richard K.; Schreiber, Sebastian J.
Assunto: Human diseases; Fecundity; Viral diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Demography; Fitness; Disease spread; Data processing; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Dengue; Life span; Infection; Models; Prediction; Velocity; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ;Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 297, p. 26-32, 2012.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Dengue fever, a viral disease spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, affects 50-100 million people a year in many tropical countries. Because the virus must incubate within mosquito hosts for two weeks before being able to transmit the infection, shortening the lifespan of mosquitoes may curtail dengue transmission. We developed a continuous time reaction-diffusion model of the spatial spread of Wolbachia through a population of A. aegypti. This model incorporates the lifespan-shortening effects of Wolbachia on infected A. aegypti and the fitness advantage to infected females due to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). We found that local establishment of the Wolbachia infection can occur if the fitness advantage due to CI exceeds the fitness reduction due to lifespan-shortening effects, in accordance with earlier results concerning fecundity reduction. However, spatial spread is possible only if the fitness advantage due to CI is twice as great as the fitness reduction due to lifespan shortening effects. Moreover, lifespan-shortening and fecundity-reduction can have different effects on the speed of wave-retreat. Using data from the literature, we estimated all demographic parameters for infected and uninfected mosquitoes and computed the velocities of spread of infection. Our most optimistic estimates suggest that the spatial spread of lifespan-shortening Wolbachia may be so slow that efficient spatial spread would require a prohibitively large number of point releases. However, as these estimates of demographic parameters may not accurately reflect natural conditions, further research is necessary to corroborate these predictions.

382) Zika virus infection, Cambodia, 2010.
Autor: Heang Vireak,Yasuda Chadwick Y,Sovann Ly,Haddow Andrew D,Travassos da Rosa Amelia P,Tesh Robert B,Kasper Matthew R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 18, n. 2, p. 349-351, 2012
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

383) Dendritic cell apoptosis and the pathogenesis of dengue
Autor: de T. Martins, S.; Silveira, G. F.; Alves, L. R.; dos Santos, C. N. D.; Bordignon, J.
Assunto: Dendritic cell; Apoptosis; Dengue virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 4, n. 11, p. 2736-2753, 2012.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue viruses and other members of the Flaviviridae family are emerging human pathogens. Dengue is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes. Following infection through the bite, cells of the hematopoietic lineage, like dendritic cells, are the first targets of dengue virus infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells, sensing pathogens, processing and presenting the antigens to T lymphocytes, and triggering an adaptive immune response. Infection of DCs by dengue virus may induce apoptosis, impairing their ability to present antigens to T cells, and thereby contributing to dengue pathogenesis. This review focuses on general mechanisms by which dengue virus triggers apoptosis, and possible influence of DC-apoptosis on dengue disease severity.

384) Identification of dengue virus in Aedes mosquitoes and patients' sera from Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand
Autor: Teerasut, C.; Petphuwadee, U.; Thammapalo, S.; Jampangern, W.; Limkittikul, K.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Symptoms; Human diseases; Breeding sites; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Pediatrics; Control programs; Secondary infection; Spraying; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Infectious diseases; Shock; Dengue; Polymerase chain reaction; Dengue virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 43, n. 3, p. 641-645, 2012.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are the re-emerging infectious diseases caused by dengue (DEN) virus, transmitted by Aedes mosquito. There are more than 100,000 cases of dengue infection and more than 100 deaths annually in Thailand. Virological surveillance for DEN viruses is used as an early warning system to predict outbreaks. The seroprevalence of infection and serotypes of DEN virus in 116 pediatric patients at Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand were analyzed during June to September 2004. At the same period, Aedes mosquitoes were caught from patients' and their neighbors' houses, from control houses, located in villages with no report of dengue infection during the previous 3 years. The majority of DHF cases were secondary infections of DEN-2 and DEN-4 serotypes. Of the 1,652 Aedes mosquitoes collected 1,583 were Ae. aegypti and 69 Ae. albopictus. Ten mosquitoes from each house were pooled and dengue viruses were determined using RT-PCR assay; only 1 positive pooled was found. Although the dengue infection rate in the field caught mosquitoes was low, the existing dengue virus control program in transmission areas by aerial spraying to destroy the larva breeding sites should be continued.

385) Host-Feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: culicidae) of west nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal
Autor: Osorio, Hugo Costa; Ze-Ze, Libia; Alves, Maria Joao
Assunto: Dominant species; Cytochromes; Species diversity; Pathogens; Detritus; Disease transmission; Public health; Cytochrome b; Feeding behavior; Aedes aegypti; Culex pipiens; Culicidae; Diptera; West Nile virus; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae; Anopheles maculipennis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 49, n. 3, p. 717-721, 2012.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/ 78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

386) Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of human cortical bone: influence of different processing methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kaminski, Artur; Jastrzebska, Anna; Grazka, Ewelina; Marowska, Joanna; Gut, Grzegorz; Wojciechowski, Artur; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela
Assunto: Biomechanical phenomena, Cadaver , Humans Male, Middle aged, Particle accelerators, Stress - Mechanical
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Banking, v. 13, n. 3, p. 363-374, 2012.
ISSN: 1389-9333
Resumo: The secondary sterilisation by irradiation reduces the risk of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts. Achieving sterility of bone tissue grafts compromises its biomechanical properties. There are several factors, including dose and temperature of irradiation, as well as processing conditions, that may influence mechanical properties of a bone graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation with doses of 25 or 35 kGy, performed on dry ice or at ambient temperature, on mechanical properties of non-defatted or defatted compact bone grafts. Left and right femurs from six male cadaveric donors aged from 46 to 54 years, were transversely cut into slices of 10 mm height, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Compact bone rings were assigned to the eight experimental groups according to the different processing method (defatted or non-defatted), as well as gamma irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy) and temperature conditions of irradiation (ambient temperature or dry ice). Axial compression testing was performed with a material testing machine. Results obtained for elastic and plastic regions of stress-strain curves examined by univariate analysis are described. Based on multivariate analysis it was found that defatting of bone rings had no significant effect on any mechanical parameter studied, whereas irradiation with both doses decreased significantly the ultimate strain and its derivative toughness. The elastic limit and resilience were significantly increased by irradiation with the dose 25 kGy, but not 35 kGy, when the time of irradiation was longer. Additionally, irradiation at ambient temperature decreased maximum load, elastic limit, resilience, and ultimate stress. As strain in the elastic region was not affected, decreased elastic limit resulted in lower resilience. The opposite phenomenon was observed in the plastic region, where in spite of the lower ultimate stress, the toughness was increased due to the increase in the ultimate strain. The results of our study suggest that there may be an association between mechanical properties of bone tissue grafts and the damage process of collagen structure during gamma irradiation. This collagen damage in cortical bone allografts containing water does not depends on the temperature of irradiation or defatting during processing if dose of gamma irradiation does not exceed 35 kGy.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

387) Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti)
Autor: Telang, A.; Qayum, A. A.; Parker, A.; Sacchetta, B. R.; Byrnes, G. R.
Assunto: Barriers; Larvae; Hosts; Immunity; Blood cells; Nutrition; Disease transmission; Immune status; Basal lamina; Stress; Nutrients; Nutrient deficiency; Yellow fever; Hemocytes; Midgut; Immune response; Antimicrobial peptides; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 26, n. 3, pp 271-281, 2012.
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress.

388) A novel coding-region RNA element modulates infectious dengue virus particle production in both mammalian and mosquito cells and regulates viral replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Groat-Carmona, Anna Maria; Orozco, Susana; Friebe, Peter; Payne, Anne; Kramer, Laura; Harris, Eva
Assunto: Dengue virus; Flavivirus; Cis-acting RNA regulatory element; Viral replication; Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 432, n. 2, p. 511-526, 2012
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an enveloped flavivirus with a positive-sense RNA genome transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans. Relatively few cis-acting RNA regulatory elements have been described in the DENV coding-region. Here, by introducing silent mutations into a DENV-2 infectious clone, we identify the conserved capsid-coding region 1 (CCR1), an RNA sequence element that regulates viral replication in mammalian cells and to a greater extent in Ae. albopictus mosquito cells. These defects were confirmed in vivo, resulting in decreased replication in Ae. aegypti mosquito bodies and dissemination to the salivary glands. Furthermore. CCR1 does not regulate translation, RNA synthesis or virion retention but likely modulates assembly, as mutations resulted in the release of non-infectious viral particles from both cell types. Understanding the role of CCR1 could help characterize the poorly-defined stage of assembly in the DENV life cycle and uncover novel anti-viral targets. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

389) A portable approach for the surveillance of dengue virus-infected mosquitoes
Autor: Muller, David A.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Rojas, Alejandra; Moreira, Luciano A.; O'Neill, Scott L.; Young, Paul R.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Mosquito; Field surveillance; Virus detection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 183, n. 1, p. 90-93, 2012
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Dengue virus is the most significant human viral pathogen spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. With no vaccine or antiviral therapy currently available, disease prevention relies largely on surveillance and mosquito control. Preventing the onset of dengue outbreaks and effective vector management would be considerably enhanced through surveillance of dengue virus prevalence in natural mosquito populations. However, current approaches to the identification of virus in field-caught mosquitoes require relatively slow and labor intensive techniques such as virus isolation or RT-PCR involving specialized facilities and personnel. A rapid and portable method for detecting dengue virus-infected mosquitoes is described. Using a hand held battery operated homogenizer and a dengue diagnostic rapid strip the viral protein NS1 was detected as a marker of dengue virus infection. This method could be performed in less than 30 min in the field, requiring no downstream processing, and is able to detect a single infected mosquito in a pool of at least 50 uninfected mosquitoes. The method described in this study allows rapid, real-time monitoring of dengue virus presence in mosquito populations and could be a useful addition to effective monitoring and vector control responses. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

390) Reciprocal tripartite interactions between the Aedes aegypti midgut microbiota, innate immune system and dengue virus influences vector competence
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Torres Cosme, Rolando; Rovira, Jose; Ortiz, Alma; Pascale, Juan M; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Biological control; Symptoms; Human diseases; Commensals; Pest control; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Transcription; Infection; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Shock; Dengue; Microflora; Midgut; Immune response; Antimicrobial peptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 6, n. 3, 2012.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus is one of the most important arboviral pathogens and the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is transmitted between humans by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and at least 2.5 billion people are at daily risk of infection. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, some of which are needed for their successful development into adulthood. However, recent studies have suggested that the adult mosquito's midgut microflora is critical in influencing the transmission of human pathogens. In this study we assessed the reciprocal interactions between the mosquito's midgut microbiota and dengue virus infection that are, to a large extent, mediated by the mosquito's innate immune system. We observed a marked decrease in susceptibility to dengue virus infection when mosquitoes harbored certain field-derived bacterial isolates in their midgut. Transcript abundance analysis of selected antimicrobial peptide genes suggested that the mosquito's microbiota elicits a basal immune activity that appears to act against dengue virus infection. Conversely, the elicitation of the mosquito immune response by dengue virus infection itself influences the microbial load of the mosquito midgut. In sum, we show that the mosquito's microbiota influences dengue virus infection of the mosquito, which in turn activates its antibacterial responses. Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, and many of them inhabit the mosquito midgut, thereby sharing the same environment with ingested pathogens. The mosquito midgut is the site of multiple reciprocal interactions between the mosquito, its commensal bacteria, and ingested pathogens that will ultimately influence the level of pathogen infection and transmission. In this study the authors addressed the reciprocal interactions between the Aedes immune system, dengue virus and mosquito midgut microbiota using molecular and microbiological assays. The study showed that certain field-derived bacterial isolates of the mosquito midgut exert a detrimental effect on dengue virus infection. This effect is at least partly manifested through the action of the mosquito immune system which is activated by microbes. Conversely, dengue virus infection induces immune responses in the mosquito midgut tissue that act against the natural mosquito midgut microbiota. This study contributes to our understanding of dengue virus infection in Aedes mosquitoes, which may aid towards the development of novel biocontrol strategies to halt dengue transmission.

391) Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kilpatrick, A Marm; Randolph, Sarah E
Assunto: Zoonoses, West Nile virus, Public health, Livestock, Infections, Climate change, Decades, Land use, Dengue fever, Ecologists
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 380, n. 9857, p. 1946-1955, 2012.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Emerging vector-borne diseases are an important issue in global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, while many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and emergence of endemic pathogens are often considered to be distinct processes, many endemic pathogens are actually spreading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We draw attention to key differences between dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission after habitat change and after introduction into new regions. Local emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles, whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel where and when conditions (eg, hosts, vectors, and climate) are suitable for a pathogen. Once a pathogen is established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics can shape the evolutionary selective pressure and result in increased use of people as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that could be effective in the long term.

392) Aedes albopictus and the reemergence of Dengue
Autor: Rezza, Giovanni
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Viruses; Environmental factors; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Eggs; Larvae; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 12, n. 1, 2012.
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Dengue is a vector-borne disease that is estimated to affect millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas, and it is reemerging in areas that have been disease-free for relatively long periods of time. In this issue of the journal, Peng et al. report on a Dengue outbreak in a city in southern China that had been disease-free for more than two decades. The infection, which was due to serotype 1, was introduced by a traveler from South-east Asia and transmitted by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Compared to Aedes aegypti, which is the most important vector of Dengue, Ae albopictus is a less competent vector of arboviruses, and the epidemics it causes are milder. However, Ae albopictus is becoming an increasingly important vector because of its rapidly changing global distribution. In particular, the worldwide trade in second hand tires, which often contain water and are an ideal place for eggs and larvae, has been a key factor in the large-scale conquest of Ae albopictus, which easily adapts to new environments, even in a temperate climate. This expansion is creating new opportunities for viruses to circulate in new areas, becoming a common cause of epidemics in Ae aegypti-free countries, from Hawaii to Mauritius. The outbreak in China, like similar events, was mild and short-lived. Because epidemics due to Ae albopictus are milder, the replacement of Ae aegypti with the tiger mosquito could even result in public-health benefits. However, there is no solid evidence of this, and the milder course of the outbreak could be in part explained by the relatively short duration of the hot season in some affected areas. Since it is almost impossible to prevent Ae albopictus from being introduced in a country, mosquito-control measures at local level remain the most effective means of controlling arbovirus outbreaks.

393) Association of human immune response to Aedes aegypti salivary proteins with dengue disease severity
Autor: Machain-Williams, C.; Mammen Jr., M. P.; Zeidner, N. S.; Beaty, B. J.; Blair, C. D.; Prenni, J. E.; Nisalak, A.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viruses; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Infection; Children; Gel electrophoresis; Dengue; Hemorrhagic fever; Saliva; Immune response; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasite Immunology, v. 34, n. 1, p. 15-22, 2012.
ISSN: 0141-9838
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and can cause dengue fever (DF), a relatively benign disease, or more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Arthropod saliva contains proteins delivered into the bite wound that can modulate the host haemostatic and immune responses to facilitate the intake of a blood meal. The potential effects on DENV infection of previous exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary proteins have not been investigated. We collected Ae. aegypti saliva, concentrated the proteins and fractionated them by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By the use of immunoblots, we analysed reactivity with the mosquito salivary proteins (MSP) of sera from 96 Thai children diagnosed with secondary DENV infections leading either to DF or DHF, or with no DENV infection, and found that different proportions of each patient group had serum antibodies reactive to specific Ae. aegypti salivary proteins. Our results suggest that prior exposure to MSP might play a role in the outcome of DENV infection in humans.

394) Composition and immunotoxicity activity of major essential oils from stems of Allium victorialis L. var. platyphyllum Makino against Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Chung, I.-M.; Song, H.-K.; Yeo, M.-A.; Moon, H.-I.
Assunto: Chromatographic techniques; Oil and gas industry; Toxicity; Strains; Major constituents; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Immunotoxicity; Chemical composition; Gas chromatography; Dimethyl trisulfide; Essential oils; Immune response; Aedes aegypti; Allium victorialis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, v. 33, n. 3, p. 480-483, 2011.
ISSN: 0892-3973
Resumo: The stems of Allium victorialis L. var. platyphyllum were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. victorialis L. var. platyphyllum stems. The A. victorialis L. var. platyphyllum essential oil yield was 1.45%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were allyl methyl disulfide (24.36%), dimethyl trisulfide (11.78%), allyl cis-1-propenyl disulfide (9.17%), allyl methyl trisulfide (4.13%), and dipropyl trisulfide (7.22%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L. with an LC sub(50) value of 24.12 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 34.67 ppm. Also, allyl methyl disulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), dimethyl trisulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), allyl cis-1-propenyl disulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), allyl methyl trisulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), and dipropyl trisulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%) were tested against the F sub(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Allyl cis-1-propenyl disulfide ( greater than or equal to 95.0%) has good activity with an LC sub(50) value of 15.35 ppm. Also, the above data indicate that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oils.

395) Estimating the Magnitude and Direction of Altered Arbovirus Transmission Due to Viral Phenotype
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: West-nile-virus; Culex-pipiens diptera; Vector competence; Aedes Aegypti; Dengue virus; Laboratory transmission; Japanese encephalitis; Vertical transmission; Malaria transmission; Extrinsic incubation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 6, n. 1, p. -, 2011
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Vectorial capacity is a measure of the transmission potential of a vector borne pathogen within a susceptible population. Vector competence, a component of the vectorial capacity equation, is the ability of an arthropod to transmit an infectious agent following exposure to that agent. Comparisons of arbovirus strain-specific vector competence estimates have been used to support observed or hypothesized differences in transmission capability. Typically, such comparisons are made at a single time point during the extrinsic incubation period, the time in days it takes for the virus to replicate and disseminate to the salivary glands. However, vectorial capacity includes crucial parameters needed to effectively evaluate transmission capability, though often this is based on the discrete vector competence values. Utilization of the rate of change of vector competence over a range of days gives a more accurate measurement of the transmission potential. Accordingly, we investigated the rate of change in vector competence of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the resulting vectorial capacity curves. The areas under the curves represent the effective vector competence and the cumulative transmission potentials of arboviruses within a population of mosquitoes. We used the calculated area under the curve for each virus strain and the corresponding variance estimates to test for differences in cumulative transmission potentials between strains of dengue virus based on our dynamic model. To further characterize differences between dengue strains, we devised a displacement index interpreted as the capability of a newly introduced strain to displace the established, dominant circulating strain. The displacement index can be used to better understand the transmission dynamics in systems where multiple strains/serotypes circulate or even multiple arbovirus species. The use of a rate of a rate of change based model of vectorial capacity and the informative calculations of the displacement index will lead to better measurements of the differences in transmission potential of arboviruses.

396) Impact of daily temperature fluctuations on dengue virus transmission by Aedes aegypti
Autor: Lambrechts, Louis; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Carrington, Lauren B.; Kramer, Laura D.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Climate; Vectorial capacity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 108, n. 18, p. 7460-7465, 2011.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Most studies on the ability of insect populations to transmit pathogens consider only constant temperatures and do not account for realistic daily temperature fluctuations that can impact vector-pathogen interactions. Here, we show that diurnal temperature range (DTR) affects two important parameters underlying dengue virus (DENV) transmission by Aedes aegypti. In two independent experiments using different DENV serotypes, mosquitoes were less susceptible to virus infection and died faster under larger DTR around the same mean temperature. Large DTR (20 degree C) decreased the probability of midgut infection, but not duration of the virus extrinsic incubation period (EIP), compared with moderate DTR (10 degree C) or constant temperature. A thermodynamic model predicted that at mean temperatures 18 degree C, larger DTR reduces DENV transmission. The negative impact of DTR on Ae. aegypti survival indicates that large temperature fluctuations will reduce the probability of vector survival through EIP and expectation of infectious life. Seasonal variation in the amplitude of daily temperature fluctuations helps to explain seasonal forcing of DENV transmission at locations where average temperature does not vary seasonally and mosquito abundance is not associated with dengue incidence. Mosquitoes lived longer and were more likely to become infected under moderate temperature fluctuations, which is typical of the high DENV transmission season than under large temperature fluctuations, which is typical of the low DENV transmission season. Our findings reveal the importance of considering short-term temperature variations when studying DENV transmission dynamics.

397) Comparative analysis of hemocyte phagocytosis between six species of arthropods as measured by flow cytometry
Autor: Oliver, Jonathan D.; Dusty Loy, J.; Parikh, Grishma; Bartholomay, Lyric
Assunto: Flow cytometry; Pathology; Pathogens; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Phagocytosis; Aquatic insects; Data processing; Phagocytes; Hemocytes; Immune response; Infection; Amblyomma americanum; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Ixodidae; Manduca sexta; Litopenaeus vannamei; Dermacentor variabilis; Ixodes scapularis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, v. 108, n. 2, p. 126-130, 2011.
ISSN: 0022-2011
Resumo: Phagocytosis of pathogens by hemocytes is a rapid-acting immune response and represents a primary means of limiting microbial infection in some species of arthropods. To survey the relative capacity of hemocyte phagocytosis as a function of the arthropod immune response, we examined the extent of phagocytosis among a wide taxonomic range of arthropod species including a decapod crustacean (Litopenaeus vannamei), three ixodid tick species (Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis), a mosquito species (Aedes aegypti), and a larval moth (Manduca sexta). Injected fluorescent beads were used as a model to elicit phagocytosis and were measured by flow cytometry, a technique provided in detail that may be adapted for use with any species of arthropod. The data indicated that smaller arthropods generally had a higher proportion of phagocytic cells than larger arthropods.

398) Effects of Plasmodium gallinaceum on hemolymph physiology of Aedes aegypti during parasite development
Autor: Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Maciel, Ceres; Hartfelder, Klaus; Capurro, Margareth Lara
Assunto: Vitellogenesis; Hemolymph; Innate immune response; Aedes aegypti; Plasmodium gallinaceum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 57, n. 2, p. 265-273, 2011
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Insect disease vectors show diminished fecundity when infected with Plasmodium. This phenomenon has already been demonstrated in laboratory models such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. This study demonstrates several changes in physiological processes of A. aegypti occurring upon infection with Plasmodium gallinaceum, such as reduced ecdysteroid levels in hemolymph as well as altered expression patterns for genes involved in vitellogenesis, lipid transport and immune response. Furthermore, we could show that P. gallinaceum infected A. aegypti presented a reduction in reproductive fitness, accompanied by an activated innate immune response and increase in lipophorin expression, with the latter possibly representing a nutritional resource for Plasmodium sporozoites. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

399) Endemic Dengue Associated with the Co-Circulation of Multiple Viral Lineages and Localized Density-Dependent Transmission
Autor: Raghwani, Jayna; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Vu Ty Hang; Tran Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Wills, Bridget; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti; Puerto-Rico; Molecular evolution; Hemorrhagic-fever; Virus type-2; Dispersal; Emergence; Selection; Epidemic; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 7, n. 6, 2011
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Dengue is one of the most important infectious diseases of humans and has spread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical world. Despite this widespread dispersal, the determinants of dengue transmission in endemic populations are not well understood, although essential for virus control. To address this issue we performed a phylogeographic analysis of 751 complete genome sequences of dengue 1 virus (DENV-1) sampled from both rural (Dong Thap) and urban (Ho Chi Minh City) populations in southern Viet Nam during the period 2003-2008. We show that DENV-1 in Viet Nam exhibits strong spatial clustering, with likely importation from Cambodia on multiple occasions. Notably, multiple lineages of DENV-1 co-circulated in Ho Chi Minh City. That these lineages emerged at approximately the same time and dispersed over similar spatial regions suggests that they are of broadly equivalent fitness. We also observed an important relationship between the density of the human host population and the dispersion rate of dengue, such that DENV-1 tends to move from urban to rural populations, and that densely populated regions within Ho Chi Minh City act as major transmission foci. Despite these fluid dynamics, the dispersion rates of DENV-1 are relatively low, particularly in Ho Chi Minh City where the virus moves less than an average of 20 km/year. These low rates suggest a major role for mosquito-mediated dispersal, such that DENV-1 does not need to move great distances to infect a new host when there are abundant susceptibles, and imply that control measures should be directed toward the most densely populated urban environments.

400) Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from Lindera obtusiloba Blume against Aedes aegypti L
Autor: Chung, I.-M.; Moon, H.-I.
Assunto: Chromatographic techniques; Oil and gas industry; Major constituents; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; alpha -Copaene; Immunotoxicity; Chemical composition; Gas chromatography; Humulene; Farnesene; Leaves; Larvae; Essential oils; Immune response; Caryophyllene; nerolidol; Aedes aegypti; Lindera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, v. 33, n. 1, p. 146-149, 2011.
ISSN: 0892-3973
Resumo: The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. obtusiloba were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of L. obtusiloba. The L. obtusiloba essential oil yield was 4.23%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were alpha -copaene (31.42%), beta -caryophyllene (32.11%), alpha -humulene (4.12%), beta -farnesene (4.15%), alpha -cadinene (3.21%) and Nerolidol (6.84%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC sub(50) value of 24.32 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 36.42 ppm.

401) Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Aedes aegypti L
Autor: Moon, H. I.; Cho, S. B.; Kim, S. K.
Assunto: Chromatographic techniques; Oil and gas industry; Toxicity; Strains; Major constituents; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Immunotoxicity; Chemical composition; Citronellol; Gas chromatography; Camphene; Larvae; Leaves; Essential oils; Immune response; Aedes aegypti; Zingiber officinale
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, v. 33, n. 1, p. 201-204, 2011.
ISSN: 0892-3973
Resumo: The leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of Z. officinale leaves. The Z. officinale essential oil yield was 0.26%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were Camphene (5.26%), Phellandrene (6.58%), Zingiberene (36.48%), Geranial (4.32%), beta -gurjunene (2.74%), and Citronellol beta -sesguiphellandrene (12.31%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC sub(50) value of 46.38 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 84.32 ppm. Also, Camphene ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), Phellandrene ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), Zingiberene ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), Geranial ( greater than or equal to 95.0%), beta -gurjunene ( greater than or equal to 97.0%), and Citronellol ( greater than or equal to 95.0%) were tested against the F21 laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Zingiberene ( greater than or equal to 95.0%) and Citronellol ( greater than or equal to 95.0%) have medium activity with an LC sub(50) value of 99.55 ppm and 141.45 ppm. This indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.

402) Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein Is a Cellular Receptor for Sindbis Virus in Both Insect and Mammalian Hosts
Autor: Rose, Patrick P.; Hanna, Sheri L.; Spiridigliozzi, Anna; Wannissorn, Nattha; Beiting, Daniel P.; Ross, Susan R.; Hardy, Richard W.; Bambina, Shelly A.; Heise, Mark T.; Cherry, Sara
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Cell host & Microbe, v. 10, n. 2, p. 97-104, 2011
ISSN: 1931-3128
Resumo: Alphaviruses, including several emerging human pathogens, are a large family of mosquito-borne viruses with Sindbis virus being a prototypical member of the genus. The host factor requirements and receptors for entry of this class of viruses remain obscure. Using a Drosophila system, we identified the divalent metal ion transporter natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) as a host cell surface molecule required for Sindbis virus binding and entry into Drosophila cells. Consequently, flies mutant for dNRAMP were protected from virus infection. NRAMP2, the ubiquitously expressed vertebrate homolog, mediated binding and infection of Sindbis virus into mammalian cells, and murine cells deficient for NRAMP2 were nonpermissive to infection. Alphavirus glycoprotein chimeras demonstrated that the requirement for NRAMP2 is at the level of Sindbis virus entry. Given the conserved structure of alphavirus glycoproteins, and the widespread use of transporters for viral entry, other alpha-viruses may use conserved multipass membrane proteins for infection.

403) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes aegypti in Bolivia
Autor: Le Goff, G.; Revollo, J.; Guerra, M.; Cruz, M.; Barja Simon, Z.; Roca, Y.; Vargas Flores, J.; Herve, J. P.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vertical transmission; Dengue virus; PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasite-journal de la Societe Francaise de Parasitologie, v. 18, n. 3, p. 277-280, 2011
ISSN: 1252-607X
Resumo: The natural transmission of dengue virus from an infected female mosquito to its progeny, namely the vertical transmission, was researched in wild caught Aedes aegypti during an important outbreak in the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Mosquitoes were collected at the preimaginal stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) then reared up to adult stage for viral detection using molecular methods. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulating with significant higher prevalence in male than in female mosquitoes. Of the 97 pools of Ae. aegypti (n = 635 male and 748 female specimens) screened, 14 pools, collected in February-May in 2007, were found positive for dengue virus infection: five DEN-1 and nine DEN-3. The average true infection rate (TIR) and minimum infection rate (MIR) were respectively 1.08 % and 1.01 %. These observations suggest that vertical transmission of dengue virus may be detected in vectors at the peak of an outbreak as well as several months before an epidemic occurs in human population.

404) Guillain Barre Syndrome complicating Plasmodium falciparum malaria
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Misra, Saheli; Chakrabartty, Subroto
Assunto: Nerves; Symptoms; Parasites; Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Malaria; Developing countries; Public health; Paralysis; Case reports; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Neurological complications; Nerve conduction; Children; Immunoglobulins; Plasmodium falciparum
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, v. 6, n. 2, p. 137-139, 2011
ISSN: 1305-7707
Resumo: Neurological complications of falciparum malaria are quite common. Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) as a complication of malaria is rare especially in children but has been reported from other developing countries. We report a case of an 8 year old girl who had developed an ascending paralysis following an attack of Plasmodium falciparum} malaria. She was diagnosed with GBS. The clinical presentation and nerve conduction velocity studies were helpful in taking a definitive approach. She was treated with immunoglobulin and improved remarkably.

405) Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Recent Horizontal Transfer of a DNA Transposon between Divergent Mosquitoes
Autor: Diao, Yupu; Qi, Yumin; Ma, Yajun; Xia, Ai; Sharakhov, Igor; Chen, Xiaoguang; Biedler, Jim; Ling, Erjun; Tu, Zhijian Jake
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Aedes aegypti; Gene transfer; Evolution; Element; Drosophila; Insects; Vector; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 6, n. 2, p. -, 2011
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (TEs). For example, a DNA transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. Here we report the discovery and characterization of an ITmD37D transposon, MJ1, in Anopheles sinensis. We show that some MJ1 elements in Aedes aegypti and An. sinensis contain intact open reading frames and share nearly 99% nucleotide identity over the entire transposon, which is unexpectedly high given that these two genera had diverged 145-200 million years ago. Chromosomal hybridization and TE-display showed that MJ1 copy number is low in An. sinensis. Among 24 mosquito species surveyed, MJ1 is only found in Ae. aegypti and the hyrcanus group of anopheline mosquitoes to which An. sinensis belongs. Phylogenetic analysis is consistent with horizontal transfer and provides the basis for inference of its timing and direction. Although report of horizontal transfer of DNA transposons between higher eukaryotes is accumulating, our analysis is one of a small number of cases in which horizontal transfer of nearly identical TEs among highly divergent species has been thoroughly investigated and strongly supported. Horizontal transfer involving mosquitoes is of particular interest because there are ongoing investigations of the possibility of spreading pathogen-resistant genes into mosquito populations to control malaria and other infectious diseases. The initial indication of horizontal transfer of MJ1 came from comparisons between a 0.4x coverage An. sinensis 454 sequence database and available TEs in mosquito genomes. Therefore we have shown that it is feasible to use low coverage sequencing to systematically uncover horizontal transfer events. Expanding such efforts across a wide range of species will generate novel insights into the relative frequency of horizontal transfer of different TEs and provide the evolutionary context of these lateral transfer events.

406) Serial nerve conduction studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Guillain-Barre and Fisher syndromes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shahrizaila, Nortina; Goh, Khean Jin; Kokubun, Norito; Abdullah, Suhailah; Yuki, Nobuhiro
Assunto: Nerves; Symptoms; Miller-Fisher syndrome; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Demyelination; Nerve conduction; Polyneuropathy; Inflammation; Neuropathy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Inflammation
Fonte: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, v. 309, n. 1-2, p. 26-30, 2011
ISSN: 0022-510X
Resumo: The electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) can be broadly divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Fisher syndrome (FS) is a variant of GBS, although the underlying neuropathy of FS has yet to be established. Serial nerve conduction studies (NCS) can provide further insight into the likely pathophysiology by further subtyping of GBS and FS. We present a patient with an initial diagnosis of AIDP in whom repeated NCS revealed the AMAN variant. This led us to investigate serial NCS in five patients with GBS, FS and FS/GBS overlap presenting over a period of a year. Three patients with AIDP showed a gradual increase in distal motor latencies during the acute phase of illness. NCS of two patients with FS and FS/GBS overlap showed no demyelinating features suggesting underlying axonal neuropathy in this group of patients. The importance of serial NCS in establishing the underlying pattern of neuropathy in GBS and FS is further emphasized in this study. Larger studies incorporating serial NCS are required to confirm the observations seen in our case series especially when pathological studies are often not justified in this group of patients.

407) Optimal Timing of Insecticide Fogging to Minimize Dengue Cases: Modeling Dengue Transmission among Various Seasonalities and Transmission Intensities
Autor: Oki, Mika; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Hashizume, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Taro
Assunto: Vector control strategies; Aedes aegypti diptera; Life table model; Fever; Disease; susceptibility; Validation; Simulation; Epidemics; Singapore
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 5, n. 10, p. -, 2011
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue infection is endemic in many regions throughout the world. While insecticide fogging targeting the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major control measure against dengue epidemics, the impact of this method remains controversial. A previous mathematical simulation study indicated that insecticide fogging minimized cases when conducted soon after peak disease prevalence, although the impact was minimal, possibly because seasonality and population immunity were not considered. Periodic outbreak patterns are also highly influenced by seasonal climatic conditions. Thus, these factors are important considerations when assessing the effect of vector control against dengue. We used mathematical simulations to identify the appropriate timing of insecticide fogging, considering seasonal change of vector populations, and to evaluate its impact on reducing dengue cases with various levels of transmission intensity. We created the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model of dengue virus transmission. Mosquito lifespan was assumed to change seasonally and the optimal timing of insecticide fogging to minimize dengue incidence under various lengths of the wet season was investigated. We also assessed whether insecticide fogging was equally effective at higher and lower endemic levels by running simulations over a 500-year period with various transmission intensities to produce an endemic state. In contrast to the previous study, the optimal application of insecticide fogging was between the onset of the wet season and the prevalence peak. Although it has less impact in areas that have higher endemicity and longer wet seasons, insecticide fogging can prevent a considerable number of dengue cases if applied at the optimal time. The optimal timing of insecticide fogging and its impact on reducing dengue cases were greatly influenced by seasonality and the level of transmission intensity. We suggest that these factors should be considered when planning a control strategy against dengue vectors.

408) On the Treatment of Airline Travelers in Mathematical Models
Autor: Johansson, Michael A.; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysari; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Staples, J. Erin; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Infectious diseases; Pandemic influenza; United States; Air travel; Hong Kong; Spread; Surveillance; Dengue; Impact
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 6, n. 7, p. -, 2011
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

409) Neurological complications of dengue fever: Experience from a tertiary center of north India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Verma, R.; Sharma, P.; Garg, R. K.; Atam, V.; Singh, M. K.; Mehrotra, H. S.
Assunto: Symptoms; Antibodies; Endemic species; Serological studies; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Neurological complications; Infection; Serology; Neuritis; Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome; Paralysis; Blood; Myositis; Blood coagulation; Dengue; Hematocrit; Myelitis; Encephalopathy; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Human immunodeficiency virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Serology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Serological diagnosis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Serology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, v. 14, n. 4, p. 272-278, 2011
ISSN: 0972-2327
Resumo: Introduction: Dengue, an acute viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection have been observed more frequently in the recent past and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications arising in the course of dengue illness. In this retrospective study, we report various neurological complications observed during the last 2 years in patients of dengue fever. Materials and Methods: The patients presenting with neurological complications with positive serology (IgM antibody) for dengue infection were consecutively recruited from the Department of Neurology/Medicine from a tertiary center of Lucknow, India. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood count, hematocrit, coagulation parameters, biochemical assays, serology for dengue fever, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus and other relevant investigations. Results: Twenty-six patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection were observed during the last 2 years. Eighteen of these patients were male. Of the 26 patients, 10 patients were suffering from brachial neuritis, four patients had encephalopathy, three patients were consistent with the diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome, three patients had hypokalemic paralysis associated with dengue fever and two patients had acute viral myositis. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome was diagnosed in two patients, myelitis in one patient and acute disseminated encephalo-myelitis also in one patient. Conclusion: Dengue fever was associated with widespread neurological complications. Brachial neuritis and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome were observed for the first time in this study.

410) A Calcium Bioluminescence Assay for Functional Analysis of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and Tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) G Protein-coupled Receptors
Autor: Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Kersch, Cymon N.; Taneja-Bageshwar, Suparna; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.
Assunto: Immunology ; Aequorin calcium reporter ; Coelenterazine ; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ; CHO-K1 cells ; Mammalian cell culture ; Neuropeptide SAR studies ; Receptor - Neuropeptide interaction ; Bioluminescence ; Drug discovery
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Journal of Visualized Experiments, v. , n. 50, p. -, 2011
ISSN: 1940-087X
Resumo: Arthropod hormone receptors are potential targets for novel pesticides as they regulate many essential physiological and behavioral processes. The majority of them belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We have focused on characterizing arthropod kinin receptors from the tick and mosquito. Arthropod kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides with myotropic, diuretic, and neurotransmitter function. Here, a method for systematic analyses of structure-activity relationships of insect kinins on two heterologous kinin receptor-expressing systems is described. We provide important information relevant to the development of biostable kinin analogs with the potential to disrupt the diuretic, myotropic, and/or digestive processes in ticks and mosquitoes.The kinin receptors from the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), and the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), were stably expressed in the mammalian cell line CHO-K1. Functional analyses of these receptors were completed using a calcium bioluminescence plate assay that measures intracellular bioluminescence to determine cytoplasmic calcium levels upon peptide application to these recombinant cells. This method takes advantage of the aequorin protein, a photoprotein isolated from luminescent jellyfish. We transiently transfected the aequorin plasmid (mtAEQ/pcDNA1) in cell lines that stably expressed the kinin receptors. These cells were then treated with the cofactor coelenterazine, which complexes with intracellular aequorin. This bond breaks in the presence of calcium, emitting luminescence levels indicative of the calcium concentration. As the kinin receptor signals through the release of intracellular calcium, the intensity of the signal is related to the potency of the peptide.This protocol is a synthesis of several previously described protocols with modifications; it presents step-by-step instructions for the stable expression of GPCRs in a mammalian cell line through functional plate assays (Staubly et al., 2002 and Stables et al., 1997). Using this methodology, we were able to establish stable cell lines expressing the mosquito and the tick kinin receptors, compare the potency of three mosquito kinins, identify critical amino acid positions for the ligand-receptor interaction, and perform semi-throughput screening of a peptide library. Because insect kinins are susceptible to fast enzymatic degradation by endogenous peptidases, they are severely limited in use as tools for pest control or endocrinological studies. Therefore, we also tested kinin analogs containing amino isobutyric acid (Aib) to enhance their potency and biostability. This peptidase-resistant analog represents an important lead in the development of biostable insect kinin analogs and may aid in the development of neuropeptide-based arthropod control strategies.

411) Probable Non-Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Foy B.D., Kobylinski K.C., Foy J.L.C., Blitvich B.J., da Rosa A.T., Haddow A.D., Lanciotti R.S., Tesh R.B.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 17, n. 5, p. 880-882, 2011
ISSN: 1080-6040,1080-6059 (electronic)
Resumo: Clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 American scientists contracted Zika virus infections while working in Senegal in 2008. One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home. Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.

412) Detection of antibodies in neuropathy patients by synthetic GM1 mimics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pukin, Aliaksei V.; Jacobs, Bart C.; Tio-Gillen, Anne P.; Gilbert, Michel; Endtz, Hubert P.; Belkum, Alex van; Visser, Gerben M.; Zuilhof, Han
Assunto: Antibody; Diagnostics; Ganglioside mimics; GM1 ganglioside; Neuropathy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Antibodies
Fonte: Glycobiology, v. 21, n. 12, p. 1642-1650, 2011
ISSN: 0959-6658
Resumo: Antibodies to the ganglioside GM1 are associated with various forms of acute and chronic immune-mediated neuropathy, including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and multifocal motor neuropathy. In diagnostics and research, these antibodies are usually detected by GM1 preparations derived from bovine brain tissue, which are non-covalently attached to solid carriers such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates. Such brain-derived GM1 preparations are potentially contaminated with other glycolipids. In the current study, uncontaminated mono- and divalent synthetic analogs of the ganglioside GM1 were successfully attached via covalent bonds onto the surface of ELISA plates. The resulting modified diagnostic tool showed strong affinities and good specificities for binding of monoclonal mouse and human anti-GM1 antibodies and cholera toxin, as well as for the anti-GM1 antibodies in serum samples from neuropathy patients. While these proof-of-principle experiments reveal the potential of synthetic ganglioside mimics in diagnostics, they show the necessity of further studies to overcome certain limitations, specifically the non-specific interactions in the negative control assays with synthetic GM1.

413) A DNA vaccine against chikungunya virus is protective in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in mice and nonhuman primates
Autor: Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Shedlock, Devon J.; Bao, Huihui; Kawalekar, Omkar U.; Fagone, Paolo; Ramanathan, Aarthi A.; Ferraro, Bernadette; Stabenow, Jennifer; Vijayachari, Paluru; Sundaram, Senthil G.; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Sarangan, Gopalsamy; Srikanth, Padma; Khan, Amir S.; Lewis, Mark G.; Kim, J. Joseph; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Weiner, David B.
Assunto: Reunion Island; Indian - Ocean; Hepatitis-C; Infection; Epidemic; Outbreak; Disease; Manifestations; Encephalitis; Replication
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 5, n. 1, 2011
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen. While the Aedes aegypti mosquito is its primary vector, recent evidence suggests that other carriers can transmit CHIKV thus raising concerns about its spread outside of natural endemic areas to new countries including the U. S. and Europe. Considering the potential for pandemic spread, understanding the development of immunity is paramount to the development of effective counter measures against CHIKV. In this study, we isolated a new CHIKV virus from an acutely infected human patient and developed a defined viral challenge stock in mice that allowed us to study viral pathogenesis and develop a viral neutralization assay. We then constructed a synthetic DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP) that expresses a component of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and used this model to evaluate its efficacy. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, which individually were capable of providing protection against CHIKV challenge in mice. Furthermore, vaccine studies in rhesus macaques demonstrated induction of nAb responses, which mimicked those induced in convalescent human patient sera. These data suggest a protective role for nAb against CHIKV disease and support further study of envelope-based CHIKV DNA vaccines.

414) A new factor in the Aedes aegypti immune response: CLSP2 modulates melanization
Autor: Shin, Sang Woon; Zou, Zhen; Raikhel, Alexander S.
Assunto: IMD; Toll; Prophenoloxidase
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: EMBO reports, v. 12, n. 9, p. 938-943, 2011
ISSN: 1469-221X
Resumo: Microbial infections in the mosquito Aedes aegypti activate the newly identified CLSP1 and CLSP2 genes, which encode modular proteins composed of elastase-like serine protease and C-type lectin domains. These genes are predominantly regulated by the immune deficiency pathway, but also by the Toll pathway. Silencing of CLSP2, but not CLSP1, results in the activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO), the terminal enzyme in the melanization cascade, suggesting that CLSP2 is a negative modulator of this reaction. Haemolymph PPO activation is normally inhibited in the presence of Plasmodium parasites, but in CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes, the Plasmodium-induced block of melanization is reverted, and these mosquitoes are refractory to the parasite. Thus, CLSP2 is a new component of the mosquito immune response.

415) Vector-borne Infections
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.
Assunto: Virus; Emergence; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 17, n. 5, p. 769-770, 2011
ISSN: 1080-6040
Resumo: Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

416) A natural polymorphism alters odour and DEET sensitivity in an insect odorant receptor
Autor: Pellegrino, Maurizio; Steinbach, Nicole; Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Hansson, Bill S.; Vosshall, Leslie B.
Assunto: Neuroscience ; Evolution ; Biophysics ; Genetics ; Genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Nature, v. 478, n. 7370, p. 511-514, 2011
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Blood-feeding insects such as mosquitoes are efficient vectors of human infectious diseases because they are strongly attracted by body heat, carbon dioxide and odours produced by their vertebrate hosts. Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) are highly effective, but the mechanism by which this chemical wards off biting insects remains controversial despite decades of investigation(1-11). DEET seems to act both at close range as a contact chemo-repellent, by affecting insect gustatory receptors(12), and at long range, by affecting the olfactory system(1-11). Two opposing mechanisms for the observed behavioural effects of DEET in the gas phase have been proposed: that DEET interferes with the olfactory system to block host odour recognition(1-7) and that DEET actively repels insects by activating olfactory neurons that elicit avoidance behaviour(8-11). Here we show that DEET functions as a modulator of the odour-gated ion channel formed by the insect odorant receptor complex(13,14). The functional insect odorant receptor complex consists of a common co-receptor, ORCO (ref. 15) (formerly called OR83B; ref. 16), and one or more variable odorant receptor subunits that confer odour selectivity(17). DEET acts on this complex to potentiate or inhibit odour-evoked activity or to inhibit odour-evoked suppression of spontaneous activity. This modulation depends on the specific odorant receptor and the concentration and identity of the odour ligand. We identify a single amino-acid polymorphism in the second transmembrane domain of receptor OR59B in a Drosophila melanogaster strain from Brazil that renders OR59B insensitive to inhibition by the odour ligand and modulation by DEET. Our data indicate that natural variation can modify the sensitivity of an odour-specific insect odorant receptor to odour ligands and DEET. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that DEET acts as a molecular 'confusant' that scrambles the insect odour code, and provide a compelling explanation for the broad-spectrum efficacy of DEET against multiple insect species.

417) A protocol for collecting and staining hemocytes from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Qayum, Amina A.; Telang, Aparna
Assunto: Immunology; Issue 51; Immune response; Insect innate immunity; Microinjector; Hemolymph perfusion; Hemocyte; Granulocyte
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Head size ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Visualized Experiments, n. 51, 2011
ISSN: 1940-087X
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors for a number of disease-causing pathogens such as the yellow fever virus, malaria parasites and filarial worms. Laboratories are investigating anti-pathogen components of the innate immune system in disease vector species in the hopes of generating transgenic mosquitoes that are refractory to such pathogens(1, 2). The innate immune system of mosquitoes consists of several lines of defense (3). Pathogens that manage to escape the barrier imposed by the epithelium-lined mosquito midgut (4) enter the hemolymph and encounter circulating hemocytes, important cellular components that encapsulate and engulf pathogens (5, 6). Researchers have not found evidence for hematopoietic tissues in mosquitoes and current evidence suggests that the number of hemocytes is fixed at adult emergence and numbers may actually decline as the mosquito ages (7). The ability to properly collect and identify hemocytes from medically important insects is an essential step for studies in cellular immunity. However, the small size of mosquitoes and the limited volume of hemolymph pose a challenge to collecting immune cells.Two established methods for collecting mosquito hemocytes include expulsion of hemolymph from a cut proboscis (8), and volume displacement (perfusion), in which saline is injected into the membranous necklike region between the head and thorax (i.e., cervix) and the perfused hemolymph is collected from a torn opening in a distal region of the abdomen (9, 10). These techniques, however, are limited by low recovery of hemocytes and possible contamination by fat body cells, respectively (11). More recently a method referred to as high injection/recovery improved recovery of immunocytes by use of anticoagulant buffers while reducing levels of contaminating scales and internal tissues (11). While that method allows for an improved method of collecting and maintaining hemocytes for primary culture, it entails a number of injection and collecting steps that are not necessary if the downstream goal is to collect, fix and stain hemocytes for diagnostics. Here, we demonstrate our method of collecting mosquito hemolymph that combines the simplicity of perfusion, using anticoagulant buffers in place of saline solution, with the accuracy of high injection techniques to isolate clean preparations of hemocytes in Aedes mosquitoes.

418) Fever from the forest: prospects for the continued emergence of sylvatic dengue virus and its impact on public health
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vasilakis, Nikos; Cardosa, Jane; Hanley, Kathryn A; Holmes, Edward C; Weaver, Scott C
Assunto: Aedes - Virology, Animals, Dengue - Virology, Dengue virus - Physiology, Ecosystem, Humans, Insect vectors - Virology, Primates - Virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Antigenic variation ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Microbiology, v. 9, n. 7, p. 532-541, 2011.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that circulate among humans emerged independently from ancestral sylvatic progenitors that were present in non-human primates, following the establishment of human populations that were large and dense enough to support continuous inter-human transmission by mosquitoes. This ancestral sylvatic-DENV transmission cycle still exists and is maintained in non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in the forests of Southeast Asia and West Africa. Here, we provide an overview of the ecology and molecular evolution of sylvatic DENV and its potential for adaptation to human transmission. We also emphasize how the study of sylvatic DENV will improve our ability to understand, predict and, ideally, avert further DENV emergence.

419) Modeling the dynamic transmission of dengue fever: investigating disease persistence
Autor: de Castro Medeiros, Liliam Cesar; Castilho, Cesar Augusto Rodrigues; Braga, Cynthia; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Regis, Leda; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira
Assunto: Human diseases; Urbanization; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Disease spread; Mathematical models; Spreading; Epidemics; Mobility; Population growth; Vectors; Asymptomatic infection; Infestation; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Shock; Epidemiology; Dengue; Vaccines; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 5, n. 1, 2011.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue endemic countries. In Brazil it is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infections or mild illness, to the more severe forms of infection such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. The spread and dramatic increase in the occurrence of dengue cases in tropical and subtropical countries has been blamed on uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and international traveling. Vaccines are under development and the only current disease control strategy is trying to keep the vector quantity at the lowest possible levels. Mathematical models have been developed to help understand the disease's epidemiology. These models aim not only to predict epidemics but also to expand the capacity of phenomena explanation. We developed a spatially explicit model to simulate the dengue transmission in a densely populated area. The model involves the dynamic interactions between humans and mosquitoes and takes into account human mobility as an important factor of disease spread. We investigated the importance of human population size, human renewal rate, household infestation and ratio of vectors per person in the maintenance of sustained viral circulation.

420) An in vivo transfection approach elucidates a role for Aedes aegypti thioester-containing proteins in flaviviral infection
Autor: Cheng, Gong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Penghua; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yang O.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Feitosa, Fabiana; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: West Nile - Virus; Anopheles - Gambiae; RNA interference; Complement; Mosquitos; Malaria; Plasmodium; Expression; Parasites
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Plos One, v. 6, n. 7, 2011
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause infectious diseases of global importance. Techniques to easily introduce genes into mosquitoes, however, limit investigations of the interaction between microbes and their arthropod vectors. We now show that a cationic liposome significantly enhances delivery and expression of plasmid DNA in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. We then introduced the genes for Ae. aegypti thioester-containing proteins (AeTEPs), which are involved in the control of flaviviral infection, into mosquitoes using this technique. In vivo transfection of AeTEP-1 into Ae. aegypti significantly reduced dengue virus infection, suggesting that the approach can further our understanding of pathogen-mosquito interactions.

421) Clinical and radiological features of imported chikungunya fever in Japan: a study of six cases at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine
Autor: Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Ujiie, Mugen; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kudo, Koichiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Takasaki, Tomohiko
Assunto: Antibodies; Infectious diseases; Resonance; Hosts; Immunoassays; Aquatic insects; Imaging techniques; Public health; Disease transmission; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, v. 17, n. 3, p. 419-423, 2011.
ISSN: 1341-321x
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is currently distributed in Africa and in South and Southeast Asia; outbreaks have occurred periodically in the region over the past 50 years. After a large outbreak had occurred in countries in the western Indian Ocean region in 2005, several countries reported cases of CHIKF from travelers who had visited affected areas. In Japan, there have been only 15 cases of CHIKF patients so far, according to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Therefore, to evaluate the clinical and radiological features associated with the disease, we describe 6 imported cases of CHIKF. All of the patients had had prolonged arthralgia on admission to our hospital, and diagnosis was confirmed with specific antibodies by using an IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one patient revealed erosive arthritis and tenosynovitis during the convalescence stage. Clinicians should be aware of the late consequences of infection by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and recognize the possible association of subacute and chronic arthritis features. In addition, competent vectors of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti, can now be found in many temperate areas of the eastern and western hemispheres, including Japan. This fact raises concern that the virus could be introduced and become established in these areas. This necessitates an increased awareness of the disease, because imported cases are likely to contribute to the spread of CHIKV infection wherever the competent mosquito vectors are distributed.

422) Antiviral RNA interference responses induced by semliki forest virus infection of mosquito cells: characterization, origin, and frequency-dependent functions of virus-derived small interfering RNAs
Autor: Siu, Ricky W. C.; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Simmonds, Peter; Donald, Claire L.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Barry, Gerald; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Nash, Anthony A.; Merits, Andres; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain
Assunto: Virology; Genomes; RNA; Viral diseases; Replication; Hot spots; Defence mechanisms; siRNA; Bioinformatics; Infection; Frequency dependence; Alphavirus; Togaviridae; Semliki Forest virus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 85, n. 6, p. 2907-2917, 2011.
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: RNA interference (RNAi) is an important mosquito defense mechanism against arbovirus infection. In this paper we study the processes underlying antiviral RNAi in Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) (Togaviridae; Alphavirus). The production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) from viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a key event in this host response. dsRNA could be formed by RNA replication intermediates, by secondary structures in RNA genomes or antigenomes, or by both. Which of these dsRNAs is the substrate for the generation of viRNAs is a fundamental question. Here we used deep sequencing of viRNAs and bioinformatic analysis of RNA secondary structures to gain insights into the characteristics and origins of viRNAs. An asymmetric distribution of SFV-derived viRNAs with notable areas of high-level viRNA production (hot spots) and no or a low frequency of viRNA production (cold spots) along the length of the viral genome with a slight bias toward the production of genome-derived viRNAs over antigenome-derived viRNAs was observed. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that hot spots of viRNA production are rarely but not generally associated with putative secondary structures in the SFV genome, suggesting that most viRNAs are derived from replicative dsRNA. A pattern of viRNAs almost identical to those of A. albopictus cells was observed for Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells, suggesting common mechanisms that lead to viRNA production. Hot-spot viRNAs were found to be significantly less efficient at mediating antiviral RNAi than cold-spot viRNAs, pointing toward a nucleic acid-based viral decoy mechanism to evade the RNAi response.

423) Blood meal-derived heme decreases ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and allows proliferation of intestinal microbiota
Autor: Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Goncalves, Renata L. S.; Lara, Flavio A.; Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Edwards, Meredith C.; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Silva-Neto, Mario A. C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.
Assunto: Growth; Pathogens; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Protein kinase C; Molecular modelling; Parasites; Epithelial cells; Feeding; Adaptations; Malaria; Hemoglobin; Intestinal microflora; Digestive tract; Reactive oxygen species; Dengue; Yellow fever; Midgut; Gene silencing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 7, n. 3, 2011.
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools to reduce transmission. We hypothesized that toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by epithelial cells control bacterial growth in the midgut of Aedes aegypti, the vector of Yellow fever and Dengue viruses. We show that ROS are continuously present in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF) mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria. Treatment of sugar-fed mosquitoes with increased concentrations of heme led to a dose dependent decrease in ROS levels and a consequent increase in midgut endogenous bacteria. In addition, gene silencing of dual oxidase (Duox) reduced ROS levels and also increased gut flora. Using a model of bacterial oral infection in the gut, we show that the absence of ROS resulted in decreased mosquito resistance to infection, increased midgut epithelial damage, transcriptional modulation of immune-related genes and mortality. As heme is a pro-oxidant molecule released in large amounts upon hemoglobin degradation, oxidative killing of bacteria in the gut would represent a burden to the insect, thereby creating an extra oxidative challenge to the mosquito. We propose that a controlled decrease in ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of heme. Mosquitoes are vectors of human pathogens, such as Dengue virus and Malaria parasites, which profoundly affect health worldwide, killing millions of people annually. Recent studies have demonstrated that the presence of bacteria in the gut of mosquitoes is able to antagonize the establishment of pathogens. Therefore, mechanisms with the potential to regulate bacterial growth in the digestive tract of mosquitoes may hamper disease transmission. Here, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in the gut epithelia of sugar-fed mosquitoes and are drastically reduced after blood feeding through a mechanism that involves activation of protein kinase C by heme. ROS levels are inversely correlated with the presence of bacteria in the midgut and therefore we investigated if ROS are involved in fighting bacterial infections in the gut. We discovered that mosquitoes producing low levels of ROS challenged with an oral bacterial infection exhibited increased mortality due to intense bacterial proliferation and epithelial cell damage. We propose that reduction in ROS levels after blood feeding is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of blood, a pro-oxidant meal. This finding has consequences for the understanding of disease transmission due to the ability of ROS to modulate the gut bacterial levels.

424) Bioinformatic characterization and gene expression pattern of apoptosis inhibitor from Macrobrachium rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus
Autor: Arockiaraj, Jesu ; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha
Assunto: Apoptosis; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; IHHNV; Characterization; Gene expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, v. 31, n. 6, p. 1259-1267, 2011.
ISSN: 1050-4648
Resumo: Apoptosis is genetically programmed cellular killing processes that execute unnecessary or infected cells. It plays an important role in embryogenesis, homeostasis, insect metamorphosis and immunity. Apoptosis inhibitor (MrIAP) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrIAP consisted of 1753 base pair nucleotides encoded 535 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. MrIAP amino acid sequence contains IAP superfamily domain between 5 and 490. The deduced amino acid sequences of the MrIAP were aligned with the other IAP family members. The highest sequence similarity was observed in IAP-5 from ant Camponotus floridanus (67%) followed by IAP from body louse Pediculus humanus corporis (66%) and the lowest (62%) in IAP-5 isoform-5 from common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and IAP-5 from Aedes aegypti. The IAP phylogenetic tree showed that MrIAP closely related to other arthropod blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis, formed a sister group with IAP from a hemichordate acorn worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii and finally clustered together with IAPs from fish groups. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that significantly (P < 0.05) highest expression was noticed in hepatopancreas and significantly (P < 0.05) lowest expression in pleopods. Based on the results of gene expression analysis, MrIAP mRNA transcription in M. rosenbergii challenged to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was highly induced in hepatopancreas. The collective results of this study indicate that the MrIAP is an essential immune gene and influences the immune response against IHHNV infection in M. rosenbergii.

425) Can pesticides and larval competition alter susceptibility of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to arbovirus infection?
Autor: Muturi, Ephantus J.; Costanzo, Katie; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Alto, Barry W.
Assunto: Interspecific relationships; Larval development; Disease transmission; Life history; Chronic effects; Survival; Vectors; Blood meals; Midgut; Contaminants; Malathion; Aedes aegypti; Sindbis virus; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 48, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2011.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Density-dependent processes such as larval competition may be important regulatory factors among some mosquito species. The application of pesticides used for control may alter these density-dependent interactions with consequences for the number of survivors and associated sublethal and chronic effects on these individuals. We examined how intraspecific competition among larvae and low concentrations of malathion alter Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse adult life history traits and competence for arboviruses using Sindbis virus as a model system. Larvae were reared at densities of 150 and 300 larvae per container and in the absence or presence of 0.04 parts per million of malathion, before surviving females were exposed to an infectious blood meal containing 105 plaque-forming units/ml Sindbis virus. For both species, competition and the presence of malathion reduced survival to adulthood. The presence of malathion eliminated the negative effects of competition that resulted in lengthened development time and smaller-sized adults. For Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, high competition conditions and the presence of malathion independently and not interactively led to an increase in virus dissemination from the midgut. Our results suggest that larval competition and chemical contaminants may influence disease transmission directly by altering adult mosquito fitness and indirectly by altering vector interactions with arboviruses.

426) Characterization of thrombin inhibitory mechanism of rAaTI, a Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti with anticoagulant activity
Autor: Watanabe, Renata M. O.; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M.; Araujo, Mariana S.; Juliano, Maria A.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Kazal-type inhibitor; Midgut; Salivary gland; Thrombin inhibitor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Inflammation
Fonte: Biochimie, v. 93, n. 3, p. 618-623, 2011.
ISSN: 0300-9084
Resumo: Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a complex mixture of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulator compounds. Among anti-haemostatic factors, there are anticoagulants, vasodilators and platelet aggregation inhibitors. Previous analyses of the sialotranscriptome of Aedes aegypti showed the potential presence of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor in the female salivary glands, carcass and also in the whole male, which inhibitor we named AaTI (A. aegypti thrombin inhibitor). Recently, we expressed and characterized rAaTI as a trypsin inhibitor, and its anticoagulant activity [1]. In this work we characterized the thrombin inhibition mechanism of rAaTI. Recombinant AaTI was able to prolong prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. In contrast, AaTI Delta (rAaTI truncated form) and C-terminal AaTI acidic tail prolong only thrombin time. In the competition assay, rAaTI, AaTI Delta or C-terminal AaTI acidic tail-thrombin interactions seem to be affected by heparin but not by hirudin, suggesting that rAaTI binds to thrombin exosite 2. Finally, the thrombin inhibition assay of rAaTI showed an uncompetitive inhibition mechanism. In conclusion, rAaTI can probably inhibit thrombin by interacting with thrombin exosite 2, and the interaction is not mediated by the AaTI C-terminal region, since the truncated AaTI Delta form also prolongs thrombin time. Research highlights: Recently, we published a paper containing original data about AaTI accepted in Biochimie. AaTI is a thrombin inhibitor expresses in salivary gland and midgut of Aedes aegypti. Our data strong suggests a different inhibition mechanism for thrombin by AaTI.

427) Economic value of dengue vaccine in Thailand
Autor: Lee, Bruce Y.; Connor, Diana L.; Kitchen, Sarah B.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Shah, Mirat; Brown, Shawn T.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Burke, Donald S.; Cummings, Derek A. T.
Assunto: Hemorrhagic - Fever; Cost - Effectiveness; Aedes aegypti; Immunogenicity; Transmission; Progress; Bangkok; Safety; Adults; Risk
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 84, n. 5, p. 764-772, 2011
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: With several candidate dengue vaccines under development, this is an important time to help stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers) better understand the potential economic value (cost-effectiveness) of a dengue vaccine, especially while vaccine characteristics and strategies might be readily altered. We developed a decision analytic Markov simulation model to evaluate the potential health and economic value of administering a dengue vaccine to an individual (<= 1 year of age) in Thailand from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effects of ranging various vaccine (e.g., cost, efficacy, side effect), epidemiological (dengue risk), and disease (treatment-seeking behavior) characteristics. A >= 50% efficacious vaccine was highly cost-effective [< 1x per capita gross domestic product (GDP) ($4,289)] up to a total vaccination cost of $60 and cost-effective [< 3x per capita GDP ($12,868)] up to a total vaccination cost of $200. When the total vaccine series was $1.50, many scenarios were cost saving.

428) Chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus is attenuated in Ixodes scapularis ticks and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Engel, A. R.; Mitzel, D. N.; Hanson, C. T.; Wolfinbarger, J. B.; Bloom, M. E.; Pletnev, A. G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Flavivirus; Ixodes scapularis; Live attenuated vaccine; Tick-borne encephalitis virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Neurovirulence ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 11, n. 6, p. 665-674, 2011.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: In an effort to derive an efficacious live attenuated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, we generated a chimeric virus bearing the structural protein genes of a Far Eastern subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on the genetic background of recombinant dengue 4 (DEN4) virus. Introduction of attenuating mutations into the TBEV envelope protein gene, as well as the DEN4 NS5 protein gene and 3' noncoding region in the chimeric genome, results in decreased neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in mice, and restricted replication in mouse brain. Since TBEV and DEN4 viruses are transmitted in nature by ticks and mosquitoes, respectively, it was of interest to investigate the infectivity of the chimeric virus for both arthropod vectors. Therefore, parental and chimeric viruses were tested for growth in mosquito and tick cells and for oral infection in vivo. Although all chimeric viruses demonstrated moderate levels of replication in C6/36 mosquito cells, they were unable to replicate in ISE6 tick cells. Further, the chimeric viruses were unable to infect or replicate in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Ixodes scapularis tick larvae. The poor infectivity for both potential vectors reinforces the safety of chimeric virus-based vaccine candidates for the environment and for use in humans.

429) Genetic variance and genotype-by-environment interaction of immune response in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Moreno-Garcia, Miguel miguelmoga2000@yahoo.com.mx Miguel Miguel Moreno-Garcia Moreno-Garcia Moreno-Garcia, Miguel , Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto Humberto Humberto Lanz-Mendoza Lanz-Mendoza Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto , Cordoba-aguilar, Alex Alex Alex Cordoba-aguilar Cordoba-aguilar Cordoba-aguilar, Alex
Assunto: Immune response; Quantitative genetics; Phenotypic plasticity; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 47, n. 2, p. 111-120, 2010.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Immune response can be negatively affected by resource limitation, so it is expected that organisms evolve strategies to minimize the impact of this environmental outcome. Phenotypic plasticity in immune response could represent a genetic response to face such situations. We investigated the effects of high and low quality and quantity of food at the larval stage on two important immune components, phenoloxidase activity (PO) and nitric oxide production (NO) measured in adults of the Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. We reared families to determine the magnitude and pattern of expression of genetic variance, environmental variance and genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI). In addition, we quantified whether there were differences in plastic immune responses in both sexes. Our results indicated additive variance for PO and NO, but rearing environment did not produce differences among individuals. For NO and PO in males, there were large differences among families in plasticity, as indicated by the different slopes produced by each reaction norm. Therefore, there is additive genetic variation in plasticity for NO production and PO activity. One possible interpretation of these results is that different genotypes may be favored to fight pathogens under the different food quality situations. Males and females showed similar overall GEI strategies but there were differences in PO and NO. Males showed a phenotypic correlation between PO and NO, but we did not find genetic correlations between immune parameters in both sexes.

430) Domain-III FG loop of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein is important for infection of mammalian cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Erb, Steven M.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelley J.; Luy, Betty E.; Childers, Thomas; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Roehrig, John T.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Blair, Carol D.
Assunto: Absorption spectroscopy; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Monoclonal antibodies; Mutations; Replication; Viruses; Public health; Infectivity; Amino acids;Vero cells; Mammalian cells; Envelope protein; Midgut; Infection;Mutation; Epitopes; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ;Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 406, n. 2, p. 328-335, 2010.
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: The FG extended loop in domainDDD of the dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) envelope protein is postulated to be a molecular determinant for host cell infectivity. To determine the contribution of the FG loop to virus infectivity, an infectious cDNA clone of DENV2 was manipulated by deleting amino acids in the loop (VEPG) to mimic tick-borne flaviviruses or by substituting these AAs with RGD or RGDK/S to mimic motifs present in other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. We found the FG loop to be dispensable for infection of C6/36 cells but critical for infection of Aedes aegypti mosquito midguts and mammalian cells. All the FG loop mutants were able to bind to and enter mammalian cells but replication of VEPG' in Vero cells at 37 C was delayed until acquisition of secondary mutations. Reduced binding of DENV2 type-specific monoclonal antibody 3H5 to mutant viruses confirmed the FG loop motif as its target epitope.

431) Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics
Autor: Gleiser, R. M.; Zalazar, L. P.
Assunto: Entomology; Mosquitoes; Public health; Viral infections; Urban areas; Landscape ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 100, n. 2, p. 153-158, 2010.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Cordoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations.

432) Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Labadie, Karine; Larcher, Thibaut; Joubert, Christophe; Mannioui, Abdelkrim; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Guigand, Lydie; Dubreil, Laurence; Lebon, Pierre; Verrier, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Suhrbier, Andreas; Cherel, Yan; Le Grand, Roger; Roques, Pierre
Assunto: Alphavirus Infections - virology, Animals, Humans, Joints - pathology, Joints - virology, Liver - pathology, Liver - virology, Lymphoid tissue - pathology, Lymphoid tissue - virology, Macaca fascicularis, Macrophages - pathology, Macrophages - virology, Mice, Muscles - pathology, Muscles - virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Investigation, v. 120, n. 3, p. 894-906, 2010.
ISSN: 0021-9738
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young or immunodeficient mice, but these do not recapitulate human disease patterns and are unsuitable for testing immune-based therapies. Herein, we describe what we believe to be a new model for CHIKV infection in adult, immunocompetent cynomolgus macaques. CHIKV infection in these animals recapitulated the viral, clinical, and pathological features observed in human disease. In the macaques, long-term CHIKV infection was observed in joints, muscles, lymphoid organs, and liver, which could explain the long-lasting CHIKV disease symptoms observed in humans. In addition, the study identified macrophages as the main cellular reservoirs during the late stages of CHIKV infection in vivo. This model of CHIKV physiopathology should allow the development of new therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategies.

433) Expression profiling and comparative analyses of seven midgut serine proteases from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Brackney, Doug E.; Isoe, Jun; W.C., Black; Zamora, Jorge; Foy, Brian D.; Miesfeld, Roger L.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Genomes; Potential resources; Specificity; Sexual maturity; Profiling; Aquatic insects; Phylogenetics; Serine; Public health; Phylogeny; Feeding; Serine proteinase; Trypsin; Enzymes; Transcription; Substrate specificity; Chymotrypsin; Collagen; Digestion; Blood; Yellow fever; Midgut; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 56, n. 7, p. 736-744, 2010.
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Aedes aegypti utilizes blood for energy production, egg maturation and replenishment of maternal reserves. The principle midgut enzymes responsible for bloodmeal digestion are endoproteolytic serine-type proteases within the S1.A subfamily. While there are hundreds of serine protease-like genes in the A. aegypti genome, only five are known to be expressed in the midgut. We describe the cloning, sequencing and expression profiling of seven additional serine proteases and provide a genomic and phylogenetic assessment of these findings. Of the seven genes, four are constitutively expressed and three are transcriptionally induced upon blood feeding. The amount of transcriptional induction is strongly correlated among these genes. Alignments reveal that, in general, the conserved catalytic triad, active site and accessory catalytic residues are maintained in these genes and phylogenetic analysis shows that these genes fall within three distinct clades; trypsins, chymotrypsins and serine collagenases. Interestingly, a previously described trypsin consistently arose with other serine collagenases in phylogenetic analyses. These results suggest that multiple gene duplications have arisen within the S1.A subfamily of midgut serine proteases and/or that A. aegypti has evolved an array of proteases with a broad range of substrate specificities for rapid, efficient digestion of bloodmeals.

434) Silent circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fokam E.B., Levai L.D., Guzman H., Amelia P.A., Titanji V.P., Tesh R.B., Weaver S.C.
Assunto: Arbovirus, virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: East African medical journal, v. 87, n. 6, p. 262-268, jun. 2010
ISSN: 0012-835X
Resumo: To investigate the silent circulation and transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in the Fako Division of Cameroon. This survey was conducted based on clinical observations and laboratory diagnosis; field collections of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Fako Division of South West Cameroon. One hundred and two sera were obtained from febrile patients (with negative laboratory findings for malaria and typhoid fever) at clinics in the Fako Division, and diurnal anthropophilic mosquitoes (4,764) collected. Virus isolation was attempted from these, and sera were screened for antibodies against 18 African arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and complement fixation (CF) tests. No virus was isolated. Fifty three of 79 (67.1%) sera reacted with one or more viral antigens. Twenty nine sera (36.7%) reacted with members of the genus Alphavirus, with Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) viruses as the most frequent (34.2%). Forty six sera (58.2%) reacted with members of the genus Flavivirus: 24 (30.4%) were cross-reactive, but 11.4% reacted monotypically with Zika, 5.1% with yellow fever virus (YFV), 5.1% with dengue virus-2 (DENV-2), 2.5% with DENV-1 and 1.3% with Wesselsbron virus, respectively. The plaque reduction neutralisation test used to specify the agent that elicited the response could not resolve 33.3% of the cross reactions between CHIKV and ONNV. Neutralising antibody titres against ONNV and CHIKV were very high indicating probable re-infection. Our results indicate previously undetected circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon, and suggest that they are important, overlooked public health problems.

435) The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to west nile virus infection
Autor: Glaser, Robert L.; Meola, Mark A.
Assunto: Viral diseases; Viruses; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Control resistance; Public health; Disease transmission; Endosymbionts; Vectors; Disease resistance; Infection; Host systems; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Togaviridae; West Nile virus; Flaviviridae; Arbovirus; Bunyaviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 5, n. 8, 2010.
ISSN:
Resumo: The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to increase host resistance to viral infection in native Drosophila hosts and in the normally Wolbachia-free heterologous host Aedes aegypti when infected by Wolbachia from Drosophila melanogaster or Aedes albopictus. Wolbachia infection has not yet been demonstrated to increase viral resistance in a native Wolbachia-mosquito host system. In this study, we investigated Wolbachia-induced resistance to West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae) by measuring infection susceptibility in Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-free D. melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus, a natural mosquito vector of WNV. Wolbachia infection of D. melanogaster induces strong resistance to WNV infection. Wolbachia-infected flies had a 500-fold higher ID50 for WNV and produced 100,000-fold lower virus titers compared to flies lacking Wolbachia. The resistance phenotype was transmitted as a maternal, cytoplasmic factor and was fully reverted in flies cured of Wolbachia. Wolbachia infection had much less effect on the susceptibility of D. melanogaster to Chikungunya (Togaviridae) and La Crosse (Bunyaviridae) viruses. Wolbachia also induces resistance to WNV infection in Cx. quinquefasciatus. While Wolbachia had no effect on the overall rate of peroral infection by WNV, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes produced lower virus titers and had 2 to 3-fold lower rates of virus transmission compared to mosquitoes lacking Wolbachia. This is the first demonstration that Wolbachia can increase resistance to arbovirus infection resulting in decreased virus transmission in a native Wolbachia-mosquito system. The results suggest that Wolbachia reduces vector competence in Cx. quinquefasciatus, and potentially in other Wolbachia-infected mosquito vectors.

436) Wolbachia pipientis: an expanding bag of tricks to explore for disease control
Autor: Cook, Peter E.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Biological control; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Pathogens; Defence mechanisms; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Reviews; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Dengue virus; Wolbachia pipientis; Plasmodium; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia; Nematoda
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 26, n. 8, p. 373-375, 2010.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis are maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria that are widespread among insects. Two recent studies have demonstrated that Wolbachia inhibits the ability of medically significant pathogens, including filarial nematodes, dengue virus and Plasmodium to form infections in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. We highlight the added value of these traits for Wolbachia based biocontrol strategies and evaluate the evidence for the idea that the insect immune response is responsible for the pathogen inhibition.

437) An overview of arthropod-associated fungi from Argentina and Brazil
Autor: Sosa-Gomez, Daniel R.; Lopez Lastra, Claudia C.; Humber, Richard A.
Assunto: Entomogenous fungi; Entomopathogenic fungi; Entomopathogens; Insects; Mites; Spiders
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 170, n. 1, p. 61-76, 2010
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Arthropod pests in forest and agricultural systems are affected by many pathogenic organisms. Among them, entomopathogenic fungi are the one most common control agents that regulate their populations. This review compiles the information available from Argentina and Brazil about the entomopathogenic fungi occurring in agricultural and natural environments. The scientific names of the fungi are listed according to the latest phylogenetically based classification of fungi. We present an updated list of arthropod-pathogenic fungi occurring in 15 of the 23 provinces of Argentina and 20 of the 27 states of Brazil based on published literature and our personal observations. The list includes a total of 114 fungal species from 53 genera: of Blastocladiomycetes (2 genera), Entomophthorales (8 genera), Harpellales (13 genera), and a diverse assortment of ascomycetes (primarily from Hypocreales) in 22 anamorphic and 5 teleomorphic genera. In the both countries, molecular studies on arthropod-pathogenic fungi are still in their early stages and have focused primarily on intraspecific variability and adequate generic assignment. This listing seeks to encourage more active collection and characterization of these fungi by both traditional and molecular approaches from the obviously rich but underexplored flora of fungi affecting arthropods throughout this large region of South America.

438) Effects of immunotoxic activity of the major essential oil of Angelica purpuraefolia Chung against Aedes aegypti L
Autor: Park, Y. J.; Chung, I. M.; Moon, H. I.
Assunto: Pyrimidines; Oil and gas industry; Chromatographic techniques; Rhizomes; Aquatic plants; Major constituents; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Heptadecane; Chemical composition; Gas chromatography; Larvae; Essential oils; Immune response; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, v. 32, n. 4, p. 611-613, 2010.
ISSN: 0892-3973
Resumo: The rhizomes parts of Angelica purpuraefolia were extracted and the major essential oils composition and immunotoxic effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of A. purpuraefolia. The A. purpuraefolia essential oil (APEO) yield was 0.37%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were b-Phellandrene (32.11%), Nerolidol (10.11%), Pyrimidine derivative (27.33%), Heptadecane (4.33%), and Celorbicol (6.33%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC sub(50) value of 31.21 ppm and an LC sub(90) value of 87.22 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxic agents against A. aegypti.

439) Transgene-mediated suppression of dengue viruses in the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Mathur, G.; Sanchez-Vargas, I.; Alvarez, D.; Olson, K. E.; Marinotti, O.; James, A. A.
Assunto: Dengue; Mosquito; Salivary glands; Promoter; Transgenesis; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 19, n. 6, p. 753-763, 2010.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Controlled sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression of antipathogen effector molecules is important for genetic engineering strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Adult female salivary glands are involved in pathogen transmission to human hosts and are target sites for expression of antipathogen effector molecules. The Aedes aegypti 30K a and 30K b genes are expressed exclusively in adult female salivary glands and are transcribed divergently from start sites separated by 263 nucleotides. The intergenic, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions of both genes are sufficient to express simultaneously two different transgene products in the distal-lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. An antidengue effector gene, membranes no protein (Mnp), driven by the 30K b promoter, expresses an inverted-repeat RNA with sequences derived from the premembrane protein-encoding region of the dengue virus serotype 2 genome and reduces significantly the prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection in mosquito salivary glands and saliva.

440) Present and future arboviral threats
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver S.C., Reisen W.K.
Assunto: Arbovirus, public health problem
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 85, n. 2, p. 328-345, feb. 2010
ISSN: 0166-3542,1872-9096 (electronic)
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. All arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. Viruses such as dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) that have lost the requirement for enzootic amplification now produce extensive epidemics in tropical urban centers. Many arboviruses recently have increased in importance as human and veterinary pathogens using a variety of mechanisms. Beginning in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) underwent a dramatic geographic expansion into the Americas. High amplification associated with avian virulence coupled with adaptation for replication at higher temperatures in mosquito vectors, has caused the largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis ever reported in the Americas. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the most frequent arboviral cause of encephalitis worldwide, has spread throughout most of Asia and as far south as Australia from its putative origin in Indonesia and Malaysia. JEV has caused major epidemics as it invaded new areas, often enabled by rice culture and amplification in domesticated swine. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), another arbovirus that infects humans after amplification in domesticated animals, undergoes epizootic transmission during wet years following droughts. Warming of the Indian Ocean, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific, leads to heavy rainfall in east Africa inundating surface pools and vertically infected mosquito eggs laid during previous seasons. Like WNV, JEV and RVFV could become epizootic and epidemic in the Americas if introduced unintentionally via commerce or intentionally for nefarious purposes. Climate warming also could facilitate the expansion of the distributions of many arboviruses, as documented for bluetongue viruses (BTV), major pathogens of ruminants. BTV, especially BTV-8, invaded Europe after climate warming and enabled the major midge vector to expand is distribution northward into southern Europe, extending the transmission season and vectorial capacity of local midge species. Perhaps the greatest health risk of arboviral emergence comes from extensive tropical urbanization and the colonization of this expanding habitat by the highly anthropophilic (attracted to humans) mosquito, Aedes aegypti. These factors led to the emergence of permanent endemic cycles of urban DENV and CHIKV, as well as seasonal interhuman transmission of yellow fever virus. The recent invasion into the Americas, Europe and Africa by Aedes albopictus, an important CHIKV and secondary DENV vector, could enhance urban transmission of these viruses in tropical as well as temperate regions. The minimal requirements for sustained endemic arbovirus transmission, adequate human viremia and vector competence of Ae. aegypti and/or Ae. albopictus, may be met by two other viruses with the potential to become major human pathogens: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, already an important cause of neurological disease in humans and equids throughout the Americas, and Mayaro virus, a close relative of CHIKV that produces a comparably debilitating arthralgic disease in South America. Further research is needed to understand the potential of these and other arboviruses to emerge in the future, invade new geographic areas, and become important public and veterinary health problems. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

441) Evolutionary insights into insecticide resistance gene families of Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Srivastava, Hemlata; Sharma, Meenu; Dixit, Jyotsana; Das, Aparup
Assunto: Malaria; Insecticide resistance (IR); An. gambiae; Gene families; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 10, n. 5, p. 620-628, 2010
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Insecticide resistance (IR) is one of the major obstacles in insect pests and insect borne disease control strategies, the mechanism of which is known to be genetically controlled. Three major gene families (CYP, GST and COE) have been identified encoding various proteins to metabolize endogenous as well as exogenous compounds that are responsible for IR mechanisms in insects. Understanding evolutionary patterns of genes of such important functions could lead to important understanding, based on which, further studies to control various insect borne infectious diseases could be initiated. We herein utilized the whole genome sequence information of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and inferred evolutionary pattern of the three known IR gene families (CYP, GST and COE). The pattern of conservation of IR genes across 38 other taxa was determined to infer evolutionary pattern of these gene families. Chromosomal distribution of IR genes was ascertained and each individual gene of IR gene families was also mapped on the chromosomal arms of An. gambiae. Differential distributional and quantitative aspects of introns in each gene were determined and genetic architecture of genes from all three gene families was compared to draw differential evolution of IR gene families. Further, phylogenetic relationships among genes of each of the three gene families were also inferred. These results in correlation with chromosomal location of each gene have provided valuable information about evolutionary history of IR gene families. (C) 2010 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

442) Effects and molecular mechanisms of the biological action of weak and extremely weak magnetic fields
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Novikov, VV; Ponomarev, VO; Novikov, GV; Kuvichkin, VV; Yablokova, EV; Fesenko, EE
Assunto: Magnetic fields, Biophysics, Molecular biology, Biochemistry
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Biophysics, v. 55, n. 4, p. 565-572, 2010.
ISSN: 0006-3509
Resumo: A number of effects of weak combined (static and alternating) magnetic fields with an alternating component of tens and hundreds nT at a collinear static field of 42 ?T, which is equivalent to the geomagnetic field, have been found: activation of fission and regeneration of planarians Dugesia tigrina, inhibition of the growth of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice, stimulation of the production of the tumor necrosis factor by macrophages, decrease in the protection of chromatin against the action of DNase 1, and enhancement of protein hydrolysis in systems in vivo and in vitro. The frequency and amplitude ranges for the alternating component of weak combined magnetic fields have been determined at which it affects various biological systems. Thus, the optimal amplitude at a frequency of 4.4 Hz is 100 nT (effective value); at a frequency of 16.5 Hz, the range of effective amplitudes is broader, 150-300 nT; and at a frequency of 1 (0.5) Hz, it is 300 nT. The sum of close frequencies (e.g., 16 and 17 Hz) produces a similar biological effect as the product of the modulating (0.5 Hz) and carrying frequencies (16.5 Hz), which is explained by the ratio A = A ^sub 0^sin?^sub 1^ t + A ^sub 0^sin?^sub 2^ t = 2A ^sub 0^sin(?^sub 1^ + ?^sub 2^)t/2cos(?^sub 1^-?^sub 2^)t/2. The efficiency of magnetic signals with pulsations (the sum of close frequencies) is more pronounced than that of sinusoidal frequencies. These data may indicate the presence of several receptors of weak magnetic fields in biological systems and, as a consequence, a higher efficiency of the effect at the simultaneous adjustment to these frequencies by the field. Even with consideration of these facts, the mechanism of the biological action of weak combined magnetic fields remains still poorly understood.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

443) Emergence of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Orissa, India
Autor: Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Mohapatra, Namita; Beuria, Mihir K.; Kerketta, Anna S.; Sabat, Jyotsna; Kar, Shantanu K.; Rao, Epari V.; Hazra, Rupensu K.; Parida, Sarat K.; Marai, Nitisheel
Assunto: Aedes; Chikungunya; Epidemic; India; Joint pain; Orissa
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 10, n. 4, p. 347-354, 2010
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: From September through October 2006, an unknown disease characterized by acute onset of fever, joint pain with or without swelling, and maculopapular rash along with fatigue was reported from three villages of Cuttack and one village of Kendrapara district of Orissa, India, by the State Health Department. Upon learning this, a team from Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Bhubaneswar, Orissa, conducted an epidemiological investigation in the area. Household survey was carried out and clinical examination of the symptomatic individuals (n = 1289: Kendrapara, 752; Cuttack, 537) undertaken. Based on the recorded chikungunya (CHIK) fever symptoms, a vector-borne viral disease was considered for provisional diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 217 symptomatic individuals; to confirm the diagnosis, sera were tested for anti-CHIK antibody (immunoglobulin M), which revealed 63% (64/101) and 40% (47/116) seropositivity in the samples from Kendrapara and Cuttack district, respectively. The illness was managed with analgesics like paracetamol. No death was recorded due to the illness. Entomological survey in the areas revealed the presence of Aedes mosquitoes: aegypti, albopictus, and vittatus. The per-man-hour density of Aedes vectors ranged from 0.8 to 7.6. High larval indices, house index >17% and Breteau index >70%, also indicated Aedes breeding in the area. The investigation documented circulation of CHIK in Orissa, India, and helped to take preventive steps in the outbreak area, with the suggested vector control measures.

444) Wolbachia-Mediated resistance to dengue virus infection and death at the cellular level
Autor: Frentiu, Francesca D.; Robinson, Jodie; Young, Paul R.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Viruses; Pest control; Harbours; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Mortality; Dengue; Vectors; Cell culture; Disease resistance; Cell proliferation; Infection; Dengue virus; Wolbachia pipientis; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 5, n. 10, 2010.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is currently the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Recent work has shown dengue virus displays limited replication in its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, when the insect harbors the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia-mediated inhibition of virus replication may lead to novel methods of arboviral control, yet the functional and cellular mechanisms that underpin it are unknown. Using paired Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes-derived cell lines and dengue virus, we confirm the phenomenon of viral inhibition at the cellular level. Although Wolbachia imposes a fitness cost to cells via reduced proliferation, it also provides a significant degree of protection from virus-induced mortality. The extent of viral inhibition is related to the density of Wolbachia per cell, with highly infected cell lines showing almost complete protection from dengue infection and dramatically reduced virus titers compared to lines not infected with the bacteria. We have shown that cells infected with Wolbachia display inhibition of dengue virus replication, that the extent of inhibition is related to bacterial density and that Wolbachia infection, although costly, will provide a fitness benefit in some circumstances. Our results parallel findings in mosquitoes and flies, indicating that cell line models will provide useful and experimentally tractable models to study the mechanisms underlying Wolbachia-mediated protection from viruses.

445) Silent circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon
Autor: Fokam E.B., Levai L.D., Guzman H., Amelia P.A., Titanji V.P., Tesh R.B., Weaver S.C.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Article; Cameroon; Disease Transmission; Human; Isolation And Purification; Virology; Virus Infection; Arbovirus Infections; Arboviruses; Cameroon; Humans
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: East African medical journal, v. 87, n. 6, p.262-268,2010.
ISSN: 0012835X
Resumo: To investigate the silent circulation and transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in the Fako Division of Cameroon. This survey was conducted based on clinical observations and laboratory diagnosis; field collections of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Fako Division of South West Cameroon. One hundred and two sera were obtained from febrile patients (with negative laboratory findings for malaria and typhoid fever) at clinics in the Fako Division, and diurnal anthropophilic mosquitoes (4,764) collected. Virus isolation was attempted from these, and sera were screened for antibodies against 18 African arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and complement fixation (CF) tests. No virus was isolated. Fifty three of 79 (67.1%) sera reacted with one or more viral antigens. Twenty nine sera (36.7%) reacted with members of the genus Alphavirus, with Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) viruses as the most frequent (34.2%). Forty six sera (58.2%) reacted with members of the genus Flavivirus:24 (30.4%) were cross-reactive, but 11.4% reacted monotypically with Zika,5.1% with yellow fever virus (YFV),5.1% with dengue virus-2 (DENV-2),2.5% with DENV-1 and 1.3% with Wesselsbron virus, respectively. The plaque reduction neutralisation test used to specify the agent that elicited the response could not resolve 33.3% of the cross reactions between CHIKV and ONNV. Neutralising antibody titres against ONNV and CHIKV were very high indicating probable re-infection. Our results indicate previously undetected circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon, and suggest that they are important, overlooked public health problems.

446) Current relevance of arbovirus infections in transfusion medicine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Andonov A.
Assunto: blood transfusion, society, transfusion, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 99 supl. 1, p. 31-32, jul. 2010
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Arboviruses capable of causing large and often explosive outbreaks represent an important new challenge to the safety of the blood supply. The new era of globalization, massive urbanization, poverty, climate change, international travel, colonization by Aedes Albopictus mosquito of new territories both in tropical and temperate regions, insecticide resistance are among the main factors contributing to reemerging arborical diseases. Most if not all arboviruses have a relatively short viremic phase during the course of infection, but perhaps more importantly asymptomatic viremia may precede the onset of clinical disease by 1-2 days and therefore deferral of donors with potential unrecognized infection is undoable. Further to that arboviral infection is often asymptomatic and in the absence of suitable donor screening assays transfusion risk of infection may be considerable. Arboviruses like other RNA viruses have remarkable genomic plasticity and propensity to adapt when infecting different mosquito vectors; a single mutation alanine substituted by valine (A226V) in the E1 envelope glycoprotein of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) significantly increased the viral replication and dissemination in Ae. Albopictus thus enhancing the transmission efficiency of infection with that vector. Similar process of adaptation, although not of the same importance has been observed once WNV became established in US; a new dominant genotype of the virus named WN02 became increasingly prevalent since 2002 displacing the original NY99 strain possibly due to increased transmission efficiency of the new genotype with domestic North American mosquitos. There are also observations that some current Asian strains of Dengue virus (DENV) may be more virulent for humans compared to strains circulating in South America. The above mentioned evidence of the adaptive capacity of different arboviruses obviously increases the risk of their global incursion. Arbovirus transmission through transfusion of blood products from asymptomatic donors has been documented for West Nile Virus (WNV), Dengue Virus, Tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) virus, Colorado Tick Fever (CTFV) virus, and recently Yellow Fever virus (vaccine strain). Arbovirus transfusion transmitted infections pose a credible risk to the safety of the blood supply and although it is impossible to predict which pathogen may be on the top of the priority list currently of greatest concern are Dengue virus, CHIKV, O'nyong nyong virus, Rift Valley Virus and Japanese encephalitis virus which are considered exotic arboviruses for the temperate climatic zones. A worrisome trend is that arboviral infections are on the rise both in terms of magnitude of affected populations as well as in variety of incursions of individual viruses rarely heard before; a good example is Usutu virus emergence in Europe or Zika virus in Micronesia. Public health will play a major role in preventing and/or sustaining arboviral incursions when they occur. Key to development of real-time warning system for vector borne diseases is adequate surveillance. Examples of excellent networks specifically targeting arbovirus ecology are ArboNet in US, the European Mosquito Control Association (EMCA), the European Network for Diagnostics of Imported Viral Diseases (ENIVD), EpiSouth, a network for the Mediterranean region and the Balkans, the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee (NAMAC) in Australia.

447) Dengue: epidemiology, prevention and pressing need for vaccine development
Autor: Kumar, K.; Singh, P. K.; Tomar, J.; Baijal, S.
Assunto: Dengue; Epidemiology; Prevention; Vaccine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 3, n. 12, p. 997-1000, 2010.
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Dengue fever is a mosquito born viral infection, and the complicated form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In the recent decades incidence and distribution of dengue has increased dramatically. Dengue viruses belong to family flaviviridae with four serulypes and are transmitted mainly by mosquito Aedes aegypti. Today almost two-fifth of world's population (2.5 million) is at risk of dengue and no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available against it. Uncontrolled population growth in Africa and South East Asia has increased number of susceptible hosts in urban and semi urban areas. About 40% of world population resides in the high risk area for dengue transmission. According to latest estimates by WHO, yearly 50 to 100 million infections occur globally, this includes around 500 000 DHF and 22 000 deaths, mostly among children. Only symptomatic treatment in the form of analgesic, antipyretics and body fluid management is provided to the patient. Prevention strategies mainly focus on two approaches, firstly on activities to control vector and secondly on activities to proteel human from mosquito bite but there is always concerns regarding their sustainably and effectiveness. Theoretically development of an effective dengue vaccine is feasible and production of an effective and affordable vaccine could be a viable option to save humans from ihis dreadful disease. Conceptually vaccine production is possible, but it has to be tetravalenl, providing immunily against all serotypes. Few candidate vaccines are in advance stage of their development; however international cooperation is needed to make these vaccines available on cheaper rates to the poor and vulnerable countries. Objective of this review is to discuss various aspects related to dengue, its epidemiology, available preventive methods, need for vaccine and challenges in its development.

448) A dengue model with a dynamic Aedes albopictus vector population
Autor: Erickson, Richard A.; Presley, Steven M.; Allen, Linda J. S.; Long, Kevin R.; Cox, Stephen B.
Assunto: Disease model; Epidemiology; Medical entomology; Reemerging disease; SEIR/SEI model; Vector ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Ecological Modelling, v. 221, n. 24, p. 2899-2908, 2010
ISSN: 0304-3800
Resumo: Dengue is the most commonly transmitted arthropod-borne virus in the world with 50-100 million cases annually. Within the United States, dengue is a reemerging infectious disease of concern and near the U.S.-Mexico border, up to 75% of the population of some Texas communities have had exposure to dengue. Understanding dengue disease dynamics is critical to predicting and understanding the disease. These dynamics depend upon diverse factors such as socioeconomic conditions, the local environment, and vector biology. Here, we study dengue by examining the role of temperature in driving vector dynamics. To do this, we created a Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered host and Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious vector (SEIR/SEI) model. The SEIR/SEI model was then used in conjunction with an Aedes albopictus population model to create a vector-based disease model. The vector-based diseased model was then forced by temperature. Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

449) Emergence and clinical insights into the pathology of Chikungunya virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine; Ramful, Duksha; Gauzere, Bernard Alex; Hoarau, Jean Jacques; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; Robin, Stephanie; Ribera, Anne; Selambarom, Jimmy; Gasque, Philippe
Assunto: Symptoms; Epidemics; Pathology; Therapy; Pest control; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Skin; Encephalitis; Immunological aspects; Fever; Exanthema; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Rheumatism; Arthritis; Chronic infection; Geriatrics; Arthralgia; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, v. 8, n. 9, p. 987-996, 2010
ISSN: 1478-7210
Resumo: Major epidemics of Chikungunya have re-emerged with millions of cases worldwide. What was once largely a tropical disease in poorer countries is now recognized as a major global health issue. The disease is perpetuated by the alphavirus Chikungunya, and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The infection is highly symptomatic, with fever, skin rash and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve to chronic arthritis and rheumatism in elderly patients. Mother-to-child transmission, encephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and deaths have been noted. In this article, we will highlight the epidemiological, clinical, virological and immunological aspects of the disease and mention the therapies that have been used during recent epidemics. Novel prevention measures to control the mosquito and a new vaccine are highly warranted.

450) A Case of Guillain-Barre syndrome following plasmodium vivax infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ko, B. J.; Kim, E. J.; Lim, D. S.; Park, J. W.; Tae, J. W.; Ryu, J. Y.; Choi, S.H.
Assunto: Nerves; Parasites; Symptoms; Human diseases; Dissociation; Therapy; Disease control; Malaria; Public health; Paralysis; Fever; Cerebrospinal fluid; Intravenous administration; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Hand; Nerve conduction; Infection; Myalgia; Immunoglobulins; Hospitals; Plasmodium vivax; Plasmodium falciparum
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Infection & Chemotherapy, v. 42, n. 6, p. 424-427, 2010
ISSN: 2093-2340
Resumo: A 28-year-old male was admitted to our medical center with general myalgia and fever. After a series of tests, he was diagnosed with P. vivax malaria. On the 5th hospital day, the patient complained of tingling sensation on both hands and feet, which acutely progressed to ascending symmetric motor paralysis. Nerve conduction velocity test and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed albumino-cytologic dissociation, suggesting polyradiculopathy, and thus he was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome. After 5-day treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, and antificial ventilator therapy the patient fully recovered. In the literature, only 22 cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Plasmodium have been reported; 19 cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 3 were by P. vivax. Herein, we report the first case of Guillain-Barre Syndrome associated with P. vivax malaria in Korea.

451) Silent circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon.
Autor: Fokam E B,Levai L D,Guzman H,Amelia P A,Titanji V P K,Tesh R B,Weaver S C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: East African Medical Journal, v. 87, n. 6, p. 262-268, 2010
ISSN: 0012-835X
Resumo: To investigate the silent circulation and transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in the Fako Division of Cameroon. This survey was conducted based on clinical observations and laboratory diagnosis; field collections of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Fako Division of South West Cameroon. One hundred and two sera were obtained from febrile patients (with negative laboratory findings for malaria and typhoid fever) at clinics in the Fako Division, and diurnal anthropophilic mosquitoes (4,764) collected. Virus isolation was attempted from these, and sera were screened for antibodies against 18 African arboviruses by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and complement fixation (CF) tests. No virus was isolated. Fifty three of 79 (67.1%) sera reacted with one or more viral antigens. Twenty nine sera (36.7%) reacted with members of the genus Alphavirus, with Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) viruses as the most frequent (34.2%). Forty six sera (58.2%) reacted with members of the genus Flavivirus: 24 (30.4%) were cross-reactive, but 11.4% reacted monotypically with Zika, 5.1% with yellow fever virus (YFV), 5.1% with dengue virus-2 (DENV-2), 2.5% with DENV-1 and 1.3% with Wesselsbron virus, respectively. The plaque reduction neutralisation test used to specify the agent that elicited the response could not resolve 33.3% of the cross reactions between CHIKV and ONNV. Neutralising antibody titres against ONNV and CHIKV were very high indicating probable re-infection. Our results indicate previously undetected circulation of arboviruses in Cameroon, and suggest that they are important, overlooked public health problems.

452) Differential protein modulation in midguts of Aedes aegypti infected with chikungunya and dengue 2 viruses
Autor: Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stephane; Khun, Huot; Pincet, Laurence; Roux, Pascal; Bahut, Muriel; Huerre, Michel; Guette, Catherine; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Viruses; Pathogens; Disease transmission; Public health; Detoxification; Electrophoresis; Replication; Lipid metabolism; Reactive oxygen species; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Insect cells; Hsp60 protein; Metabolic pathways; Carbohydrates; Midgut; Oral infection; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 5, no. 10, 2010.
ISSN:
Resumo: Arthropod borne virus infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate of severe human diseases worldwide. The midgut of mosquitoes is the first barrier for pathogen transmission and is a target organ where arboviruses must replicate prior to infecting other organs. A proteomic approach was undertaken to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that happen in the midgut for viral transmission to eventually take place. Using a proteomics differential approach with two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we defined the protein modulations in the midgut of Aedes aegypti that were triggered seven days after an oral infection (7 DPI) with dengue 2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Gel profile comparisons showed that the level of 18 proteins was modulated by DENV-2 only and 12 proteins were modulated by CHIKV only. Twenty proteins were regulated by both viruses in either similar or different ways. Both viruses caused an increase of proteins involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, energy production, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Midgut infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV triggered an antioxidant response. CHIKV infection produced an increase of proteins involved in detoxification. Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti's midgut infected with viruses belonging to different families. It shows that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural, redox, regulatory proteins, and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some of these proteins like antioxidant are probably involved in cell protection. On the other hand, we propose that the modulation of other proteins like transferrin, hsp60 and alpha glucosidase, may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by the arboviruses.

453) Aedes aegypti saliva alters leukocyte recruitment and cytokine signaling by antigen-presenting cells during west Nile virus infection
Autor: Schneider, Bradley S.; Soong, Lynn; Coffey, Lark L.; Stevenson, Heather L.; McGee, Charles E.; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Japanese encephalitis - Virus; Host immune - Response; Nitric - Oxide; In vitro; Gland extracts; T - cells; Lymphocyte - Proliferation; Nonviremic transmission; Inflammatory response; Mouse macrophages
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 5, n. 7, 2010
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. Consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact WNV are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node. Macrophages and dendritic cells are critical early responders in host defense against WNV infection, not just because of their role in orchestrating the immune response, but also because of their importance as sites of early peripheral viral replication. Antigen-presenting cell (APC) signals have a profound effect on host antiviral responses and disease severity. During transmission, WNV is intimately associated with mosquito saliva. Due to the ability of mosquito saliva to affect inflammation and immune responses, and the importance of understanding early events in WNV infection, we investigated whether mosquito saliva alters APC signaling during arbovirus infection, and if alterations in cell recruitment occur when WNV infection is initiated with mosquito saliva. Accordingly, experiments were performed with cultured dendritic cells and macrophages, flow cytometry was used to characterize infiltrating cell types in the skin and lymph nodes during early infection, and real-time RT-PCR was employed to evaluate virus and cytokine levels. Our in vitro results suggest that mosquito saliva significantly decreases the expression of interferon-beta and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages (by as much as 50 and 70%, respectively), whilst transiently enhancing interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression. In vivo results indicate that the predominate effect of mosquito feeding is to significantly reduce the recruitment of T cells, leading the inoculation site of mice exposed to WNV alone to have up to 2.8 fold more t cells as mice infected in the presence of mosquito saliva. These shifts in cell population are associated with significantly elevated IL-10 and WNV (up to 4.0 and 10 fold, respectively) in the skin and draining lymph nodes. These results suggest that mosquito saliva dysregulates APC antiviral signaling, and reveal a possible mechanism for the observed enhancement of WNV disease mediated by mosquito saliva via a reduction of T lymphocyte and antiviral activity at the inoculation site, an elevated abundance of susceptible cell types, and a concomitant increase in immunoregulatory activity of IL-10.

454) A revisit to cockroach allergens
Autor: Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen
Assunto: Cockroach; Periplaneta americana; Blattella germanica; Cockroach allergy; Cockroach allergens; Per a 1; Ariginine kinase; Proteases; Atopy; Allergic rhinitis; Atopic asthma; Airway remodeling; Airway hyperresposiveness (AHR); IgE; Fc(epsilon)RI; Fc(epsilon)RII; Th2; Th17; Th9; Th25; IL-17; IL-9; Protease activated receptors (PARs); Cockroach avoidance; Cockroach allergen detection; Cockroach allergen quantification; G-protein couple receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology, v. 28, n. 2-3, p. 95-106, 2010
ISSN: 0125-877X
Resumo: Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4(+) T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed. (Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2010;28:95-106)

455) Dengue virus inhibits immune responses in Aedes aegypti cells
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Viruses; Peptides; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Host-pathogen interactions; Gram-positive bacteria; Gram-negative bacteria; Immune response; Infection; Antimicrobial peptides; Signal transduction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 5, n. 5, 2010.
ISSN:
Resumo: The ability of many viruses to manipulate the host antiviral immune response often results in complex host-pathogen interactions. In order to study the interaction of dengue virus (DENV) with the Aedes aegypti immune response, we have characterized the DENV infection-responsive transcriptome of the immune-competent A. aegypti cell line Aag2. As in mosquitoes, DENV infection transcriptionally activated the cell line Toll pathway and a variety of cellular physiological systems. Most notably, however, DENV infection down-regulated the expression levels of numerous immune signaling molecules and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Functional assays showed that transcriptional induction of AMPs from the Toll and IMD pathways in response to bacterial challenge is impaired in DENV-infected cells. In addition, Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacteria species, grew better when co-cultured with DENV-infected cells than with uninfected cells, suggesting a decreased production of AMPs from the IMD pathway in virus-infected cells. Pre-stimulation of the cell line with Gram-positive bacteria prior to DENV infection had no effect on DENV titers, while pre-stimulation with Gram-negative bacteria resulted in an increase in DENV titers. These results indicate that DENV is capable of actively suppressing immune responses in the cells it infects, a phenomenon that may have important consequences for virus transmission and insect physiology.

456) Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression, genetic variation and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Handunnetthi, L; Ramagopalan, S V; Ebers, G C; Knight, J C
Assunto: Animals, Histocompatibility antigens class II - Metabolism, Regulatory sequences - Nucleic Acid
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual
Fonte: Genes and Immunity, v. 11, n. 2, p. 99-112, 2010.
ISSN: 1466-4879
Resumo: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are central to adaptive immune responses and maintenance of self-tolerance. Since the early 1970s, the MHC class II region at chromosome 6p21 has been shown to be associated with a remarkable number of autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Given that a full explanation for most MHC class II disease associations has not been reached through analysis of structural variation alone, in this review we examine the role of genetic variation in modulating gene expression. We describe the intricate architecture of the MHC class II regulatory system, indicating how its unique characteristics may relate to observed associations with disease. There is evidence that haplotype-specific variation involving proximal promoter sequences can alter the level of gene expression, potentially modifying the emergence and expression of key phenotypic traits. Although much emphasis has been placed on cis-regulatory elements, we also examine the role of more distant enhancer elements together with the evidence of dynamic inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions and epigenetic processes. The role of genetic variation in such mechanisms may hold profound implications for susceptibility to common disease.

457) A novel trypsin Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti with thrombin coagulant inhibitory activity
Autor: Watanabe, Renata M. O.; Soares, Tatiane S.; Morais-Zani, Karen; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M.; Maciel, Ceres; Capurro, Margareth L.; Torquato, Ricardo J. S.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Kazal - Type inhibitor; Trypsin inhibitor; Salivary gland; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochimie, v. 92, n. 8, p. 933-939, 2010
ISSN: 0300-9084
Resumo: Kazal-type inhibitors play several important roles in invertebrates, such as anticoagulant, vasodilator and antimicrobial activities. Putative Kazal-type inhibitors were described in several insect transcriptomes. In this paper we characterized for the first time a Kazal unique domain trypsin inhibitor from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Previously, analyses of sialotranscriptome of A. aegypti showed the potential presence of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, in female salivary glands, carcass and also in whole male, which we named AaTI (A. aegypti trypsin inhibitor). AaTI sequence showed amino acid sequence similarity with insect thrombin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitor from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes and tryptase inhibitor from leech Hirudo medicinalis (LDTI). In this work we expressed, purified and characterized the recombinant AaTI (rAaTI). Molecular weight of purified rAaTI was 7 kDa rAaTI presented dissociation constant (K(i)) of 0.15 and 3.8 nM toward trypsin and plasmin, respectively, and it weakly inhibited thrombin amidolytic activity. The rAaTI was also able to prolong prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. AaTI transcription was confirmed in A. aegypti female salivary gland and gut 3 h and 24 h after blood feeding, suggesting that this molecule can act as anticoagulant during the feeding and digestive processes. Its transcription in larvae and pupae suggested that AaTI may also play other functions during the mosquito's development. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

458) Histone deacetylases and the immunological network: implications in cancer and inflammation
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Villagra, A; Sotomayor, E M; Seto, E
Assunto: Animals, Cytokines - Genetics, Gene expression regulation, Humans, Inflammation - Genetics, Inflammation mediators - Metabolism, Models - Biological, Neoplasms - Genetics, Signal transduction
Descritores: Zika virus - Antigenic variation ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Oncogene, v. 29, n. 2, p. 157-173, 2010.
ISSN: 0950-9232
Resumo: The initiation, magnitude and duration of an immune response against antigens are a tightly regulated process involving a dynamic, orchestrated balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways in immune cells. Such a delicate balance is critical for allowing efficient immune response against foreign antigens while preventing autoimmune attack against self-antigens. In recent years, much effort has been devoted to understanding immune evasion by cancer cells. Also, significant advances have been made in mechanistically understanding the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the regulation of immune responses against antigens, including those expressed by tumors. However, we still know very little about the regulation of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory genes in their natural setting, the chromatin substrate. Several mechanisms have been identified to influence chromatin flexibility and allow dynamic changes in gene expression. Among those, chromatin modifications induced by acetylation and deacetylation of histone tails have gained wide attention. In this study, we discuss the role of histone deacetylases in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response and how these enzymes coordinate the dynamic expression of these genes during an immune response. This emerging knowledge is opening new avenues to better understand epigenetic regulation of inflammatory responses and providing new molecular targets for either amplifying or ameliorating immune responses.

459) Differential gene expression from midguts of refractory and susceptible lines of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, infected with dengue-2 virus
Autor: Baron, Olga L.; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul J.; Lowenberger, Carl A.; Ocampo, Clara B.
Assunto: Gene expression; Bibliographic information; Population genetics; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hybridization; Public health; Dengue; Transcription factors; Midgut; Infection; Feral populations; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science, v. 10, n. 41, p. 1-23, 2010.
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to evaluate the differential expression of midgut genes of feral populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia that are naturally refractory or susceptible to Dengue-2 virus infection. A total of 165 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in the subtracted libraries. The analysis showed a higher number of differentially expressed genes in the susceptible Ae. aegypti individuals than the refractory mosquitoes. The functional annotation of ESTs revealed a broad response in the susceptible library that included immune molecules, metabolic molecules and transcription factors. In the refractory strain, there was the presence of a trypsin inhibitor gene, which could play a role in the infection. These results serve as a template for more detailed studies aiming to characterize the genetic components of refractoriness, which in turn can be used to devise new approaches to combat transmission of dengue fever.

460) Development and evaluation of emulsions from Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) oil
Autor: Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Santiago, Rosilene R.; de Souza, Tatiane P.; Egito, Eryvaldo S. T.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Soares, Luiz A. L.
Assunto: Seeds; Repellents; Pest control; Surfactants; Aquatic insects; Emulsions; Vegetables; Stored products; Medicinal plants; Emulsification; Inflammation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: AAPS PharmSciTech, v. 11, n. 3, p. 1383-1390, 2010.
ISSN: 1530-9932
Resumo: Carapa guianensis, a popular medicinal plant known as 'Andiroba' in Brazil, has been used in traditional medicine as an insect repellent and anti-inflammatory product. Additionally, this seed oil has been reported in the literature as a repellent against Aedes aegypti. The aim of this work is to report on the emulsification of vegetable oils such as 'Andiroba' oil by using a blend of nonionic surfactants (Span 80? and Tween 20?), using the critical hydrophilic--lipophilic balance (HLB) and pseudo-ternary diagram as tools to evaluate the system's stability. The emulsions were prepared by the inverse phase method. Several formulations were made according to a HLB spreadsheet design (from 4.3 to 16.7), and the products were stored at 25?C and 4?C. The emulsion stabilities were tested both long- and short-term, and the more stable one was used for the pseudo-ternary diagram study. The emulsions were successfully obtained by a couple of surfactants, and the HLB analysis showed that the required HLB of the oil was 16.7. To conclude, the pseudo-ternary diagram identified several characteristic regions such as emulsion, micro-emulsion, and separation of phases.

461) A multiplex PCR-based molecular identification of five morphologically related, medically important subgenus Stegomyia mosquitoes from the genus Aedes (Diptera:Culicidae) found in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan
Autor: Higa, Y.; Toma, T.; Tsuda, Y.; Miyagi, I.
Assunto: Endemic species; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Archipelagoes; Polymerase chain reaction; Aquatic insects; Spacer region; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 63, n. 5, p. 312-316, 2010.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA were sequenced, and new species-specific primers were designed to simplify the molecular identification of five morphologically related subgenus Stegomyia mosquito species--Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. riversi, Ae. flavopictus, and Ae. daitensis--found in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Each newly designed primer was able to amplify a species-specific fragment with a different size. Conditions for multiplex PCR were optimized to identify all five species in a single PCR. This method is a convenient tool for entomological field surveys, particularly in arbovirus endemic/epidemic areas where some of these species coexist.

462) Comparison of dengue virus type 2-specific small RNAs from RNA interference-competent and -incompetent mosquito cells
Autor: Scott, Jaclyn C.; Brackney, Doug E.; Campbell, Corey L.; Bondu-Hawkins, Virginie; Hjelle, Brian; Ebel, Greg D.; Olson, Ken E.; Blair, Carol D.
Assunto: Aedes ? immunology; Animals; Cells; Cultured; Dengue Virus ? genetics; RNA; Small Interfering ? immunology; Ribonuclease III - metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 4, no. 10, 2010.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The exogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is an important antiviral defense against arboviruses in mosquitoes, and virus-specific small interfering (si)RNAs are key components of this pathway. Understanding the biogenesis of siRNAs in mosquitoes could have important ramifications in using RNAi to control arbovirus transmission. Using deep sequencing technology, we characterized dengue virus type 2 (DENV2)-specific small RNAs produced during infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and A. aegypti Aag2 cell cultures and compared them to those produced in the C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line. We show that the size and mixed polarity of virus-specific small RNAs from DENV-infected A. aegypti cells indicate that they are products of Dicer-2 (Dcr2) cleavage of long dsRNA, whereas C6/36 cells generate DENV2-specific small RNAs that are longer and predominantly positive polarity, suggesting that they originate from a different small RNA pathway. Examination of virus-specific small RNAs after infection of the two mosquito cell lines with the insect-only flavivirus cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) corroborated these findings. An in vitro assay also showed that Aag2 A. aegypti cells are capable of siRNA production, while C6/36 A. albopictus cells exhibit inefficient Dcr2 cleavage of long dsRNA. Defective expression or function of Dcr2, the key initiator of the RNAi pathway, might explain the comparatively robust growth of arthropod-borne viruses in the C6/36 cell line, which has been used frequently as a surrogate for studying molecular interactions between arboviruses and cells of their mosquito hosts. Understanding how arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) establish persistent infections in mosquitoes will help us to find ways to prevent viral disease transmission by these insects. RNA silencing pathways in mosquitoes and other insects, particularly RNA interference (RNAi), have been shown to be important in antiviral defense. In this study we describe small RNAs involved in RNA silencing that are derived from the genome of the arbovirus dengue virus type-2 (DENV2) in infected Aedes aegypti mosquito cell lines and mosquitoes. We also show that C6/36, a mosquito cell line from A. albopictus, appears to process DENV2 RNA for silencing differently from A. aegypti mosquitoes, revealing that other small RNA pathways in mosquito cells might have a role in antiviral immunity in this cell line and provide insight into using mosquito cell cultures to study the antiviral response to arboviruses in mosquitoes.

463) Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: Worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weissenböck H., Hubálek Z., Bakonyi T., Nowotny N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito borne flavivirus, RNA virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Veterinary Microbiology, v. 140, n. 3-4, p. 271-280, jan. 2010
ISSN: 0378-1135
Resumo: An update on the mosquito-borne flavivirus species including certain subtypes, as listed in the Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, is given. Special emphasis is placed on viruses which have been shown to cause diseases in animals, and viruses for which no pathogenicity has been proven yet. Several recent examples (Usutu virus and lineage-2 West Nile virus in central Europe, Zika virus in Micronesia) have shown that sources providing information on such scientifically largely neglected viruses are valuable tools for scientists and public health officials having to deal with such disease emergences. Furthermore the effects of global warming will lead to introduction of competent mosquito vectors into temperate climate zones and will increase efficiency of viral replication in less competent vector species. This, facilitated by rising global travel and trade activities, will facilitate introduction and permanent establishment of mosquito-borne viruses, some of which may become of public health or veterinary concern, into novel environments, e.g. industrialized countries worldwide. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

464) Genomics and evolution of Aedes-borne flaviviruses
Autor: Grard, Gilda; Moureau, Gregory; Charrel, Remi N.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier
Assunto: Genetic - Characterization; Genus flavivirus; Phylogenetic - Relationships; Fever virus; RT-PCR; Transmission; Arboviruses; Sequences; Identification; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 91, p. 87-94, 2010.
ISSN: 0022-1317
Resumo: We analysed the complete coding sequences of all recognized species of Aedes-borne flavivirus, including previously uncharacterized viruses within the yellow fever virus (YFV), Spondweni virus (SPOV) and dengue virus (DENV) groups. Two major phylogenetic lineages were revealed: one included the YFV and Entebbe bat virus groups, and the other included the DENV, SPOV and Culex-borne flavivirus groups. This analysis supported previous evidence that Culex-borne flaviviruses have evolved from ancestral Aedes-borne viruses. However, the topology at the junction between these lineages remains complex and may be refined by the discovery of viruses related to the Kedougou virus. Additionally, viral evolution was found to be associated with the appearance of new biological characteristics; mutations that may modify the envelope protein structure were identified for seven viruses within the YFV group, and an expansion of host-vector range was identified in the two major evolutionary lineages, which in turn may facilitate the emergence of mosquito-borne flaviviruses.

465) Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Duffy M.R., Chen T.-H., Hancock W.T., Powers A.M., Kool J.L., Lanciotti R.S., Pretrick M., Marfel M., Holzbauer S., Dubray C., Guillaumot L., Griggs A., Bel M., Lambert A.J., Laven J., Kosoy O., Panella A., Biggerstaff B.J., Fischer M., Hayes E.B.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 360, n. 24, p. 2536-2543, jun. 2009
ISSN: 0028-4793,1533-4406 (electronic)
Resumo: BACKGROUND: In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of consensus primers detected Zika virus RNA in the serum of the patients but no dengue virus or other arboviral RNA. No previous outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients and interviewed patients for information on clinical signs and symptoms. Zika virus disease was confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA or a specific neutralizing antibody response to Zika virus in the serum. Patients with IgM antibody against Zika virus who had a potentially cross-reactive neutralizing-antibody response were classified as having probable Zika virus disease. We conducted a household survey to estimate the proportion of Yap residents with IgM antibody against Zika virus and to identify possible mosquito vectors of Zika virus. RESULTS: We identified 49 confirmed and 59 probable cases of Zika virus disease. The patients resided in 9 of the 10 municipalities on Yap. Rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis were common symptoms. No hospitalizations, hemorrhagic manifestations, or deaths due to Zika virus were reported. We estimated that 73% (95% confidence interval, 68 to 77) of Yap residents 3 years of age or older had been recently infected with Zika virus. Aedes hensilli was the predominant mosquito species identified. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak of Zika virus illness in Micronesia represents transmission of Zika virus outside Africa and Asia. Although most patients had mild illness, clinicians and public health officials should be aware of the risk of further expansion of Zika virus transmission. Copyright © 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society.

466) Cloning and expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis
Autor: Luan, Wei; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Bing; Xiang, Jianhai 
Assunto: Molecular biology; Symptoms; Calcium; Glucose; Proteins; Heat shock; Blood cells; Aquatic insects; Public health; white spot syndrome; Stress; Homeostasis; Endoplasmic reticulum; Protein folding; Hemocytes; Immune response; Hepatopancreas; Open reading frames; Amino acid sequence; Immunoglobulins; Aedes aegypti; Crustacea; Drosophila melanogaster; White spot syndrome virus; Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Bombyx mori
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Biology Reports, v. 36, n. 2, p. 289-298, 2009.
ISSN: 0301-4851
Resumo: GRP78 (78kDa glucose-regulated protein), also known as BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), is an essential regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis because of its multiple functions in protein folding, ER calcium binding, and controlling of the activation of transmembrane ER stress sensors. In this report, we cloned the full length cDNA of GRP78 (FcGRP78) from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. This cDNA revealed a 2,325bp with 1,968bp open reading frame encoding 655 amino acids. This is the first reported GRP78 gene in Crustacea. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcGRP78 shared high identity with previously reported insect GRP78s: 86, 87 and 85% identity with GRP78s of Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Bombyx mori, respectively. Northern blot analysis shows that FcGRP78 is ubiquitously expressed in tissues of shrimp. Heat shock at 35C significantly enhanced the expression of FcGRP78 at the first hour, reached the maximum at 4h post heat shock, dropped after that and resumed to the normal level until 48h of post recovery at 25C. Additionally, differential expression of FcGRP78 was detected in haemocytes, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ when shrimp were challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We inferred that FcGRP78 may play important roles in chaperoning, protein folding and immune function of shrimp.

467) Spatial evaluation and modeling of dengue Seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Cruz, Oswaldo Goncalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhaes,; de Araujo, Joselio Maria Galvao; de Araujo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Celio; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Gubler, Duane
Assunto: Epidemics; Viral diseases; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Age; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Hot spots; Climate; Abundance; Vectors; Infection; Models; Blood; Socio-economic aspects; Infestation; Dengue; Risk factors; Immunoglobulin G; Seroconversion; Traps; Sampling; Evolution; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 3, n. 11, 2009.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the beforeaafter epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue seroprevalence hotspots located at the entrances of the two isolated communities, which are commercial activity areas with high human movement. No association between recent dengue infection and household's high mosquito abundance was observed in this sample. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to better understanding the dynamics of dengue in Rio de Janeiro by assessing the relationship between dengue seroprevalence, recent dengue infection, and vector density. In conclusion, the variation in spatial seroprevalence patterns inside the neighborhoods, with significantly higher risk patches close to the areas with large human movement, suggests that humans may be responsible for virus inflow to small neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro. Surveillance guidelines should be further discussed, considering these findings, particularly the spatial patterns for both human and mosquito populations. Author Summary Dengue is a major public health problem in many tropical regions of the world, including Brazil, where Aedes aegypti is the main vector. We present a household study that combines data on dengue fever seroprevalence, recent dengue infection, and vector density, in three neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during its most devastating dengue epidemic to date. This integrated entomologicalaserological survey showed evidence of silent transmission even during a severe epidemic. Also, past exposure to dengue virus was highly associated with age and living in areas of high movement of individuals and social/commercial activity. No association was observed between household infestation index and risk of dengue infection in these areas. Our findings are discussed in the light of current theories regarding transmission thresholds and relative role of mosquitoes and humans as vectors of dengue viruses.

468) Advances in dissecting mosquito innate immune responses to arbovirus infection
Autor: Fragkoudis, Rennos; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Nash, Anthony A.; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain
Assunto: Semliki forest - Virus; West nile - Virus; Aedes albopictus - Cells; Double stranded -RNA; Vesicular stomatitis - Virus; Vector anopheles - Gambiae; La-Crosse virus; Sindbis - Virus; Antiviral immunity; Drosophila - Melanogaster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 90, p. 2061-2072, 2009
ISSN: 0022-1317
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses - arboviruses - are a significant threat to public health. Whilst there is considerable knowledge about arbovirus interactions with vertebrate immunity, relatively little is known about how vectors such as mosquitoes control arbovirus infections. In this review, we discuss novel findings in the field of mosquito antiviral responses to arboviruses, in particular RNA interference, the up-and-coming field of general immune-signal ling pathways, and cell death/apoptosis.

469) The effect of extrinsic incubation temperature on development of dengue serotype 2 and 4 viruses in Aedes aegypti (L.)
Autor: Rohani, A.; Wong, Y. C.; Zamre, I.; Lee, H. L.; Zurainee, M. N.
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Erythrocytes; Viruses; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Public health; Feeding; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Development; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 40, n. 5, p. 942-950, 2009.
ISSN: 0038-3619
Resumo: Dengue 2 and 4 viruses obtained from dengue-infected patients were maintained in a C6/36 Aedes albopictus Skuse cell line and used to infect adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Each serotype was mixed separately with fresh human erythrocytes and fed to adult female mosquitoes using an artificial membrane feeding technique. Fully engorged mosquitoes were selected and retained at 26C sub(/) 28C and 30C to observe dengue virus development in Aedes vectors. Virus detection was carried out by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was first detected on Day 9 at 26C and 28C and on Day 5 at 30C for both dengue 2 and 4. The study shows the incubation period of the viruses decreased when the extrinsic incubation temperature increases.

470) Direct sequencing and expression analysis of a large number of miRNAs in Aedes aegypti and a multi-species survey of novel mosquito miRNAs
Autor: Li, Song; Mead, Edward A; Liang, Shaohui; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Proteins; Mosquitoes; Genomes; Embryos; Manuscripts; RNA polymerase; Infections; Cell division
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 10, 2009.
ISSN:
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of gene regulators whose biogenesis involves hairpin structures called precursor miRNAs, or pre-miRNAs. A pre-miRNA is processed to make a miRNA:miRNA* duplex, which is then separated to generate a mature miRNA and a miRNA*. The mature miRNAs play key regulatory roles during embryonic development as well as other cellular processes. They are also implicated in control of viral infection as well as innate immunity. Direct experimental evidence for mosquito miRNAs has been recently reported in anopheline mosquitoes based on small-scale cloning efforts. We obtained approximately 130, 000 small RNA sequences from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, by 454 sequencing of samples that were isolated from mixed-age embryos and midguts from sugar-fed and blood-fed females, respectively. We also performed bioinformatics analysis on the Ae. aegypti genome assembly to identify evidence for additional miRNAs. The combination of these approaches uncovered 98 different pre-miRNAs in Ae. aegypti which could produce 86 distinct miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs, including eight novel miRNAs identified in this study, are currently only found in mosquitoes. We also identified five potential revisions to previously annotated miRNAs at the miRNA termini, two cases of highly abundant miRNA* sequences, 14 miRNA clusters, and 17 cases where more than one pre-miRNA hairpin produces the same or highly similar mature miRNAs. A number of miRNAs showed higher levels in midgut from blood-fed female than that from sugar-fed female, which was confirmed by northern blots on two of these miRNAs. Northern blots also revealed several miRNAs that showed stage-specific expression. Detailed expression analysis of eight of the 13 mosquito-specific miRNAs in four divergent mosquito genera identified cases of clearly conserved expression patterns and obvious differences. Four of the 13 miRNAs are specific to certain lineage(s) within mosquitoes. This study provides the first systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and offers a substantially expanded list of miRNAs for all mosquitoes. New insights were gained on the evolution of conserved and lineage-specific miRNAs in mosquitoes. The expression profiles of a few miRNAs suggest stage-specific functions and functions related to embryonic development or blood feeding. A better understanding of the functions of these miRNAs will offer new insights in mosquito biology and may lead to novel approaches to combat mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

471) Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore
Autor: Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Tan, Sharon S. Y.; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C.; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Lai, Yee-Ling; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Bucht, Goeran; Lin, Raymond T. P.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tan, Boon-Hian; Han, Hwi-Kwang; Ooi, Peng-Lim S.; James, Lyn; Khoo, Seow-Poh
Assunto: Virus; Epidemic; Outbreak; Fever; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 8, p. 1243-1249, 2009
ISSN: 1080-6040
Resumo: Local transmission of chikungunya, a debilitating mosquito-borne viral disease, was first reported in Singapore in January 2008. After 3 months of absence, locally acquired Chikungunya cases resurfaced in May 2008, causing an outbreak that resulted in a total of 231 cases by September 2008. The circulating viruses were related to East, Central, and South African genotypes that emerged in the Indian Ocean region in 2005. The first local outbreak was due to a wild-type virus (alanine at codon 226 of the envelope 1 gene) and occurred in an area where Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were the primary vector. Strains isolated during subsequent outbreaks showed alanine to valine substitution (A226V) and largely spread in areas predominated by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas.

472) Discovery of Plasmodium modulators by genome-wide analysis of circulating hemocytes in Anopheles gambiae
Autor: Pinto, Sofia B.; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Koutsos, Anastasios C.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; McKay, Krista; An, Chunju; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Michel, Kristin
Assunto: Innate immunity; Malaria; Mosquito; Cellular immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 106, n. 50, p. 21270-21275, 2009.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Insect hemocytes mediate important cellular immune responses including phagocytosis and encapsulation and also secrete immune factors such as opsonins, melanization factors, and antimicrobial peptides. However, the molecular composition of these important immune cells has not been elucidated in depth, because of their scarcity in the circulating hemolymph, their adhesion to multiple tissues and the lack of primary culture methods to produce sufficient material for a genome-wide analysis. In this study, we report a genome-wide molecular characterization of circulating hemocytes collected from the hemolymph of adult female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes-the major mosquito vector of human malaria in subSaharan Africa. Their molecular profile identified 1,485 transcripts with enriched expression in these cells, and many of these genes belong to innate immune gene families. This hemocyte-specific transcriptome is compared to those of Drosophila melanogaster and two other mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Armigeres subalbatus. We report the identification of two genes as ubiquitous hemocyte markers and several others as hemocyte subpopulation markers. We assess, via an RNAi screen, the roles in development of Plasmodium berghei of 63 genes expressed in hemocytes and provide a molecular comparison of the transcriptome of these cells during malaria infection.

473) Epistatic Roles of E2 Glycoprotein Mutations in Adaption of Chikungunya Virus to Aedes Albopictus and Ae. Aegypti Mosquitoes
Autor: Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A.; McGee, Charles E.; Volk, Sara M.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Weaver, Scott C.; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 4, n. 8, 2009
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Between 2005 and 2007 Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. An unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of Ae. albopictus as a principal vector. Previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation E1-A226V significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized CHIKV strains LR2006 OPY1 and 37997. However, in the current study we demonstrate that introduction of the E1-A226V mutation into the background of an infectious clone derived from the Ag41855 strain (isolated in Uganda in 1982) does not significantly increase infectivity for Ae. albopictus. In order to elucidate the genetic determinants that affect CHIKV sensitivity to the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus, the genomes of the LR2006 OPY1 and Ag41855 strains were used for construction of chimeric viruses and viruses with a specific combination of point mutations at selected positions. Based upon the midgut infection rates of the derived viruses in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, a critical role of the mutations at positions E2-60 and E2-211 on vector infection was revealed. The E2-G60D mutation was an important determinant of CHIKV infectivity for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, but only moderately modulated the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. However, the effect of the E2-I211T mutation with respect to mosquito infections was much more specific, strongly modifying the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. In contrast, CHIKV infectivity for Ae. aegypti was not influenced by the E2-1211T mutation. The occurrence of the E2-60G and E2-211I residues among CHIKV isolates was analyzed, revealing a high prevalence of E2-211I among strains belonging to the Eastern/Central/South African (ECSA) clade. This suggests that the E2-211I might be important for adaptation of CHIKV to some particular conditions prevalent in areas occupied by ECSA stains. These newly described determinants of CHIKV mosquito infectivity for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are of particular importance for studies aimed at the investigation of the detailed mechanisms of CHIKV adaptations to its vector species.

474) Overview of emerging arboviruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Powers A.M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;
Fonte: Future Virology, v. 4, n. 4, p. 391-401, 2009
ISSN: 1746-0794
Resumo: Numerous arboviral outbreaks during the past decade have demonstrated that arthropod-borne pathogens continue to be significant public and animal health threats. These outbreaks have occurred globally and have not been limited to tropical or developing countries, as people and goods can be moved anywhere in the world within days. Several examples of recent outbreaks have been described, including how they were identified, tracked and the resulting outcomes from these events. Fortunately, scientific research, including advances in rapid detection of this diverse group of pathogens, has also been progressing. While arboviruses are likely to continually emerge and re-emerge, improved scientific technologies and approaches will hopefully make each future epidemic less likely to occur. © 2009 Future Medicine Ltd.

475) Environmental conditions in water storage drums and influences on Aedes aegypti in Trinidad, West Indies
Autor: Hemme, Ryan R.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Nutrients; Dengue control; Mosquito control; Stress
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 112, n. 1, p. 59-66, 2009
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of A. aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for A. aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of A. aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

476) West Nile virus infection alters midgut gene expression in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Smartt, C. T.; Richards, S. L.; Anderson, S. L.; Erickson, J. S.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Gene expression; Viral diseases; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Databases; Blood; Feeding; Blood meals; Midgut; Infection; Differential display; Toll-like receptors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 81, n. 2, 2009.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Alterations in gene expression in the midgut of female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus exposed to blood meals containing 6.8 logs plaque-forming units/mL of West Nile virus (WNV) were studied by fluorescent differential display. Twenty-six different cDNAs exhibited reproducible differences after feeding on infected blood. Of these, 21 cDNAs showed an increase in expression, and 5 showed a decrease in expression as a result of WNV presence in the blood meal. GenBank database searches showed that one clone with increased expression, CQ G12A2, shares 94% identity with a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein from Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and 32% identity to Toll-like receptors from Aedes aegypti. We present the first cDNA clone isolated from female Cx. p. quinquefasciatus midgut tissue whose expression changes on exposure to WNV. This cDNA represents a mosquito gene that is an excellent candidate for interacting with WNV in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and may play a role in disease transmission.

477) Zika virus outside Africa.
Autor: Hayes Edward B
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 9, p. 1347-1350, 2009
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

478) Neurologic dengue manifestations associated with intrathecal specific immune response
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Puccioni-Sohler, M.; Soares, C. N.; Papaiz-Alvarenga, R.; Castro, M. J. C.; Faria, L. C.; Peralta, J. M.
Assunto: Symptoms; Central nervous system; Nervous system; Antibodies; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Spinal cord; ELISA; Public health; Optics; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Serotypes; Infection; Encephalitis; Cerebrospinal fluid; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Dengue; Immunoglobulin G; Myelitis; Immune response; Neuromyelitis; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Public health
Fonte: Neurology, v. 73, n. 17, p. 1413-1417, 2009
ISSN: 0028-3878
Resumo: Background: Dengue infection is caused by a flavivirus, with 4 virus serotypes (types 1 to 4). The serotypes 2 and 3 represent the principal agents related to nervous system involvement. Neurologic involvement occurs in 4%-5% of dengue infection cases. The major mechanisms of the disease may be related to direct viral infection or postinfectious autoimmune process. The detection of intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies has been used to support neurologic diagnosis as a proof of local reaction. It may be quantitatively calculated by the specific antibody index. Objectives: To determine if patients with neurologic manifestations associated with dengue produce specific antibodies in the CNS and to determine the antibodies' clinical and pathophysiologic relevance. Methods: CSF and serum were evaluated for dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by ELISA and for intrathecal synthesis of IgG antibodies to the dengue virus. Subjects included 10 patients IgM seropositive for dengue virus diagnosed with myelitis, encephalitis, optic neuromyelitis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Results: All patients had IgG and IgM antibodies to dengue virus in their sera; 7 were IgM positive and 9 were IgG positive for dengue virus in CSF. Only the 3 patients with myelitis had intrathecal synthesis of specific IgG antibodies. Conclusions: Intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to dengue virus occurs in the CNS. It may be used as a marker of myelitis associated with dengue, and it seems to be related to the pathogenesis of spinal cord disease due to direct viral invasion.

479) Efficacy of a new combined larvicidal-adulticidal ultralow volume formulation against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of dengue
Autor: Lucia, Alejandro; Harburguer, Laura; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector
Assunto: Argentina; Mosquitos
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 104, n. 5, p. 1101-1107, 2009
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: A new ultralow volume formulation (ULV) containing permethrin as an adulticidal active ingredient and the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen as a larvicide was developed and its efficacy evaluated in a field trial in Wanda, Misiones (Argentina). Two separate study areas were sprayed: one with a ULV formulation of permethrin 15% plus pyriproxyfen 3% and the other with permethrin 15% only. A third untreated area was kept as a control. Sentinel cages containing adult mosquitoes and jars containing Aedes aegypti larvae III/IV were placed in treated and control areas. The residual activity of the formulations was tested using 20 L water containers. The adulticide effect of permethrin 15% + pyriproxyfen 3% formulation was similar to the permethrin 15% formulation, however, the inhibition of adult emergence in the treatment with permethrin 15% never exceeded 20%, whereas the inhibition of adult emergence in the treatment with permethrin 15% plus pyriproxyfen 3% showed initial values of 96% maintaining this high level of inhibition up to 35 days after ULV spraying. Larval indexes (House and Breteau indexes) showed that a greater, long-lasting effect was obtained with the permethrin 15% plus pyriproxyfen 3% formulation.

480) Cross-mating between malaysian strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the laboratory
Autor: Nazni, W. A.; Lee, H. L.; Dayang, H. A. B.; Azahari, A. H.
Assunto: Animals; Female; Laboratories; Malaysia; Male; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 40, n. 1, p. 40-46, 2009.
ISSN: 0038-3619
Resumo: Reciprocal and homologous mating experiments between Malaysian Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were conducted in the laboratory. Two methods were employed, namely an artificial mating technique and a natural cage mating technique. The study demonstrated there exists a strong reproductive isolation between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Insemination occurred in cross-mating experiments between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males and also between Ae. albopictus females and Ae. aegypti males. Cross mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males produced more eggs than that between Ae. albopictus females and Ae. aegypti males with both artificial mating and natural cage mating techniques. The matings did not result in the production of viable eggs by the females. No embryonation of these eggs was observed when the eggs were bleached. With homologous mating Aedes aegypti produced significantly greater numbers of eggs compared to Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and all the eggs hatched successfully.

481) Effects of larval crowding on development time, survival and weight at metamorphosis in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Macia, Arnaldo
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; Intraspecific competition; Larval crowding; Density - Dependent development
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina, v. 68, n. 1-2, p. 107-114, 2009
ISSN: 0373-5680
Resumo: The effects of larval crowding on survival, weight at metamorphosis and development time were assessed in the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., under a controlled environment. Larval cohorts were bred at 7 different densities (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 larvae / 175 ml pot), while keeping constant water volume and food amount and quality, under controlled temperature and photoperiod. Natural detritus, mainly leaves, obtained from containers naturally colonized by A. aegypti, were used as a source of nutrients for larvae. Development time, mortality, mass at metamorphosis, and total biomass were recorded for each density. Development time ranged from 4 to 23 days in males, and from 5 to 24 in females, whereby larvae took longer to develop at 64 (females) and 128 (males) larvae per recipient. At high densities there was a male-biased sex proportion. At densities equal to or higher than 0.4 larvae/ml (0.32 larvae/cm(2)) there was an increase of mortality. An inverse relationship between larval density and pupal weight was detected. Biomass per individual reached asymptotic values of about 1 mg/individual at a density of 128 individuals/pot (0.64 larvae/cm(2)). This experiment shows that this southern strain of A. aegypti is sensitive to crowding in small containers.

482) Cost of co-infection controlled by infectious dose combinations and food availability
Autor: Fellous, Simon; Koella, Jacob C.
Assunto: Parasites; Food availability; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Fitness; Age; Pupation; Aedes aegypti; Microsporidium; Vavraia culicis; Ascogregarina culicis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Oecologia, v. 162, n. 4, p. 935-940, 2009.
ISSN: 0029-8549
Resumo: To what extent the combined effect of several parasite species co-infecting the same host (i.e. polyparasitism) affects the host's fitness is a crucial question of ecological parasitology. We investigated whether the ecological setting can influence the co-infection's outcome with the mosquito Aedes aegypti and two parasites: the microsporidium Vavraia culicis and the gregarine Ascogregarina culicis. The cost of being infected by the two parasites depended on the interaction between the two infectious doses and host food availability. The age at pupation of the mosquito was delayed most when the doses of the two parasites were highest and little food was available. As infectious dose increases with the parasites' prevalence and intensity of transmission, the cost of being co-infected depends on the epidemiological status of the two parasite species.

483) Control of mosquito vectors of tropical infectious diseases: (3) susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to pyrethroid and mosquito coils
Autor: Katsuda, Y.; Leemingsawat, S.; Thongrangkiat, S.; Prummonkol, S.; Samung, Y.; Kanzaki, T.; Watanabe, T.
Assunto: Allethrin; Animals; Aedes; Insect vectors; Insecticides; Mosquito control - methods; Pyrethrins
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 40, n. 5, 929-936, 2009.
ISSN: 0038-3619
Resumo: We collected 11 groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from various locations of Thailand. After rearing in the laboratory, the colonies were tested for KT sub(50) values to dl,d-T80-allethrin 0.5% mosquito coils in a 25 m super(3) room semi-field test and KD sub(50) and LD sub(50) values to dl,d-T80-allethrin by a topical application method. Two groups of mosquitoes were susceptible to allethrin similar to a SS (known allethrin sensitive) group, and other 9 groups showed various levels of lower susceptibility to allethrin; of these 6 had susceptibilities similar to a BS (known allethrin resistant) group with extremely low susceptibility, while the remaining 3 groups had susceptibilities to allethrin between the SS and BS groups. The KD sub(50) values with the topical application were found to correlate highly with the KT sub(50) values in the 25 m super(3) room semi-field test, providing a useful test method for insect susceptibility evaluation. The allethrin mosquito coils, even at higher concentrations, had no activity against the 6 decreased susceptibility groups, similar to the BS group. With the 25 m super(3) room semi-field test, mosquito coils with d,d-T-prallethrin at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.15% plus a synergist and those with methoxymethyl-tetrafluorobenzyl tetramethylcyclopropane carboxylate (K-3050) at a concentration of 0.1% plus a synergist were found to be highly effective against these mosquito groups. These two pyrethroids had smaller KD sub(50) and LD sub(50) values for topical application, and were more effective than dl,d-T80-allethrin, having the potential to control Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with low allethrin susceptibility.

484) A case of bilateral presumed chikungunya neuroretinitis
Autor: Mahesh, G.; Giridhar, A.; Shedbele, Archis; Kumar, Ram; Saikumar, S. J.
Assunto: Chikungunya ; Neuroretinitis ; Ocular ; Optic neuritis ; Retinitis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, v. 57, n. 2, p. 148-150, 2009
ISSN: 0301-4738
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is a relatively rare from of vector-borne viral fever caused by chikungunya virus and spread by bites of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Epidemics of chikungunya fever have been reported in the past from different parts of the world. Although the virus had been passive for quite some time, recent reports of outbreaks of chikungunya fever in several parts of Southern India have confirmed the re-emergence of this virus. Symptoms of this infection include abrupt onset of fever, chills, and headache, rash, severe joint pain, conjunctival injection and photophobia. Ocular manifestations have been recently reported with this infection. We report a case of a 48-year-old female patient, who presented with defective vision two weeks after a serology proven chikungunya infection. There was bilateral neuroretinitis with peripapillary cotton wool spots. These findings should be kept in mind as an ocular manifestation of chikungunya virus infection.

485) Effect of existing practices on reducing Aedes aegyp