Novas metodologias de diagnóstico

1) Bilateral posterior uveitis associated with Zika virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kodati, Shilpa; Palmore, Tara N.; Spellman, Frank A.; Cunningham, Denise; Weistrop, Benjamin; Sen, H Nida
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: The Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

2) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible zika virus infection - United States, February 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E.; Nelson, Jennifer M.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M.; Minta, Anna A.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR-Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

3) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

4) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

5) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

6) Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae
Autor: Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri;Suharjono, Suharjono
Assunto: Toxicants; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Larvae; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Phylogeny; Beaches; Toxins; Soil; Colonies; Islands; Saline water; Cytology; Heat shock; Toxicity testing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 2, p. 148-154, 2016.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island. Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology, and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus 2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values within 48 h. PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16s rDNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes (using multiplex PCR). Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates (namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1-2 bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes. Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

7) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

8) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

9) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

10) Identification of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease conferring resistance to deltamethrin by characterization of an AFLP marker in Culex pipiens pallens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zou, F. F.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, D.; Hu, M. X.; Hu, H. X.; Liu, B. Q.; Tian, M. M.; Liu, X. M.; Li, X. X.; Ma, L.; Shen, B.; Zhu, C. L.
Assunto: Protease m1 zinc metalloprotease; Deltamethrin resistance; Culex pipiens pallens; AFLP; CYP6CP1
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Continuous and excessive application of deltamethrin (DM) has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for resistance to DM had previously been detected in Cx. pipiens pallens. But locating the QTLs on the chromosomes remained difficult. An available approach is to first characterize DNA molecular markers linked with the phenotype, and then identify candidate genes.Methods: In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker L3A8.177 associated with the QTL, was characterized. We searched for potential candidate genes in the flank region of L3A8.177 in the genome Sequence of the closely related Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and conducted mRNA expression analysis of the candidate gene via quantitative real-time PCR. Then the relationship between DM resistance and the candidate gene was identified using RNAi and American CDC Bottle Bioassay in vivo. We also cloned the ORF Sequences of the candidate gene from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes.Results: The genes CYP6CP1 and protease m1 zinc metalloprotease were in the flank region of L3A8.177 and had significantly different expression levels between susceptible and resistant strains. Protease m1 zinc metalloprotease was significantly up-regulated in the susceptible strains compared with the resistant and remained over-expressed in the susceptible field-collected strains. For deduced amino acid Sequences of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease, there was no difference between susceptible and resistant mosquitoes. Knockdown of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease not only decreased the sensitivity of mosquitoes to DM in the susceptible strain but also increased the expression of CYP6CP1, suggesting the role of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease in resistance may be involved in the regulation of the P450 gene expression.Conclusion: Our study represents an example of candidate genes derived from the AFLP marker associated with the QTL and provides the first evidence that protease m1 zinc metalloprotease may play a role in the regulation of DM resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.

11) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

12) Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Leal dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Mayaro Virus; Entomological Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 111, n. 1, p. 20-29, 2016
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171 Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiaba has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

13) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

14) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

15) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

16) Zika virus spreads to new areas - region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantion, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

17) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

18) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

19) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

20) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, n. 5, p. 587-590, 2016.
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

21) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

22) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

23) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report.
Autor: Brasil Patrícia,Pereira Jose P,Raja Gabaglia Claudia,Damasceno Luana,Wakimoto Mayumi,Ribeiro Nogueira Rita M,Carvalho de Sequeira Patrícia,Machado Siqueira André,Abreu de Carvalho Liege M,Cotrim da Cunha Denise,Calvet Guilherme A,Neves Elizabeth S,Moreira Maria E,Rodrigues Baião Ana E,Nassar de Carvalho Paulo R,Janzen Carla,Valderramos Stephanie G,Cherry James D,Bispo de Filippis Ana M,Nielsen-Saines Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

24) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

25) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

26) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

27) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

28) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

29) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

30) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

31) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

32) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

33) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

34) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

35) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

36) Congenital zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Linden, Vanessa van der ; Rolim Filho, Epitacio Leite ; Lins, Otavio Gomes ; Linden, Ana van der ; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco ; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens ; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa ; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley ; Silva, Paula Fabiana Sobral da ; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: The BMJ, v. 354, i3899, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo: To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus

37) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

38) Rapid molecular detection of Zika virus in urine using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wahed, Ahmed Abd El ; Sanabani, Sabri S. ; Faye, Oumar ; Pessoa, Rodrigo ; Patriota, Joao-Veras ; Rodrigues-Giorgi, Rodrigues ; Patel, Pranav ; Boehlken-Fascher, Susanne ; Landt, Olfert ; Niedrig, Matthias ; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A. ; Czerny, Claus-Peter ; Sall, Amadou A. ; Weidmann, Manfred
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Viral infections ; ZIKV - RT-PCR ; ZIKV - PCR detection
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Currently detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92% while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering)

39) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

40) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

41) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

42) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

43) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

44) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

45) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

46) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

47) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

48) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

49) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

50) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

51) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

52) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

53) Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of chikungunya and dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini-Jaimes, Andres; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mexico; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 0035-9203
Resumo: Background: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero.Methods: Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez and Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR.Results: We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 and 4), CHIKV and their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV and DENV 3 and 4 suggesting vertical transmission.Conclusions: Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV and DENV and provided a trigger for timely and focalized vector control actions.

54) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

55) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

56) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

57) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

58) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

59) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

60) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

61) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

62) Development of a TaqMan array card for Acute-Febrile-Illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including ebola virus.
Autor: Liu Jie,Ochieng Caroline,Wiersma Steve,Ströher Ute,Towner Jonathan S,Whitmer Shannon,Nichol Stuart T,Moore Christopher C,Kersh Gilbert J,Kato Cecilia,Sexton Christopher,Petersen Jeannine,Massung Robert,Hercik Christine,Crump John A,Kibiki Gibson,Maro Athanasia,Mujaga Buliga,Gratz Jean,Jacob Shevin T,Banura Patrick,Scheld W Michael,Juma Bonventure,Onyango Clayton O,Montgomery Joel M,Houpt Eric,Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

63) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

64) Expression of a sugar Glade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori
Autor: Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi
Assunto: Juvenile Hormone; 20-Hydroxyecdysone; Post-Translation Modification; Cholesterol; Lipid Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, n. , p. 85-98, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar Glade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

65) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernández, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika virus; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 percent nt and 100 percent aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

66) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Ballesteros Gabriela,Gresh Lionel,Mohamed-Hadley Alisha,Tellez Yolanda,Sahoo Malaya K,Abeynayake Janaki,Balmaseda Angel,Harris Eva,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Background, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Molecular diagnostics, Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV and CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection and differentiation of DENV and CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, and the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV and CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype and CHIKV, and the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, and it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs and streamlining molecular workflow.

67) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

68) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

69) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

70) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

71) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

72) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

73) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

74) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y.; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, n. , p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHUN drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKN on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

75) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

76) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

77) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, Jose P; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Machado Siqueira, André; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Calvet, Guilherme A; Neves, Elizabeth S; Moreira, Maria E; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Janzen, Carla; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

78) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

79) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

80) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

81) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

82) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

83) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

84) Evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses - Brazil, 2015
Autor: Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana; Rollin, Dominique; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Luz, Kleber G.; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria; Freire Davi, Helaine Pompeia; de Oliveria, Wanderson Kleber; Lanciotti, Robert; Lambert, Amy; Zaki, Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

85) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

86) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

87) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

88) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

89) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

90) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

91) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

92) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

93) Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China
Autor: Deng Yichu,Zeng Liping,Bao Wen,Xu Pinghua,Zhong Gongrong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing ji jiu yi xue, v. 28, n. 2, p. 106-109, 2016
ISSN: 2095-4352
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged lymph nodes were found. Bilateral conjunctival congestion was obvious, physiological reflex existed and pathological reflex was not found. (3) Auxiliary lab test and examination: no abnormal finding were revealed throughout examination and laboratory tests, including routine blood test, liver function, renal function, serum myocardial enzyme, electrolyte, blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin I (TnI), and procalcitonin (PCT), except slight prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 38.6 s) on February 6th; and slightly dense shadow in left lung in lung CT scan, considering inflammatory changes and slight emphysema (especially in the left lower lung) as well as bilateral renal calculus on February 8th. No significant abnormalities were found in electrocardiogram and B ultrasound test of liver, spleen, and pancreas. (4) Virus confirmation: Zika virus nucleic acid was positive reported by Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 7th and Chinese CDC on February 9th, respectively, though Dengue virus were negative reported by Ganzhou CDC on February 6th. Right after the first diagnosis, anyone who had been in close contact with the patient received medical monitoring. (5)Treatment process: on February 6th, symptomatic treatment was prescribed since admitted into the infectious isolation wards and daily intravenous drip of Xiyanping injection 250 mg was prescribed for antiviral therapy. On February 7th, the patient had no fever, with occasional chills, neck rash was disappeared, orbital pain relieved and bilateral conjunctival hyperemia range was paler and narrowed, and his condition improved. Ibuprofen was administered for defervesce 3 times a day when his temperature reached to 37.5?centigrade at 16:00. On February 8th, the patient had no fever, times of chills was significantly reduced, without myalgia and rash, orbital pain and conjunctival hyperemia further recovered. On February 9th, bilateral eyes slightly tingling, mild conjunctival congestion, no fever chills or other discomfort was found. The chloramphenicol eye drops was prescribed for relieving sting pain with conjunctival congestion twice a day as recombinant human interferon alpha eye drops was out of store. The patient was comfortable from February 11th to February 13th. Blood and urine test for Zika were reported negative by the Chinese CDC and Jiangxi Province CDC. Because all the discharge criteria were satisfied, the patient was discharged on February 14th. At present, there is no specific effective drug to prevent and treat Zika virus disease effectually. After receiving symptomatic treatment and antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection, the patient's symptoms were relieved. Zika virus nucleic acid in blood and urine was negative. The patient was discharged. Combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine maybe a good method to prevent and treat Zika virus disease.

94) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

95) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

96) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

97) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

98) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

99) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

100) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

101) Zika virus - an overview
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus; Flavivirus; Viral emergence; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 18, n. 5, p. 295-301, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

102) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

103) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

104) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

105) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

106) Coevolution of the Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 Mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti in Mexico
Autor: Vera-Maloof, Farah Z.; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando E.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Black IV, William C.
Assunto: Channels; Sodium; Mutations; Viruses; Pest control; Phenylalanine; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Sodium channels (voltage-gated); Coevolution; Vectors; Isoleucine; Linkage disequilibrium; Insecticides; Cysteine; Dengue; Yellow fever; Codons; Sodium channels; Valine; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Constant use of pyrethroid insecticides has driven mosquito populations to develop resistance. In Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue, yellow Fever, and chikungunya viruses, pyrethroid resistance is primarily associated with mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel protein. One mutation occurs in codon 1,016 and involves a replacement of valine with isoleucine (Ile1, 016), and a second located in subunit 6 of domain III in codon 1,534, replaces phenylalanine with cysteine (Cys1,534). In Mexico, we found that Cys1,534 was present in the same mosquito collections that were previously analyzed for Ile1,016. In this study, we performed a linkage disequilibrium analysis on both Ile1,016 and Cys1,534 in Mexican collections from 2000-2012. Our analysis suggests that pyrethroid resistance requires the sequential evolution of the two mutations and that Cys1,534 must occur first and appears to enable the Ile1,016 mutation to survive.

107) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

108) Characterization of alpha-actin isoforms in white and red skeletal muscle types of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alves-Costa, Fernanda A.; Silva, Maeli D. P.; Wasko, Adriane P.
Assunto: ATP interaction; Binding site; Ser/Ala155 substitution; Phe/Ile262 substitution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 87, n. 4, p. 2055-2066, 2015
ISSN: 0001-3765
Resumo: Two ?-actin genes of the fish Leporinus macrocephalus, referring to white and red muscle tissues, were isolated. Actin isoforms, that mainly differed by a Ser/Ala155 substitution, can have a functional significance related to actin-ATP interaction. An Ala155 residue, as observed in the ?-skeletal actin from red muscle, results in a decrease in actin's affinity for ATP, which may also be associated to the slow contractile performance of this tissue. Furthermore, a Phe/Ile262 substitution at the red muscle actin leads to a hydrophobicity variation at the D-plug of the protein, which could alter its stability. Data on qRT-PCR evidenced a significant higher actin mRNA level in white muscle when compared to red muscle (T=105 Mann Whitney; p<0.001). This finding could be related to the energetic demands of the white muscle tissue, with fast contraction fibers and glycolytic metabolism for energy supply. Available data on muscle actins lead to the proposal that white and red ?-skeletal actins are genetically and functionally distinguishable in fish species, a feature that is not found in other vertebrate groups

109) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil.
Autor: Campos Gubio S,Bandeira Antonio C,Sardi Silvia I
Assunto: Bahia, Brazil, Zika virus, detection, diagnosis, maculopapular rash, outbreak, reverse transcription PCR, viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

110) Phylogenetic analysis reveals genetic variations of densovirus isolated from field mosquitoes in Bangkok and surrounding regions
Autor: Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong;Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Screening; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Phylogenetics; Public health; Capsids; Phylogeny; Dengue; Yellow fever; Restriction fragment length polymorphism; Vectors; Habitat; Culex; Toxorhynchites; Densovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Screening for densoviruses (DNV) from Aedes, Culex and Toxorhynchites mosquitoes collected in Bangkok and surrounding regions identified two clades of Aedes DNV; Ae. aegypti DNV (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus DNV (AalDNV) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). From nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons of a fragment of DNV capsid gene, these DNVs were shown to be new DNV genetic variations similar to AaeDNV. Isolation and identification of densoviruses from indigenous field mosquitoes reside in natural habitat should be helpful in monitoring the distribution of DNVs in important mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses.

111) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

112) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

113) A survey of the 2014 dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou, China
Autor: Yang, Liu; Chen, Yue; Yan, Huacheng; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Xiaoli; Tang, Boheng; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Ruiwen
Assunto: Clinical picture; Dengue virus; Diagnostics; Phylogenetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 57, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: In 2014, a serious dengue outbreak in Guangzhou occurred, consisting of 37 354 laboratory confirmed cases of infection. In this study, the clinical picture of dengue fever due to dengue virus (DENV) type 1 in Guangzhou was described. Clinical and laboratory data collected by studying 726 sera of suspected clinical cases from hospitals and 328 sera of healthy persons from two residence communities were analyzed during the outbreak, and 484 patients were diagnosed with an acute dengue infection. Fever, headache, congestion of the throat, and myalgia were the most typical symptoms in DENV-infected patients. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an increase in liver enzymes were significantly more common in the infected patients than in the healthy controls. Fourteen cases of silent infection were discovered among the 328 healthy persons, suggesting a DENV inapparent infection rate of 4.27% among healthy individuals. The data obtained by analyzing 212 positive sera with three methods indicated different results with different detection methods. DENV RNA should be used for early diagnoses during days 1-6 after symptom onset, immunoglobulin M (IgM) can be easily recognized after four days have passed since symptom onset and DENV isolation has a peak positive rate during days 1-3 after the onset of symptoms. A phylogenetic analysis of viral NS1 gene sequences from this outbreak indicated that the predominant isolates could be categorized as DENV-1 genotype III and had the highest homology with the India genotypes from 2009 to 2011. However, this analysis also revealed a co-epidemic of the 2013 Zhongshan and 2003 Singapore genotypes, both belonging to DENV-1 genotype I, which suggested multiple geographic origins for the 2014 epidemic of dengue 1 strains in Guangzhou.

114) High throughput profiling of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera immunotranscriptome during the fungal and bacterial infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Xiong, Guang-Hua; Xing, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zhe; Saha, Tusar T.; Wang, Chengshu; Jiang, Haobo; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Helicoverpa armigera; Fungal infection; Bacterial challenge; Innate immunity; RNA-seq; Fat body; Hemocytes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Innate immunity is essential in defending against invading pathogens in invertebrates. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of the most destructive lepidopteran pests, which causes enormous economic losses in agricultural production worldwide. The components of the immune system are largely unknown in this insect. The application of entomopathogens is considered as an alternative to the chemical insecticides for its control. However, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions between pest insects and their pathogens. Here, we investigated the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae and examined gene expression changes after pathogen infections. This study provided insights into the potential immunity-related genes and pathways in H. armigera larvae.Results: Here, we adopted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to determine the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae injected with buffer, fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana, or Gram-negative bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. Based on Sequence similarity to those homologs known to participate in immune responses in other insects, we identified immunity-related genes encoding pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, immune effectors, and nearly all members of the Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways. The RNA-seq data indicated that some immunity-related genes were activated in fungus-and bacterium-challenged fat body while others were suppressed in B. bassiana challenged hemocytes, including the putative IMD and JAK-STAT pathway members. Bacterial infection elevated the expression of recognition and modulator genes in the fat body and signal pathway genes in hemocytes. Although fat body and hemocytes both are important organs involved in the immune response, our transcriptome analysis revealed that more immunity-related genes were induced in the fat body than that hemocytes. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that, consistent with the RNA-seq data, the transcript abundances of putative PGRP-SA1, Serpin1, Toll-14, and Spz2 genes were elevated in fat body upon B. bassiana infection, while the mRNA levels of defensin, moricin1, and gloverin1 were up-regulated in hemocytes.Conclusions: In this study, a global survey of the host defense against fungal and bacterial infection was performed on the non-model lepidopteran pest species. The comprehensive Sequence resource and expression profiles of the immunity-related genes in H. armigera are acquired. This study provided valuable information for future functional investigations as well as development of specific and effective agents to control this pest.

115) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob B., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: dengue (diagnosis), endemic disease, virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145-146, jul. 2015
ISSN: 0974-6005 (electronic),1755-6783
Resumo:

116) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

117) Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia
Autor: Jaimes-Duenez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chavez, Omar; Gomez-Palacio, Andres
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Epidemiology; Population structure; Hosts; Population dynamics; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations; Dengue; Mitochondria; Vectors; Cities; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Knowledge on the population structure of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of the dengue virus (DENV), is essential to improving dengue fever prevention strategies in endemic countries. In Colombia, despite the epidemiological relevance of dengue fever, the genetic population structure and phylogeography of the vector Ae. aegypti is little known. In this study, we evaluated the spatio-temporal structure and phylogeography of Colombian Ae. aegypti populations from cities showing different eco-epidemiologic attributes related to dengue fever. Our results indicated that Colombian Ae. aegypti populations harbor two mitochondrial lineages related to West and East African ancestors. The lineage related to West African populations is the most frequent and widely distributed in Colombia, and it was found in cities with a high incidence of the dengue fever. A second lineage related to East African populations, which may have been recently introduced in some regions, was found in cities showing a low incidence of dengue. These findings suggest complex population dynamic is involved in dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia, and indicate further studies about biological attributes of the Ae. aegypti lineages should be performed.

118) Comparison of E and NS1 antigens capture ELISA to detect dengue viral antigens from mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chao, Day-Yu; Liu, Yi-Jung; Shen, Wen-Fan; Tu, Wu-Chun; Galula, Jedhan Ucat; Wu, Han-Chung
Assunto: Antigen - Capture ELISA; Dengue; Mosquito; NS-1; RT-PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 134-141, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: In the absence of an effective vaccine or specific antiviral therapy against dengue infection, the only available control measure remains focusing on the incrimination and reduction of vector (mosquito) populations to suppress virus transmission. Diagnosis of dengue in laboratory can be carried out using several approaches, however, their sensitivity and specificity vary from test-to-test. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and stability of viral envelope (E) and NS1 antigens detected by ELISA in dengue virus infected mosquitoes.Methods: An in-house developed E-ELISA to detect dengue E antigens was first characterized by using cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) 42-3 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector antibodies, respectively. The sensitivity of E-ELISA was compared with the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag kit using experimentally infected or field-caught mosquitoes.Results: Our results demonstrated that the E-ELISA was capable of detecting viral antigens with the sensitivity of 69.57, 100, 52.38 and 66.67% for DENV-1 to DENV-4 infected mosquito pools, respectively. This was comparable to the Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag kit, detecting 100% of DENV-1 infected mosquito pools. Among 124 field-collected mosquito pools collected in the vicinity of localized outbreak areas; both E-ELISA and NS1 Ag kit confirmed nine RT-PCR positive samples with sensitivity and concordance rate up to 100%.Interpretation & conclusion: With the future potential of antigen capture ELISA to be used in the resource deprived regions, the study showed that E-ELISA has similar sensitivity and antigen stability as NS1 Ag kit to complement the current established virological surveillance in human. The improvement of the sensitivity in detecting DENV-3/4 will be needed to incorporate this method into routine mosquito surveillance system.

119) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

120) Households as Foci for Dengue Transmission in Highly Urban Vietnam
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anders, Katherine L.; Le Hong Nga; Nguyen Thi Van Thuy; Tran Van Ngoc; Cao Thi Tam; Luong Thi Hue Tai; Nguyen Thanh Truong; Huynh Thi Le Duyen; Vu Tuan Trung; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Marcel Wolbers; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Nguyen Dac Tho; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti; Virus Transmission; Thai Villages; Vector; Population; Infections; Dynamics; Cluster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue control programs commonly employ reactive insecticide spraying around houses of reported cases, with the assumption that most dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs in the home. Focal household transmission has been demonstrated in rural settings, but it is unclear whether this holds true in dense and mobile urban populations. We conducted a prospective study of dengue clustering around households in highly urban Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.MethodsWe enrolled 71 index cases with suspected dengue (subsequently classified as 52 dengue cases and 19 non-dengue controls); each initiated the enrollment of a cluster of 25-35 household members and neighbors who were followed up over 14 days. Incident DENV infections in cluster participants were identified by RT-PCR, NS1-ELISA, and/or DENV-IgM/IgG seroconversion, and recent infections by DENV-IgM positivity at baseline.Principal Findings/ConclusionsThere was no excess risk of DENV infection within dengue case clusters during the two-week follow-up, compared to control clusters, but the prevalence of recent DENV infection at baseline was two-fold higher in case clusters than controls (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1, p = 0.05). Prevalence of DENV infection in Aedes aegypti was similar in case and control houses, and low overall (1%). Our findings are broadly consistent with household clustering of dengue risk, but indicate that any clustering is at a short temporal scale rather than sustained chains of localized transmission. This suggests that reactive perifocal insecticide spraying may have a limited impact in this setting.

121) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

122) Chikungunya Outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry, Maite; Teissier, Anita; Roche, Claudine; Richard, Vaea; Yan, Aurore Shan; Zisou, Karen; Rouault, Eline; Maria, Veronique; Lastere, Stephane; Cao-Lomeau, Van-Mai; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Virus; Islands; Pacific
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 724-726, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6040
Resumo:

123) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

124) Production of infectious dengue virus in Aedes aegypti Is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Replication; Life cycle; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Virions; Genomes; Head; Blood meals; Infection; Salivary gland; RNA; Dengue; Thorax; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; Ubiquitin; Inactivation; Organs; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed up-regulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector. DENV is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus and the lack of sustainable preventative or therapeutic measures renders it a significant health burden globally. Although suppression of mosquito populations represents the most widely used dengue control strategy, there has been limited efficacy with this method. Blocking host factors required for DENV replication in mosquitoes may thus serve as an effective anti-transmission strategy. We have recently observed that the UPP plays a critical role in regulating DENV egress from infected cells, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle in mosquitoes remain ill-defined. We show here that the Aedes aegypti midgut has evolved to control persistent DENV infection by differentially regulating key genes in the UPP, without harm to itself. Using RNAi, knockdown of proteasome subunits, beta 1, beta 2 and beta 5, as well as other UPP-specific genes in vivo reduced the production of infectious virus without altering viral RNA replication in the mosquito. Targeting these host factors via dsRNA-mediated or chemical inactivation in the mosquito salivary glands may serve as a viable anti-dengue transmission strategy from mosquitoes to humans.

125) An introduction to dengue-disease diagnostics
Autor: Darwish, Nadiya Taha; Alias, Yatimah Binti; Khor, Sook Mei
Assunto: Biomarker; Biosensor; Capture IgM; Dengue NS1 antigen; Dengue virus; Diagnosis; IgG ELISA; lmmunochromatography; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Virus isolation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, v. 67, p. 45-55, 2015
ISSN: 0165-9936
Resumo: In this review, we discuss how dengue disease can be diagnosed accurately at the viremia phase and the fever phase. Diagnostic tools currently used to detect dengue virus (DENV) are virus isolation, capture IgM and IgG ELISA, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunochromatography of the dengue NS1 antigen. First, we explain the advantages, the challenges and the limitations of different diagnostic tests. This account is followed by several examples using biosensors for detection of several important DENV biomarkers. Finally, we discuss our opinions regarding future perspectives in this field. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

126) Chikungunya virus outbreak, dominica, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ahmed, Shalauddin; Francis, Lorraine; Ricketts, R. Paul; Christian, Trudy; Polson-Edwards, Karen; Olowokure, Babatunde
Assunto: Epidemic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 909-911, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6040
Resumo:

127) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

128) Vector competence of the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Island, Cape Verde, to different serotypes of dengue virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fernandes da Moura, Aires Janurio; Varjal de Melo Santos, Maria Alice; Fontes Oliveira, Claudia Maria; Duarte Guedes, Duschinka Ribeiro; de Carvalho-Leandro, Danilo; da Cruz Brito, Maria Lidia; Ribeiro Rocha, Helio Daniel; Gomez, Lara Ferrero; Junqueira Ayres, Constancia Flavia
Assunto: Dengue; RT-PCR; Vector; NS1 antigen; Cape Verde
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), whose main vectors are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Aedes aegypti is the only DENV vector in Cape Verde, an African country that suffered its first outbreak of dengue in 2009. However, little is known about the variation in the level of vector competence of this mosquito population to the different DENV serotypes. This study aimed to evaluate the vector competence of Aedes aegypti from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, to four DENV serotypes and to detect DENV vertical transmission.Methods: Mosquitoes were fed on blood containing DENV serotypes and were dissected at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to detect the virus in the midgut, head and salivary glands (SG) using RT-PCR. Additionally, the number of copies of viral RNA present in the SG was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, eggs were collected in the field and adult mosquitoes obtained were analyzed by RT-PCR and the platelia dengue NS1 antigen kit to detect transovarial transmission.Results: High rates of SG infection were observed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 whereas for DENV-1, viral RNA was only detected in the midgut and head. DENV-4 did not spread to the head or SG, maintaining the infection only in the midgut. The number of viral RNA copies in the SG did not vary significantly between DENV-2 and DENV-3 or among the different periods of incubation and the various titers of DENV tested. With respect to DENV surveillance in mosquitoes obtained from the eggs collected in the field, no samples were positive.Conclusion: Although no DENV positive samples were collected from the field in 2014, it is important to highlight that the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Islands exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to DENV serotypes. This population showed a high vector competence for DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains and a low susceptibility to DENV-1 and DENV-4. Viral RNA copies in the SG remained constant for at least 21 dpi, which may enhance the vector capacity of Aedes aegypti and suggests the presence of a mechanism modulating virus replication in the SG.

129) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

130) Insecticides resistance in the Culex quinquefasciatus populations from northern Thailand and possible resistance mechanisms
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yanola, Jintana; Chamnanya, Saowanee; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Somboon, Pradya
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Insecticide; Resistance; Knockdown resistance; Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 149, p. 232-238, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be resistant to insecticides worldwide, including Thailand. This study was the first investigation of the insecticide resistance mechanisms, involving metabolic detoxification and target site insensitivity in C. quinquefasciatus from Thailand. Adult females reared from field-caught larvae from six provinces of northern Thailand were determined for resistant status by exposing to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 5% malathion papers using the standard WHO susceptibility test. The overall mortality rates were 45.8%, 11.4% and 80.2%, respectively. A fragment of voltage-gated sodium channel gene was amplified and Sequenced to identify the knock down resistance (kdr) mutation. The ace-1 gene mutation was determined by using PCR-RFLP. The L1014F kdr mutation was observed in all populations, but the homozygous mutant F/F1014 genotype was found only in two of the six provinces where the kdr mutation was significantly correlated with deltamethrin resistance. However, none of mosquitoes had the G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene. A laboratory deltamethrin resistant strain, Cq_CM_R, has been established showing a highly resistant level after selection for a few generations. The mutant F1014 allele frequency was significantly increased after one generation of selection. A synergist assay was performed to assess the metabolic detoxifying enzymes. Addition of bis(4-nitrophenyI)-phosphate (BNPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM), inhibitors of esterases and glutathione S-transferases (GST), respectively, into the larval bioassay of the Cq_CM strain with deltamethrin showed no significant reduction. By contrast, addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, showed a 9-fold reduction of resistance. Resistance to pyrethroids in C. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed in northern Thailand. This study reports for the first time for the detection of the L1014F kdr mutation in wild populations of C quinquefasciatus in Thailand. At least two major mechanisms, kdr and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, confer resistance to deltamethrin in Thai C quinquefasciatus populations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

131) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

132) Healthcare students and workers' knowledge about epidemiology and symptoms of chikungunya fever in two cities of Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Esteban Bedoya-Arias, Juan; Ricardo Murillo-Garcia, David; Bolanos-Munoz, Erika; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Ramirez-Jaramillo, Valeria; Granados-Alvarez, Santiago; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.
Assunto: Chikungunya; Knowledge; Epidemiology; Colombia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal Of Infection In Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 3, p. 330-332, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

133) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

134) Identification and expression pattern of candidate olfactory genes in Chrysoperla sinica by antennal transcriptome analysis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Si-Bao; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Cui, Jin-Jie
Assunto: Transcriptomic Analysis; Odorant-Binding Proteins; Chemosensory Proteins; Odorant Receptors; Chrysoperla Sinica
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D-Genomics & Proteomics, v. 15, n. , p. 28-38, 2015
ISSN: 1744-117X
Resumo: Chrysoperla sinica is one of the most prominent natural enemies of many agricultural pests. Host seeking in insects is strongly mediated by olfaction. Understanding the sophisticated olfactory system of insect antennae is crucial for studying the physiological bases of olfaction and could also help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in Biological Control. Obtaining olfactory genes is a research priority for investigating the olfactory system in this species. However, no olfaction Sequence information is available for C. sinica. Consequently, we Sequenced female- and male-antennae transcriptome of C. sinica. Many candidate chemosensory genes were identified, including 12 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 19 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), and 64 ionotropic receptors from C sinica. The expression patterns of 12 OBPs, 19 CSPs and 37 ORs were determined by RT-PCR, and demonstrated antennae-dominantly expression of most OBP and OR genes. Our finding provided large scale genes for further investigation on the olfactory system of C. sinica at the molecular level. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

135) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

136) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

137) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

138) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

139) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

140) IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Qian, Cen; Fu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Bombyx Mandarina; Vitellogenin Receptor; Expression; Tissue Distribution; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 89, n. 4, p. 181-192, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid Sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain Sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni-NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1: 12,800 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR-related genes (Vg, egg-specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

141) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

142) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus and dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols, J. T.; Huang, Y. J. S.; Higgs, S.; Miller, A. L.; Pyles, R. B.; Spratt, H. M.; Horne, K. M.; Vanlandingham, D. L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 x 10 super(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 x 10 super(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

143) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

144) Chikungunya, a paradigm of neglected tropical disease that emerged to be a new health global risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rougeron, Virginie; Sam, I-Ching; Caron, Melanie; Nkoghe, Dieudonne; Leroy, Eric; Roques, Pierre
Assunto: Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 144-152, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic and incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic and infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities and associated with severe and chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical and temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to expand. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, biology, treatment and vaccination strategies of CHIKV. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

145) Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia
Autor: Lima, V. S.; Pinto, A. C.; Rafael, M. S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Isodillapiole; qRT-PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 14, n. 4, p. 16728-16735, 2015
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 mu g/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G(1), G(2), G(3), and G(4)). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 mu g/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

146) Chromosome-directed PCR-based detection and quantification of bacillus cereus group members with focus on B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis active against nematoceran larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schneider, Salome; Hendriksen, Niels B.; Melin, Petter; Lundstrom, Jan O.; Sundh, Ingvar
Assunto: Long - Lasting persistence; Tidal flat sediment; Subsp Israelensis; Sp nov.; Larvicidal activity; Mosquito - Control; Term survival; Aedes aegypti; Group strains; Field trial
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 15, p. 4894-4903, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment.

147) Effect of larval competition on extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus
Autor: Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Caceres, Carla E.; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Body - Size; Environmental - Temperature; Alters susceptibility; Nutritional stress; Aegypti competence; Diptera - Culicidae; Chikungunya virus; Mosquitos diptera; Culex -Tarsalis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced.

148) Evolution of dengue disease and entomological monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 - 2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique;Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernandez, Roberto Torres;Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Pest control; Monitoring systems; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Tires; Vectors; Immunoglobulin M; Evolution; Containers; Gender; Residential areas; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28ppt to 0.95ppt; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

149) Fatal cases of chikungunya virus infection in Colombia: diagnostic and treatment challenges.
Autor: Hoz Juan M de la,Bayona Brayan,Viloria Samir,Accini José L,Juan-Vergara Homero San,Viasus Diego
Assunto: Chikungunya, Clinical feature, Dengue, Laboratory finding, Mortality
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 69, p. 27-29, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Although Chikungunya infection is emerging as an important public health problem in many countries, it is not regarded as a life-threatening disease. Information dealing with fatal cases is scarce. We herein describe three patients with Chickungunya infection who presented with multiple organ failure and died within 24h of admission. Two cases had positive anti-dengue IgM, but dengue coinfection was rejected based on the clinical features and results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These cases illustrate the challenges of the diagnosis and management of severe Chikungunya infection.

150) Introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua
Autor: Belli, Alejandro; Arostegui, Jorge; Garcia, Jorge; Aguilar, Carlos; Lugo, Emperatriz; Lopez, Damaris; Valle, Sonia; Lopez, Mercedes; Harris, Eva; Coloma, Josefina
Assunto: Human diseases; Interspecific relationships; Epidemiology; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Coexistence; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 713-718, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus and more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is expanding its global range and increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes and demonstrate its dissemination and establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control.

151) Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral.
Autor: Vilibic-Cavlek Tatjana,Pem-Novosel Iva,Kaic Bernard,Babi?-Erceg Andrea,Kucinar Jasmina,Klobucar Ana,Medic Alan,Pahor Djana,Barac-Juretic Katija,Gjenero-Margan Ira
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Croatia, entomology, seroprevalence
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, v. 62, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1217-8950
Resumo: During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from randomly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) and only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

152) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Assunto: Relative humidity; Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Mountains; Altitude; Epidemics; Dengue; Rainfall; Risk factors; Abundance; Vectors; Tourists; Climate change; Temperature; Humidity; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The local transmission of dengue fever was confirmed in five lowland urban areas in 2006, along with the first report of the primary vectors of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Subsequent studies revealed a wide distribution of Ae. aegypti in 2009, and the first locally acquired dengue fever case in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, during an epidemic in 2010. These records of a rapid expansion of dengue viruses and their primary vector, Ae. aegypti, in the Middle Mountain region and the more pronounced warming of mountains prompted us to investigate the altitudinal distribution and determinants of the abundance of dengue virus vectors in central Nepal. The first local transmission of chikungunya virus was recently reported from central Nepal in 2013. In this study, we document the distribution of Ae. aegypti and the secondary vector of dengue viruses, Aedes albopictus, from the lowlands (80 m) up to 2,100 m altitude in Dhunche, Rasuwa district. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of their abundances. The distribution extension of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

153) Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of dengue and chikungunya viruses.
Autor: Cecilia D,Kakade M,Alagarasu K,Patil J,Salunke A,Parashar D,Shah P S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 160, n. 1, p. 323-327, 2015
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Dengue and chikungunya viruses co-circulate and cause infections that start with similar symptoms but progress to radically different outcomes. Therefore, an early diagnostic test that can differentiate between the two is needed. A single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously detect and quantitate RNA of all dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The sensitivity was 100 % for DENV and 95.8 % for CHIKV, whilst the specificity was 100 % for both viruses when compared with conventional RT-PCR. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 50 plaque-forming units. The assay was successfully used for differential diagnosis of dengue and chikungunya in Pune, where the viruses co-circulate.

154) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Newton, Irene L. G.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr; Sheehan, Kathy B.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221)/+ and chic(1320)/+) or villin (qua(6-396)/+) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic221 heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.

155) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini, Andres; Torres-Leyva, Joel; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Public health; Dengue; Control programs; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The authors carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-olymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. They report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitan in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

156) Human-mediated marine dispersal influences the population structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago
Autor: Fonzi, Eugenio; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Futami, Kyoko; Minakawa, Noboru
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Natural populations; Archipelagoes; Pest control; Harbours; Aquatic insects; Marine transportation; Public health; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever threatens the health of millions in the tropics and its causative agent, dengue virus, is mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. To control the spread of the virus, insecticides have been abundantly used but Ae. aegypti has developed a genetic resistance to them. Currently, alternative methods are being tested wherein artificially modified mosquitos are released in the wild to interfere with the mating of natural populations. It is important then to understand how the mosquito spreads in the environment. It is known that Ae. aegytpi can be passively transported for long distances by human vehicles, but it was not clear how common this event is, especially in case of marine transportation. In population genetics, a basic assumption says that if populations frequently exchange migrants, they become genetically more similar than relatively isolated populations. We estimated the genetic similarity between Ae. aegypti collected in the Philippines from 15 seaports of different sizes and ship connectivity. The mosquitos from busy ports, even distant ones, were genetically similar, while in the small ports, even close ones, Ae. aegypti were relatively differentiated. It was also suggested that Ae. aegypti's dispersal is affected by cargo shipments more than passenger ships.

157) Arterial hypertension and skin allergy are risk factors for progression from dengue to dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case control study
Autor: Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Paixao, Enny S.; Costa, Maria da Conceicao N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Pamplona, Luciano; Dias, Juarez P.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Figueiredo, Maria Aparecida A.; Blanton, Ronald; Morato, Vanessa; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Rodrigues, Laura C.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemics; Physicians; Hypertension; Public health; Pathogenesis; Immunology; Risk factors; Hypotheses; Chronic illnesses; Mortality; Diabetes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a virus disease that has already reached more than 100 countries worldwide, transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, mainly Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that annually nearly 96 million symptomatic cases and about 22,000 deaths occur. This virus most often manifests itself in the form of Dengue Fever (DF), which in some cases progresses to severe forms, also called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). However, the current knowledge does not allow early prediction of which cases of DF will progress to DHF. But it is important to know the factors Involved in this process so that physicians may intervene early to prevent progression and avoid deaths. One of the proposed explanations is that preexisting comorbidities would increase the risk of progression from DF to DHF. This study showed that cases of DF associated with hypertension or skin allergy are more likely to progress to DHF. Monitoring and early appropriate clinical management of these cases can save lives.

158) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

159) Arbovirus Surveillance and First Report of Chikungunya Virus in Wild Populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe,Martínez Norma E,Cruz-Nolasco Maximina,Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano,López-Damián Leonardo,Ibarra-López Jesús,Martini Andres,Torres-Leyva Joel,Bibiano-Marín Wilbert,Tornez-Benitez Citlalli,Ayora-Talavera Guadalupe,Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guerrero, Mexico, chikungunya, dengue, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association,v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We carried out dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a standard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect DENV and CHIKV. We report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco and Juchitán in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

160) From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jessica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Assunto: Human diseases; Mathematical models; Sterility; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Spreading; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Landscape; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes, and use this pattern of sterility to facilitate their spread into naive, uninfected host populations. These bacteria were recently introduced into Aedes aegypti, a species naturally free of Wolbachia, and the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia are currently being used as a biological tool to control dengue transmission in many countries, including Brazil. We performed a series of laboratory and field assays and then created mathematical models in order to understand the invasive ability of the wMel Wolbachia strain in Brazilian Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. We show that wMel infection had no detrimental fitness effects on its new Brazilian host, and would theoretically be able to successfully invade the mosquito populations in the five distinct urban landscapes that we studied. We found that Wolbachia spread more easily where the local mosquito population was smaller. The size of the local human population did not overtly influence the likelihood of spread. These findings provide insight into how the nature of different urban landscapes will affect the likelihood of Wolbachia spreading effectively, which will greatly assist future releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Brazil as part of the Eliminate Dengue Program.

161) Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Odorant-Binding Proteins in Apolygus lucorum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yuan, Hai-Bin; Ding, Yu-Xiao; Gu, Shao-Hua; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hang-Wei; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan
Assunto: Bug Adelphocoris-Lineolatus; Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Plant Bug; Chemosensory Proteins; Hemiptera-Miridae; Pheromone-Binding; Olfactory Genes; Meyer-Dur; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Genome Annotation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important agricultural pests, with broad host range and cryptic feeding habits in China. Chemosensory behavior plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of A. lucorum, such as the detection of sex pheromone cues during mate pursuit and fragrant odorants during flowering host plant localization. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. In the present study, a transcriptomics-based approach was used to identify potential OBPs in A. lucorum. In total, 38 putative OBP genes were identified, corresponding to 26 'classic' OBPs and 12 'Plus-C' OBPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. lucorum OBP proteins are more closely related to the OBP proteins of other mirid bugs as the same family OBP clustering together. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis for the first reported 23 AlucOBPs revealed that the expression level of 11 AlucOBP genes were significantly higher in antennae of both sexes than in other tissues. Three of them were male antennae-biased and six were female antennae-biased, suggesting their putative roles in the detection of female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. In addition, three, four, two and one AlucOBPs had the highest degree of enrichment in the stylet, head, leg, and in abdomen tissues, respectively. Two other OBPs were ubiquitously expressed in the main tissues, including antennae, stylets, heads, legs and wings. Most orthologs had similar expression patterns, strongly indicating that these genes have the same function in olfaction and gustation.

162) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane
Assunto: Ocean currents; Epidemics; Hosts; Introduced species; Hygiene; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Indigenous species; Islands; Vectors; Infection; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

163) Assessing carbon dioxide and synthetic lure-baited traps for dengue and chikungunya vector surveillance
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G.; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Carbon dioxide; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Light traps; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, 242 p, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

164) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Ousmane; Gaye, Alioune; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Oral infection; Senegal; Vector competence; West Africa; Zika virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

165) Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.
Autor: Foo Suan-Sin,Chen Weiqiang,Taylor Adam,Sheng Kuo-Ching,Yu Xing,Teng Terk-Shin,Reading Patrick C,Blanchard Helen,Garlanda Cecilia,Mantovani Alberto,Ng Lisa F P,Herrero Lara J,Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 2, p. e1004649, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis.

166) Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review
Autor: Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1471-1485. Nov 2015.
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus , Ae. aegypti , Ae. japonicus japonicus , Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus . These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Wolbachia ), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

167) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013.
Autor: Savage Harry M,Ledermann Jeremy P,Yug Laurence,Burkhalter Kristen L,Marfel Maria,Hancock W Thane
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

168) Real-time PCR tests in dutch exotic mosquito surveys; implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus identification tests, and the development of tests for the identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Vossenberg, B. T. L. H. Van De; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Metz-Verschure, E.; Veen, E. J. Van; Bruil-Dieters, M. L.; Scholte, E. J.
Assunto: Cytochromes; Specificity; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Introduced species; Environmental factors; DNA fragmentation; Cytochrome-c oxidase; Environmental conditions; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 336-350, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

169) Assessment of the relationship between entomologic indicators of Aedes aegypti and the epidemic occurrence of dengue virus 3 in a susceptible population, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Autor: Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Pereira, Mariza; Favaro, Eliane Aparecida; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Mondini, Adriano; Rodrigues Junior, Antonio Luiz; Chierotti, Ana Patricia; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Entomologic indicator; Spatial analysis; Temporal analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, p. 167-177, 2015.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The aims of this study were to describe the occurrence of dengue in space and time and to assess the relationships between dengue incidence and entomologic indicators. We selected the dengue autochthonous cases that occurred between September 2005 and August 2007 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto to calculate incidence rates by month, year and census tracts. The monthly incidence rates of the city were compared to the monthly Breteau indices (BI) of the Sao Jose do Rio Region. Between December 2006 and February 2007, an entomological survey was conducted to collect immature forms of Aedes aegypti in Jaguare, a Sao Jose do Rio Preto neighborhood, and to obtain entomological indices. These indices were represented using statistical interpolation. To represent the occurrence of dengue in the Jaguare neighborhood in 2006 and 2007, we used the Kernel ratio and to evaluate the relationship between dengue and the entomological indices, we used a generalized additive model in a spatial case-control design. Between September 2005 and August 2007, the occurrence of dengue in Sao Jose do Rio Preto was almost entirely caused by DENV3, and the monthly incidence rates presented high correlation coefficients with the monthly BI. In Jaguare neighborhood, the entomological indices calculated by hectare were better predictors of the spatial distribution of dengue than the indices calculated by properties, but the pupae quantification did not show better prediction qualities than the indices based on the container positivity, in relation to the risk of dengue occurrence. The fact that the municipality's population had a high susceptibility to the serotype DENV3 before the development of this research, along with the almost total predominance of the occurrence of this serotype between 2005 and 2007, facilitated the analysis of the epidemiological situation of the disease and allowed us to connect it to the entomological indicators. Spatial risk map for dengue with odds ratio isolines (left) and container with larvae or pupae of Aedes aegypti per hectare (right): the areas with OR > 1 correspond approximately to areas with higher infestation levels; the areas with OR < 1 correspond approximately to areas with lower infestation levels. Abbreviations * BI, Breteau Index(cis) * GIS, geographic information system * SINAN, notifiable diseases information system

170) Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pinheiro-Silva, Renato; Borges, Lara; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdes, James J.; do Rosario, Virgilio; de la Fuente, Jose; Domingos, Ana
Assunto: Anopheles Coluzzii; Salivary Glands; Plasmodium Berghei; Sporozoite; RNA-Seq; Glucose Transporter; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 485, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria is a devastating infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Salivary glands are the only mosquito tissue invaded by Plasmodium sporozoites, being a key stage for the effective parasite transmission, making the study of Anopheles sialome highly relevant.Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to compare differential gene expression in salivary glands of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. RNA-seq results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The transmembrane glucose transporter gene AGAP007752 was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The effect of gene silencing on infection level was evaluated. The putative function and tertiary structure of the protein was assessed.Results: RNA-seq data showed that 2588 genes were differentially expressed in mosquitoes salivary glands in response to P. berghei infection, being 1578 upregulated and 1010 downregulated. Metabolism, Immunity, Replication/Transcription/Translation, Proteolysis and Transport were the mosquito gene functional classes more affected by parasite infection. Endopeptidase coding genes were the most abundant within the differentially expressed genes in infected salivary glands (P < 0.001). Based on its putative function and expression level, the transmembrane glucose transporter gene, AGAP007752, was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The results demonstrated that the number of sporozoites was 44.3 % lower in mosquitoes fed on infected mice after AGAPP007752 gene knockdown when compared to control (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the protein encoded by the gene AGAPP007752 may play a role on An. coluzzii salivary glands infection by Plasmodium parasite, working as a sporozoite receptor and/or promoting a favorable environment for the capacity of sporozoites.

171) Chikungunya virus and West Nile virus infections imported into Belgium, 2007-2012.
Autor: Van Den Bossche D,Cnops L,Meersman K,Domingo C,VAN Gompel A,Van Esbroeck M
Assunto: Arboviruses, epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 10, p. 2227-2236, 2015
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Arboviral infections are emerging among tourists travelling to (sub)tropical regions. This study aims to describe the importation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) into Belgium over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical samples were obtained from travellers presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium or submitted to the Central Laboratory for Clinical Biology of the ITM. Testing was performed by serology and/or by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1288 returning travellers were investigated for CHIKV infection resulting in 34 confirmed and two probable diagnoses (2·80%). Out of 899 patients, four confirmed and one probable imported WNV infections were diagnosed (0·55%). No locally acquired cases have been registered in Belgium until now and the geographical origin of the imported infections reflects the global locations where the viruses are circulating.

172) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J. S. C.; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J.
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

173) Association between three mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene and knockdown resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Autor: Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret
Assunto: Population genetics; Pest control; Strains; Control resistance; Dengue; Genotyping; Heterozygotes; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Deltamethrin; Homozygotes; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Insects, v. 6, n. 3, p. 658-685, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations.

174) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 degree C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 degree C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm super(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm super(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus and E. indica plants.

175) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

176) Transmission activation in non-circulative virus transmission: a general concept?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Drucker, Martin; Then, Christiane
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 63-68, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Many viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors. An important mode of transmission is the noncirculative or mechanical transmission where viruses attach to the vector mouthparts for transport to a new host. It has long been assumed that noncirculative transmission is an unsophisticated mode of viral spread, and in the simplest case mere contamination of the vector mouthparts. However, emerging evidence strongly suggests that noncirculative transmission, like other transmission strategies, results from specific interactions between pathogens, hosts, and vectors. Recently, new insights into this concept have been obtained, by demonstrating that a plant virus responds instantly to the presence of its aphid vector on the host by forming transmission morphs. This novel concept, named Transmission Activation (TA), where viruses respond directly or via the host to the outside world, opens new research horizons.

177) Eilat virus induces both homologous and heterologous interference
Autor: Nasar, Farooq; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Haddow, Andrew D.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Superinfection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 484, p. 51-58, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, and humans. Occasionally, alphaviruses can spill over into the human population and cause disease characterized by debilitating arthralgia or fatal encephalitis. Recently, a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described that readily infects mosquito but not vertebrate cell lines. Here, we investigated the ability of EILV to induce superinfection exclusion. Prior infection of C7/10 (Aedes albopictus) cells with EILV induced homologous and heterologous interference, reducing the virus titers of heterologous superinfecting viruses (SINV, VEEV, EEEV, WEEV, and CHIKV) by similar to 10-10,000 fold and delaying replication kinetics by 12-48 h. Similar to in vitro infection, prior in vivo EILV infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes delayed dissemination of chikungunya virus for 3 days. This is the first evidence of heterologous interference induced by a mosquito-specific alphavirus in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights. reserved.

178) Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C, IV
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Adaptations; Pest control; Hygiene; Biopolymorphism; Nucleotides; Public health; Detoxification; Serotypes; Dengue; Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Gene flow; Vectors; Evolutionary genetics; Pyrethroids; Migration; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance, Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

179) Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan.
Autor: Chen Tien-Huang,Jian Shu-Wan,Wang Chih-Yuan,Lin Cheo,Wang Pei-Feng,Su Chien-Ling,Teng Hwa-Jen,Shu Pei-Yun,Wu Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Chikungunya virus, Taiwan, mosquito infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association , v. 114, n. 6, p. 546–552, 2015
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain and mosquito species and strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype and that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk.

180) First evidence of dengue virus infection in wild caught mosquitoes during an outbreak in Assam, Northeast India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dutta, Prafulla; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Chetry, Sumi; Dev, Vas; Sarmah, Chandra Kanta; Mahanta, Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Ae. Albopictus; Dengue; NS1-ELISA; RT-PCR; TOT
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 4, p. 293-298, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Dengue is one of the major public health problems worldwide, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation have led to an increase in vector population in Northeastern states of India. In 2013, Guwahati, the capital city of Assam, India experienced an outbreak of dengue. This study was undertaken with an objective to determine infection rates of dengue viruses (DENV) in both the established vectors present in this region.Methods: During the outbreak (2013), adults and larvae of both the vector species were collected from different container habitats found in case reporting Areas and container index was also recorded. The mosquitoes were first pooled, homogenised and processed for NS1-ELISA. This was followed by RT-PCR of the mosquito pools.Results: Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found breeding in containers with container index in the range of 29.41 to 80%. Six pools of Ae. aegypti were found to be positive for NS1 antigen. RT-PCR assay revealed positivity in only the NS1-ELISA positive pools, exhibiting circulation of serotype DENV-2. Minimum infection rate of female and male Ae. aegypti was recorded as 10.87 and 11.03 respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: This is the maiden report of detection of DENV in wild caught Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Northeastern Region of India. The study also demonstrates the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in this part of country. This information is useful in respect of both entomological as well as epidemiological point of view for taking appropriate vector control measures.

181) Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Gene Expression of the Circadian Clock Gene Period in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; de la Luz Martinez-Fierro, Margarita; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Zamudio Osuna, Michelle de Jesus; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura Elia; Guzman-Velasco, Antonio; Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Genome Sequence; Timeless Gene; Transcription; Mosquito; Oscillators
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-80, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the Period (PER) gene is important for the circadian clock that regulates some rhythmic biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. PER messenger amplification was done by RT-PCR from southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, larvae collected at three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. The amplified products were cloned, Sequenced, and compared/analyzed with those of other species of mosquitoes. A 3,093-bp amplified product was synthesized by PCR, which is the complete coding DNA Sequence (3,027 bp) of PER encoding an open reading frame of 996 amino acid residues and much smaller than the orthologous in other mosquitoes analyzed. No other simultaneous amplification was visualized; thus, possible alternative splicings were discarded or at least not detected by the method. Because PER is a widely conserved gene in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and maintaining colonies of southern house mosquitoes is relativity easy, determining the Sequence of the gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of using the gene as a model and generating data on the role in the circadian clock.

182) Frequency of V1016I and F1534C mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Aedes aegypti in Venezuela
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alvarez, Leslie C.; Ponce, Gustavo; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E.
Assunto: Kdr; I1016; C1534; Deltamethrin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 71, n. 6, p. 863-869, 2015
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: The V1016I and F1534C mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene have been associated with resistance to pyrethroids and DDT in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A study was carried out to determine the frequency of I1016 and C1534 by real-time PCR in five natural populations of Ae. aegypti in Venezuela during 2008, 2010 and 2012, as well as in a strain selected with 0.14 mu g of deltamethrin for 15 generations.RESULTSIn natural populations, frequencies of I1016 varied between 0.01 and 0.37, and frequencies of C1534 between 0.35 and 1.0. In the Pampanito strain, the frequency of I1016 increased from 0.02 in F-1 up to 0.5 in F-15 and from 0.35 up to fixation for C1534 after selection with deltamethrin.CONCLUSIONThe results showed that C1534 frequencies are higher than I1016 frequencies in natural populations of Ae. aegypti in Venezuela, and that deltamethrin selected the C1534 more rapidly than I1016. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

183) Laboratory-confirmed dengue fever and chikungunya fever cases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013.
Autor: Furuichi Mieko,Makie Toshio,Honma Yasuko,Isoda Takayoshi,Miyake Satoru
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 2, p. 142-144, 2015
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: Fourteen patients were laboratory-confirmed cases of imported infectious diseases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013. Blood tests were performed on 283 subjects suspected of having imported infectious diseases. Of these, 11 were diagnosed as having dengue fever (dengue) and 3 as having chikungunya fever (chikungunya) using real-time RT-PCR. The possible countries from which dengue virus infections were contracted were Thailand, Laos, Sri Lanka, and some other countries in Southeast Asia and South Asia. The 3 chikungunya cases were also diagnosed in individuals that returned from Southeast Asia. Most of the patients with dengue had a fever of over 38?. The other symptoms were generalized fatigue, dull headache, pain behind the eyes, arthralgia, and digestive symptoms. Four of the patients were unaware of any mosquito bites. The information obtained from the confirmed cases showed that it is important to consider both the destination to which individuals travelled and the clinical symptoms, regardless of whether the subjects were aware of mosquito bites. The detection rate of chikungunya at the Quarantine Station was higher than that of dengue in all reported cases in Japan.

184) Dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti requires a putative cysteine rich venom protein
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Troupin, Andrea; Conway, Michael J.; Vesely, Diana; Ledizet, Michael; Roundy, Christopher M.; Cloherty, Erin; Jameson, Samuel; Vanlandingham, Dana; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Human diseases; Cysteine; Disease control; Pest control; Pathogens; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Ecosystem disturbance; Public health; Gene expression; Mortality; Antisera; RNA-mediated interference; Venom; Infection; Dengue; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. There is no specific antiviral therapy or vaccine for DENV infection. Alterations in gene expression during DENV infection of the mosquito and the impact of these changes on virus infection are important events to investigate in hopes of creating new treatments and vaccines. We previously identified 203 genes that were greater than or equal to 5-fold differentially upregulated during flavivirus infection of the mosquito. Here, we examined the impact of silencing 100 of the most highly upregulated gene targets on DENV infection in its mosquito vector. We identified 20 genes that reduced DENV infection by at least 60% when silenced. We focused on one gene, a putative cysteine rich venom protein (SeqID AAEL000379; CRVP379), whose silencing significantly reduced DENV infection in Aedes aegypti cells. Here, we examine the requirement for CRVP379 during DENV infection of the mosquito and investigate the mechanisms surrounding this phenomenon. We also show that blocking CRVP379 protein with either RNAi or specific antisera inhibits DENV infection in Aedes aegypti. This work identifies a novel mosquito gene target for controlling DENV infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses.

185) Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002-2008
Autor: Bremond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Breniere, Simone Frederique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Torres Fernandez, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti Diptera; Mayaro-Virus; Transmission; America; Fever; Communication; Productivity; Infections; Containers; Epidemic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: BackgroundIn the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002-2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors.Methodology/Principal FindingsData mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002-2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28% to 0.95%; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January-June) and low (July-December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city.Conclusions/SignificanceOver the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases.

186) Heat shock cognate protein 70 isoform D is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Japanese encephalitis virus in C6136 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chuang, Ching-Kai; Yang, Tsong-Han; Chen, Tien-Huang; Yang, Chao-Fu; Chen, Wei-June
Assunto: C6/36 Mosquito Cells; Mediated Endocytosis; Vero Cells; Molecular Evolution; Bafilomycin A1; Aedes-Aegypti; Entry; Hsc70; Infection; Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 96, p. 793-803, 2015
ISSN: 0022-1317
Resumo: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), one of encephalitic flaviviruses, is naturally transmitted by mosquitoes. During infection, JEV generally enters host cells via receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis that requires the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp70). Heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) is one member of the Hsp70 family and is constitutively expressed; thus, it may be expressed under physiological conditions. In C6/36 cells, Hsc70 is upregulated in response to JEV infection. Since Hsc70 shows no relationship with viruses attaching to the cell surface, it probably does not serve as the receptor according to our results in the present study. In contrast, Hsc70 is evidently associated with virus penetration into the cell and resultant acidification of intracellular vesicles. It suggests that Hsc70 is highly involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, particularly at the late stage of viral entry into host cells. Furthermore, we found that Hsc70 is composed of at least three isoforms, including B, C and D; of these, isoform D helps JEV to penetrate C6/36 cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This study provides relevant evidence that sheds light on the regulatory mechanisms of JEV infection in host cells, especially on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

187) Experimental evaluation of sand fly collection and storage methods for the isolation and molecular detection of Phlebotomus-borne viruses
Autor: Remoli, Maria Elena; Bongiorno, Gioia; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Gramiccia, Marina
Assunto: Phlebotomus perniciosus; Phlebovirus; Toscana virus; CDC light trap; Sticky trap; Viral isolation; RNA amplification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 576, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Several viruses have been recently isolated from Mediterranean phlebotomine sand flies; some are known to cause human disease while some are new to science. To monitor the Phlebotomus-borne viruses spreading, field studies are in progress using different sand fly collection and storage methods. Two main sampling techniques consist of CDC light traps, an attraction method allowing collection of live insects in which the virus is presumed to be fairly preserved, and sticky traps, an interception method suitable to collect dead specimens in high numbers, with a risk for virus viability or integrity. Sand flies storage requires a "deep cold chain" or specimen preservation in ethanol. In the present study the influence of sand fly collection and storage methods on viral isolation and RNA detection performances was evaluated experimentally.Methods: Specimens of laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus were artificially fed with blood containing Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Various collection and storage conditions of blood-fed females were evaluated to mimic field procedures using single and pool samples. Isolation on VERO cell cultures, quantitative Real time-Retro-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Nested-RT-PCR were performed according to techniques commonly used in surveillance studies.Results: Live engorged sand flies stored immediately at -80 degrees C were the most suitable sample for phlebovirus identification by both virus isolation and RNA detection. The viral isolation rate remained very high (26/28) for single dead engorged females frozen after 1 day, while it was moderate (10/30) for specimens collected by sticky traps maintained up to 3 days at room temperature and then stored frozen without ethanol. Opposed to viral isolation, molecular RNA detection kept very high on dead sand flies collected by sticky traps when left at room temperature up to 6 days post blood meal and then stored frozen in presence (88/95) or absence (87/88) of ethanol. Data were confirmed using sand fly pools.Conclusions: While the collection and storage methods investigated had not much impact on the ability to detect viral RNA by molecular methods, they affected the capacity to recover viable viruses. Consequently, sand fly collection and handling procedures should be established in advance depending on the goal of the surveillance studies.

188) Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production
Autor: Soares, B. RCorrea; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Substrate preferences; Bioenergetics; Respiration; Mitochondria; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Nutrients; Dengue; Yellow fever; Flight muscle; Electron transport chain; Data processing; Energy metabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; ATP; Enzymes; Blood sucking; Phosphate; Superoxide; Oxidation; Electron transport; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

189) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

190) Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: van de Vossenberg, B. T. L. H.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Metz-Verschure, E.; van Veen, E. J.; Bruil-Dieters, M. L.; Scholte, E. J.
Assunto: Vector identification; Invasive mosquito species; Validation; Environmental influence; DNA fragmentation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 336-350, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

191) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

192) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Pest control; Home range; Hosts; Resistance mechanisms; Public health; Disease transmission; Detoxification; Vectors; Carboxylesterase; Transcription; Territory; Deltamethrin; Dengue; Cytochrome P450; Pyrethroids; Mutation; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

193) Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens
Autor: Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.
Assunto: West Nile Virus; Arbovirus; Microbiome; Culex Mosquitoes; Invertebrate Immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Viruses Basel, v. 7, n. 10, p. 5619-5631, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia.

194) Container type influences the relative abundance, body size, and susceptibility of ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to la crosse virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bara, Jeffrey J.; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Ochlerotatus triseriatus; Ochlerotatus japonicus; Culex restuans; La Crosse virus; Container habitat
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 452-460, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), the primary vector of La Crosse virus (LAC), develops in a variety of natural and artificial aquatic containers where it often co-occurs with larvae of other mosquito species. We conducted a field study at two woodlots (South Farms and Trelease Woods) in Urbana, IL, to examine how container type influences vector abundance, body size, and susceptibility to LAC. Mosquito pupae were collected from tree holes, plastic bins, and waste tires, and eclosing adults were identified to species morphologically. Oc. triseriatus and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) females were orally challenged with LAC and midgut infection rate, disseminated infection rate, and body titer were determined by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Oc. triseriatus was the dominant species collected in tree holes while Oc. japonicus and Culex restuans (Theobald) were mostly dominant in artificial containers. Female Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus collected from plastic bins were significantly larger than those collected from tree holes or waste tires. Oc. japonicus females from South Farms were also significantly larger than those from Trelease Woods. Oc. triseriatus females collected from plastic bins and waste tires were significantly more susceptible to LAC infection relative to females collected from tree holes. In addition, Oc. triseriatus females from waste tires had significantly higher LAC titer relative to Oc. triseriatus from tree holes. For each container type and study site, wing length was not correlated to infection or dissemination rates. These findings suggest that the container type in which Oc. triseriatus develop may contribute to the spatial and temporal dynamics of LAC transmission.

195) Development and evaluation of a SYBR Green-Based Real-Time Multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection and serotyping of dengue and chikungunya viruses.
Autor: Chen Huixin,Parimelalagan Mariya,Lai Yee Ling,Lee Kim Sung,Koay Evelyn Siew-Chuan,Hapuarachchi Hapuarachchige C,Ng Lee Ching,Ho Phui San,Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, v. 17, n. 6, p. 722-728, 2015
ISSN: 1943-7811
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) have emerged as the two most important arbovirus diseases of global health significance. Similar clinical manifestations, transmission vectors, geographical distribution, and seasonal correlation often result in misdiagnosis of chikungunya infections as dengue cases and vice versa. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate DENV serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and CHIKV. This SYBR Green I-based one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV and DENV. Melting temperature analysis of PCR amplicons was used to serotype DENV and to differentiate from CHIKV. The detection limit of the assay was 20, 10, 50, 5, and 10 RNA copies/reaction for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay did not cross-react with a panel of viruses that included other flaviviruses, alphaviruses, influenza viruses, human enteroviruses, and human coronaviruses. The feasibility of using this assay for clinical diagnosis was evaluated in DENV- and CHIKV-positive patient sera. Accordingly, the assay sensitivity for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and CHIKV was 89.66%, 96.67%, 96.67%, 94.12%, and 95.74%, respectively, with 100% specificity. These findings confirmed the potential of our assay to be used as a rapid test for simultaneous detection and serotyping of DENV and CHIKV in clinical samples.

196) Seasonal genetic changes of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) populations in selected sites of Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Sayson, S. L.; Gloria-Soria, A.; Powell, J. R.; Edillo, F. E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Seasonal fluctuation; Temporal genetics; Philippines; Yellow fever mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 638-646, 2015.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus in the Philippines, where dengue is endemic. We examined the genetic changes of Ae. aegypti collected from three selected sites in Cebu city, Philippines, during the relatively wet (2011-2012) and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). A total of 493 Ae. aegypti adults, reared in the laboratory from field-collected larvae, were analyzed using 11 microsatellite loci. Seasonal variation was observed in allele frequencies and allelic richness. Average genetic differentiation (DEST = 0.018; FST = 0.029) in both dry seasons was higher, due to reduced Ne, than in the wet season (DEST = 0.006; FST = 0.009). Thus, average gene flow was higher in the wet season than in the dry seasons. However, the overall FST estimate (0.02) inclusive of the two seasons showed little genetic differentiation as supported by Bayesian clustering analysis. Results suggest that during the dry season the intense selection that causes a dramatic reduction of population size favors heterozygotes, leading to small pockets of mosquitoes (refuges) that exhibit random genetic differentiation. During the wet season, the genetic composition of the population is reconstituted by the expansion of the refuges that survived the preceding dry season. Source reduction of mosquitoes during the nonepidemic dry season is thus recommended to prevent dengue re-emergence in the subsequent wet season.

197) Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas.
Autor: Prince Harry E,Seaton Brent L,Matud Jose L,Batterman Hollis J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 291-297, 2015
ISSN: 1556-679X
Resumo: Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody and/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers and RNA detection and to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification and CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, and 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers and RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered and 238 deidentified and tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) and 16% with IgG titers of ?1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, and (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

198) Arbovirus-mosquito interactions: RNAi pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Olson, Ken E.; Blair, Carol D.
Assunto: West Nile - Virus; Disease - Vector mosquitos; Double stranded - RNA; Aedes aegypti; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Culex – Quinque fasciatus; Genetic interference; Comparative genomics; Antiviral immunity; Mutant spectrum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 119-126, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses infect hematophagous arthropods (vectors) to maintain virus transmission between vertebrate hosts. The mosquito vector actively controls arbovirus infection to minimize its fitness costs. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is the major antiviral response vectors use to restrict arbovirus infections. We know this because depleting RNAi gene products profoundly impacts arbovirus replication, the antiviral RNAi pathway genes undergo positive, diversifying selection and arboviruses have evolved strategies to evade the vector's RNAi responses. The vector's RNAi defense and arbovirus countermeasures lead to an arms race that prevents potential virus-induced fitness costs yet maintains arbovirus infections needed for transmission. This review will discuss the latest findings in RNAi-arbovirus interactions in the model insect (Drosophila melanogaster) and in specific mosquito vectors.

199) Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.
Autor: Okabayashi Tamaki,Sasaki Tadahiro,Masrinoul Promsin,Chantawat Nantarat,Yoksan Sutee,Nitatpattana Narong,Chusri Sarunyou,Morales Vargas Ronald E,Grandadam Marc,Brey Paul T,Soegijanto Soegeng,Mulyantno Kris Cahyo,Churrotin Siti,Kotaki Tomohiro,Faye Oumar,Faye Ousmane,Sow Abdourahmane,Sall Amadou Alpha,Puiprom Orapim,Chaichana Panjaporn,Kurosu Takeshi,Kato Seiji,Kosaka Mieko,Ramasoota Pongrama,Ikuta Kazuyoshi
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 382-388, 2015
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase.

200) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Silva Farias, Kleber Juvenal; Lima Machado, Paula Renata; Pereira Carneiro Muniz, Jose Augusto; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Lopes da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio
Assunto: Borne encephalitis-virus; Human dendritic cells; DNA vaccine; Heterologous Infections; Nancymae Monkeys; Hiv Patients; Acidic Ph; Tnf-Alpha; Fever; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

201) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

202) Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil
Autor: Cecilio, Samyra Giarola; Silva, Willer Ferreira Junior; Totola, Antonio Helvecio; Magalhaes, Cintia Lopes de Brito; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhaes, Jose Carlos
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue virus; Ovitraps; Transovarial transmission; Oviposition; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-74, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools.

203) Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Circadian Clock Timeless Gene in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; de Lourdes Garza-Rodriguez, Maria; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elia Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura; Canales del Castillo, Ricardo; Favela-Lara, Susana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Lugo-Trampe, Angel; del Carmen Trujillo-Murillo, Karina; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ignacio Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Species Complex; Genome Sequence; Flies; Transcription; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 53-70, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In eukaryotes, the timeless (TIM) gene plays a fundamental role in the control of the circadian clock by regulating several biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. RT-PCR was used to amplify TIM mRNA from larval southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, from three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. The 3062 bp TIM cDNA was assembled from three overlapping PCRs that were cloned and Sequenced. DNA Sequence analysis used amplified cDNA fragments to complete coding the DNA Sequence (2991 bp). Tim ORF consisting of 996 codons was shorter than the orthologous genes from other mosquito species. A series of deletions in the core Sequence of TIM were detected. No other amplification products were visualized, and thus, the possibility of alternative spliced mRNA species was discarded. Because TIM is a widely conserved gene in eukaryotes, and maintaining colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus is easy, determining the Sequence of the TIM gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of its use as a model for circadian clock experimentation.

204) Construction and analysis of antennal cdna library from rice striped stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), and expression profiles of putative odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein genes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gong, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Su; Jiang, Yan-Dong; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Liang, Qing-Mei; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Gurr, Geoff M.
Assunto: Chilo suppressalis; Odorant - Binding protein; Chemosensory protein; Real time PCR; cDNA library
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 35-53, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: In this study, we constructed a high-quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

205) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

206) Screening for mosquito larvicidal activity of thai mushroom extracts with special reference to Steccherinum sp against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Thongwat, Damrongpan; Pimolsri, Urat; Somboon, Pradya
Assunto: Biological control; Viruses; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Fish larvae; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Protozoa; Fungi; Plant extracts; Basidiocarps; Substance P; Ethanol; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Nematoda
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 46, n. 4, p. 586-595, 2015.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: For over 50 years, biological control of mosquito larvae has depended mainly on plant extracts, fish, bacteria, protozoa, filamentous fungi, viruses or nematodes. In this study, the authors screened 143 mushroom samples from 44 confirmed species in Thailand for their mosquito larvicidal activity. One g% (w/v) aqueous extracts of dried powdered mushroom samples were tested against 3rd stage Aedes aegypti larvae. Four mushroom species, namely, Thaeogyroporus porentosus, Xylaria nigripes, Chlorophyllum sp and Steccherinum sp, and two unidentified species showed larvicidal mortality ranging from 10%-70% and 18%-90% for 24- and 48-hour exposure time, respectively. Steccherinum sp aqueous crude extract, after 48-hour exposure, did not show any larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm, whereas that from ethanol, after 24-hour exposure, had 50% and 90% lethal concentration of 203 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively, with higher levels of mortality after 48-hour exposure. This is the first report of mosquito larvicidal properties of Thai mushroom extracts.

207) Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014.
Autor: Delisle E,Rousseau C,Broche B,Leparc-Goffart I,L'Ambert G,Cochet A,Prat C,Foulongne V,Ferre J B,Catelinois O,Flusin O,Tchernonog E,Moussion I E,Wiegandt A,Septfons A,Mendy A,Moyano M B,Laporte L,Maurel J,Jourdain F,Reynes J,Paty M C,Golliot F
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 20, n. 17, p. 21108, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed and 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations and the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area and around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya and dengue surveillance system in mainland France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Islands. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

208) Converting mosquito surveillance to arbovirus surveillance with honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Flies, Emily J.; Toi, Cheryl; Weinstein, Philip; Doggett, Stephen L.; Williams, Craig R.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Surveillance; Transmission; Mosquitoes; Saliva
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 7, p. 397-403, 2015
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Spatially and temporally accurate information about infectious mosquito distribution allows for pre-emptive public health interventions that can reduce the burden of mosquito-borne infections on human populations. However, the labile nature of arboviruses, the low prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, the expensive labor costs for mosquito identification and sorting, and the specialized equipment required for arbovirus testing can obstruct arbovirus surveillance efforts. The recently developed techniques of testing mosquito expectorate using honey-baited nucleic acid preservation cards or sugar bait stations allows a sensitive method of testing for infectious, rather than infected, mosquito vectors. Here we report the results from the first large-scale incorporation of honey-baited cards into an existing mosquito surveillance program. During 4 months of the peak virus season (January-April, 2014) for a total of 577 trap nights, we set CO2-baited encephalitis vector survey (EVS) light traps at 88 locations in South Australia. The collection container for the EVS trap was modified to allow for the placement of a honey-baited nucleic acid preservation card (FTA card) inside. After collection, mosquitoes were maintained in a humid environment and allowed access to the cards for 1 week. Cards were then analyzed for common endemic Australian arboviruses using a nested RT-PCR. Eighteen virus detections, including 11 Ross River virus, four Barmah Forest virus, and three Stratford virus (not previously reported from South Australia) were obtained. Our findings suggest that adding FTA cards to an existing mosquito surveillance program is a rapid and efficient way of detecting infectious mosquitoes with high spatial resolution.

209) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

210) Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Antibodies; CHIK; Chikungunya; Genotype; IgM; Meghalaya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 5, p. 591-597, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: hikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya.Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey.Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype.Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak.

211) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

212) Purification and characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Park, Soon-Ik; Kim, Jong-Wan; Yoe, Sung Moon
Assunto: Antimicrobial peptide; Defensin; Black soldier fly; Hermetia illucens; Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 52, n. 1, p. 98-106, 2015
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: In this study, we induced and purified a novel antimicrobial peptide exhibiting activity against Gram-positive bacteria from the immunized hemolymph of Hermetia illucens larvae. The immunized hemolymph was extracted, and the novel defensin-like peptide 4 (DLP4) was purified using solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. The purified DLP4 demonstrated a molecular weight of 4267 Da, as determined using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) method. From analysis of DLP4 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing using Edman degradation, combined with MALDI-TOF and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR), the amino acid sequence of the mature peptide was determined to be ATCDLLSPFKVGHAACAAHCIA RGKRGGWCDKRAVCNCRK. In NCBI BLAST, the amino acid sequence of DPL4 was found to be 75% identical to the Phlebotomus duboscqi defensin. Analysis of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed that DLP4 have antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The expression of DLP4 transcripts in several tissues after bacterial challenge was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the DLP4 gene hardly occurred throughout the body before immunization, but was mostly evident in the fat body after immunization. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

213) Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes
Autor: Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod
Assunto: Multiple dengue types; Etiology; DHF
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 150, n. , p. 107-110, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

214) Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meng, Qian; Yu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Meng-Long; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Zhou, Gui-Ling; Li, Xuan; Qin, Qi-Lian; Hu, Song-Nian; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Hepialus xiaojinensis; Ophiocordyceps sinensis; Transcriptome; Insect immunity; Phylogenetic analysis; Expression profiling; Fat body
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 1-15, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. However, little sequence information is available for this insect. A time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to O. sinensis infection. In total, 50,164 unigenes were obtained by assembling the reads from two high-throughput approaches: 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Hiseq2000. Hierarchical clustering and functional examination revealed four major gene clusters. Clusters 1-3 included transcripts markedly induced by the fungal infection within 72 h. Cluster 4, with a lower number of transcripts, was suppressed during the early phase of infection but returned to normal expression levels sometime before 1 year. Based on sequence similarity to orthologs known to participate in immune defenses, 258 candidate immunity-related transcripts were identified, and their functions were hypothesized. The genes were more primitive than those in other Lepidopteran insects. In addition, lineage-specific family expansion of the clip-domain serine proteases and C-type lectins were apparent and likely caused by selection pressures. Global expression profiles of immunity-related genes indicated that H. xiaojinensis was capable of a rapid response to an O. sinensis challenge; however, the larvae developed tolerance to the fungus after prolonged infection, probably due to immune suppression. Specifically, antimicrobial peptide mRNAs could not be detected after chronic infection, because key components of the Toll pathway (MyD88, Pelle and Cactus) were downregulated. Taken together, this study provides insights into the defense system of H. xiaojinensis, and a basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the interaction between the host and the entomopathogen. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

215) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

216) Flavivirus sfRNA suppresses antiviral RNA interference in cultured cells and mosquitoes and directly interacts with the RNAi machinery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moon, Stephanie L.; Dodd, Benjamin J. T.; Brackney, Doug E.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Assunto: Flavivirus; Dengue virus; Kunjin virus; RNA interference; SfRNA; Mosquito; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 485, p. 322-329, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Productive arbovirus infections require mechanisms to suppress or circumvent the cellular RNA interference (RNA pathway, a major antiviral response in mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate that two flaviviruses, Dengue virus and Kunjin virus, significantly repress siRNA-mediated RNAi in infected human cells as well as during infection of the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses generate a small structured non-coding RNA from the viral 3' UTR referred to as sfRNA. Analysis of infections with a mutant Kunjin virus that is unable to generate appreciable amounts of the major sfRNA species indicated that RNAi suppression was associated with the generation of the non-coding sfRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation of sfRNA with RNAi mediators Dicer and Ago2 suggest a model for RNAi suppression. Collectively, these data help to establish a clear role for sfRNA in RNAi suppression and adds to the emerging impact of viral long non-coding RNAs in modulating aspects of anti-viral immune processes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

217) Value of routine dengue diagnostic tests in urine and saliva specimens
Autor: Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Try, Patrich Lorn; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Linked-immunosorbent-assay; West Nile virus; Protein Ns1; Nonstructural protein-1; Acute infection; Hepatitis-A; Blood spots; Zika virus; Antibodies; Antigen
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis.Methodology/Principal FindingsSerial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine.ConclusionsAlthough the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible.

218) Genome mining offers a new starting point for Parasitology Research
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao
Assunto: Genomics; Parasite; Host; Drug; Vaccine; Diagnosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 399-409, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical Vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and Vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

219) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

220) Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang
Assunto: Yellow Mealworm Beetle; Antennae; Transcriptome; Chemosensory Genes; Insect Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology D-Genomics & Proteomics, v. 13, n. , p. 44-51, 2015
ISSN: 1744-117X
Resumo: We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes. 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes. 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these. TmolOBP5,TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

221) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

222) Insect Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins Are Negatively Regulated by Signal-Induced N-Terminal Degrons Absent within Viral IAP Proteins
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vandergaast, Rianna; Mitchell, Jonathan K.; Byers, Nathaniel M.; Friesen, Paul D.
Assunto: Dna-Damage Response; Nuclear Polyhedrosis-Virus; Cell-Lines; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Dominant Interference; Caspase Inhibitors; Promotes Apoptosis; Ubiquitin Ligase; Effector Caspase; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4481-4493, 2015
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key regulators of the innate antiviral response by virtue of their capacity to respond to signals affecting cell survival. In insects, wherein the host IAP provides a primary restriction to apoptosis, diverse viruses trigger rapid IAP depletion that initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis, thereby limiting virus multiplication. We report here that the N-terminal leader of two insect IAPs, Spodoptera frugiperda SfIAP and Drosophila melanogaster DIAP1, contain distinct instability motifs that regulate IAP turnover and apoptotic conSequences. Functioning as a protein degron, the cellular IAP leader dramatically shortened the life span of a long-lived viral IAP (Op-IAP3) when fused to its N terminus. The SfIAP degron contains mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK)-like regulatory sites, responsible for MAPK inhibitor-sensitive phosphorylation of SfIAP. Hyperphosphorylation correlated with increased SfIAP turnover independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of the SfIAP RING, which also regulated IAP stability. Together, our findings suggest that the SfIAP phospho-degron responds rapidly to a signal-activated kinase cascade, which regulates SfIAP levels and thus apoptosis. The N-terminal leader of dipteran DIAP1 also conferred virus-induced IAP depletion by a caspase-independent mechanism. DIAP1 instability mapped to previously unrecognized motifs that are not found in lepidopteran IAPs. Thus, the leaders of cellular IAPs from diverse insects carry unique signal-responsive degrons that control IAP turnover. Rapid response pathways that trigger IAP degradation and initiate apoptosis independent of canonical prodeath gene (Reaper-Grim-Hid) expression may provide important innate immune advantages. Furthermore, the elimination of these response motifs within viral IAPs, including those of baculoviruses, explains their unusual stability and their potent antiapoptotic activity.IMPORTANCEApoptosis is an effective means by which a host controls virus infection. In insects, inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins act as regulatory sentinels by responding to cellular signals that determine the fate of infected cells. We discovered that lepidopteran (moth and butterfly) IAPs, which are degraded upon baculovirus infection, are controlled by a conserved phosphorylation-sensitive degron within the IAP N-terminal leader. The degron likely responds to virus-induced kinase-specific signals for degradation through SKP1/Cullin/F-box complex-mediated ubiquitination. Such signal-induced destruction of cellular IAPs is distinct from degradation caused by well-known IAP antagonists, which act to expel IAP-bound caspases. The major implication of this study is that insects have multiple signal-responsive mechanisms by which the sentinel IAPs are actively degraded to initiate host apoptosis. Such diversity of pathways likely provides insects with rapid and efficient strategies for pathogen control. Furthermore, the absence of analogous degrons in virus-encoded IAPs explains their relative stability and antiapoptotic potency.

223) Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Autor: de Toni Aquino da Cruz, Lucineia Claudia; Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Leal-Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini; dos Santos, Marina Atanaka
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Vertical transmission; Entomological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 48, n. 1, p. 18-25, 2015
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. Methods: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriario neighborhood of Cuiaba, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758) were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%). Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3). This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiaba, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

224) Molecular cloning and characterization of the allatotropin precursor and receptor in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lismont, Els; Vleugels, Rut; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Zels, Sven; Tobe, Stephen S.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Verlinden, Heleen
Assunto: GPCR; Insect; Juvenile Hormone; Neuropeptide; Orexin; Peptide; Motility
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Frontiers in Neuroscience, v. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1662-453X
Resumo: Allatotropins (ATs) are pleiotropic neuroPeptides initially isolated from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. In 2008, the first receptor for AT-like Peptides (ATR) was characterized in Bombyx mori. Since then, ATRs have also been characterized in M. sexta, Tribolium castaneum, Aedes aegypti and Bombus terrestris. These receptors show Sequence similarity to vertebrate orexin (ORX) receptors. When generating an EST-database of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) central nervous system, we found cDNA Sequences encoding the Schgr-AT precursor and a fragment of its putative receptor. This receptor cDNA has now been completed and functionally expressed in mammalian cell lines. Activation of this receptor, designated as Schgr-ATR, by Schgr-AT caused an increase in intracellular calcium ions, as well as cyclic AMP (cAMP), with an EC50 value in the nanomolar range. In addition, the transcript distribution of both the Schgr-AT precursor and Schgr-ATR was investigated by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, we found more evidence for the myotropic and allatostimulatory actions of Schgr-AT in the desert locust. These data are discussed and situated in a broader context by comparison with literature data on AT and ATR in insects.

225) Retrospective screening of acute undifferentiated fever serum samples with universal flavivirus primers
Autor: Khongwichit, Sarawut; Libsittikul, Sirikwan; Yoksan, Sutee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Smith, Duncan R.
Assunto: Fever; Dengue; Serum; Flavivirus; Phylogeny; RT-PCR; Zika Virus - Infection; Dengue infections; Thailand; Transmission; Encephalitis
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection In Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 7, p. 760-764, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Introduction: Fever is a common symptom of many tropical diseases and in many cases the etiologic agent remains unidentified as a consequence of either the etiologic agent not being part of routine diagnostic screening or as a consequence of false negatives on standard diagnostic tests.Methodology: This study screened a well characterized panel of 274 serum samples collected on day of admission from adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever admitted to a hospital in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand by RT-PCR using pan-flavivirus degenerate primers.Results: Subsequent clinical diagnosis was achieved for 38 of the patients, and included 19 cases of dengue fever. RT-PCR screening identified seven positive samples (2.5%) which were revealed by sequence analysis to be dengue virus 1 (2 cases), dengue virus 2 (2 cases) and dengue virus 3 (3 cases). Only 5 out of 19 (26%) serum samples from patients subsequently diagnosed with dengue were positive, but 2 samples which clinically remained undiagnosed were shown to be positive for dengue virus. Sequence analysis suggested that the dengue virus 3 cases occurred as a result of importation of a strain of dengue from India or China. No other flaviviruses were identified.Conclusions: No evidence was found of other flaviviruses besides dengue circulating in this population. Despite improved diagnostic tests, cases of dengue are still evading correct diagnosis.

226) Two cathepsins B are responsible for the yolk protein hydrolysis in Culex quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moura, Alexandre S.; Cardoso, Andre F.; Costa-da-Silva, Andre L.; Winter, Carlos E.; Tania Bijovsky, A.
Assunto: West Nile virus; Amino acid sequences; Cysteine proteinase; Helicoverpa armigera; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the established role of Culex quinquefasciatus as a vector of various neurotropic viruses, such as the Rift Valley and West Nile viruses, as well as lymphatic filariasis, little is known regarding the organism's reproductive physiology. As in other oviparous animals, vitellogenin, the most important source of nutrients for the embryo development, is digested by intracellular proteases. Using mass spectrometry, we have identified two cathepsin B homologues partially purified by self-proteolysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus total egg extract. The transcriptional profile of these two cathepsin B homologues was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and the enzymatic activity associated with the peptidase was determined in ovaries after female engorgement. According to the VectorBase (vectorbase.org) annotation, both cathepsin B homologues shared approximately 66% identity in their amino acid sequences. The two cathepsin B genes are expressed simultaneously in the fat body of the vitellogenic females, and enzymatic activity was detected within the ovaries, suggesting an extra-ovarian origin. Similar to the transcriptional profile of vitellogenin, cathepsin B transcripts were shown to accumulate post-blood meal and reached their highest expression at 36 h PBM. However, while vitellogenin expression decreased drastically at 48 h PBM, the expression of the cathepsins increased until 84 h PBM, at which time the females of our colony were ready for oviposition. The similarity between their transcriptional profiles strongly suggests a role for the cathepsin B homologues in vitellin degradation.

227) A larval specific OBP able to bind the major female sex pheromone component in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner)
Autor: Jin Rong; Liu Nai-yong; Liu Yan; Dong Shuang-lin
Assunto: Odorant binding protein; Female sex pheromone; Larval specificity; Binding affinity; Behavioral response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Integrative Agriculture, v. 14, n. 7, p. 1356-1366, 2015
ISSN: 2095-3119
Resumo: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are postulated to solubilize and transport the hydrophobic odorants across the hydrophilic antennal lymph to the olfactory receptors (ORs) located on the dendrite membrane of the sensory neurons. OBPs in adult insects have been intensively reported, but those in larvae are rarely addressed. In our study, a full-length OBP cDNA, namely SexiOBP13, was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE strategy from the heads of Spodoptera exigua larvae. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) measurement indicated that SexiOBP13 was highly expressed in larval head, but very low in other parts of larva and was not detected in any tissues of adult. The binding affinities of SexiOBP13 to plant volatiles and female sex pheromone components were measured by competitive binding assays. Interestingly, SexiOBP13 displayed a high binding affinity (K-i=3.82 mu mol L-1) to Z9,E12-14:Ac, the major sex pheromone component of S. exigua, while low affinities to the tested host plant volatiles (K-i>27 mu mol L-1). The behavioral tests further confirmed that Z9,E12-14:Ac was indeed active to elicit the behavioral activity of the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Taken together, our results suggest that SexiOBP13 may play a role in reception of female sex pheromone in S. exigua larvae. The ecological significance of the larvae preference to the adult female sex pheromone was discussed.

228) Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas
Autor: Harrison, Genelle F.; Scheirer, Jessica L.; Melanson, Vanessa R.
Assunto: Vector pathogen detection; Nucleic Acid extraction; Biosurveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 83-89, 2015.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators.

229) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Edillo, Frances E.; Sarcos, Janet R.; Sayson, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Aedes; Culicidae; Dengue; Arbovirus; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 282-291, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We attempted to determine the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Mosquito sub-adults were collected monthly from households and the field during the wet-dry-wet season from November, 2011 to July, 2012 and were laboratory-reared to adults. Viral RNA extracts in mosquitoes were assayed by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Results showed that 62 (36.26%; n=679) out of 171 mosquito pools (n=2,871) were DENV+. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of DENV ranged from 0 in wet months to 48.22/1,000 mosquitoes in April, 2012 (mid-dry). DENVs were detected in larvae, pupae, and male and female adults, with DENV-4, DENV-3, and DENV-1, in that rank of prevalence. DENV-1 co-infected with either DENV-3 or -4 or with both in April, 2012; DENV-3 and -4 were present in both seasons. More DENV+ mosquitoes were collected from households than in field premises (p<0.001) and in the dry than in the wet season (p<0.05), with significant interaction (p<0.05) between sites and premises but no interaction between sites and seasons (p>0.05). By Generalized Linear Mixed models, the type of premises nested in sites and monthly total rainfall were significant predictors of monthly dengue cases (p<0.05) and not MIR, season, temperature, and relative humidity. Surveillance of DENV prevalence in Ae. aegypti and detecting their natural foci in the dry season provide an early warning signal of dengue outbreak.

230) Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Stephen J.; Aldstadt, Jared; Jarman, Richard G.; Buddhari, Darunee; Yoon, In-Kyu; Richardson, Jason H.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Scott, Thomas W.; Rothman, Alan L.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lambrechts, Louis; Endy, Timothy P.
Assunto: Primary-School Children; Aedes-Aegypti; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Human Movement; Transmission; Infections; Villages; Epidemiology; Severity; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene, v. 93, n. 1, p. 24-32, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics was studied in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, using an enhanced spatiotemporal surveillance of 93 hospitalized subjects with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled from 208 houses with household members with a history of fever, located within a 200-m radius of an initiate case. Of 409 associates, 86(21%) had laboratory-confirmed DENV infection. A total of 63 (1.8%) of the 3,565 mosquitoes collected were dengue polymerase chain reaction positive (PCR+). There was a significant relationship between spatial proximity to the initiate case and likelihood of detecting DENV from associate cases and Aedes mosquitoes. The viral detection rate from human hosts and mosquito vectors in this study was higher than previously observed by the study team in the same geographic Area using different methodologies. We propose that the sampling strategy used in this study could support surveillance of DENV transmission and vector interactions.

231) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

232) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

233) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

234) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Proteins; Infections; Gene expression; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. Mosquito saliva contains a complex repertoire of bioactive factors that are secreted into blood feeding site, the skin. Infected mosquitoes transmit pathogens to the host during feeding via saliva. The bioactive factors in mosquito saliva are responsible for modulating host hemostasis, immune defenses and pain/itch responses, and have been implicated to enhance pathogen infection and establishment in the host. In our efforts to identify and characterize salivary immunomodulators that enhance Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, we have discovered, for the first time, exogenous microRNA in mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Short non-coding RNAs were extracted from the saliva of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus saliva, and subjected to Illumina next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of miRNAs in the mosquito saliva. We have also identified several novel miRNAs that are expressed only during CHIKV infection. Though the functional roles of these miRNAs are yet to be established, our in-vitro data from testing 5 miRNAs demonstrate their role in the regulation of CHIKV infection. These miRNAs may play an important role in regulating the establishment of CHIKV infection in the mammalian host during blood feeding.

235) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

236) Cross-sectional community-based study of the socio-demographic factors associated with the prevalence of dengue in the eastern part of Sudan in 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Soghaier, Mohammed A.; Himatt, Sayed; Osman, Kamal ElDin; Okoued, Somia I.; Seidahmed, Osama E.; Beatty, Mark E.; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Khogali, Jeahan; Shingrai, Nijood H.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.
Assunto: Sero - Prevalence; Dengue; Social factors; Capture ELISA; Eastern Sudan
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 15, n. 558, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Dengue is caused by an arthropod-borne flavivirus. Infection can be either primary or secondary based on serology, with each stage of the disease characterized by specific serological conversion and antibody formation. Further study is needed to fully identify the factors associated with and predisposing to dengue infection. The objective of this study was to identify socio-demographic factors associated with the prevalence of dengue serotypes in Kassala State in the eastern part of Sudan in 2011.Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study with 530 participants who were randomly selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Dengue serotype prevalence was determined using capture Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA IgG. A multivariate logistic regression model was designed to measure the strength of associations between socio-demographic factors and dengue serotype prevalence. All participants who tested negative for dengue were used as the statistical reference group.Results: From this study, the prevalence of dengue in Kassala was estimated to be 9.4 % (95 % CI: 7.1-12.3). Lack of knowledge about dengue fever disease (OR 2.8, 95 % CI: 1.24-6.53) and a household density of more than 3 people per room (OR 2.1, 95 % CI: 1.06-4.09) were the most important factors associated with dengue infection among the study population.Conclusions: Community-oriented interventions are needed to modify existing social behaviors to reduce the risk of dengue in the eastern part of Sudan. Additional studies are also required in this field.

237) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

238) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

239) Emergence of the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Émergence du virus Zika
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anarthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

240) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from brazilian legal Amazon plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patricia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonca do; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto: Chemical composition; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Mass spectroscopy; Dengue; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Vaccines; Plant extracts; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC sub(50) ) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

241) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis ; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lounibos, LPhilip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Biological surveys; Barriers; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Biting; Travellers; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: More than one million chikungunya cases have been reported in the Americas since October 2013, when the Asian genotype of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was imported by a traveller returning from Asia. CHIKV is mainly transmitted in urban areas by the domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the CHIKV circulating in the Caribbean to initiate outbreaks in Aedes-infested regions of continental America and Europe by assessing the ability of local mosquitoes to experimentally transmit the virus. Mosquitoes were exposed to a blood-meal containing the virus which must overcome several barriers to infect various tissues in the vector before being secreted in the mosquito saliva when biting a host. We found that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus transmitted similarly the virus. When exposing Ae. albopictus from Europe at a temperature of 20 degree C after infection, we detect a significant drop of CHIKV transmission potential. Our results suggest that the CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas however with a limited risk of spillovers in Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. These data will be useful for adapting vector control strategies and epidemiological surveillance.

242) Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Ebola virus at low resource settings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Abd El Wahed A., Patel P., Faye O., Nentwich O., Wende A., Piepenburg O., Sall A., Weidmann M.
Assunto: Ebolavirus, European, laboratory, public health, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Tropical Medicine and International Health, v. 20, supl. 1, p. 29-30, set. 2015
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: INTRODUCTION The current outbreak of Ebola has killed over 10 000 people in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Early identification and isolation of the infected Ebola cases are the most important control measures. Detection of the Ebola virus by using the rapid antigen lateral flow tests is an easy to be applied at the point-of-care. Nevertheless, the results must be confirmed by additional laboratory tests. Laboratory diagnosis mainly depends on Ebola RNA detection by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is available in central laboratories and has a turnaround time of more than 3 h. For decentralized low resource settings, there is a need for a simple molecular point-of-need test. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, a mobile suitcase laboratory (62× 49× 30 cm) containing all reagents and equipment for the detection of Ebola RNA was developed. Moreover, it was operated by a solar power battery. All reagents were cold-chain independent in order to ease the use at poor resource settings. RNA extraction was performed by a magnetic bead based method, in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. In one reaction tube, the reverse transcription step as well as the DNA amplification and detection by the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was achieved. RESULTS Using spiked plasma samples, as few as 15 Ebola RNA copies were detected in less than 30 min, while samples containing Crimean-Congo-Hemorrhagic-Fever, Yellow Fever, Lassa, Marburg, Rift Valley Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses and Plasmodium falciparum were negative. CONCLUSION The mobile suitcase laboratory is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Ebola virus especially at low resource settings. Currently, two mobile suitcase laboratories are being used in Guinea.

243) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

244) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

245) Pentosan Polysulfate: a Novel Glycosaminoglycan-Like Molecule for Effective Treatment of Alphavirus-Induced Cartilage Destruction and Inflammatory Disease.
Autor: Herrero Lara J,Foo Suan-Sin,Sheng Kuo-Ching,Chen Weiqiang,Forwood Mark R,Bucala Richard,Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8063-8076, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease and have been progressively expanding their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV and CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection and investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV and CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage and loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has expanded into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, and the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, and is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- and CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation and joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising candidate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis.

246) Zika: Another sexually transmitted infection?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Patiño-Barbosa A.M., Medina I., Gil-Restrepo A.F., Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: sexually transmitted disease, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sexually Transmitted Infections, v. 91, n. 5, p. 359, aug. 2015
ISSN: 1472-3263 (electronic),1368-4973
Resumo:

247) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

248) Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication.
Autor: Scholte Florine E M,Tas Ali,Albulescu Irina C,Žusinaite Eva,Merits Andres,Snijder Eric J,van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4457-4469, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Stress granules (SGs) are protein-mRNA aggregates that are formed in response to environmental stresses, resulting in translational inhibition. SGs are generally believed to play an antiviral role and are manipulated by many viruses, including various alphaviruses. GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is a key component and commonly used marker of SGs. Its homolog G3BP2 is a less extensively studied SG component. Here, we demonstrate that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces cytoplasmic G3BP1- and G3BP2-containing granules that differ from bona fide SGs in terms of morphology, composition, and behavior. For several Old World alphaviruses it has been shown that nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with G3BPs, presumably to inhibit SG formation, and we have confirmed this interaction in CHIKV-infected cells. Surprisingly, CHIKV also relied on G3BPs for efficient replication, as simultaneous depletion of G3BP1 and G3BP2 reduced viral RNA levels, CHIKV protein expression, and viral progeny titers. The G3BPs colocalized with CHIKV nsP2 and nsP3 in cytoplasmic foci, but no colocalization with nsP1, nsP4, or dsRNA was observed. Furthermore, G3BPs could not be detected in a cellular fraction enriched for CHIKV replication/transcription complexes, suggesting that they are not directly involved in CHIKV RNA synthesis. Depletion of G3BPs did not affect viral entry, translation of incoming genomes, or nonstructural polyprotein processing but resulted in severely reduced levels of negative-stranded (and consequently also positive-stranded) RNA. This suggests a role for the G3BPs in the switch from translation to genome amplification, although the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be explored. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a severe polyarthritis that has affected millions of people since its reemergence in 2004. The lack of approved vaccines or therapeutic options and the ongoing explosive outbreak in the Caribbean underline the importance of better understanding CHIKV replication. Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic protein-mRNA aggregates formed in response to various stresses, including viral infection. The RNA-binding proteins G3BP1 and G3BP2 are essential SG components. SG formation and the resulting translational inhibition are generally considered an antiviral response, and many viruses manipulate or block this process. Late in infection, we and others have observed CHIKV nonstructural protein 3 in cytoplasmic G3BP1- and G3BP2-containing granules. These virally induced foci differed from true SGs and did not appear to represent replication complexes. Surprisingly, we found that G3BP1 and G3BP2 were also needed for efficient CHIKV replication, likely by facilitating the switch from translation to genome amplification early in infection.

249) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

250) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

251) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

252) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

253) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Yellow-fever virus; Chikungunya virus; Aedes; Transmission; Isolations; Culicidae; Diptera; Vector; Amplification; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 10, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal.Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18: 00 to 21: 00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated.Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kedougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

254) Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mourya, D. T.; Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.
Assunto: Nipah Virus; Emerging Viruses; Aedes-Aegypti; Bhanja Virus; Flying Foxes; India; Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae; Outbreak; Diseases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 6, p. 3605-3609, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus.

255) Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Hurk, Andrew FVan Den; McMahon, Jamie L.; Eiras, Alvaro E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; BGS trap; Surveillance; Sticky ovitrap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 210-219, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7X and 2.4 X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools of Ae. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degree C and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries.

256) Vector competence of selected mosquito species in Kenya for Ngari and Bunyamwera viruses
Autor: Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Chepkorir, Edith; Mbaika, Sophia; Lutomiah, Joel; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary
Assunto: Specificity; Interspecific relationships; Viruses; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Disseminated infection; Vectors; Midgut; Side effects; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Bunyamwera virus; Ngari virus; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 6, p. 1248-1253, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses have been isolated from a range of mosquito species in Kenya but their actual role in the maintenance and transmission of these viruses in nature remains unclear. Identification of the mosquito species efficient in transmitting these viruses is critical for estimating the risk of human exposure and understanding the transmission and maintenance mechanism. We determined the vector competence of, Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles gambiae Giles for transmission ofBunyamweraand Ngari viruses. Ae. aegypti was moderately susceptible to Bunyamwera virus infection at days 7 and 14. Over 60% of Ae. aegypti with a midgut infection developed a disseminated infection at both time points. Approximately 20% more mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection at day 14 compared with day 7. However, while Ae. aegypti was incompetent for Ngari virus, An. gambiae was moderately susceptible to both viruses with dissemination rates more than double by day 14. Cx. quinquefasciatus was refractory to both Bunyamwera and Ngari viruses. Our results underscore the need to continually monitor emergent arboviral genotypes circulating within particular regions as well as vectors mediating these transmissions to preempt and prevent their adverse effects. The genetic mechanism for species specificity and vector competence owing to reassortment needs further investigation.

257) MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2 autoregulates its replication in mosquito cells
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: RNA; Immunoprecipitation; Pathogens; Serotypes; Vero cells; miRNA; RNA viruses; Dengue; Cloning; Proteins; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 111, n. 7, p. 2746-2751, 2014.
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in most cellular processes. In the seemingly endless arms race between hosts and pathogens, viruses also encode miRNAs that facilitate successful infection. In search of functional miRNAs or viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) encoded by Dengue virus (DENV), deep sequencing data of virus-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. From six vsRNAs, with candidate stem-loop structures in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the viral genomic RNA, inhibition of DENV-vsRNA-5 led to significant increases in viral replication. Silencing of RNA interference (RNAi)/miRNA pathways' associated proteins showed that Argonaute 2 is mainly involved in DENV-vsRNA-5 biogenesis. Cloning of the precursor stem loop, immunoprecipitations, ectopic expression and detection in RNAi-deficient C6/36, and the mammalian Vero cell lines further confirmed DENV-vsRNA-5 production. Furthermore, significant impact of synthetic mimic and inhibitor of DENV-vsRNA-5 on DENV RNA levels revealed DENV-vsRNA-5's role in virus autoregulation by targeting the virus nonstructural protein 1 gene. Notably, DENV-vsRNA-5 homologous mimics from DENV serotypes 1 and 4, but not 3, inhibited DENV-2 replication. The results revealed that DENV is able to encode functional vsRNAs, and one of those, which resembles miRNAs, specifically targets a viral gene, opening an avenue for possible utilization of the small RNA to limit DENV replication.

258) Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes to Map Lymphatic Filariasis after Mass Drug Administration in American Samoa
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schmaedick, Mark A.; Koppel, Amanda L.; Pilotte, Nils; Torres, Melissa; Williams, Steven A.; Dobson, Stephen L.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Won, Kimberly Y.
Assunto: Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Wuchereria-Bancrofti; Aedes-Aegypti; Southern-California; Transmission; Elimination; Culicidae; Diptera; Vector; Polynesiensis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many Areas around the globe, including American Samoa. As infection rates decline and MDA programs end, efficient and sensitive methods for detecting infections are needed to monitor for recrudescence. Molecular methods, collectively termed 'molecular xenomonitoring,' can identify parasite DNA or RNA in human blood-feeding mosquitoes. We tested mosquitoes trapped throughout the inhabited islands of American Samoa to identify Areas of possible continuing LF transmission after completion of MDA.Methodology/Principle Findings: Mosquitoes were collected using BG Sentinel traps from most of the villages on American Samoa's largest island, Tutuila, and all major villages on the smaller islands of Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. Real-time PCR was used to detect Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of <= 20 mosquitoes, and PoolScreen software was used to infer territory-wide prevalences of W. bancrofti DNA in the mosquitoes. Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was found in mosquitoes from 16 out of the 27 village Areas sampled on Tutuila and Aunu'u islands but none of the five villages on the Manu'a islands of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The overall 95% confidence interval estimate for W. bancrofti DNA prevalence in the LF vector Ae. polynesiensis was 0.20-0.39%, and parasite DNA was also detected in pools of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes (Finlaya) spp.Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest low but widespread prevalence of LF on Tutuila and Aunu'u where 98% of the population resides, but not Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Molecular xenomonitoring can help identify Areas of possible LF transmission, but its use in the LF elimination program in American Samoa is limited by the need for more efficient mosquito collection methods and a better understanding of the relationship between prevalence of W. bancrofti DNA in mosquitoes and infection and transmission rates in humans.

259) Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of dengue viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Wanja, Elizabeth; Parker, Zahra F.; Odusami, Oluwakemi; Rowland, Tobin; Dave, Kirti; Dave, Sonia; Turell, Michael J.
Assunto: Antigens; Disease detection; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Risk groups; Vectors; Rift Valley fever; Rift valleys; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 220-225, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: There is a threat for dengue virus (DENV) reemergence in many regions of the world, particularly in areas where the DENV vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), are readily available. However, there are currently no accurate and reliable diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of DENV within the vector populations to implement appropriate vector control and personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect DENV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes infected with any of the four viral serotypes. The DENV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, and provided clear results within 30 min. It was highly specific and did not cross-react with samples spiked with West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, Ross River, LaCrosse, or Caraparu viruses. The DENV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of DENV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.

260) A single-amino-acid polymorphism in chikungunya virus E2 glycoprotein influences glycosaminoglycan utilization
Autor: Silva, Laurie A.; Khomandiak, Solomiia; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Weller, Romy; Heise, Mark T.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Dermody, Terence S.
Assunto: Surface heparin - Sulfate; Herpes simplex -Virus; Ross river virus; Sindbis - Virus; Encephalitis -Virus; Reunion Island; Aedes aegypti; Virulence attenuation; Japanese encephalitis; Attachment receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 5, p. 2385-2397, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of infection throughout Asia and Africa, causing an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and polyarthralgia. Although CHIKV infects a broad range of host cells, little is known about how CHIKV binds and gains access to the target cell interior. In this study, we tested whether glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding is required for efficient CHIKV replication using CHIKV vaccine strain 181/25 and clinical isolate SL15649. Pre-incubation of strain 181/25, but not SL15649, with soluble GAGs resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of infection. While parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are permissive for both strains, neither strain efficiently bound to or infected mutant CHO cells devoid of GAG expression. Although GAGs appear to be required for efficient binding of both strains, they exhibit differential requirements for GAGs, as SL15649 readily infected cells that express excess chondroitin sulfate but that are devoid of heparan sulfate, whereas 181/25 did not. We generated a panel of 181/25 and SL15649 variants containing reciprocal amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 318 in the E2 glycoprotein. Reciprocal exchange at residue 82 resulted in a phenotype switch; Gly(82) results in efficient infection of mutant CHO cells but a decrease in heparin binding, whereas Arg(82) results in reduced infectivity of mutant cells and an increase in heparin binding. These results suggest that E2 residue 82 is a primary determinant of GAG utilization, which likely mediates attenuation of vaccine strain 181/25.IMPORTANCEChikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes a debilitating rheumatic disease that can persist for months to years, and yet there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies. Like other alphaviruses, CHIKV displays broad tissue tropism, which is thought to be influenced by virus-receptor interactions. In this study, we determined that cell-surface glycosaminoglycans are utilized by both a vaccine strain and a clinical isolate of CHIKV to mediate virus binding. We also identified an amino acid polymorphism in the viral E2 attachment protein that influences utilization of glycosaminoglycans. These data enhance an understanding of the viral and host determinants of CHIKV cell entry, which may foster development of new antivirals that act by blocking this key step in viral infection.

261) Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ciano, Kristen A.; Saredy, Jason J.; Bowers, Doria F.
Assunto: Alphavirus; Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan; Aedine Mosquitoes; Salivary Gland Ducts; Sindbis Virus; GFP
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Viruses-Basel, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5182-5197, 2014
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito.

262) Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Henry R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 6, p. 1090, june 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

263) Dynamics of midgut microflora and dengue virus impact on life history traits in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hill, Casey L.; Sharma, Avinash; Shouche, Yogesh; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Human diseases; Disease control; Antibiotics; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Mortality; Fertility; Vectors; Survival; Pathogens; Infection; Morbidity; Life history; Fecundity; Dengue;Microflora; Biologists; Flora; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 140, p. 151-157, 2014.
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Significant morbidity and potential mortality following dengue virus infection is a re-emerging global health problem. Due to the limited effectiveness of current disease control methods, mosquito biologists have been searching for new methods of controlling dengue transmission. While much effort has concentrated on determining genetic aspects to vector competence, paratransgenetic approaches could also uncover novel vector control strategies. The interactions of mosquito midgut microflora and pathogens may play significant roles in vector biology. However, little work has been done to see how the microbiome influences the host's fitness and ultimately vector competence. Here we investigated the effects of the midgut microbial environment and dengue infection on several fitness characteristics among three strains of the primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. This included comparisons of dengue infection rates of females with and without their normal midgut flora. According to our findings, few effects on fitness characteristics were evident following microbial clearance or with dengue virus infection. Adult survivorship significantly varied due to strain and in one strain varied due to antibiotic treatment. Fecundity varied in one strain due to microbial clearance by antibiotics but no variation was observed in fertility due to either treatment. We show here that fitness characteristics of Ae. aegypti vary largely between strains, including varying response to microflora presence or absence, but did not vary in response to dengue virus infection.

264) The effect of virus-blocking Wolbachia on male competitiveness of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Autor: Segoli, Michal; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Lloyd, Jane; Omodei, Gavin J.; Ritchie, Scott A.
Assunto: Human diseases; Males; Pest control; Reproductive behaviour; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Cages; Disease transmission; Public health; Mating; Dengue; Disease control; Vectors; Habitat; Competitiveness; Breeding success; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a tropical, potentially lethal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. A new control method involves the release of mosquitoes infected by the bacterium Wolbachia that blocks the transmission of the dengue virus to humans. However, possible negative effects of Wolbachia on mosquito reproductive success could substantially slow the spread of this bacterium in mosquito populations, reducing the feasibility of this method. We found that male mosquitoes infected by Wolbachia are equally successful in finding and mating with females within experimental tents and semi-field cages that mimic mosquito natural habitat. Moreover, larger, well-fed mosquitoes were more successful in semi-field cages, suggesting that Wolbachia mosquitoes that are reared in the lab, and are generally larger than wild mosquitoes, might have an advantage during the time they are being released in the field. Hence, in contrast to other control methods (e.g., the use of sterile males or genetically modified mosquitoes), the use of Wolbachia does not seem to compromise male performance, making it a candidate for disease control.

265) Geometric morphometrics of nine field isolates of Aedes aegypti with different resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and relative fitness of one artificially selected for resistance
Autor: Jaramillo-O, Nicolas; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodriguez, Duverney
Assunto: Aquaculture economics; Insecticides; Wings; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Control resistance; Public health; Fitness; Fecundity; Control programs; Founder effect; Survival; Reversion; Vectors; Infection; Evolution; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available.

266) Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20(th) Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Freire C.C.M., Iamarino A., Faye O., de Oliveira J.V.C., Diallo M., Zanotto P.M.A., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, molecular evolution, nucleotide sequence, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 36, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. © 2014 Faye et al.

267) Viruses and the Microbiota
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Robinson, Christopher M.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.
Assunto: Virus; Microbiota; Bacteria; Innate immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Annual Review of Virology, v. 1, p. 55-69, 2014
ISSN: 2327-056X
Resumo: Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of this community on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection by some viruses and promote infection by others. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or the virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which microbiota influence mammalian virus infections. Furthermore, we suggest strategies for future research on how microbiota impact viruses. Overall, microbiota may influence a wide array of viruses through diverse mechanisms, making the study of virus-microbiota interactions a fertile area for future investigation.

268) Emergence of chikungunya fever on the french side of Saint Martin island, October to December 2013.
Autor: Cassadou S,Boucau S,Petit-Sinturel M,Huc P,Leparc-Goffart I,Ledrans M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 19, n. 13, 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

269) Chikungunya emergency in China: microevolution and genetic analysis for a local outbreak
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lu, Xi; Li, Xiaobo; Mo, Ziyao; Jin, Faguang; Wang, Boliang; Huang, Junfeng; Huang, Jicheng; Zhao, Hongbo; Shi, Lei
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emergency; Sequencing; Genetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Phylogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 48, n. 1, p. 15-22, 2014
ISSN: 0920-8569
Resumo: A small-scale local chikungunya outbreak occurred in a Guangdong village of southern China in October 2010. The five chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) isolated from the epidemic and three other imported cases obtained from the same period were sequenced and analyzed for phylogenesis. The results demonstrated that all of the eight sequences were clustered in the Eastern, Central, Southern, and African group. However, the local strains and imported isolates showed different sequence variations. A226V in E1 gene and V264A in E2 gene were detected in all three imported isolates, the unique substitutions S250P in E1 gene and H313Y in E2 genes could be observed in four of the five local strains. These significant variations might be some of the causes for the outbreak. It would be an important event for CHIKV to have mutated adaption to the local mosquitoes in China, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.

270) Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Autor: Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Stephan, Celso; Lourenco, Roberto Wagner; Andrade, Valmir Roberto; Arduino, Marylene de Brito; de Lima, Virgilia Luna Castor
Assunto: Biological surveys; Prediction; Infestation; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Spatial distribution; Dengue; Control programs; Vectors; Eggs; Evolution; Models; Health risks; Sulfur dioxide; Risk factors; Seasonal variations; Geographical coordinates; Urban areas; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of Sao Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study. Dengue is a disease caused by a virus which has four serotypes DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4. In Americas, A. aegypti is acknowledged as the only dengue vector in America. Currently the only strategy to prevent dengue is controlling A. aegypti mosquitoes. The generalized additive model was used to understand the relationship of the indicators of the presence of eggs, larvae-pupae and adult stages of A. aegypti with the occurrence of dengue cases in a medium sized city of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Dengue incidence as well as the entomological indicators in all stages of the mosquito showed a seasonal behavior. The infestation level was not a limiting or a determinant factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. Risk maps of the disease, from the crude and adjusted by generalized additive models, showed no differences, suggesting that the entomological indicators did not influence the incidence of dengue in the city. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive model could reveal the modulating effect on the disease risk, not found in this study.

271) Field evaluation of natural human odours and the biogent-synthetic lure in trapping Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino, Eunice A.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Pirk, Christian; Mbogo, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Human odour; Mosquito , Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Methods currently used in sampling adult Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses are limited for effective surveillance of the vector and accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks and inter - epidemic periods. Here, we document the use of natural human skin odours in baited traps to improve sampling of adult Ae. aegypti in two different endemic areas of chikungunya and dengue in Kenya - Kilifi and Busia Counties. The chemistry of the volatiles released from human odours and the Biogent (BG)-commercial lure were also compared. Methods: Cotton socks and T-shirts were used to obtain natural human skin volatiles from the feet and trunk of three volunteers (volunteers 1 and 2 in Kilifi and volunteers 2 and 3 in Busia). Using Latin square design, we compared the efficacies of BG sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus (a) no bait, (b) human feet volatiles, (c) human trunk volatiles each against (c) a control (Biogent commercial lure) at the two sites. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and compare candidate attractants released by the commercial lure and human odours. Results: Ae. aegypti captured in the trap baited with feet odours from volunteer 2 and trunk odours from the same volunteer were significantly higher than in the control trap in Busia and Kilifi respectively, [IRR = 5.63, 95% CI: 1.15 - 28.30, p = 0.030] and [IRR = 3.99, 95% CI: 0.95-16.69, p = 0.049]. At both sites, Ae. aegypti captures in traps baited with either the feet or trunk odours from volunteers 1 and 3 were not significantly different from the control. Major qualitative differences were observed between the chemical profiles of human odours and the commercial BG-lure. Aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones dominated human odour profiles, whereas the BG-lure released mainly hexanoic acid. Conclusions: Our results suggest that additional candidate attractants are present in human skin volatiles which can help to improve the efficacy of lures for trapping and surveillance of Ae. aegypti.

272) Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico
Autor: Alto, Barry W.; Smartt, Chelsea T.; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L.; Richards, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Viruses; Commerce; Pest control; Hosts; Vulnerability; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 39, n. 2, p. 406-413, 2014.
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, similar to 28%; Ae. albopictus, similar to 9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission.

273) Heterogeneous feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, on individual human hosts in rural Thailand
Autor: Harrington, Laura C.; Fleisher, Andrew; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wa, Chrystal V.; Poulson, Rebecca L; Edman, John D.; Clark, John M.; Jones, James W.; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Hot spots; Viruses; Disease control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Age; Vectors; Infection; Children; Models; Blood; Dengue; DNA; Vaccines; Feeding behavior; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue, a potentially lethal infection impacting hundreds of millions of human lives annually, is caused by viruses transmitted during mosquito blood feeding. With no vaccine or treatment commercially available, understanding the underlying factors linked to virus exposure is critical for developing more effective dengue interventions. We conducted a study in an endemic region of Thailand where transmission is high and children are expected to be the non-immune, amplifying portion of the host population. We examined Ae. aegypti feeding patterns and risk by matching human DNA profiles in blood-fed mosquitoes to study area residents. A small number of meals matched people from the study area, suggesting that mosquitoes feed on people moving transiently through communities. People under 25 years of age were bitten less frequently than older people. We constructed network models to explore the presence of mosquito feeding "hotspots" and detected a local market "hotspot" in one study village during the high dengue transmission season. Our results provide new details on dengue vector feeding patterns and highlight the need to conduct integrated studies of vector feeding and human behavior, and virus transmission patterns in order to better understand the dengue transmission efficiency and spread.

274) 139 Dengue vector control: critical needs and opportunities for helping to control the dengue pandemic
Autor: Beaty, Barry
Assunto: Dengue fever; Disease control; Pandemics; Mosquitoes; Disease prevention; Vaccines; Drug resistance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - transmission ; Aedes aegypti - vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, v. 65, p. 58, 2014.
ISSN: 1525-4135
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquito control is currently the only option for controlling and preventing epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, current approaches for vector control are not stemming the rising tide of dengue disease throughout the tropical world. In the absence of a vaccine, new and effective approaches are needed to improve vector control. Novel approaches to prevent dengue virus transmission will be described and discussed, including (1) the Casa Segura approach to prevent dengue transmission in the home, (2) development of a new generation of molecular mosquitocides to address the rise of resistance to existing insecticides, and (3) engineering dengue virus resistant mosquitoes. There is a public health imperative to increase the armamentarium for vector control. [PUBLICATIONABSTRACT]

275) Insecticidal Activity and Expression of Cytochrome P450 Family 4 Genes in Aedes albopictus After Exposure to Pyrethroid Mosquito Coils
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Avicor, Silas W.; Wajidi, Mustafa F. F.; El-garj, Fatma M. A.; Jaal, Zairi; Yahaya, Zary S.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Cytochrome P450; Expression; Mosquito coil; Pyrethroid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Protein Journal, v. 33, n. 5, p. 457-464, 2014
ISSN: 1572-3887
Resumo: Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % d-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (a parts per thousand yen90 %) compared to the 0.2 % d-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % d-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.

276) Aedes aegypti saliva contains a prominent 34-kDa protein that strongly enhances dengue virus replication in human keratinocytes
Autor: Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Hamel, Rodolphe; Patramool, Sirilaksana; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Denizot, Melanie; Delaunay, Pascal; Thomas, Frederic; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Yssel, Hans; Misse, Dorothee
Assunto: Replication; Proteins; Public health; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, v. 134, n. 1, p. 281-284, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-202X
Resumo:

277) Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Ecological distribution; Surveillance and enforcement; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Data processing; Spatial distribution; Abundance; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: We carried out a comprehensive study of the long-term trends in household-level Aedes aegypti spatial distribution within a well-defined urban area endemic for dengue virus. By using a dataset consisting of 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two neighborhoods in Iquitos, Peru, we quantified the similar to 3 year spatial clustering patterns of Ae. aegypti among houses and the temporal persistence of vector abundance hotspots. Our results provide strong support for the conclusion that Ae. aegypti distribution is highly focal and that hotspots of high vector abundance at the level of small groups of houses are common, but temporally unstable. Results from our study have implications for understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of Ae. aegypti abundance and for the design of surveillance and control activities that are based on household-level entomological data.

278) Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Nhan T., Robin E., Roche C., Bierlaire D., Zisou K., Shan Yan A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Broult J.
Assunto: blood transfusion, Flavivirus, nucleotide sequence, virus transmission, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 14, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: Since October 2013, French Polynesia has experienced the largest documented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. To prevent transmission of ZIKAV by blood transfusion, specific nucleic acid testing of blood donors was implemented. From November 2013 to February 2014: 42 (3%) of 1,505 blood donors, although asymptomatic at the time of blood donation, were found positive for ZIKAV by PCR. Our results serve to alert blood safety authorities about the risk of post-transfusion Zika fever.© 2007-2013. All rights reserved.

279) High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Indian-Ocean; Concurrent Isolation; High Susceptibility; Florida Mosquitos; United-States; Infection; Fever; Outbreak; Coinfection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 11, p. 6294-6306, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_ 115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever.

280) Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia
Autor: Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Community composition; Pest control; Public health; Dengue virus; Aedes; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science, v. 14, n. 69, p. 1-7, 2014.
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.

281) CPB1 of Aedes aegypti interacts with DENV2 e protein and regulates intracellular viral accumulation and release from midgut cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Carboxypeptidase; Yeast two - Hybrid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses-Basel, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5028-5046, 2014
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network.

282) Encephalitis caused by chikungunya virus in a traveler from the Kingdom of Tonga.
Autor: Nelson Joanna,Waggoner Jesse J,Sahoo Malaya K,Grant Philip M,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 52, n. 9, p. 3459-3461, 2014
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Febrile travelers from countries with unique endemic pathogens pose a significant diagnostic challenge. In this report, we describe the case of a Tongan man presenting with fever, rash, and altered mental status. The diagnosis of Chikungunya encephalitis was made using a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR and serologic testing.

283) Chromobacterium Csp_P reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Anopheles - Gambiae; Midgut Bacteria; Cyanide; Microbiota; Violaceum; Competence; Culicidae; Efficacy; Culture; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P-produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

284) Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K.
Assunto: Parasites , Binding sites , Crystal structure , Proteins , Ligands , Hydrogen bonds , Malaria , Erythrocytes , Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Nature, v. 515, n. 7527, p. 427-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents1. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions2. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN)3,4. Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro4-9, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite.

285) Identification of life-stage and tissue-specific splice variants of an inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channel in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rouhier, Matthew F.; Piermarini, Peter M.
Assunto: Alternative Splicing; Molecular Cloning; Anopheles Gambiae; Drosophila Melanogaster
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 48, p. 91-99, 2014
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play key roles in nerve, muscle, and epithelial cells in mammals, but their physiological roles in insects remain to be determined. The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) possesses five different genes encoding Kir channel subunits: Kir1, Kir2A, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We have recently cloned and characterized the Kir1, Kir2B, and Kir3 cDNAs in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of adult female Ae. aegypti. Here we characterize the expression of the Kir2A gene in Ae. aegypti, which was not abundantly expressed in Malpighian tubules. We find that the 1) Kir2A gene is expressed primarily in the midgut and hindgut of adult female mosquitoes, and 2) Kir2A mRNAs are alternatively spliced into three distinct variants (Kir2A-a, -b, and -c). The deduced Kir2A proteins from these splice forms share a completely conserved transmembrane domain (a pore-forming domain flanked by two transmembrane-spanning segments), but possess novel NH2-terminal and/or COOH-terminal domains. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicate that the splice variants exhibit both developmental- and tissue-specific expression. Lastly, we provide insights into the conservation of alternative splicing among the Kir2A genes of dipterans, which may add molecular diversity that compensates for the relatively limited number of Kir channel genes in insects compared to mammals. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

286) Aedes aegypti salivary protein "aegyptin" co-inoculation modulates dengue virus infection in the vertebrate host
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Grasperge, B. J.; Calvo, E.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: Aegyptin; Allergen; Dengue; Mosquito; Mouse; Saliva; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 468-470, p. 133-139, 2014
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted in the saliva of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti during blood meal acquisition. This saliva is composed of numerous proteins with the capacity to disrupt hemostasis or modulate the vertebrate immune response. One such protein, termed "aegyptin," is an allergen and inhibitor of clot formation, and has been found in decreased abundance in the saliva of DENV-infected mosquitoes. To examine the influence of aegyptin on DENV infection of the vertebrate, we inoculated IRF-3/7(-/- -/-) mice with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 with and without co-inoculation of aegyptin. Mice that received aegyptin exhibited decreased DENV titers in inoculation sites and in circulation, as well as increased concentrations of GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-5, and IL-6, at 48 h post-inoculation when compared to mice that received inoculation of DENV alone. These and other data suggest that aegyptin impacts DENV perpetuation via elevated induction of the immune response. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

287) Cloning and characterization of a mannose binding C-type lectin gene from salivary gland of Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cheng, Jinzhi; Wang, Yu; Li, Fangzhan; Liu, Jian; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jiahong
Assunto: C-type lectin; Salivary gland; Ae. albopictus; Prokaryotic expression; Agglutinating activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 337, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The studies on sialomes have shown that hematophagous mosquito saliva consists of a lot of pharmacologically active proteins, in which C-type lectins have been identified and regarded as an important component of saliva. The previous studies showed that C-type lectins play crucial roles not only in innate immunity but also in promoting disease transmission in mammals. However, the function and mechanism of C-type lectins from the mosquito sialome is still elusive.Methods: A putative C-type lectin gene (Aalb_CTL1) was cloned and expressed from Aedes albopictus by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence was analyzed by bioinformatic methods. The gene expression profiles in different tissues and various blood-fed stages of Ae. albopictus were examined by Real-Time qRT-PCR and the biological functions of the recombined mature Aalb_CTL1 were tested by hemagglutination and sugar inhibitory agglutination assays. Moreover, the capabilities of rAalb_CTL1 against microorganisms were measured by microbial-agglutination assay.Results: The full-length Open reading frame (ORF) of Aalb_CTL1 consisted of 462 bp, encoding 153 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids. It also contained a CRD domain with a WND (Trp(137)-Asn(138)-Asp-(139)) motif that needed calcium for the hemagglutinating activity and an imperfect EPS (Glu(128)-Pro(129)-Ser(130)) motif that had a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. The mRNA level of Aalb_CTL1 was much higher in female mosquito salivary gland than those in fat body and midgut which was down-regulated in salivary gland after blood feeding. The rAalb_CTL1 contained not only hemagglutinating activity and a high affinity with mannose but also agglutinating activity against yeast C. albicans and Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus in Ca2+ dependent manner.Conclusion: Aalb_CTL1 was a mannose-binding C-type lectin and constituted one of the important components in saliva of Ae. albopictus, which could be involved in the defense against yeast and Gram-positive bacteria infection.

288) Stress responses in flavivirus-infected cells: Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Blázquez A.-B., Escribano-Romero E., Merino-Ramos T., Saiz J.-C., Martín-Acebes M.A.
Assunto: autophagy, cellular stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Flavivirus infection, unfolded protein response
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 5, jun. 2014
ISSN: 1664-302X (electronic)
Resumo: The Flavivirus is a genus of RNA viruses that includes multiple long known human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens such as Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, or Japanese encephalitis virus, as well as other less known viruses that represent potential threats for human and animal health such as Usutu or Zika viruses. Flavivirus replication is based on endoplasmic reticulum-derived structures. Membrane remodeling and accumulation of viral factors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that results in activation of a cellular signaling response termed unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be modulated by the viruses for their own benefit. Concomitant with the activation of the UPR, an upregulation of the autophagic pathway in cells infected with different flaviviruses has also been described. This review addresses the current knowledge of the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, UPR, and autophagy in flavivirus-infected cells and the growing evidences for an involvement of these cellular pathways in the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses. © 2014 Blázquez, Escribano-Romero, Merino-Ramos, Saiz and Martín-Acebes.

289) Application of quantitative PCR for quantization Of densovirus genome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; qPCR; Quantization; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 45, n. 1, p. 47-52, 2014
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Densovirus is classified as invertebrate virus belonging to the subfamily Densovirinae of Parvoviridae family. This group of viruses infects only insects and several densoviruses have been isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. A number of mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of viruses, which are the major causes of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. As densoviruses do not cause any pathology in humans, these viruses have been proposed to be a potential vector for use in biological control of mosquitoes and insects. We report the application of quantitative (q)PCR to determine the amount of densovirus genome in mosquito cell culture supernatant and mosquito. This method is simple, rapid and has a wide dynamic range, and therefore is likely to be useful and applicable in the determination of viral load of other viruses in a variety of biological specimens.

290) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diallo D., Sall A.A., Diagne C.T., Faye O., Faye O., Ba Y., Hanley K.A., Buenemann M., Weaver S.C., Diallo M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, oct. 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti , Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance: This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

291) Fitness impact and stability of a transgene conferring resistance to dengue-2 virus following introgression into a genetically diverse Aedes aegypti strain
Autor: Franz, Alexander W. E.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Raban, Robyn R.; Black, William C.; James, Anthony A.; Olson, Ken E.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Fitness; Epithelial cells; Serotypes; Double-stranded RNA; Transgenes; Cell culture; Genotypes; Disease resistance; Infection; Homozygotes; Expression vectors; Integration; RNA; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In 2006, we reported a mariner (Mos1)-transformed Aedes aegypti line, Carb77, which was highly resistant to dengue-2 virus (DENV2). Carb77 mosquitoes expressed a DENV2-specific inverted-repeat (IR) RNA in midgut epithelial cells after ingesting an infectious bloodmeal. The IR-RNA formed double-stranded DENV2-derived RNA, initiating an intracellular antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response. However, Carb77 mosquitoes stopped expressing the IR-RNA after 17 generations in culture and lost their DENV2-refractory phenotype. In the current study, we generated new transgenic lines having the identical transgene as Carb77. One of these lines, Carb109M, has been genetically stable and refractory to DENV2 for >33 generations. Southern blot analysis identified two transgene integration sites in Carb109M. Northern blot analysis detected abundant, transient expression of the IR-RNA 24 h after a bloodmeal. Carb109M mosquitoes were refractory to different DENV2 genotypes but not to other DENV serotypes. To further test fitness and stability, we introgressed the Carb109M transgene into a genetically diverse laboratory strain (GDLS) by backcrossing for five generations and selecting individuals expressing the transgene's EGFP marker in each generation. Comparison of transgene stability in replicate backcross 5 (BC5) lines versus BC1 control lines demonstrated that backcrossing dramatically increased transgene stability. We subjected six BC5 lines to five generations of selection based on EGFP marker expression to increase the frequency of the transgene prior to final family selection. Comparison of the observed transgene frequencies in the six replicate lines relative to expectations from Fisher's selection model demonstrated lingering fitness costs associated with either the transgene or linked deleterious genes. Although minimal fitness loss (relative to GDLS) was manifest in the final family selection stage, we were able to select homozygotes for the transgene in one family, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ. This family has been genetically stable and DENV2 refractory for multiple generations. Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ represents an important line for testing proof-of-principle vector population replacement. Expression of a DENV2 sequence-derived IR RNA in the mosquito midgut initiates an antiviral intracellular RNAi response that efficiently blocks DENV2 infection and profoundly impairs vector competence for that virus in Aedes aegypti. DENV2-specific IR RNA expression in the Carb109M strain has maintained the RNAi-based, refractory phenotype for 33 generations in laboratory culture. The two transgene integration sites were stable after multiple generations and following introgression into a genetically-diverse (GDLS) Ae. aegypti population. Introgression of the transgene into the GDLS genetic background changed GDLS from a DENV2 susceptible phenotype to a DENV2 refractory phenotype. The DENV2 refractory homozygous line, Carb109M/GDLS.BC5.HZ, exhibits (relative to GDLS) minimal fitness loss associated with the transgene. This line could be a potential candidate for proof-of-principle field studies.

292) Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grard G., Caron M., Mombo I.M., Nkoghe D., Mboui Ondo S., Jiolle D., Fontenille D., Paupy C., Leroy E.M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus, Flavivirus, zika flavivirus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, feb. 2014
ISSN: 1935-2727,1935-2735 (electronic)
Resumo: Background:Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Methodology/Principal Findings:Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.Conclusions/Significance:We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe. © 2014 Grard et al.

293) Chikungunya virus was isolated in Thailand, 2010
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sasayama, Mikiko; Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kawashita, Norihito; Rukmanee, Prasert; Sangmukdanun, Suntaree; Masrinoul, Promsin; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Puiprom, Orapim; Wuthisen, Pitak; Kurosu, Takeshi; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Maneekan, Pannamas; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Thailand; Virus replication; Genetic variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 49, n. 3, p. 485-489, 2014
ISSN: 0920-8569
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an acute febrile illness caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This disease re-emerged in Kenya in 2004, and spread to the countries in and around the Indian Ocean. The re-emerging epidemics rapidly spread to regions like India and Southeast Asia, and it was subsequently identified in Europe in 2007, probably as a result of importation of chikungunya cases. On the one hand, chikungunya is one of the neglected diseases and has only attracted strong attention during large outbreaks. In 2008-2009, there was a major outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand, resulting in the highest number of infections in any country in the region. However, no update of CHIKV circulating in Thailand has been published since 2009. In this study, we examined the viral growth kinetics and sequences of the structural genes derived from CHIKV clinical isolates obtained from the serum specimens of CHIKF-suspected patients in Central Thailand in 2010. We identified the CHIKV harboring two mutations E1-A226V and E2-I211T, indicating that the East, Central, and South African lineage of CHIKV was continuously circulating as an indigenous population in Thailand.

294) Analysis of early dengue virus infection in mice as modulated by Aedes aegypti probing
Autor: McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.; Mores, C. N.
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Salivary - Gland extracts; Host immune - Response; Gene - Expression; Dendritic cells; Mosquito bite; Nonvascular delivery; Housekeeping genes; RNA virus; Interferon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 4, p. 1881-1889, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-gamma, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection.

295) Blood feeding and plasmodium infection alters the miRNome of anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jain, Shanu; Rana, Vandita; Shrinet, Jatin; Sharma, Anil; Tridibes, Adak; Sunil, Sujatha; Bhatnagar, Raj K.
Assunto: RNA - Interference; Gene - Expression; C-Elegans; Nuclear export; Aedes aegypti; Web server; Microrna; Drosophila; Mosquito; Gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 5, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Blood feeding is an integral process required for physiological functions and propagation of the malaria vector Anopheles. During blood feeding, presence of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium in the blood induces several host effector molecules including microRNAs which play important roles in the development and maturation of the parasite within the mosquito. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the dynamic expression of miRNAs during gonotrophic cycle and parasite development in Anopheles stephensi. Using next generation sequencing technology, we identified 126 miRNAs of which 17 were novel miRNAs. The miRNAs were further validated by northern hybridization and cloning. Blood feeding and parasitized blood feeding in the mosquitoes revealed regulation of 13 and 16 miRNAs respectively. Expression profiling of these miRNAs revealed that significant miRNAs were down-regulated upon parasitized blood feeding with a repertoire of miRNAs showing stage specific up-regulation. Expression profiles of significantly modulated miRNAs were further validated by real time PCR. Target prediction of regulated miRNAs revealed overlapping targeting by different miRNAs. These targets included several metabolic pathways including metabolic, redox homeostasis and protein processing machinery components. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of specific miRNAs post blood feeding and parasite infection in An. stephensi. Such regulated expression suggests possible role of these miRNAs during gonotrophic cycle in mosquito. Another set of miRNAs were also significantly regulated at 42 h and 5 days post infection indicating parasite stage-specific role of host miRNAs. This study will result in better understanding of the role of miRNAs during gonotrophic cycle and parasite development in mosquito and can probably facilitate in devising novel malaria control strategies at vector level.

296) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio CM; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo MA; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Biological surveys; Recombination; Epidemics; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Evolution; Public health; Disease transmission; Phylogeny; Molecular evolution; Vectors; Forests; Glycosylation; Infection; Fever; Genetic relationship; Exanthema; Epidemiology; Envelope protein; Hemorrhagic fever; Aedes; Zika virus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Proteins ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. Zika fever is a mosquito-borne illness caused by a flavivirus. Human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) could cause fever, malaise and cutaneous rash. Despite several ZIKV reports since 1947 when it was first isolated at Zika forest in Uganda, molecular evolution of ZIKV as an emerging agent remains poorly understood. Moreover, despite several ZIKV reports from Africa and Asia, few human cases were notified until 2007 when an epidemic took place in Micronesia. In West Africa, surveillance programs have reported periodic circulation of the virus since 1968. To help fill the gap in understanding ZIKV evolution, 43 ZIKV samples were analyzed. We focused on: (i) adaptive genetic changes including protein glycosylation patterns, (ii) phylogenetic relationship among isolates and their spatiotemporal patterns of spread across Africa and Asia and, (iii) dispersion among vertebrate reservoirs and invertebrate vector species. Our results indicated that ZIKV may have experienced recombination in nature and that, after it emerged from Uganda in the early of the 20th century, it moved to West Africa and Asia in the first half of the century, without any clear preference for host and vector species.

297) miR-252 of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus Regulates Dengue Virus Replication by Suppressing the Expression of the Dengue Virus Envelope Protein
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yan, Hui; Zhou, Yanhe; Liu, Yanxia; Deng, Yuhua; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Chen, Xiaoguang
Assunto: Mir-252; Envelop Protein; Dengue Virus; C6/36 Cells; Aedes Albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 86, n. 8, p. 1428-1436, 2014
ISSN: 0146-6615
Resumo: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue in mainland China. Dengue epidemics have spread from the southern coastal regions to the relatively northern and western regions since 1990s. Dengue has become an emerging public health problem in the southern coastal regions. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A highly abundant miRNA, miR-252, was induced more than threefold after dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in the Ae. albopictus C6/36 cell line. Transfection with miR-252 inhibitor resulted in the increase of DENV-2 RNA copies and the up-regulation of DENV-2 envelop protein (E protein) expression, whereas over expression of miR-252 with its mimic decreased DENV RNA copies and the down-regulation of E protein expression. MiR-252 mimic reduced luciferase activity of a luciferase reporter that contained the predicted miR-252 target on the DENV-2 envelope gene Sequence. The present results indicated that the miR-252 of Ae. albopictus could regulate the gene expression of DENV-2 E protein and may act as a cellular antiviral regulator in Ae. albopictus. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

298) Angola's 2013 dengue outbreak: clinical, laboratory and molecular analyses of cases from four Portuguese institutions
Autor: Parreira, Ricardo; Conceicao, Cludia; Centeno-Lima, Sonia; Marques, Nuno; da Cunha, Jose Saraiva; Abreu, Candida; Sa, Laura; Sarmento, Antonio; Atouguia, Jorge; Moneti, Virginia; Azevedo, Telma; Nina, Jaime; Mansinho, Kamal; Antunes, Abilio; Teodosio, Rosa; Nazareth, Teresa; Seixas, Jorge
Assunto: Dengue virus; Imported viral diseases; Laboratory surveillance; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 8, n. 9, p. 1210-1215, 2014
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the arbovirus with the widest impact on human health. In Africa in general, and in Angola in particular, the epidemiology and public health impact of DENV is far from clear. However, rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, increased international travel, and the presence of virus major vector (Aedes aegypti) in the country suggest that DENV transmission may occur. In parallel to the occurrence of a dengue outbreak affecting the capital of Angola, between March and July 2013 four Portuguese institutions diagnosed dengue infection in 146 individuals returning to Portugal. Clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and molecular analyses of partial viral genomic segments were performed.Results: The mean age of the individuals included in this study was 42 years old, the majority being men of Portuguese nationality, reporting various lengths of stay in Angola. Fever was the most reported clinical sign, being frequently associated (61.0%) with myalgia and headache. Hematological values, including hematocrit, white-blood cell and platelets counts, correlated with the absence of severe or complicated cases, or coagulation disorders. No deaths were observed. Viral NS1 was detected in 56.2% of the samples, and all NS1 negative cases had anti-dengue IgM antibodies. RT-PCR indicated the presence of DENV1, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of 25 partial NS5 viral sequences. The DENV cases analyzed conformed to classical and uncomplicated dengue, caused by the suggested exclusive circulation of a genetically homogeneous DENV1 of genotype III, apparently with a single origin

299) Construction and preliminary investigation of a novel dengue serotype 4 chimeric virus using Japanese encephalitis vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Li, Zhushi; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Li; Zeng, Xianwu; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua
Assunto: Dengue virus (DENV); Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV); Chimeric virus; Neurotropism; Neurovirulence; Immunogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Neurovirulence ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virus Research, v. 191, p. 10-20, 2014
ISSN: 0168-1702
Resumo: For the purpose of developing a novel dengue vaccine candidate, recombinant plasmids were constructed which contained the full length cDNA clone of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 with its premembrane (PreM) and envelope (E) genes replaced by the counterparts of dengue virus type 4 (DENV4). By transfecting the in vitro transcription products of the recombinant plasmids into BHK-21 cells, a chimeric virus JEV/DENV4 was successfully recovered. The chimeric virus was identified by complete genome sequencing, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Growth characteristics revealed it was well adapted to primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells. Its genetic stability was investigated and only one unintentional mutation in 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was found after 20 passages in PHK cells. Neurotropism, neurovirulence and immunogenicity of the chimeric virus were tested in mice. Besides, the influence of JE vaccine pre-immunization on the neutralizing antibody level induced by the chimeric virus was illuminated. To our knowledge, this is the first chimeric virus incorporating the JE vaccine stain SA14-14-2 and DENV4. It is probably a potential candidate to compose a tetravalent dengue chimeric vaccine. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

300) Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia
Autor: Rohani, A.; Azahary, A. R. Aidil; Malinda, M.; Zurainee, M. N.; Rozilawati, H.; Najdah, W. M. A. Wan; Lee, H. L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Dengue; Larval surveillance; Virus infection rate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 51, n. 4, p. 327-332, 2014
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type), canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%). Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ac. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ac. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3%) pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ac. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ac. aegypti and Ac. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors

301) Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.
Assunto: Innate Immunity; Biting Midge; Toll; Imd; JAK/STAT; Rnaseq; Attacin; Cecropin; Defensin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - qRTPCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 388, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their biology on a molecular-genetic level, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved with important processes such as gut microbial homeostasis and vector competence, our aims were to identify components of the midge innate immune system and examine their expression profiles in response to diet across time.Methods: In our previous work, we de novo Sequenced and analyzed the transcriptional landscape of female midges under several feeding states including teneral (unfed) and early and late time points after blood and sucrose. Here, those transcriptomes were further analyzed to identify insect innate immune orthologs, particularly humoral immune response elements. Additionally, we examined immune gene expression profiles in response to diet over time, on both a transcriptome-wide, whole-midge level and more specifically via qRTPCR analysis of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression in the alimentary canal.Results: We identified functional units comprising the immune deficiency (Imd), Toll and JAK/STAT pathways, including humoral factors, transmembrane receptors, signaling components, transcription factors/regulators and effectors such as AMPs. Feeding altered the expression of receptors, regulators, AMPs, prophenoloxidase and thioester-containing proteins, where blood had a greater effect than sucrose on the expression profiles of most innate immune components. qRTPCR of AMP genes showed that all five were significantly upregulated in the alimentary canal after blood feeding, possibly in response to proliferating populations of gut bacteria.Conclusions: Identification and functional insight of humoral/innate immune components in female C. sonorensis updates our knowledge of the molecular biology of this important vector. Because diet alone influenced the expression of immune pathway components, including their effectors, subsequent study of the role of innate immunity in biological processes such as gut homeostasis and life history are being pursued. Furthermore, since the humoral response is a key contributor in gut immunity, manipulating immune gene expression will help in uncovering genetic components of vector competence, including midgut barriers to infection. The results of such studies will serve as a platform for designing novel transmission-blocking strategies.

302) Imported zika virus infection from the Cook Islands into Australia, 2014.
Autor: Pyke Alyssa T,Daly Michelle T,Cameron Jane N,Moore Peter R,Taylor Carmel T,Hewitson Glen R,Humphreys Jan L,Gair Richard
Assunto: Arbovirus, Infectious disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Currents, v. 6, 2014
ISSN: 2157-3999
Resumo: A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

303) Lineage II of southeast Asian/American DENV-2 is associated with a severe dengue outbreak in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Williams, Maya; Mayer, Sandra V; Johnson, William L; Chen, Rubing; Volkova, Evgeniya; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Long, Kanya C; Hanley, Kathryn A; Morrison, Amy C; Vasilakis, Nikos; Halsey, Eric S
Assunto: Replication; Nucleotide sequence; Viruses; Genotypes; Strains; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Dendritic cells; Amino acid substitution; Dengue; Monocytes; Positive selection; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 611-620, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: During 2010 and 2011, the Loreto region of Peru experienced a dengue outbreak of unprecedented magnitude and severity for the region. This outbreak coincided with the reappearance of dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) in Loreto after almost 8 years. Whole-genome sequence indicated that DENV-2 from the outbreak belonged to lineage II of the southeast Asian/American genotype and was most closely related to viruses circulating in Brazil during 2007 and 2008, whereas DENV-2 previously circulating in Loreto grouped with lineage I (DENV-2 strains circulating in South America since 1990). One amino acid substitution (NS5 A811V) in the 2010 and 2011 isolates resulted from positive selection. However, the 2010 and 2011 DENV-2 did not replicate to higher titers in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and did not infect or disseminate in a higher proportion of Aedes aegypti than DENV-2 isolates previously circulating in Loreto. These results suggest that factors other than enhanced viral replication played a role in the severity of this outbreak.

304) Zika virus infections
Titulo Alternativo: Les infections à virus Zika
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Arboviruses; Diagnosis; Emergence; French Polynesia; Outbreak; Zika; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, v. 2014, n. 467, p. 45-52, 2014.
ISSN: 1773-035X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV is an arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus) belonging to the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, especially Aedes species. Sporadic human cases were reported from the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. In 2007, Yap Island (Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) reported the first large ZIKV outbreak. From October 2013 to March 2014, French Polynesia (FP), Pacific, experienced the largest ZIKV outbreak ever reported with an estimate of 28.000 cases (11percent of the population). Before the FP outbreak, Zika fever was reported as a self-limited disease, no severe form nor hospitalization have been reported. During this outbreak, the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndromes was 20 fold higher than expected and this neurological complication was probably linked with ZIKV infections. During this outbreak, perinatal and possible transfusion-related ZIKV transmissions have been described. Acute phase diagnosis relies on molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR). Serodiagnosis is limited by the high degree of cross reactions with other flaviviruses, especially in the case of secondary-flaviviruses infections. To date, there is no available commercial test and diagnosis is limited to reference laboratories. Zika fever should be suspected from patients presenting with a "dengue like syndrome", returning or living in a ZIKV endemic area and tested negative for the other predominant arboviruses, especially dengue.

305) Identification and expression profile analysis of putative odorant-binding proteins in Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gong, Zhong-Jun; Miao, Jin; Duan, Yun; Jiang, Yue-Li; Li, Tong; Wu, Yu-Qing
Assunto: Sitodiplosis mosellana; Odorant binding protein; Real-time PCR; Transcriptome; Expression profile
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 444, n. 2, p. 164-170, 2014
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) contribute to the remarkable sensitivity of the insect's olfactory system and play important roles in the olfactory recognition. The orange blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana is a cereal specialist, and utilizes pheromone and host odorant as a cue for its mating and oviposition. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in S. mosellana. Based on the Sequenced transcriptome database, twenty-six OBP genes were identified in S. mosellana for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. mosellana OBP genes are more closely related to Mayetiola destructor OBP genes than to Aedes aegypti OBP genes. Most OBP genes seemed to be antenna-specific, but differentially expressed in male and female antennae. Three OBP genes (OBP9, OBP19 and 0BP23) are leg-specific. And also, most OBP genes have higher expression levels in adults. Only one OBP gene (OBP10) has higher expression levels in larval stages. These findings serve as an important basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensory perception. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

306) Application of quantitative PCR for quantization of densovirus genome
Autor: Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; qPCR; Quantization; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 1, p. 47-52, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Densovirus is classified as invertebrate virus belonging to the subfamily Densovirinae of Parvoviridae family. This group of viruses infects only insects and several densoviruses have been isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. A number of mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are important vectors of viruses, which are the major causes of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. As densoviruses do not cause any pathology in humans, these viruses have been proposed to be a potential vector for use in biological control of mosquitoes and insects. We report the application of quantitative (q)PCR to determine the amount of densovirus genome in mosquito cell culture supernatant and mosquito. This method is simple, rapid and has a wide dynamic range, and therefore is likely to be useful and applicable in the determination of viral load of other viruses in a variety of biological specimens.

307) Preliminary evaluation on the efficiency of the kit Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag-ELISA to detect dengue virus in dried Aedes aegypti: a potential tool to improve dengue surveillance
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; de Araujo, Joselio M. G.; Kubelka, Claire F.; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Surveillance; NS1; ELISA; RNA; PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Surveillance is a critical component of any dengue prevention and control programme. Herein, we investigate the efficiency of the commercial kit Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag-ELISA to detect dengue virus (DENV) antigens in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected under laboratory conditions. Under insectary conditions, four to five day-old mosquitoes were orally challenged with DENV-2 titer of 3.6 x 10(5) PFU equivalent/ml, incubated for 14 days and then killed. At ten time-points following mosquito death (0, 6, 12, 24, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h), i.e., during a one-week period, dried mosquitoes were comparatively tested for the detection of the NS1 antigen with other methods of detection, such as qRT-PCR and virus isolation in C6/36 cells. We first observed that the NS1 antigen was more effective in detecting DENV-2 in Ae. aegypti between 12 and 72 h after mosquito death when compared with qRT-PCR. A second round involved comparing the sensitivity of detection of the NS1 antigen and virus isolation in C6/36 cells. The NS1 antigen was also more effective than virus isolation, detecting DENV-2 at all time-points, i.e., up to 168 h after mosquito death. Meanwhile, virus isolation was successful up to 96 h after Ae. aegypti death, but the number of positive samples per time period presented a tendency to decline progressively over time. From the 43 samples positive by the virus isolation technique, 38 (88.4%) were also positive by the NS1 test. Taken together, these results are the first to indicate that the NS1 antigen might be an interesting complementary tool to improve dengue surveillance through DENV detection in dried Ae. aegypti females.

308) Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-terminal domain
Autor: Carter, James R.; Keith, James H.; Fraser, Tresa S.; Dawson, James L.; Kucharski, Cheryl A.; Horne, Kate M.; Higgs, Stephen; Fraser, Malcolm J., Jr.
Assunto: Dengue; Trans - Splicing; Group I intron; Ribozyme; Mosquito; Antiviral; Suppression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. 111, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of Delta N Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells. Targeting the conserved DENV circularization sequence (CS) by U143 intron trans-splicing activity appends a 3' exon RNA encoding Delta N Bax to the capsid coding region of the genomic RNA, resulting in a chimeric protein that induces premature cell death upon infection. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate an enhancement of DENV suppression for all DENV serotypes tested over the identical group I intron coupled with the non-apoptotic inducing firefly luciferase as the 3' exon. These cumulative results confirm the increased effectiveness of this aDENV-U143-Delta N Bax group I intron as a sequence specific antiviral that should be useful for suppression of DENV in transgenic mosquitoes. Annexin V staining, caspase 3 assays, and DNA ladder observations confirm DCA-Delta N Bax fusion protein expression induces apoptotic cell death. This report confirms the relative effectiveness of an anti-DENV group I intron coupled to an apoptosis-inducing Delta N Bax 3' exon that trans-splices conserved sequences of the 5' CS region of all DENV serotypes and induces apoptotic cell death upon infection. Our results confirm coupling the targeted ribozyme capabilities of the group I intron with the generation of an apoptosis-inducing transcript increases the effectiveness of infection suppression, improving the prospects of this unique approach as a means of inducing transgenic refractoriness in mosquitoes for all serotypes of this important disease

309) Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pijlman, Gorben P.
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Aedes-Aegypti Mosquitos; Double-Stranded-Rna; Arbovirus Infection; Antiviral Immunity;Albopictus Cells; Subgenomic Rna; Messenger-Rna; Nss Protein; Interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 7, p. 55-60, 2014
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi.

310) Application of post-PCR methods for analysis of mosquito densovirus
Autor: Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-nga
Assunto: Densovirus; Mosquito; Post-PCR technique; RFLP; SSCP
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health, v. 45, n. 4, p. 801-807, 2014.
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: Two clades of Aedes densovirus, Aedes aegypti densovirus and Aedes albopictus densovirus, were classified according to the origin of isolation. These two densoviruses were isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines, respectively. This group of invertebrate viruses belongs to the subfamily Densovirinae of the Parvoviridae family and infects only insects. Several types of densoviruses have been isolated from mosquitoes especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are important vectors of dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever in humans. The authors describe applications of post-PCR techniques, restriction fragment length polymorphism and single-strand conformation polymorphism to classify these two clades of Aedes densoviruses isolated from different origins. These methods are simple and rapid and are applicable to identify other groups of densoviruses isolated from biological samples.

311) Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Uejio, Christopher K.; Hayden, Mary H.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Robles Lopez, Jose Luis; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H.
Assunto: Aedes; Mesocyclops; Toxorhynchites; Tires; United States – Mexico border
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 30, n. 2, p. 130-135, 2014
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus-treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

312) Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: A novel role in egg production
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Raphemot, Rene; Estevez-Lao, Tania Y.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Piermarini, Peter M.; Denton, Jerod S.; Hillyer, Julian F.
Assunto: Inward rectifier potassium channel; Kir; Anopheles gambiae; Mosquito; Ovary; Fecundity; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 51, p. 10-19, 2014
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we Sequenced the A. gambiae Kin1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical features of a Kit channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xeno pus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

313) Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-Type lectins for dengue prevention
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.Author Summary Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is currently the most significant arbovirus afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. No vaccine or therapeutics are available, and dengue has rapidly spread over the last decade. Therefore, additional strategies to combat dengue are urgently needed. In this study, we characterized multiple C-type lectins as susceptibility factors for dengue infection in A. aegypti. These mosGCTLs directly interacted with dengue virus in vitro and in vivo. The combination of antisera against multiple mosGCTLs efficiently reduced DENV-2 infection after a blood meal, suggesting that it is feasible to develop a mosGCTL-based transmission-blocking vaccine to interrupt the life cycle of dengue virus and control disease burden in nature. This study substantially extends our understanding of dengue replication in vectors and provides a research avenue by which the development of therapeutics for preventing the dissemination of mosquito-borne viral diseases can be pursued in the future.

314) Correlating remote sensing data with the abundance of pupae of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico
Autor: Moreno-Madrinan, Max J.; Crosson, William L.; Eisen, Lars; Estes, Sue M.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr; Hayden, Mary; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Irwin, Dan E.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Monaghan, Andrew J.
Assunto: MODIS; TRMM; DEM; Aqua; Remote sensing; Elevation; Mosquito; Rainfall; Temperature
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, v. 3, n. 2, p. 732-749, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS) products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST) values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM). Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

315) Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad
Assunto: Accessory Salivary-Glands; Aphid Transmission; Dwarf Virus; Transovarial Transmission; Circulative Transmission; Begomovirus Transmission; Hemiptera Aleyrodidae; Virion Stability; 17-Kda Protein; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 10, p. 5652-5660, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects.

316) Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Ho, Yung S.; Ariani, Cristina V.; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Viruses; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Parasites; Nucleotide sequence; Recombination; Dengue; Yellow fever; Genetic markers; Genetic crosses; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. Mosquitoes are important for transmission of human diseases including dengue and yellow fever. The sequencing of the genomes of key mosquito species including Aedes aegypti has helped us to understand the factors that allow mosquitoes to vector disease. While the genome for Ae. aegypti has been sequenced, it is in many pieces which have not yet been arranged on chromosomes. To this end, we have created a genetic linkage map and measured the distance between genetic markers, which allows us to assign them to regions of the genome. Using this method, we also detected errors in the current genome sequences. We used our genetic map to find regions of the mosquito genome associated with the development of Brugia malayi, a nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. A better genome assembly will be important for the development of novel methods for controlling disease transmission.

317) Molecular characterization of DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Benin
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Djegbe, Innocent; Agossa, Fiacre R.; Jones, Christopher M.; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Cornelie, Sylvie; Akogbeto, Martin; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent
Assunto: An. gambiae; Insecticide resistance; qPCR; Kdr mutation; Vector control; Metabolic enzymes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Insecticide resistance in the mosquito vector is the one of the main obstacles against effective malaria control. In order to implement insecticide resistance management strategies, it is important to understand the genetic factors involved. In this context, we investigated the molecular basis of DDT resistance in the main malaria vector from Benin.Methods: Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected from four sites across Benin and identified to species/molecular form. Mosquitoes from Cotonou (M-form), Tori-Bossito (S-form) and Bohicon (S-form) were exposed to DDT 4% at a range of exposure times (30 min to 300 min). Another batch of mosquitoes from Cotonou and Malanville were exposed to DDT for 1 hour and the survivors 48 hours post exposure were used to quantify metabolic gene expression. Quantitative PCR assays were used to quantify mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes: GSTE2, GSTD3, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2. Expression (fold-change) was calculated using the Delta Delta Ct method and compared to susceptible strains. Detection of target-site mutations (L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y) was performed using allelic discrimination TaqMan assays.Results: DDT resistance was extremely high in all populations, regardless of molecular form, with no observed mortality after 300 min exposure. In both DDT-survivors and non-exposed mosquitoes, GSTE2 and GSTD3 were over-expressed in the M form at 4.4-fold and 3.5-fold in Cotonou and 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold in Malanville respectively, when compared to the susceptible strain. The CYP6M2 and CYP6P3 were over-expressed at 4.6-fold and 3.8-fold in Cotonou and 1.2-fold and 2.5-fold in Malanville respectively. In contrast, no differences in GSTE2 and CYP6M2 were observed between S form mosquitoes from Tori-Bossito and Bohicon compared to susceptible strain. The 1014 F allele was fixed in the S-form and at high frequency in the M-form (0.7-0.914). The frequency of 1575Y allele was 0.29-0.36 in the S-form and nil in the M-form. The 1014S allele was detected in the S form of An. gambiae in a 1014 F/1014S heterozygous specimen.Conclusion: Our results show that the kdr 1014 F, 1014S and 1575Y alleles are widespread in Benin and the expression of two candidate metabolic markers (GSTE2 and CYP6M2) are over-expressed specifically in the M-form.

318) CPB1 of Aedes aegypti interacts with DENV2 E protein and regulates intracellular viral accumulation and release from midgut cells
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; R. M. T., Vinod; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Carboxypeptidase; Yeast two-hybrid dengue virus; Yeast two-hybrid
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 6, n. 12, p. 5028-5046, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a principal vector responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). To date, vector control remains the key option for dengue disease management. To develop new vector control strategies, a more comprehensive understanding of the biological interactions between DENV and Ae. aegypti is required. In this study, a cDNA library derived from the midgut of female adult Ae. aegypti was used in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screenings against DENV2 envelope (E) protein. Among the many interacting proteins identified, carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1) was selected, and its biological interaction with E protein in Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells was further validated. Our double immunofluorescent assay showed that CPB1-E interaction occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the Ae. aegypti primary midgut cells. Overexpression of CPB1 in mosquito cells resulted in intracellular DENV2 genomic RNA or virus particle accumulation, with a lower amount of virus release. Therefore, we postulated that in Ae. aegypti midgut cells, CPB1 binds to the E protein deposited on the ER intraluminal membranes and inhibits DENV2 RNA encapsulation, thus inhibiting budding from the ER, and may interfere with immature virus transportation to the trans-Golgi network.

319) Limited dengue virus replication in field-collected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia
Autor: Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Assunto: Biological control; Human diseases; Replication; Pest control; Cosmopolite species; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Head; Dengue; Blood meals; Tropical environments; Cosmopolitan species; Insects; Feeds; World population; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Wolbachia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Almost half of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics. The virus is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a cosmopolitan species that has proved difficult to control using traditional methods. A new biocontrol strategy has been developed involving the release of mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria. Mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia show dramatically reduced replication and transmission of dengue virus in laboratory trials. Although promising, the utility of Wolbachia biocontrol depends on field wMel-infected mosquitoes retaining the phenotype of reduced viral replication. Mosquitoes with wMel were released in the field in Cairns, Australia in early 2011. We provide evidence that, one year later, field collected wMel mosquitoes showed reduced dengue virus replication in the body and limited dissemination to the head compared to controls. Wolbachia numbers in mosquitoes increased following blood meals, which may further decrease viral replication if the insects feed frequently. Our results indicate that Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference is sustained in field populations and shows no sign of attenuation after one year of deployment.

320) Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.
Autor: Diagne Cheikh T,Faye Oumar,Guerbois Mathilde,Knight Rachel,Diallo Diawo,Faye Ousmane,Ba Yamar,Dia Ibrahima,Faye Ousmane,Weaver Scott C,Sall Amadou A,Diallo Mawlouth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 3, p. 635-641, 2014
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa.

321) Laboratory Surveillance of Dengue in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 2007 to 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tumioto, Gabriela Luchiari; Gregianini, Tatiana Schaeffer; Dambros, Bibiana Paula; Cestari, Beatriz Carneiro; Alves Nunes, Zenaida Marion; Gorini Veiga, Ana Beatriz
Assunto: Hemorrhagic-Fever; Viruses; Assay
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 8, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: According to official records, dengue was introduced in Brazil in the 80's; since then several epidemics have occurred. Meanwhile, in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Southern Brazil) the first autochthonous case occurred only in 2007.Methodology and Principal Findings: In this study we report laboratory surveillance of dengue cases and seasonality of positive cases, describe serotypes and characterize the epidemiological pattern of dengue in RS from 2007 to 2013. A total of 9,779 serum samples from patients with suspected dengue fever were collected and submitted to molecular and/or serological analyses for dengue virus identification and serotyping, based on viral isolation, NS1 antigen detection and qRT-PCR, or Dengue IgM capture ELISA and MAC-ELISA. The first autochthonous dengue case in RS was confirmed in 2007 (DENV-3). While in 2008 and 2009 only imported cases were registered, autochthonous infection waves have been occurring since 2010. The highest number of dengue infections occurred in 2010, with DENV-1 and DENV-2 outbreaks in Northwestern RS. In 2011, another DENV-1 and DENV-2 outbreak occurred in the Northwestern region; moreover, DENV-4 was detected in travelers. In 2012, DENV-1 and DENV-4 co-circulated. DENV-2 circulation was only detected again in 2013, in high frequency (56.7%), co-circulating with DENV-4 (35%). Most infections occur in adults during summer. Differences in prevalence between genders were observed in 2007 (60% females), 2008 (60.8% males) and 2009 (77.5% males).Conclusions: According to results of dengue surveillance, there was an increase in the number of dengue cases in RS and of cities infested with Aedes aegypti, possibly as a conSequence of introduction of new serotypes and the difficulty of health programs to control the vector.

322) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa)--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard Gilda,Caron Mélanie,Mombo Illich Manfred,Nkoghe Dieudonné,Mboui Ondo Statiana,Jiolle Davy,Fontenille Didier,Paupy Christophe,Leroy Eric Maurice
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses. Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus), were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV). The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread. We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

323) Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bmsage is involved in regulation of fibroin H-chain gene via interaction with SGF1 in bombyx mori
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Chun; Li, Qiong-Yan; Hu, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Meng-Ting; Nie, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Yin-Xia; Peng, Zhang-Chuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qing-You
Assunto: Secretes recombinant proteins; Fork head; Silk gland; Sericin-1 gene; Transgenic silkworm; DNA - Sequence; Expression; Binding; Tissue; Domain
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Silk glands are specialized in the synthesis of several secretory proteins. Expression of genes encoding the silk proteins in Bombyx mori silk glands with strict territorial and developmental specificities is regulated by many transcription factors. In this study, we have characterized B. mori sage, which is closely related to sage in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. It is termed Bmsage; it encodes transcription factor Bmsage, which belongs to the Mesp subfamily, containing a basic helix-loop-helix motif. Bmsage transcripts were detected specifically in the silk glands of B. mori larvae through RT-PCR analysis. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed the Bmsage protein existed exclusively in B. mori middle and posterior silk gland cells. Bmsage has a low level of expression in the 4th instar molting stages, which increases gradually in the 5th instar feeding stages and then declines from the wandering to the pupation stages. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested the expression level of Bmsage in a high silk strain was higher compared to a lower silk strain on day 3 of the larval 5th instar. Furthermore, far western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the Bmsage protein interacted with the fork head transcription factor silk gland factor 1 (SGF1). An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed the complex of Bmsage and SGF1 proteins bound to the A and B elements in the promoter of fibroin H-chain gene(fib-H), respectively. Luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the complex of Bmsage and SGF1 proteins increased the expression of fib-H. Together, these results suggest Bmsage is involved in the regulation of the expression of fib-H by being together with SGF1 in B. mori PSG cells.

324) Osteoblasts from osteoarthritis patients show enhanced susceptibility to Ross River virus infection associated with delayed type I interferon responses.
Autor: Chen Weiqiang,Foo Suan-Sin,Li Rachel W,Smith Paul N,Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, p. 189, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have caused widespread outbreaks of chronic polyarthritis. The inflammatory responses in alphavirus-induced arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA) share many similar features, which suggests the possibility of exacerbated alphavirus-induced bone pathology in individuals with pre-existing OA. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of osteoblasts (OBs) from OA patients to RRV infection and dissected the immune mechanisms elicited from infection. Primary hOBs obtained from trabecular bone of healthy donors and OA patients were infected with RRV. Infectivity and viral replication were determined using flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to determine expression kinetics of type I interferon (IFN)-related immune mediators and osteotropic factors. OA hOBs showed enhanced RRV infectivity and replication during infection, which was associated with delayed induction of IFN-? and RIG-I expression. Enhanced susceptibility of OA hOBs to RRV was associated with a more pronounced increase in RANKL/OPG ratio and expression of osteotropic factors (IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-? and CCL2) in comparison to RRV-infected healthy hOBs. Delayed activation of type I IFN-signalling pathway may have contributed to enhanced susceptibility to RRV infection in hOBs from OA patients. RRV-induced increases in RANKL/OPG ratio and expression of osteotropic factors that favour bone resorption, which may be exacerbated during osteoarthritis. This study provides the novel insight that osteoarthritis may be a risk factor for exacerbated arthritogenic alphaviral infection.

325) Immuno-Chromatographic Wicking Assay for the Rapid Detection of Dengue Viral Antigens in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wanja, Elizabeth; Parker, Zahra F.; Odusami, Oluwakemi; Rowland, Tobin; Dave, Kirti; Dave, Sonia; Turell, Michael J.
Assunto: Wicking Assay; Arbovirus; Rapid Detection; Dipstick; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 1, p. 220-225, 2014
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: There is a threat for dengue virus (DENV) reemergence in many regions of the world, particularly in Areas where the DENV vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), are readily available. However, there are currently no accurate and reliable diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of DENV within the vector populations to implement appropriate vector control and personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect DENV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes infected with any of the four viral serotypes. The DENV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, and provided clear results within 30 min. It was highly specific and did not cross-react with samples spiked with West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, Ross River, LaCrosse, or Caraparu viruses. The DENV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of DENV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk Areas.

326) Progress in infectious disease testing-NAT and beyond
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L., Dodd R.Y.
Assunto: blood transfusion, hematology, infection, organization, society
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ;
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 107, supl. 1, p. 5, june 2014
ISSN: 0042-9007
Resumo: Aims: To update membership on state-of-the-art testing technologies for infectious disease blood donation screening including new methods such as expanding NAT platforms, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays. Changes to testing algorithms with the availability of inactivation by pathogen reduction will also be highlighted. Background: Testing donated blood for markers of infectious disease plays a major role in establishing and maintaining blood safety. Minimal expectations worldwide are that blood is tested for syphilis, HIV, HCV and HBV. The norm for viral testing has been serology, but increasingly, nucleic acid testing is being implemented where resources allow, even for emerging infectious disease (EID) agents such as the chikungunya virus outbreak that started in Dec 2013 in the Caribbean, marking the first introduction of this virus in the Americas. The appropriate mix of tests and algorithms will depend on local epidemiology, infrastructure and economic considerations. Although NAT will detect acute infections, representing the greatest infectious threat, not all pathogens have adequate concentrations of nucleic acid for detection in the early acute or later chronic phases of infection (if chronicity is a feature of infection). Thus, for many agents, either serology only or a combination of serology and NAT exist. In developing test strategies, it is important to understand the actual risk of transfusion transmission and the impact of the test systems on such risk, especially where resources are limited. Methods: NAT has been implemented in over 30 nations worldwide as documented by an International Forum organized by the ISBT Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Disease Working Party that captured implementation from 1999 to 2009 for HCV, HIV and HBV (Roth et al., Vox Sang 2012;102:82-90). Testing has progressed from manual technologies using single markers to highly multiplexed automated assays. Routine NAT has been added, either as a required marker or under investigational studies for additional agents including, parvovirus B19, HAV, HEV, arboviruses including WNV, dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, the red-cell parasite, Babesia, and likely others. In addition to NAT, new technologies including pathogen reduction, and nucleic acid and protein microarrays will have an important impact on testing. Recently, the AABB EID working group has updated a listing of pathogen reduction technologies available including over 40 clinical trials in support of their safety and efficacy (http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/eidpostpub.aspx). The impact is either to prevent the need to introduce new tests, assuming availability of the technology to inactivate the component in which the agent is transmitted, and that the technology has sufficient robustness to produce an effective 'kill'. As an additional benefit, changes to existing testing algorithms may be feasible such that redundant tests may be eliminated. With respect to nucleic acid and protein microarrays, technological advances will allow the simultaneous detection and differentiation of hundreds of pathogens, but many hurdles prior to routine adoption exist. Conclusions: Blood systems worldwide must be ready to adapt to changes in their infectious disease epidemiology, emergence of new agents, and changes in their economic conditions and public expectations to accommodate the changing landscape of infectious disease testing.

327) Identification, characterization and functional analysis of a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; He, Shulin; Qian, Zhaoying; Wang, Xianzong; Mao, Aitao; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin
Assunto: Litopenaeus vannamei; Serpin; RNA interference; Prophenoloxidase; Immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 43, n. 1, p. 35-46, 2014
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: As important arthropod immune responses, prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation and Toll pathway initiation are mediated by serine proteinase cascades and regulated by serpins. Herein, a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin), encoding for 415 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 46,639 Da and iso-electric point of 7.03 was characterized from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple Sequence alignment revealed that Lvserpin shared the highest similarity with Penaeus monodon serpin6 (87%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the transcripts of Lvserpin were detected in all the examined tissues and most highly expressed in gill. The expression profiles of Lvserpin were greatly fluctuated upon infection of Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysoleikticus or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Double stranded RNA-mediated suppression of Lvserpin resulted in a significant increase in the transcripts of two clip-domain serine proteinases (PPAE and PPAF), prophenoloxidase (proPO), antilipopolysaccharide factor CALF), Crustin and penaeidin3 (Pens3) and also increased the high cumulative mortality post V. anguillarum injection. Besides, the recombinant Lvserpin protein (rLvserpin) was purified and exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin. Also the rLvserpin showed inhibition on prophenoloxidase activation and bacterial growth. Hence, we proposed that the Lvserpin played important role in the shrimp innate immunity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

328) Evidence of Experimental Vertical Transmission of Emerging Novel ECSA Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Agarwal, Ankita; Dash, Paban Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Parida, Man Mohan; Reiter, Paul
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Trans-Ovarial Transmission; Yellow-Fever Virus; Diptera-Culicidae; Albopictus Mosquitos; Encephalitis-Virus; Reunion Island; Oral Infection; Indian-Ocean; South-India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not.Methodology/Principal Findings: Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1:35.5) and 20.2 (1:49.5) respectively.Conclusion/Significance: This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

329) Assessing the relationship between vector indices and dengue transmission: a systematic review of the evidence
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bowman, Leigh R.; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; McCall, P. J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti - Diptera; Virus transmission; Culicidae production; Population - Dynamics; Global distribution; Backpack aspirator; Simulation - Model; Southeast - Asia; Human movement; Thai Villages
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 5, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Despite doubts about methods used and the association between vector density and dengue transmission, routine sampling of mosquito vector populations is common in dengue-endemic countries worldwide. This study examined the evidence from published studies for the existence of any quantitative relationship between vector indices and dengue cases.Methodology/Principal Findings: From a total of 1205 papers identified in database searches following Cochrane and PRISMA Group guidelines, 18 were included for review. Eligibility criteria included 3-month study duration and dengue case confirmation by WHO case definition and/or serology. A range of designs were seen, particularly in spatial sampling and analyses, and all but 3 were classed as weak study designs. Eleven of eighteen studies generated Stegomyia indices from combined larval and pupal data. Adult vector data were reported in only three studies. Of thirteen studies that investigated associations between vector indices and dengue cases, 4 reported positive correlations, 4 found no correlation and 5 reported ambiguous or inconclusive associations. Six out of 7 studies that measured Breteau Indices reported dengue transmission at levels below the currently accepted threshold of 5.Conclusions/Significance: There was little evidence of quantifiable associations between vector indices and dengue transmission that could reliably be used for outbreak prediction. This review highlighted the need for standardized sampling protocols that adequately consider dengue spatial heterogeneity. Recommendations for more appropriately designed studies include: standardized study design to elucidate the relationship between vector abundance and dengue transmission; adult mosquito sampling should be routine; single values of Breteau or other indices are not reliable universal dengue transmission thresholds; better knowledge of vector ecology is required.

330) Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti
Autor: Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araujo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimaraes, Anthony Erico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Celia; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Maleck, Marise
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Pest control; Public health; Disease transmission; Macrophages; Parasites; Mortality; Vectors; Medical importance; Toxicity; Eggs; Dengue; Nitric oxide; Vaccines; Midgut; Aedes aegypti; Ocotea; Lauraceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods: Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results: The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations greater than or equal to 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion: The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

331) Vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti collected in Puerto Iguazu, Misiones, Argentina
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinosa, Manuel; Giamperetti, Sergio; Abril, Marcelo; Seijo, Alfredo
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vertical transmission; Argentina
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, v. 56, n. 2, p. 165-167, 2014
ISSN: 0036-4665
Resumo: A finding of vertical transmission of the DEN 3 virus in male specimens of Aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in Puerto Iguazu city, Misiones, Argentina, using the RT-PCR technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. This result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of Argentina's northeast border.

332) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika virus infections ? An unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific2012?2014
Autor: Roth A., Mercier A., Lepers C., Hoy D., Duituturaga S., Benyon E., Guillaumot L., Souarès Y.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya Alphavirus; Dengue; Dengue Virus; Disease Surveillance; Epidemic; Genotype; Geographic Distribution; Infection Risk; Nonhuman; Phylogeny; Public Health; Serotype; Virus Infection; Virus Transmission; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 41,2014.
ISSN: 1025496X
Resumo: Since January2012, the Pacific Region has experienced28 new documented outbreaks and circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus. These mosquito- borne disease epidemics seem to become more frequent and diverse, and it is likely that this is only the early stages of a wave that will continue for several years. Improved surveillance and response measures are needed to mitigate the already heavy burden on island health systems and limit further spread to other parts of the world. ©2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

333) Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission
Autor: Brady, Oliver J.; Golding, Nick; Pigott, David M.; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Messina, Jane P.; Reiner, Robert C., Jr; Scott, Thomas W.; Smith, David L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hay, Simon I.
Assunto: Temperature effects; Parasites; Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Data processing; Dengue; Life span; Vectors; Models; Ecology; Diurnal variations; Temperature; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods: Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results: Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions: These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we explicitly outlined here, point to clear targets for entomological investigation.

334) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ioos S., Mallet H.-P., Leparc Goffart I., Gauthier V., Cardoso T., Herida M.
Assunto: epidemic, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, v. 44, n. 7, p. 302-307, jul. 2014
ISSN: 1769-6690 (electronic),0399-077X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (Aedes), similar to other arboviruses, first identified in Uganda in 1947. Few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika outbreak occurred in Yap, Micronesia, even though ZIKV activity had been reported in Africa and in Asia through virological surveillance and entomological studies. French Polynesia has recorded a large outbreak since October 2013. A great number of cases and some with neurological and autoimmune complications have been reported in a context of concurrent circulation of dengue viruses. The clinical presentation is a "dengue-like syndrome". Until the epidemic in French Polynesia, no severe ZIKV disease had been described so far. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral genome detection by genomic amplification (RT- PCR) and viral isolation. These two large outbreaks occurred in a previously unaffected area in less than a decade. They should raise awareness as to the potential for ZIKV to spread especially since this emergent disease is not well known and that some questions remain on potential reservoirs and transmission modes as well as on clinical presentations and complications. ZIKV has the potential to spread to new areas where the Aedes mosquito vector is present and could be a risk for Southern Europe. Strategies for the prevention and control of ZIKV disease should include the use of insect repellent and mosquito vector eradication. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

335) Approaches to refining estimates of global burden and economics of dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Guzman, Maria G.; Halstead, Scott B.; Harris, Eva; Mudin, Rose Nani; Murray, Kristy O.; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Gubler, Duane J.
Assunto: Neglected tropical diseases; Adjusted life years; Hemorrhagic - Fever; Virus -Infections; Systematic analysis; Southeast - Asia; Puerto Rico; Classifying dengue; Clinical dengue; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 11, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue presents a formidable and growing global economic and disease burden, with around half the world's population estimated to be at risk of infection. There is wide variation and substantial uncertainty in current estimates of dengue disease burden and, consequently, on economic burden estimates. Dengue disease varies across time, geography and persons affected. Variations in the transmission of four different viruses and interactions among vector density and host's immune status, age, pre-existing medical conditions, all contribute to the disease's complexity. This systematic review aims to identify and examine estimates of dengue disease burden and costs, discuss major sources of uncertainty, and suggest next steps to improve estimates. Economic analysis of dengue is mainly concerned with costs of illness, particularly in estimating total episodes of symptomatic dengue. However, national dengue disease reporting systems show a great diversity in design and implementation, hindering accurate global estimates of dengue episodes and country comparisons. A combination of immediate, short-, and long-term strategies could substantially improve estimates of disease and, consequently, of economic burden of dengue. Suggestions for immediate implementation include refining analysis of currently available data to adjust reported episodes and expanding data collection in empirical studies, such as documenting the number of ambulatory visits before and after hospitalization and including breakdowns by age. Shortterm recommendations include merging multiple data sources, such as cohort and surveillance data to evaluate the accuracy of reporting rates (by health sector, treatment, severity, etc.), and using covariates to extrapolate dengue incidence to locations with no or limited reporting. Long-term efforts aim at strengthening capacity to document dengue transmission using serological methods to systematically analyze and relate to epidemiologic data. As promising tools for diagnosis, vaccination, vector control, and treatment are being developed, these recommended steps should improve objective, systematic measures of dengue burden to strengthen health policy decisions.

336) First reported chikungunya fever outbreak in the Republic of Congo, 2011.
Autor: Moyen Nanikaly,Thiberville Simon-Djamel,Pastorino Boris,Nougairede Antoine,Thirion Laurence,Mombouli Jean-Vivien,Dimi Yannick,Leparc-Goffart Isabelle,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Lepfoundzou Amelia Dzia,de Lamballerie Xavier
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: PloS One, v. 9, n. 12, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011. We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2%) lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area). Amongst them, 37 (11.7%) were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay), of whom 36 (97.3%) had fever, 22 (66.7%) myalgia and 32 (86.5%) arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors), providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2%)) with sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (72.4%) values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%), but the positive predictive value (45%) indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1) demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis. We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and sociological determinants of emergence."

337) Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of Aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: Thioester - Containing proteins; Dengue hemorrhagic - Fever; Innate immune - Response; Nile – Virus - Infection; Jak - Stat
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.

338) Evidence of experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti.
Autor: Agarwal Ankita,Dash Paban Kumar,Singh Anil Kumar,Sharma Shashi,Gopalan Natarajan,Rao Putcha Venkata Lakshmana,Parida Man Mohan,Reiter Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not. Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1?35.5) and 20.2 (1?49.5) respectively. This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods.

339) Increased Replicative Fitness of a Dengue Virus 2 Clade in Native Mosquitoes: Potential Contribution to a Clade Replacement Event in Nicaragua
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Quiner, Claire A.; Parameswaran, Poornima; Ciota, Alexander T.; Ehrbar, Dylan J.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Schlesinger, Sondra; Kramer, Laura D.; Harris, Eva
Assunto: West-Nile-Virus; Naturally Infected Mosquitos; Original Antigenic Sin; Encephalitis-Virus; Dominant Genotype; Rna; Emergence; Transmission; Diversity; Dynamics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 22, p. 13125-13134, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV-1] to DENV-4) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes, causing up to 390 million DENV infections worldwide each year. We previously reported a clade replacement of the DENV-2 Asian-American genotype NI-1 clade by the NI-2B clade in Managua, Nicaragua. Here, we describe our studies of the replicative ability of NI-1 and NI-2B viruses in an A. aegypti cell line (Aag2) and A. aegypti mosquitoes reared from eggs collected in Managua. In coinfection experiments, several different pairs of NI-1 and NI-2B clinical isolates were used to infect Aag2 cells or blood-fed A. aegypti mosquitoes. Results consistently showed a significant replicative advantage of NI-2B over NI-1 viruses early after infection in vitro, and in mosquitoes, NI-2B viruses attained a higher replicative index than NI-1 isolates 3 to 7 days postinfection (dpi). At 7 dpi, NI-2B viruses displayed a significantly higher replicative index in legs and salivary glands; however, this advantage was lost by 14 and 21 dpi. We also found that the percentage of mosquitoes in which NI-2B viruses were dominant was significantly higher than that in which NI-1 viruses were dominant on day 7 but not at later time points. Taken together, these data demonstrate that clade NI-2B holds a replicative advantage over clade NI-1 early in infection that wanes at later time points. This early fitness advantage of NI-2B viruses over NI-1 viruses in the native vector, A. aegypti, suggests a shorter extrinsic incubation period for NI-2B viruses, which could have contributed to the clade replacement event in Managua.IMPORTANCEDengue virus (DENV), one of the most medically important arthropod-borne viruses, is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Dengue epidemics continue to increase in frequency, geographic range, and severity and are a major public health concern. This is due to globalization, unplanned urbanization, and climate change, as well as host Genetics and immune responses and viral genetic changes. DENV consists of four serotypes, in turn composed of genotypes and Genetically distinct clades. What drives the frequent replacement of a previously circulating DENV clade by another is unclear. Here, we investigate the replicative fitness of two clades of DENV serotype 2 in Aedes aegypti cells and mosquitoes collected from the region where the viruses circulated and conclude that increased replicative fitness could have contributed to a DENV clade replacement event in Nicaragua. These findings provide insight into vector-driven Evolution of DENV epidemics.

340) First case of zika virus infection in a returning canadian traveler.
Autor: Fonseca Kevin,Meatherall Bonnie,Zarra Danielle,Drebot Michael,MacDonald Judy,Pabbaraju Kanti,Wong Sallene,Webster Patricia,Lindsay Robbin,Tellier Raymond
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, p. 1035-1038, 2014
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus. A urine sample and a nasopharygeal swab specimen obtained for the measles investigation were also positive for this virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the urine sample yielded a Zika virus isolate in cell culture. This case report describes a number of novel clinical and laboratory findings, the first documentation of this virus in Canada, and the second documentation from this region in Thailand.

341) Next generation sequencing reveals regulation of distinct Aedes microRNAs during chikungunya virus development
Autor: Shrinet, Jatin; Jain, Shanu; Jain, Jaspreet; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Sunil, Sujatha
Assunto: Sexual maturity; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Public health; Disease transmission; miRNA; non-coding RNA; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Small, non-coding, RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNA) of length 18-24 nucleotide are reported in wide range of organisms and known to play a determinative role in regulation of various cellular processes. They have also reported to have regulatory roles during pathogen infection, maturation and transmission. Chikungunya virus is an important alphavirus transmitted through two important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. While Ae. aegypti has been the preferred vector for transmission of this virus, recently, Ae. albopictus has gained notoriety for disease transmission. Using Illumina platform, we sequenced the small RNA population an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with chikungunya virus. We studied the expression modulation of miRNAs upon CHIKV infection and found distinct set of miRNAs regulated in Aedes upon CHIKV infection. We further predicted the targets of these miRNAs and performed pathway analysis of these targets. The cellular functional targets of some of these miRNAs overlapped suggesting aggressive participation of the targeted pathways in establishing CHIKV infection.

342) Neurological manifestations of dengue infection: A review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Verma, Rajesh; Sahu, Ritesh; Holla, Vikram
Assunto: Symptoms; Endemic species; Literature reviews; Aquatic insects; Aetiology; Public health; Serotypes; Neurological complications; Infection; Encephalitis; Disease transmission; Myositis; Differential diagnosis; Guillain-Barre syndrome; Dengue; Peripheral nervous system; Myelitis; Encephalopathy; Neuropathy; Complications; Reviews; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Transmission
Fonte: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, v. 346, n. 1-2, p. 26-34, 2014
ISSN: 0022-510X
Resumo: Dengue is a common arboviral infection in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and caused by infection with one of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Neurologic manifestations are increasingly recognised but the exact incidence is unknown. Dengue infection has a wide spectrum of neurological complications such as encephalitis, myositis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and mononeuropathies. Encephalopathy is the most common reported complication. In endemic regions, dengue infection should be considered as one of the aetiologies of encephalitis. Even for other neurological syndromes like myelitis, myositis, GBS etc., dengue infection should be kept in differential diagnosis and should be ruled out especially so in endemic countries during dengue outbreaks and in cases where the aetiology is uncertain. A high degree of suspicion in endemic areas can help in picking up more cases thereby helping in understanding the true extent of neurological complications in dengue fever. Also knowledge regarding the various neurological complications helps in looking for the warning signs and early diagnosis thereby improving patient outcome.

343) Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote Pacific Island Chain - Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011-2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.
Assunto: Linked – Immunosorbent - Assay; Federated states; Hemorrhagic - Fever; Risk -Factors; Virus; Micronesia; Epidemic; Infection; Thailand; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 9, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and similar to 95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

344) Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes
Autor: Behura, Susanta K.; Severson, David W.
Assunto: Genomes; Nucleotide sequence; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Amino acid sequence; Public health; Data processing; Statistical analysis; Codons; codon bias; Transcription; Bioinformatics; Infection; DNA microarrays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 289, n. 5, p. 885-894, 2014.
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level.

345) Caracterización clínica del dengue en un hospital infantil de Cartagena (Colombia)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gómez Marrugo, Diana; Causil Garcés, Ceyla; Pinzón Redondo, Hernando; Suárez Causado, Amileth; Moneriz Pretell, Carlos
Assunto: Fiebre; Dengue; Niños; Arbovirus, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology
Fonte: Revista Salud Uninorte, v. 30, n. 3, p. 281-292, 2014
ISSN: 2011-7531
Resumo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínicas del dengue en pacientes pediátricos en una institución de salud de tercer nivel de Cartagena (Colombia). Estudio descriptivo por revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por dengue en el Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia. Se evaluaron 136 niños con cuadros febriles agudos de etiología inaparente. Se utilizaron pruebas serológicas para confirmar la infección por el virus del dengue. Se analizaron 98 casos de niños hospitalizados con diagnóstico de dengue. La edad osciló entre menores de 6 meses a 16 años, siendo el rango de edades con mayor frecuencia de la enfermedad de 10 a 16 años (33,7%). Los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron: exantema (49,0%), mialgia (35,7%), cefalea (33,7%), artralgia (33,7%), anorexia (24,5%), torniquete (19,4%), prurito (11,2%), escalofrío (8,2%), eritema facial (7,1%) y dolor retro ocular (6,1%). La edad continúa siendo el factor predominante en la gravedad intrahospitalaria del dengue. Por lo tanto se necesitan con urgencia medidas preventivas en la población pediátrica

346) Temporal correlations between mosquito-based dengue virus surveillance measures or indoor mosquito abundance and dengue case numbers in Merida City, Mexico
Autor: Eisen, Lars; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Vazquez, Maria Del Rosario Najera; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba
Assunto: Temperature effects; Biological surveys; Entomology; Public health; RNA; Dengue; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Pest outbreaks; Sensitivity; Human populations; Temperature; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 4, p. 885-890, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) females is of potential interest because human DENV infections are commonly asymptomatic, which decreases the effectiveness of dengue case surveillance to provide early warning of building outbreaks. Our primary aim was to examine if mosquito-based virological measures-monthly percentages of examined Ae. aegypti females infected with DENV or examined homes from which at least one DENV-infected Ae. aegypti female was collected-are correlated with reported dengue cases in the same or subsequent months within study neighborhoods in Merida City, Mexico. The study encompassed approximately 30 neighborhoods in the southern and eastern parts of the city. Mosquitoes were collected monthly over a 15-mo period within study homes (average of 145 homes examined per month); this produced approximately 5,800 Ae. aegypti females subsequently examined for DENV RNA. Although monthly dengue case numbers in the study neighborhoods varied >100-fold during the study period, we did not find statistically significant positive correlations between monthly data for mosquito-based DENV surveillance measures and reported dengue cases in the same or subsequent months. Monthly average temperature, rainfall, and indoor abundance of Ae. aegypti females were positively correlated (P less than or equal to 0.001) with dengue case numbers in subsequent months with lag times of 3-5, 2, and 1-2 mo, respectively. However, because dengue outbreak risk is strongly influenced by serotype-specific susceptibility of the human population to DENV, the value of weather conditions and entomological indices to predict outbreaks is very limited. Potential ways to improve the sensitivity of mosquito-based DENV surveillance are discussed.

347) MicroRNA levels are modulated in Aedes aegypti after exposure to Dengue-2
Autor: Campbell, C. L.; Harrison, T.; Hess, A. M.; Ebel, G. D.
Assunto: Gene expression; Molecular biology; Viral diseases; Replication; Disease control; Aquatic insects; Nucleotides; Transduction; Public health; Data processing; Chromatin; Nucleotide sequence; miRNA; Algorithms; Mitochondria; Transcription; Infection; Dengue; Gene regulation; Signal transduction; Proteins; Insects; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 132-139, 2014.
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: To define microRNA (miRNA) involvement during arbovirus infection of Aedes aegypti, we mined deep sequencing libraries of Dengue type 2 (DENV2)-exposed mosquitoes. Three biological replicates for each timepoint [2, 4 and 9 days post-exposure (dpe)] and treatment group allowed us to remove the outliers associated with sample-to-sample variability. Using edgeR (R Bioconductor), designed for use with replicate deep sequencing data, we determined the log fold-change (logFC) of miRNA levels [18-23 nucleotides (nt)]. The number of significantly modulated miRNAs increased from less than or equal to 5 at 2 and 4 dpe to 23 unique miRNAs by 9 dpe. Putative miRNA targets were predicted by aligning miRNAs to the transcriptome, and the list was reduced to include the intersection of hits found using the Miranda, PITA, and TargetScan algorithms. To further reduce false-positives, putative targets were validated by cross-checking them with mRNAs reported in recent DENV2 host response transcriptome reports; 4076 targets were identified. Of these, 464 gene targets have predicted miRNA-binding sites in 3' untranslated regions. Context-specific target functional groups include proteins involved in transport, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, chromatin modification and signal transduction processes known to be required for viral replication and dissemination. The miRNA response is placed in context with other vector host response studies by comparing the predicted targets with those of transcriptome studies. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that profound and persistent changes to gene expression occur in DENV2-exposed mosquitoes.

348) Importance of case definition to monitor ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus on a background of actively circulating dengue virus, St Martin, December 2013 to January 2014.
Autor: Omarjee R,Prat Cm,Flusin O,Boucau S,Tenebray B,Merle O,Huc-Anais P,Cassadou S,Leparc-Goffart I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 19, n. 13, 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

349) Metagenomic shotgun sequencing of a Bunyavirus in wild-caught Aedes aegypti from Thailand informs the Evolutionary and genomic history of the Phleboviruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chandler, James Angus; Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Wilcox, Bruce A.; Schroth, Gary P.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Bennett, Shannon N.
Assunto: Metagenomics; Shotgun sequencing; Aedes aegypti; Bunyavirus; Phlebovirus; Rift valley fever virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology, v. 464, p. 312-319, 2014
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses significantly impact human health. They span multiple families, all of which include viruses not known to cause disease. Characterizing these representatives could provide insights into the origins of their disease-causing counterparts. Field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Nakhon Nayok, Thailand, underwent metagenomic shotgun sequencing to reveal a Bunyavirus closely related to Phasi Charoen (PhaV) virus, isolated in 2009 from Ae. aegypti near Bangkok. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus suggests it is basal to the Phlebovirus genus thus making it ideally positioned phyloGenetically for understanding the Evolution of these clinically important viruses. Genomic analysis finds that a gene necessary for virulence in vertebrates, but not essential for viral replication in arthropods, is missing. The sequencing of this phyloGenetically-notable and genomically-unique Phlebovirus from wild mosquitoes exemplifies the utility and efficacy of metagenomic shotgun sequencing for virus characterization in arthropod vectors of human diseases. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

350) Contrasted innate responses to two viruses in zebrafish: insights into the ancestral repertoire of vertebrate IFN-stimulated genes.
Autor: Briolat Valérie,Jouneau Luc,Carvalho Ralph,Palha Nuno,Langevin Christelle,Herbomel Philippe,Schwartz Olivier,Spaink Herman P,Levraud Jean-Pierre,Boudinot Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Immunology, v. 192, n. 9, p. 4328-4341, 2014
ISSN: 1550-6606
Resumo: Ease of imaging and abundance of genetic tools make the zebrafish an attractive model host to understand host-pathogen interactions. However, basic knowledge regarding the identity of genes involved in antiviral immune responses is still lagging in this species. We conducted a microarray analysis of the larval zebrafish response to two models of RNA virus infections with very different outcomes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) induces a rapid and protective IFN response. Infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus is lethal and is associated with a delayed and inefficient IFN response. A typical signature of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was observed with both viruses, but was stronger for CHIKV. We further compared the zebrafish and human ISG repertoires and made a genomic and phylogenic characterization of the main gene families. We describe a core set of well-induced ISGs conserved across vertebrates, as well as multigenic families diversified independently in each taxon. The conservation of ISGs involved in antiviral signaling indicates conservation of the main feedback loops in these pathways. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of selected transcripts in infected larvae revealed a typical pattern of expression for ISGs in the liver, gut, and blood vessels with both viruses. We further show that some inflammatory genes were additionally induced through IFN-independent pathways by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and not by CHIKV. This study provides a useful reference set for the analysis of host-virus interactions in zebrafish and highlights the differences between protective and nonprotective antiviral innate responses.

351) Microhabitat partitioning of Aedes simpsoni (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Walter, Katharine S.; Brown, Julia E.; Powell, Jeffrey R.
Assunto: Population genetics; Genetics; Microhabitats; Public health; Microenvironments; Vectors; Infection; Habitat; Genetic structure; Aedes simpsoni; Yellow fever virus; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 596-604, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Yellow fever virus is a reemerging infection responsible for widespread, sporadic outbreaks across Africa. Although Aedes aegypti (L.) is the most important vector globally, in East Africa, epidemics may be vectored by Aedes bromeliae (Theobald), a member of the Aedes simpsoni (Theobald) species complex. The Ae. simpsoni complex contains 10 subspecies, of which Ae. bromeliae alone has been incriminated as a vector of yellow fever virus. However, morphological markers cannot distinguish Ae. bromeliae from conspecifics, including the sympatric and non-anthropophilic Aedes lilii (Theobald). Here, we used three sequenced nuclear markers to examine the population structure of Ae. simpsoni complex mosquitoes collected from diverse habitats in Rabai, Kenya. Gene trees consistently show strong support for the existence of two clades in Rabai, with segregation by habitat. Domestic mosquitoes segregate separately from forest-collected mosquitoes, providing evidence of habitat partitioning on a small spatial scale (<5 km). Although speculative, these likely represent what have been described as Ae. bromeliae and Ae. lilii, respectively. The observation of high levels of diversity within Rabai indicates that this species complex may exhibit significant genetic differentiation across East Africa. The genetic structure, ecology, and range of this important disease vector are surprisingly understudied and need to be further characterized.

352) Dengue vectors, human activity, and dengue virus transmission potential in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, United States
Autor: Vitek, Christopher J.; Gutierrez, Joann A.; Dirrigl, Frank J.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Disease risk; Human behavior
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 5, p. 1019-1028, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Dengue virus is an emerging disease of concern in the Americas. Recent outbreaks in Florida highlight the potential for the virus to return to the United States. The Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas directly borders Mexico, and has experienced dengue transmission in the past concurrent with outbreaks in Mexico along the border region. We examined the potential for dengue virus transmission by examining the vectors in the region, as well as assessing human behavior. We further hypothesized that dengue vector abundance would influence human behavior. Two dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), were found in the region in high abundance. More mosquitoes were collected in rural sites and sites with high vegetation. Of the two species, only Ae. albopictus showed any significant habitat preferences, being more common in rural site. While there was no correlation between human behavior and mosquito abundance, the results support a significant correlation between knowledge of mosquitoes and dengue virus and behavioral practices that might reduce risk of disease transmission. Dengue risk may be higher in certain regions of the Lower Rio Grande Valley based on socioeconomic conditions, specifically in economically poor regions such as the undeveloped colonias found in the region. Because of the proximity of this region to an area with endemic dengue, continued surveillance and risk assessment is suggested.

353) De novo cloning and annotation of genes associated with immunity, detoxification and energy metabolism from the Fat body of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yang, Wen-Jia; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Cong, Lin; Xie, Yi-Fei; Wang, Jin-Jun
Assunto: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins; Trehalose – Phosphate - Synthase; Drosophila -Melanogaster; RNA interference; Insecticide resistance; Molecular characterization; Nilaparvata - Lugens; Brown planthopper; Manduca - Sexta; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 4, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8%) unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.

354) Expression of Mosquito MicroRNA Aae-miR-2940-5p Is Downregulated in Response to West Nile Virus Infection To Restrict Viral Replication
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Asgari, Sassan; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Mammalian-Cells; Flavivirus Rna; Kunjin Virus; Wolbachia Uses; Noncoding Rna;Identification; Aegypti; Translation; Repression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 15, p. 8457-8467, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome from the Flaviviridae family. WNV is spread by mosquitoes and able to infect humans, causing encephalitis and meningitis that can be fatal; it therefore presents a significant risk for human health. In insects, innate response to RNA virus infection mostly relies on RNA interference and JAK/SAT pathways; however, some evidence indicates that it can also involve microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level and play an important role in a number of processes, including immunity and antiviral response. In this study, we focus on the miRNA-mediated response to WNV in mosquito cells. We demonstrate that in response to WNV infection the expression of a mosquito-specific miRNA, aae-miR-2940, is selectively downregulated in Aedes albopictus cells. This miRNA is known to upregulate the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which we have also shown to be required for efficient WNV replication. Correspondingly, downregulation of aae-miR-2940 reduced the metalloprotease level and restricted WNV replication. Thus, we have identified a novel miRNA-dependent mechanism of antiviral response to WNV in mosquitoes.IMPORTANCEA detailed understanding of vector-pathogen interactions is essential to address the problems posed by vector-borne diseases. Host and viral miRNAs play an important role in regulating expression of viral and host genes involved in endogenous processes, including antiviral response. There has been no evidence to date for the role of mosquito miRNAs in response to flaviviruses. In this study, we show that downregulation of aae-miR-2940 in mosquito cells acts as a potential antiviral mechanism in the mosquito host to inhibit WNV replication by repressing the expression of the metalloprotease m41 FtsH gene, which is required for efficient WNV replication. This is the first identification of an miRNA-dependent antiviral mechanism in mosquitoes, which inhibits replication of WNV. Our findings should facilitate identification of targets in the mosquito genome that can be utilized to suppress vector population and/or limit WNV replication.

355) Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, Jose Luis; Morrison, Amy C; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel
Assunto: Geographical distribution; Human diseases; Urbanization; Distribution records; Water management; Environment management; Aquatic insects; Dispersion; Public health; Dengue; Risk factors; Yellow fever; Wastes; Invasions; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Ae. aegypti mosquitoes carry a number of viruses that cause human disease, including dengue and yellow fever. Over the past 30 years, the burden of dengue has increased exponentially, due to urbanization, poor waste and water management, human transportation, and expanding mosquito populations. Although much research has been conducted on Ae. aegypti at the household and container levels, little is known about the mechanisms fueling the range expansion of this mosquito across longer distances. The goal of this study is to characterize Ae. aegypti spread along transportation networks and to identify risk factors associated with its establishment, thus improving our ability to predict future Ae. aegypti expansion. Characterizing current patterns of establishment will aid in understanding and preventing future invasions. Our approach is broadly applicable to other biological invasions associated with human activities.

356) Dengue virus infections among haitian and expatriate non-governmental organization workers - leogane and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2012
Autor: Salyer, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Esther M.; Salomon, Corvil; Bron, Christophe; Juin, Stanley; Hemme, Ryan R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Jentes, Emily S.; Magloire, Roc; Tomashek, Kay M.; Desormeaux, Anne Marie; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Etienne, Lesly; Beltran, Manuela; Sharp, Tyler M.; Moffett, Daphne; Tappero, Jordan; Margolis, Harold S.; Katz, Mark A.
Assunto: Antibodies; Human diseases; Organizations; Endemism; Viral diseases; Pupae; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Public health; Workers; Bites; Non-governmental organizations; Dengue; Risk factors; Repellents; Immunoglobulin G; Infection; Immunoglobulin M; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health and the US CDC were notified of 25 recent dengue cases, confirmed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), among non-governmental organization (NGO) workers. We conducted a serosurvey among NGO workers in Leogane and Port-au-Prince to determine the extent of and risk factors for dengue virus infection. Of the total 776 staff from targeted NGOs in Leogane and Port-au-Prince, 173 (22%; 52 expatriates and 121 Haitians) participated. Anti-dengue virus (DENV) IgM antibody was detected in 8 (15%) expatriates and 9 (7%) Haitians, and DENV non-structural protein 1 in one expatriate. Anti-DENV IgG antibody was detected in 162 (94%) participants (79% of expatriates; 100% of Haitians), and confirmed by microneutralization testing as DENV-specific in 17/34 (50%) expatriates and 42/42 (100%) Haitians. Of 254 pupae collected from 68 containers, 65% were Aedes aegypti; 27% were Ae. albopictus. Few NGO workers reported undertaking mosquito-avoidance action. Our findings underscore the risk of dengue in expatriate workers in Haiti and Haitians themselves. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, and caused an estimated 390 million infections and 96 million cases in the tropics and subtropics in 2010. Over the last decade, the number of cases of dengue and the severity of dengue virus infections have increased in the Americas, including the Caribbean, yet little is still known about dengue in Haiti. Following an outbreak of dengue in mostly expatriate NGO workers, the investigators of this study took blood samples from expatriate and Haitian NGO workers living in two cities in Haiti and tested them for evidence of current, recent, and past dengue virus infection. They also investigated the amount and kinds of mosquitoes at homes and work sites. The study found recent infections among some Haitians and expatriates and widespread past infections among all Haitians and most expatriates. It also found that many people were not doing basic things to avoid mosquito bites, like applying mosquito repellent multiple times a day and wearing long sleeves or pants. These findings highlight the likely endemicity of dengue virus in Haiti, and the need to improve knowledge and awareness of dengue prevention among expatriates visiting Haiti and local Haitians.

357) Copy number variation of Chikungunya ECSA virus with disease symptoms among Indian patients.
Autor: Dutta Sudip Kumar,Pal Tithi,Saha Bibhuti,Mandal Syamsundar,Tripathi Anusri
Assunto: Chikungunya viral load, IgM ELISA, RT-PCR, fever, joint swelling, myalgia
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 86, n. 8, p. 1386-1392, 2014
ISSN: 1096-9071
Resumo: After a gap of three decades, from 2005 onwards, a series of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks occurred worldwide. This study was performed to detect CHIKV infection, its genotype among symptomatic Eastern Indian patients and to analyze any association between the presence of CHIKV genome in patient body with appearance of disease symptoms (n = 199). Plasma-extracted viral RNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA and PCR-amplified followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Viral load among CHIKV-positive patients was determined by real time RT-PCR. CHIKV-IgM in sera was detected by ELISA. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of plasma-extracted PCR products was done. CHIKV genome and IgM were detected among 65.3% (n = 130) and 41.2% (n = 82) patients respectively. Joint swelling was significantly associated with CHIKV infection (P-value: 0.0003). CHIKV PCR positive patients were grouped in two categories: Group-I: viral load <10(4) copies/ml and Group-II: viral load ?10(4) copies/ml. Higher number of acute stage patients clustered in Group-II. Fever and joint swelling were significantly more prevalent among Group-II patients, whereas rash and diarrhoea among Group-I patients (P-value <0.05). Patient-isolated CHIKV sequences clustered with CHIKV ECSA genotypes in the phylogenetic tree, with two types of CHIKV strains found to circulate among them-as indicated by their different nucleotide sequences. This is the first study detecting the presence of CHIKV ECSA genotype among Eastern Indian patients. Fever and joint swelling might have appeared first followed by rash, diarrhea during disease progression-as indicated by CHIK viral load in patients. Thus, viral load can be used as unique diagnostic and prognostic marker of Chikungunya disease pathogenesis.

358) Wolbachia-a foe for mosquitoes
Autor: Guruprasad, Nadipinayakanahalli; Jalali, Sushil; Puttaraju, Hosagavi
Assunto: Wolbachia; Mosquitoes; Dengue; Chickungunya; Malaria; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 4, n. 1, p. 78-81, 2014.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Mosquitoes act as vectors for a wide range of viral and parasitic infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, Chickungunya, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus in humans as well as in animals. Although a wide range of insecticides are used to control mosquitoes, it has only resulted in development of resistance to such insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance and lack of vaccines for many mosquito-borne diseases have made these arthropods highly harmful vectors. Recently, a novel approach to control mosquitoes by transinfection of life shortening maternally transmitted endo-symbiont Wolbachia wMelPop strain from fruitfly Drosophila into mosquito population has been developed by researchers. The wMelPop strain up-regulated the immune gene expression in mosquitoes thereby reducing the dengue and Chickungunya viral replication in Aedes aegypti, and also it significantly reduced the Plasmodium level in Anopheles gambiae. Here, we discuss the strategy of using Wolbachia in control of vector-borne diseases of mosquitoes.

359) Comprehensive proteomic analysis of white blood cells from chikungunya fever patients of different severities.
Autor: Wikan Nitwara,Khongwichit Sarawut,Phuklia Weerawat,Ubol Sukathida,Thonsakulprasert Tipparat,Thannagith Montri,Tanramluk Duangrudee,Paemanee Atchara,Kittisenachai Suthathip,Roytrakul Sittiruk,Smith Duncan R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Translational Medicine, v. 12, p. 96, 2014
ISSN: 1479-5876
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a recently re-emerged mosquito transmitted viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. Infection of humans with CHIKV can result in CHIKF of variable severity, although the factors mediating disease severity remain poorly defined. White blood cells were isolated from blood samples collected during the 2009-2010 CHIKF outbreak in Thailand. Clinical presentation and viral load data were used to classify samples into three groups, namely non chikungunya fever (non-CHIKF), mild CHIKF, and severe CHIKF. Five samples from each group were analyzed for protein expression by GeLC-MS/MS. CHIKV proteins (structural and non-structural) were found only in CHIKF samples. A total of 3505 human proteins were identified, with 68 proteins only present in non-CHIKF samples. A total of 240 proteins were found only in CHIKF samples, of which 65 and 46 were found only in mild and severe CHIKF samples respectively. Proteins with altered expression mapped predominantly to cellular signaling pathways (including toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) although many other processes showed altered expression as a result of CHIKV infection. Expression of proteins consistent with the activation of the inflammasome was detected, and quantitation of (pro)-caspase 1 at the protein and RNA levels showed an association with disease severity. This study confirms the infection of at least a component of white blood cells by CHIKV, and shows that CHIKV infection results in activation of the inflammasome in a manner that is associated with disease severity.

360) Oral susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal for dengue serotypes 1 and 3 viruses
Autor: Gaye, Alioune; Faye, Oumar; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dakar; Kedougou; Senegal; Oral susceptibility; Dengue serotypes 1 and 3
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Medicine & International Health, v. 19, n. 11, p. 1355-1359, 2014
ISSN: 1360-2276
Resumo: To investigate the potential for domestic and wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Dakar and Kedougou to develop a disseminated infection after exposure to DENV-3 and DENV-1.METHODS We have exposed sylvatic and urban population of Ae. aegypti from Senegal to bloomeals containing dengue serotype 1 and 3. At different incubation period, individual mosquito legs/wings and bodies were tested for virus presence using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection and dissemination rates.RESULTS The data indicated low susceptibility to DENV-3 (infection: 2.4-15.2%, and dissemination rates: 0-8.3%) and higher susceptibility to DENV-1 (infection and dissemination rates up to 50%).CONCLUSION Aedes aegypti from Senegal seem able to develop a disseminated infection of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Further studies are needed to test their ability to transmit the two serotypes.

361) Molecular caracterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet, Nicolas; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declere, Stephane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad
Assunto: Central Africa; Aedes africanus; Zika virus; Genomic Characterization; Aedes opok
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus and Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, 2014.
ISSN: 1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

362) Chikungunya virus exploits miR-146a to regulate NF-?B pathway in human synovial fibroblasts.
Autor: Selvamani Sakthi Priya,Mishra Ritu,Singh Sunit K
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: PloS One, v. 9, n. 8, p. e103624, 2014
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus causes chronic infection with manifestations of joint pain. Human synovial fibroblasts get infected with CHIKV and could lead to pro-inflammatory responses. MicroRNAs have potentials to regulate the gene expression of various anti-viral and pro-inflammatory genes. The study aims to investigate the role of miR-146a in modulation of inflammatory responses of human synovial fibroblasts by Chikungunya virus. To study the role of miR-146a in CHIKV pathogenesis in human synovial cells and underlying inflammatory manifestations, we performed CHIKV infection in primary human synovial fibroblasts. Western blotting, real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, overexpression and knockdown of cellular miR-146a strategies have been employed to validate the role of miR-146a in regulation of pro-inflammatory NF-?B pathway. CHIKV infection induced the expression of cellular miR-146a, which resulted into down-regulation of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and increased replication of CHIKV in human synovial fibroblasts. Exogenous expression of miR-146a in human synovial fibroblasts led to decreased expression of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and decreased replication of CHIKV. Inhibition of cellular miR-146a by anti-miR-146a restored the expression levels of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2. Downregulation of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2 led to downstream decreased NF-?B activation through negative feedback loop. This study demonstrated the mechanism of exploitation of cellular miR-146a by CHIKV in modulating the host antiviral immune response in primary human synovial fibroblasts.

363) Factors associated with dengue fever IgG sero-prevalence in South Kordofan State, Sudan, in 2012: Reporting prevalence ratios
Autor: Soghaier, Mohammed A.; Mahmood, Syed F.; Pasha, Omrana; Azam, Syed I.; Karsani, Mubarak M.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Elmagboul, Babiker A.; Okoued, Somia I.; Shareeff, Sayed M.; Khogali, Hayat S.; Eltigai, Emad
Assunto: Dengue associated factors; Dengue Sudan; South Kordofan; Prevalence ratio
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 7, n. 1, p. 54-61, 2014
ISSN: 1876-0341
Resumo: Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. In this study, we identified the most important factors associated with the prevalence of IgG antibodies in a border state between Sudan and the new republic of South Sudan.Objectives: To quantify the association of specific factors with the prevalence of DF IgG antibodies in Lagawa among subjects aged 16-60 years in 2012.Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Lagawa in 2012.Results: Indoor mosquito breeding was the most significant predictor affecting DF IgG serology. Household water storage was also strongly associated with the presence of IgG antibodies. Residence in urban areas, younger age and a history of travel to the Red Sea State were significant predictors of DF IgG seroprevalence in South Kordofan state.Conclusion: Indoor (household) behaviors associated with DF infection should be modified to mitigate the infection risk in the study area. Awareness should be raised regarding DF in Lagawa to ensure community participation in all control measures, and the surveillance system at the border between Sudan and the republic of South Sudan should be strengthened. (C) 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

364) Dengue transmission model by means of viremic adult immuno-competent mouse
Autor: Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Konishi, Eiji; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Makino, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Eshita, Yuki
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2; Mass-infection; Viremia; Immuno-competent mouse
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue virus infection manifests in three distinct forms in humans: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Infection with the virus is a fatal disease; no vaccine is available and prevention depends on interruption of the chain of transmission. The study of dengue viral transmission by mosquitoes is hindered due to the lack of an affordable animal model. In general, immuno-competent mice are used as a simple and inexpensive animal model, but mice are not susceptible to dengue virus infection and therefore viremia will not occur following the inoculation of the virus in such mice. Here, we report a method for creating artificial viremia in immuno-competent mice, and further demonstrate the use of viremic mice to simultaneously infect a large number of Aedes aegypti. Methods: We infected K562 cells with DENV-2 in the presence of an antibody against DENV-4. We then incubated the cells for 2 d before injecting the infected cells into C3H mice. After 5 h incubation, we allowed 100-150 female Aedes aegypti to feed on blood from the mice directly. We collected blood samples from the mice and from randomly selected Ae. aegypti at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-blood meal and screened the samples for DENV-2 genome as well as for virus concentration. Results: Our procedure provided high virus concentrations in the mice for at least 7 h after viral inoculation. We found that 13 out of 14 randomly picked mosquitoes were infected with DENV-2. High concentrations of virus were detected in the mosquitoes until at least 12 h post-infection. Conclusions: Using the viremic immuno-competent mouse, we show that mass infection of Ae. aegypti is achievable. Compared to other infection techniques using direct inoculation, membrane-feeding, or immuno-deficient/humanized mice, we are confident that this method will provide a simpler and more efficient infection technique.

365) Deletion of the NSm virulence gene of rift valley fever virus inhibits virus replication in and dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Kading, Rebekah C.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Bird, Brian H.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.
Assunto: Virulence; Endemic species; Genes; Replication; Pest control; Rift valleys; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Public health; Genomes; Mortality; Data processing; Rift Valley fever; Infection; Morbidity; Livestock; Antibodies; Gene deletion; Midgut; Vaccines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Africa. Outbreaks of RVFV have resulted in devastating morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. A novel RVFV vaccine strain has been developed in which two virulence genes, NSs and NSm, have been deleted from the RVFV genome. Previously, we demonstrated that deletion of NSm also significantly reduced the ability of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to transmit RVFV. The objective of this study was to track the spread (dissemination) of wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) and RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF- Delta NSm) through different tissues in the mosquito body over time by staining lengthwise slices of infected mosquitoes with fluorescent antibody specific to RVFV. We found that midgut infections in mosquitoes exposed to rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF- Delta NSm were confined to only one or a few small foci. Our data provide supporting evidence that the NSm virulence gene has a functional role in mosquitoes by helping RVFV establish an infection in, and escape from, the midgut.

366) Bionomic response of Aedes aegypti to two future climate change scenarios in far north Queensland, Australia: implications for dengue outbreaks
Autor: Williams, Craig R.; Mincham, Gina; Ritchie, Scott A.; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David
Assunto: Climate change; Environmental impact; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Bionomics; Dengue; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Risk assessment; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Dengue viruses are transmitted by anthropophilic mosquitoes and infect approximately 50 million humans annually. To investigate impacts of future climate change on dengue virus transmission, we investigated bionomics of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Using a dynamic life table simulation model (the Container inhabiting mosquito simulation CIMSiM) and statistically downscaled daily values for future climate, we assessed climate change induced changes to mosquito bionomics. Simulations of Ae. aegypti populations for current (1991-2011) and future climate (2046-2065) were conducted for the city of Cairns, Queensland, the population centre with most dengue virus transmission in Australia. Female mosquito abundance, wet weight, and the extrinsic incubation period for dengue virus in these mosquitoes were estimated for current and future climate (MPI ECHAM 5 model, B1 and A2 emission scenarios). Results: Overall mosquito abundance is predicted to change, but results were equivocal for different climate change scenarios. Aedes aegypti abundance is predicted to increase under the B1, but decrease under the A2 scenario. Mosquitoes are predicted to have a smaller body mass in a future climate. Shorter extrinsic incubation periods are projected. Conclusions: It is therefore unclear whether dengue risk would increase or decrease in tropical Australia with climate change. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that a future, warmer climate will lead to larger mosquito populations and a definite increase in dengue transmission. Whilst general predictions can be made about future mosquito borne disease incidence, cautious interpretation is necessary due to interaction between local environment, human behaviour and built environment, dengue virus, and vectors.

367) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Virus envelope protein; Aedes; Africa; Article; Disease re-emergence; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Human; Immunofluorescence; Molecular epidemiology; Molecular evolution; Nucleotide sequence; Phylogeny; Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RNA extraction; Virus recombination; Virus strain; Zika flavivirus; Envelope protein - Glycosylation
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

368) Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host
Autor: Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.; Fikrig, Erol
Assunto: Yellow fever mosquito; West nile virus; Langerhans cell migration; Borne Encephalitis virus; Aedes aegypti; Heparan sulfate; Immune response; Arbovirus transmission; Infection; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 88, n. 1, p. 164-175, 2014
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease.

369) Comparing dengue and chikungunya emergence and endemic transmission in A. aegypti and A. albopictus
Autor: Manore, Carrie A.; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Xu, Sen; Wearing, Helen J.; Hyman, James M.
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Mathematical models; Epidemics; Infectious diseases; Quantitative distribution; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Travel; Dengue; Risk factors; Reproduction; Evolution; Sensitivity; Mitigation; Sensitivity analysis; Invasions; Risk taking; Outbreaks; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Theoretical Biology, v. 356, p. 174-191, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-5193
Resumo: Chikungunya and dengue are re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases that are of increasing concern as human travel and expanding mosquito ranges increase the risk of spread. We seek to understand the differences in transient and endemic behavior of chikungunya and dengue; risk of emergence for different virus-vector assemblages; and the role that virus evolution plays in disease dynamics and risk. To address these questions, we adapt a mathematical mosquito-borne disease model to chikungunya and dengue in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We derive analytical threshold conditions and important dimensionless parameters for virus transmission; perform sensitivity analysis on quantities of interest such as the basic reproduction number, endemic equilibrium, and first epidemic peak; and compute distributions for the quantities of interest across parameter ranges. We found that chikungunya and dengue exhibit different transient dynamics and long-term endemic levels. While the order of most sensitive parameters is preserved across vector-virus combinations, the magnitude of sensitivity is different across scenarios, indicating that risk of invasion or an outbreak can change with vector-virus assemblages. We found that the dengue - A. aegypti and new Reunion strain of chikungunya - A. albopictus systems represent the highest risk across the range of parameters considered. These results inform future experimental and field research efforts and point toward effective mitigation strategies adapted to each disease.

370) Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in north Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus
Autor: Ye, Yixin H. ; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; O'Neill, Scott L.; Beebe, Nigel W.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Endemic species; Human diseases; Pest control; Hosts; Strains; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Midgut; Stochasticity; Evolution; Health risks; Historical account; Outbreaks; Infection; World population; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 90, n. 3, p. 422-430, 2014.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination.

371) Detection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with dengue virus as a complementary method for increasing the sensitivity of surveillance: identification of serotypes 1, 2, and 4 by RT-PCR in Quintana Roo, Mexico
Autor: Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.; Gaitan-Burns, Alejandro; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E.; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A.; Garza, Carlos E. Medina de la; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Entomologists; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Polymerase chain reaction; Methodology; Public health; Serotypes; Infection; Sensitivity; Dengue; Households; Residential areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 39, n. 2, p. 307-316, 2014.
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Sensitivity of monitoring Aedes aegypti (L.) populations was determined to identify the distribution of dengue virus (DENV) during epidemics in Quintana Roo. From September to November 2012, we used a motorized aspirator to collect 2,144 female Ae. aegypti from 569 homes. These were grouped into 220 to use semi-nested RT-PCR for DENV, and positive groups were analyzed individually. Five groups (2.27%) were positive for DENV. Individual analysis yielded eight groups that tested positive, six with DENV-2, one DENV-1, and one DENV-4. The latter was not reported by the surveillance system that year. The mean number of female mosquitoes per household was 3.77 plus or minus 5.71, and the rate of viral infection of Ae. aegypti was 0.4%. Most infected mosquitoes (49%) were concentrated in 10% of the houses. Monitoring Ae. aegypti infected with DENV has the potential to complement the current system of clinical and entomological surveillance.

372) A DNA microarray-based assay to detect dual infection with two dengue virus serotypes
Autor: Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; de Lourdes Munoz, Maria; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueno, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G.; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P.; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano
Assunto: Dengue virus; Humans;ÿAedes; Microarrays
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Sensors, v. 14, n. 5, p. 7580-7601, 2014
ISSN: 1424-8220
Resumo: Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples.

373) Differential susceptibility of two field Aedes aegypti populations to a low infectious dose of dengue virus
Autor: Pongsiri, Arissara; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Scott, Thomas W; Lambrechts, Louis
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Serum; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Vectors; Viremia; Blood meals; Infection; Dengue; Dose-response effects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background The infectious dose required to infect mosquito vectors when they take a blood meal from a viremic person is a critical parameter underlying the probability of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Because experimental vector competence studies typically examine the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected at intermediate or high DENV infectious doses in the blood meal, the minimum blood meal titer required to infect mosquitoes is poorly documented. Understanding the factors influencing the lower infectiousness threshold is epidemiologically significant because it determines the transmission potential of humans with a low DENV viremia, possibly including inapparent infections, and during the onset and resolution of the viremic period of acutely infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the susceptibility of two field-derived Aedes aegypti populations from Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand when they were orally exposed to low titers of six DENV-2 isolates derived from the serum of naturally infected humans living in the same region. The infectious dose, time-point post-blood feeding, viral isolate and mosquito population, were significant predictors of the proportion of mosquitoes that became infected. Importantly, the dose-response profile differed significantly between the two Ae. aegypti populations. Although both mosquito populations had a similar 50% oral infectious dose (OID50), the slope of the dose-response was shallower in one population, resulting in a markedly higher susceptibility at low blood meal titers. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that mosquitoes in nature vary in their infectious dose-response to DENV. Thus, different mosquito populations have a differential ability to acquire DENV infection at low viremia levels. Future studies on human-to-mosquito DENV transmission should not be limited to OID50 values, but rather they should be expanded to account for the shape of the dose-response profile across a range of virus titers.

374) Challenges encountered using standard vector control measures for dengue in Boa Vista, Brazil
Autor: Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Valle, Denise
Assunto: Biological surveys; Endemic species; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Diflubenzuron; Dengue; Vectors; Larvicides; Deltamethrin; Households; Larvae; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of The World Health Organization, v. 92, n. 9, p. 685-689, 2014.
ISSN: 0042-9686
Resumo: In 2010, dengue virus (DENV) serotype-4 was detected during a dengue outbreak in the Amazonian city of Boa Vista. At that time Brazil was already endemic for DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3. This was the first time DENV-4 was observed in the country after it was initially detected and eliminated in 1981. To hinder the spread of DENV-4 throughout Brazil, standard vector control measures were intensified. Vector control professionals visited 56 837 households in 22 out of 31 districts of Boa Vista, to eliminate mosquito-breeding sites. Water storage containers were treated with the larvicide diflubenzuron, and deltamethrin was sprayed for adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fifteen days later, a second larvae survey and additional deltamethrin applications were performed. In Brazil, dengue vector control is managed at all three government levels. Regular surveillance of Aedes aegypti is done four to six times a year to strengthen mosquito control activities in areas with high-vector density. Educational dengue control campaigns in communities are scarce, especially between outbreaks.

375) Correlation of plasma viral loads and presence of Chikungunya IgM antibodies with cytokine/chemokine levels during acute Chikungunya virus infection.
Autor: Reddy Vijayalakshmi,Mani Reeta Subramaniam,Desai Anita,Ravi Vasanthapuram
Assunto: biomarkers of Chikungunya severity, cytokines/chemokines in Chikungunya
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 86, n. 8, p. 1393-1401, 2014
ISSN: 1096-9071
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) is an emerging arboviral infection of public health concern in India contributing to widespread morbidity. The precise molecular events occurring early in the infection have not been well understood. Cytokines/chemokines are suspected to play a key role in its pathogenesis. Very few studies have correlated the plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines with diagnostic markers such as viral loads and presence of CHIKV IgM antibodies. Understanding these dynamics in the early phase of CHIKV infection is likely to provide an insight into the evolution of the immune response, identify biomarkers for assessing severity, and for development of newer therapeutic strategies. This study was therefore undertaken to estimate the levels of various cytokines/chemokines in plasma samples of patients infected with CHIKV and correlate to viral load and CHIKV IgM antibodies. Cytokine/chemokine levels and viral loads in plasma were measured using cytometric bead array and TaqMan real time PCR assay, respectively. The findings revealed that acute phase of CHIKV infection is characterized by predominant inflammatory responses mediated by IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIG (P < 0.003). Plasma levels of IL-6 (r = 0.53, P < 0.05) and MCP-1 (r = 0.83, P < 0.05) emerged as reliable biomarkers of high viral loads in Chikungunya patients. Further, presence of elevated levels of MCP-1 and MIG during the chronic phase of the disease suggests that these chemokines may contribute to perpetuation of symptoms. Hence, these chemokines might serve as targets for the development of treatment to ameliorate the symptoms during the acute phase and prevent the development of chronic manifestations.

376) Determinants of heterogeneous blood feeding patterns by Aedes aegypti in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: Liebman, Kelly A.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Perkins, TAlex; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Blood; Fingerprinting; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; DNA fingerprinting; Mathematical models; Biting; Control programs; Vectors; Blood meals; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: We studied the biting habits of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue virus, to determine why certain people are bitten more often by this day-active mosquito. Over one year in dengue-endemic Iquitos, Peru, we collected blood fed mosquitoes from 19 households. Mosquito blood meals were then matched to household residents using genetic fingerprinting. We found that within a household, larger individuals and those spending more time in the home were bitten more often than other household residents. Importantly, our results show that one's probability of being bitten is dependent on the characteristics of other household residents and visitors. These results indicate that measurable characteristics of individuals do predict who is most exposed to mosquito-borne pathogens, which contributes to our understanding of pathogen transmission processes, informs development of mathematical disease models, and can enhance the design of targeted control programs.

377) Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Dengue Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti: Target Site Insensitivity, Penetration, and Metabolism
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kasai, Shinji; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Shono, Toshio; Ng, Lee Ching; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi
Assunto: Gated Sodium-Channel; Culex-Quinquefasciatus Say; Myzus-Persicae Sulzer; Insecticide Resistance; Permethrin Resistance; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Helicoverpa-Armigera; Molecular-Basis; Widespread Distribution; Detoxification Genes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 6, 2014
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major vector of yellow and dengue fevers. After 10 generations of adult selection, an A. aegypti strain (SP) developed 1650-fold resistance to permethrin, which is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticides for mosquito control. SP larvae also developed 8790-fold resistance following selection of the adults. Prior to the selections, the frequencies of V1016G and F1534C mutations in domains II and III, respectively, of voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc, the target site of pyrethroid insecticide) were 0.44 and 0.56, respectively. In contrast, only G1016 alleles were present after two permethrin selections, indicating that G1016 can more contribute to the insensitivity of Vssc than C1534. In vivo metabolism studies showed that the SP strain excreted permethrin metabolites more rapidly than a susceptible SMK strain. Pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide caused strong inhibition of excretion of permethrin metabolites, suggesting that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in resistance development. In vitro metabolism studies also indicated an association of P450s with resistance. Microarray analysis showed that multiple P450 genes were over expressed during the larval and adult stages in the SP strain. Following quantitative real time PCR, we focused on two P450 isoforms, CYP9M6 and CYP6BB2. Transcription levels of these P450s were well correlated with the rate of permethrin excretion and they were certainly capable of detoxifying permethrin to 4'-HO-permethrin. Over expression of CYP9M6 was partially due to gene amplification. There was no significant difference in the rate of permethrin reduction from cuticle between SP and SMK strains.

378) Epidemiological and molecular features of dengue, Zika and Chikungunya concurrent outbreaks in the pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Roche C., Teissier A., Nilles E.J., Musso D.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, hygiene, society, tropical medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 588, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: During more than a century dengue has been the only mosquito-borne virus considered as major public health concern for Pacific nations. However, during the past 5 years the epidemiology of arboviruses in the Pacific region has shown terrific changes. The situation gradually switched from the predominant circulation of a single dengue virus (DENV) to active transmission of multiple DENV serotypes and genotypes as observed in French Polynesia from 2013 and in New Caledonia and Fiji since the beginning of 2014. In the mean time, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) appeared for the first time in New Caledonia with autochtonous cases sporadically reported from 2011 up to 2013, and large outbreaks occurring in Papua New Guinea in 2012, Yap Island in 2013 and in Tonga in 2014. Another unexpected event was the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in French Polynesia at the end of 2013. ZIKV caused in French Polynesia the largest outbreak ever documented, and in a context of active circulation of DENV serotypes 1 and 3. At the beginning of 2014, ZIKV outbreaks also emerged in New Caledonia and Cook Islands. As of April 2014, outbreaks of “dengue-like illnesses” were under investigation in several other Pacific islands suggesting that the situation was evolving from bad to worse. We will describe here the early laboratory investigations that contributed to the identification of the aetiological agents of the outbreaks that recently occurred in the Pacific, notably based on the use of filter paper-spotted serum and saliva collected on cotton swab as a source of viral RNA. Based on phylogenetic data we will discuss how these viruses were introduced from continental regions into the Pacific and how they spread from one Pacific island country to another. We will also discuss the particular features of these outbreaks, notably in the occurrence of unusual clinical manifestations, like observed in French Polynesia during the ZIKV outbreak.

379) Mutagenesis analysis of T380R mutation in the envelope protein of yellow fever virus
Autor: Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Nuckols, John T.; Horne, Kate M.; Vanlandingham, Dana; Lobigs, Mario; Higgs, Stephen
Assunto: Yellow fever virus; 17D vaccine; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 11, n. , p. -, 2014
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance in virus entry in the mosquito has not yet been defined. The sequences of RGD motifs are conserved in JEV-serocomplex members primarily transmitted by Culex mosquitoes but absent from members of the DENV serocomplex, which utilize Aedes mosquitoes as vectors. Interestingly, the RGD sequence is present in the attenuated 17D strain of yellow fever virus as a result of the T380R mutation in the EDIII of Asibi strain following extensive in vitro passage in mice and chicken embryos and was found to contribute to the more rapid clearance in mice challenged with 17D. However, viral infectivity and dissemination in mosquitoes had not been evaluated for this mutant. The study utilized the reverse genetics system of YFV and Ae. aegypti RexD WE mosquitoes to assess the impact of a T380R mutation in YFV Asibi and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. The T380R mutation led to higher infection rates but similar dissemination rates when introduced into the YFV Asibi strain and 17D/Asibi M-E chimera. While the increase of the positive charge in EDIII may reduce the virulence of YFV in mice, this mutation favored the establishment of the viral infection in Ae. aegypti. However, such gain in viral infectivity did not increase dissemination in infected mosquitoes.

380) Natural Transmission of Dengue Virus by Aedes albopictus at Monterrey, Northeastern Mexico
Autor: Sanchez-Rodriguez, Olga S.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Alvarado-Moreno, Marcela S.; Zarate-Nahon, Ewry A.; Ramirez-Jimenez, Rocio; Medina de la Garza, Carlos E.; Torres-Zapata, Raul; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Vertical transmission; Mosquitos; Aegypti; Strains; Florida
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 39, n. 3, p. 459-468, 2014
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Dengue cases occur frequently at Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) are present. Ae. albopictus is considered the second vector of dengue. Because it bites humans outdoors during the day, the mosquito plays an important role in transmission of dengue virus (DENV). However, no previous studies at Nuevo Leon indicated the role of the mosquito outdoors. To assess Ae. albopictus for dengue virus, mosquitoes were collected from April to October 2010 at five localities at Guadalupe and Santiago, Nuevo Leon, (Northeast) Mexico, by using two methods: engine backpack aspirator and ovitraps. In total, 1,836 Ae. albopictus and 833 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected by ovitrap and engine backpack aspirator methods. Groups of mosquitoes were processed by RT-PCR. Examination for DENV infection of mosquitoes showed one positive group of four female Ae. albopictus from an ovitrap. This research provided information that showed transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Ae. albopictus occurred naturally, maintaining endemic levels of disease at a study site.

381) Identification of the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK: A novel sample type for diagnostic purposes and support for a potential non-vectorborne route of transmission
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hearn P.T., Atkinson B., Hewson R., Brooks T.
Assunto: diagnosis, fever, hygiene, society, tropical medicine, United Kingdom
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 91, n. 5, supl. 1, p. 62-63, nov. 2014
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and normally causes a self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, headache, conjunctival suffusion, myalgia and joint pains. It was discovered in 1947 at Zika Forest, near to Entebbe, Uganda. More recently it has been found outside Africa in outbreaks such as those of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. We report the first case of imported Zika Fever to the UK, highlight novel samples for testing and a theoretical mode of non-vector-borne transmission. A couple travelled to the Cook Islands during what was thought to be a Dengue outbreak in February 2014. Within 6 days of exposure, both 'Patient 1' and his wife, 'Patient 2', had developed fatigue, followed 48 hours later by fever, headache, aching joints and a widespread maculopapular rash. Both reported symptoms resolving by day 5 of rash onset. In 2011, Foy et al described likely sexual transmission of ZIKV. A scientist from Colorado, travelling back from Senegal whilst incubating the virus, reportedly passed it to his wife, in whom clinical and serological evidence supported the diagnosis. On day 1 of rash onset, Patient 1 had serum sent to the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton Down and a panel of serological tests based on stated travel was performed. Dengue testing revealed positive IgM, but negative IgG and PCR. This pattern has been reported previously due to cross-reactivity between the flaviviruses. The sample was then tested by PCR for ZIKV and found to be positive. Further samples were taken on day 28 after rash onset. Blood and urine from both patients were tested in parallel, along with a semen sample from Patient 1. The semen was the only sample found to be positive for ZIKV by PCR. The reasons for persistence in the semen are not yet clear, but this case is significant not only as the first case of Zika Fever imported to the UK, but also as support for the possibility of sexual transmission, though not in this case, and highlights an additional sample type for the confirmation of infection in the future.

382) Molecular evolution of zika virus during its emergence in the 20th Century
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto: Dengue virus; Sequence alignment; Recombinant sequences; Phylogenetic analysis; Envelope proteins; Genus flavivirus; Mosaic structure; Yellow-Fever; Missing data; RNA viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

383) Evidence of perinatal transmission of zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Besnard M., Lastère S., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.M., Musso D.
Assunto: perinatal infection, virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology), virus transmission, zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 13, apr. 2014
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: A Zika virus (ZIKAV) outbreak started in October 2013 in French Polynesia, South Pacific. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of two mothers and their newborns who had ZIKAV infection as confirmed by ZIKAV RT-PCR performed on serum collected within four days post-delivery in date. The infants' infection most probably occurred by transplacental transmission or during delivery. Attention should be paid to ZIKAV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, as data on the impact on them are limited.

384) Chromobacterium Csp_P Reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities
Autor: Ramirez, Jose Luis; Short, Sarah M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Saraiva, Raul G.; Dong, Yuemei; Kang, Seokyoung; Tripathi, Abhai; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Colonization; Human diseases; Pest control; Disease transmission; Public health; Immune system; Vector-borne diseases; Disease control; Survival; Infection; Dengue; Midgut; Immune response; Larvae; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chromobacterium; Plasmodium falciparum; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. These influences make the mosquito microbiota highly interesting from a disease control perspective. Here we present a bacterium of the genus Chromobacterium (Csp_P), which was isolated from the midgut of field-caught Aedes aegypti. Csp_P can effectively colonize the mosquito midgut when introduced through an artificial nectar meal, and it also inhibits the growth of other members of the midgut microbiota. Csp_P colonization of the midgut tissue activates mosquito immune responses, and Csp_P exposure dramatically reduces the survival of both the larval and adult stages. Ingestion of Csp_P by the mosquito significantly reduces its susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infection, thereby compromising the mosquito's vector competence. This bacterium also exerts in vitro anti-Plasmodium and anti-dengue activities, which appear to be mediated through Csp_P -produced stable bioactive factors with transmission-blocking and therapeutic potential. The anti-pathogen and entomopathogenic properties of Csp_P render it a potential candidate for the development of malaria and dengue control strategies.

385) Clone 13-infected Aedes aegypti salivary components inhibit Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity
Autor: Coupanec, Alain Le; Babin, Divya; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Rift Valley fever virus; Clone 13; Salivary gland; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 16, n. 5, p. 439-444, 2014.
ISSN: 1286-4579
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks among humans and domestic animals in Africa. RVFV Clone 13, a naturally attenuated clone, is a promising vaccine which was used during the 2009-2010 outbreak in South Africa and played a key role in the control of the disease. In this work, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with RVFV Clone 13 and prepared salivary gland extracts (SGE). C57BL/6-NRJ male mice were infected with a mixture of SGE infected by Clone 13 and the ZH548 RVFV strain. With the injection of increasing doses of Clone 13-infected SGE, all mice were protected. Our results suggest Clone 13 infected SGE contain unique antiviral components able to counteract the replication of RVFV when injected into vertebrates.

386) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?
Autor: Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Ondo, Statiana Mboui; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Zika virus; Mutation; Infections; Phylogenetics; Flavivirus - Classification; Flavivirus - Genetics, Animals; Gabon; Humans; Phylogeny, Aedes - Virology; Communicable Diseases, Emerging - Virology; Flavivirus - Isolation and purification
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 2, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Not previously considered an important human arboviral pathogen, the epidemic capacity of Zika virus (ZIKV, a dengue-related flavivirus) was revealed by the Micronesia outbreak in 2007, which affected about 5000 persons. Widely distributed throughout tropical areas of Asia and Africa, ZIKV is transmitted by a broad range of mosquito species, most of which are sylvatic or rural, Aedes aegypti, an anthropophilic and urban species, being considered the main ZIKV epidemic vector. In a context of emerging arbovirus infections (chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV)) in Gabon since 2007, we conducted a retrospective study to detect other, related viruses. In samples collected during the concurrent CHIKV/DENV outbreaks that occurred in the capital city in 2007, we detected ZIKV in both humans and mosquitoes, and notably the Asian mosquito Aedes albopictus that recently invaded the country and was the main vector responsible for these outbreaks. We found that the Gabonese ZIKV strain belonged to the African lineage, and phylogenetic analysis suggested ancestral diversification and spread rather than recent introduction. These findings, showing for the first time epidemic ZIKV activity in an urban environment in Central Africa and the presence of ZIKV in the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, raise the possibility of a new emerging threat to human health.

387) Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011
Autor: Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth
Assunto: Landing statistics; Polymerase chain reaction; Hosts; Canopies; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Agriculture; Savannahs; Vectors; Forests; Cadmium; Infection; Pest outbreaks; Aedes; Zika virus; Aedes furcifer; Aedes vittatus; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18:00 to 21:00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kedougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment.

388) The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins
Autor: Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Hayden, Mary H.; Bieringer, Paul E.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Bionomics; Population dynamics; Range margin; Temperature
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 496-516, 2014.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of temperature on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic range margins where future rising temperatures could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how temperature impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the temperature ranges for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool range margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic range now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating temperatures impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water temperature. The general shape of the relationship between water temperature and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower developmental zero temperature (10-14 degree C) is exceeded, there is a near-linear relationship up to 30 degree C. Above this temperature, the development rate is relatively stable or even decreases slightly before falling dramatically near the upper developmental zero temperature, which occurs at similar to 38-42 degree C. Based on life stage-specific linear relationships between water temperature and development rate in the 15-28 degree C range, the lower developmental zero temperature is estimated to be 14.0 degree C for eggs, 11.8 degree C for larvae, and 10.3 degree C for pupae. We further conclude that available population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti, such as CIMSiM and Skeeter Buster, likely produce robust predictions based on water temperatures in the 16-35 degree C range, which includes the geographic areas where Ae. aegypti and its associated pathogens present the greatest threat to human health, but that they may be less reliable in cool range margins where water temperatures regularly fall below 15 degree C. Finally, we identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its range, now and in the future, based on impacts on mosquito population dynamics of temperature and other important factors, such as water nutrient content, larval density, presence of biological competitors, and human behavior.

389) Zika virus infections
Autor: Nhan T.-X., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Musso D.
Assunto: Arboviruses; Diagnosis; Emergence; French Polynesia; Outbreak; Zika; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, v.2014, n. 467, p. 45-52,2014.
ISSN: 1773035X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV is an arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus) belonging to the Flavivirus genus. ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, especially Aedes species. Sporadic human cases were reported from the 1950s and 1960s in Asia and Africa. In2007, Yap Island (Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) reported the first large ZIKV outbreak. From October2013 to March2014, French Polynesia (FP), Pacific, experienced the largest ZIKV outbreak ever reported with an estimate of28.000 cases (11% of the population). Before the FP outbreak, Zika fever was reported as a self-limited disease, no severe form nor hospitalization have been reported. During this outbreak, the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndromes was20 fold higher than expected and this neurological complication was probably linked with ZIKV infections. During this outbreak, perinatal and possible transfusion-related ZIKV transmissions have been described. Acute phase diagnosis relies on molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR). Serodiagnosis is limited by the high degree of cross reactions with other flaviviruses, especially in the case of secondary-flaviviruses infections. To date, there is no available commercial test and diagnosis is limited to reference laboratories. Zika fever should be suspected from patients presenting with a "dengue like syndrome", returning or living in a ZIKV endemic area and tested negative for the other predominant arboviruses, especially dengue. ©2014 - Elsevier Masson SAS - Tous droits réservés.

390) First case of laboratory-confirmed zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Rissland J., Gabriel M., Emmerich P., Günther S., Held G., Smola S., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: import disease (diagnosis), virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 19, n. 4, jan. 2014
ISSN: 1025-496X,1560-7917 (electronic)
Resumo: In November 2013, an acute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was diagnosed in a German traveller returning from Thailand. The patient reported a clinical picture resembling dengue fever. Serological investigations revealed anti-ZIKV-IgM and -IgG, as well as ZIKV-specific neutralising antibodies in the patient's blood. In Europe, viraemic travellers may become a source of local transmission of ZIKV, because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) are invasive mosquitoes and competent vectors for ZIKV.

391) Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential
Autor: Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklov, Joacim
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Epidemics; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Abiotic factors; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Climatic changes; Climate; Vectors; Mapping; Infection; Models; Diurnal variations; Historical account; Tropical environments; Temperature; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS One, v. 9, n. 3, 2014.
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3 degree C when DTR was 0 degree C and at 20 degree C when DTR was 20 degree C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29 degree C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29 degree C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29 degree C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29 degree C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC.

392) Characterization of Aedes aegypti innate-immune pathways that limit chikungunya virus replication
Autor: McFarlane, Melanie; Arias-Goeta, Camilo; Martin, Estelle; O'Hara, Zoe; Lulla, Aleksei; Mousson, Laurence; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Misbah, Suzana; Schnettler, Esther; Donald, Claire L.; Merits, Andres; Kohl, Alain; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Replication; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Infection; Antiviral activity; Signal transduction; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 7, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Replication of arboviruses in their arthropod vectors is controlled by innate immune responses. The RNA sequence-specific break down mechanism, RNA interference (RNAi), has been shown to be an important innate antiviral response in mosquitoes. In addition, immune signaling pathways have been reported to mediate arbovirus infections in mosquitoes; namely the JAK/STAT, immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll pathways. Very little is known about these pathways in response to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, a mosquito-borne alphavirus (Togaviridae) transmitted by aedine species to humans resulting in a febrile and arthralgic disease. In this study, the contribution of several innate immune responses to control CHIKV replication was investigated. In vitro experiments identified the RNAi pathway as a key antiviral pathway. CHIKV was shown to repress the activity of the Toll signaling pathway in vitro but neither JAK/STAT, IMD nor Toll pathways were found to mediate antiviral activities. In vivo data further confirmed our in vitro identification of the vital role of RNAi in antiviral defence. Taken together these results indicate a complex interaction between CHIKV replication and mosquito innate immune responses and demonstrate similarities as well as differences in the control of alphaviruses and other arboviruses by mosquito immune pathways. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human-pathogenic arbovirus of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus. Arbovirus replication in vectors, such as mosquitoes, is not passively tolerated but leads to immune responses, that control virus infection. These responses therefore represent interesting targets for novel intervention strategies. Mosquito antiviral immune responses, such as small RNA pathways or immune signaling pathways, are increasingly well studied but it is not known which one mediate antiviral effects against CHIKV in particular. Here we screened four key immune responses in vitro for their antiviral potential against CHIKV and only the exogenous RNA interference was found to mediate antiviral activity. This was confirmed in vivo in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Immune signaling pathways were not found to mediate antiviral activity but were inhibited by CHIKV. This shows interesting differences and similarities to other mosquito-borne alphaviruses that increase our understanding of alphavirus-mosquito interactions.

393) Zika virus infection after travel to Tahiti, December 2013
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wæhre T., Maagard A., Tappe D., Cadar D., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 8, p. 1412-1414, 2014
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

394) Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors
Autor: Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Human diseases; Replication; Inhibitors; Pest control; Hosts; Chemical compounds; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding; Sugar; Mycophenolic acid; Double-stranded RNA; Vectors; Blood meals; Salivary gland; Infection; Longevity; Fecundity; Digestive tract; Insect cells; RNA-mediated interference; Midgut; H super(+)-transporting ATPase; Gene silencing; Dengue; Machinery; Arthropods; Ingestion; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 8, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 mu M) and MPA (25 mu M) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. Arboviruses utilize homologous host factors of the mammalian and insect cellular machinery to complete the infection cycle. Studies in both mammalian and insect cell lines have shown that virus infection can be suppressed through inhibition of host factors by chemical compounds that therefore could be developed into transmission blocking agents. However, similar studies have not been conducted in adult mosquitoes. Here we investigated the effect of four chemical compounds (bafilomycin, mycophenolic acid, castanospermine, and deoxynojirimycin), known to inhibit the host factors vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and glucosidases, on dengue virus replication in adult mosquitoes. We found that bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid suppressed dengue virus replication in adult mosquito guts when they were injected prior to dengue virus infection; however, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin did not. Ingestion of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid also inhibited virus replication. We showed that the predicted target genes of bafilomycin and mycophenolic acid function as virus host factors in adult mosquitoes through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Inhibition of vATPase also decreases mosquito longevity and fecundity, thereby further compromising vector capacity. Our study demonstrated that chemical compounds or double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) can be used to suppress virus infection through inhibition of host factors in adult mosquitoes, thereby rendering such approaches interesting for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies.

395) Distinct variation in vector competence among nine field populations of Aedes aegypti from a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city
Autor: Goncalves, Caroline M.; Melo, Fabricio F.; Bezerra, Juliana M. T.; Chaves, Barbara A.; Silva, Breno M.; Silva, Luciana D.; Pessanha, Jose E. M.; Arias, Jorge R.; Secundino, Nagila F. C.; Norris, Douglas E.; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.
Assunto: Parasites; Epidemics; Pest control; Hosts; Risks; Public health; Disease transmission; Statistics; Data processing; Head; Dengue; Disseminated infection; Regression analysis; Vectors; Sustainable development; Outbreaks; Infection; Social sciences; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 7, n. 1, 2014.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: In Brazil, dengue epidemics erupt sporadically throughout the country and it is unclear if outbreaks may initiate a sustainable transmission cycle. There are few studies evaluating the ability of Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations to transmit dengue virus (DENV). The aim of this study was to compare DENV susceptibility of field-captured Ae. aegypti populations from nine distinct geographic areas of the city of Belo Horizonte in 2009 and 2011. Infection Rate (IR), Vector Competence (VC) and Disseminated Infection Rate (DIR) were determined. Methods: Aedes aegypti eggs from each region were collected and reared separately in an insectary. Adult females were experimentally infected with DENV-2 and the virus was detected by qPCR in body and head samples. Data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. Results: IR varied from 40.0% to 82.5% in 2009 and 60.0% to 100.0% in 2011. VC ranged from 25.0% to 77.5% in 2009 and 25.0% to 80.0% in 2011. DIR oscillated from 68.7% to 100.0% in 2009 and 38.4% to 86.8 in 2011. When the results were evaluated by a logistic model using IR as covariate, North, Barreiro, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the strongest association in 2009. In 2011, a similar association was observed for South-Central, Venda Nova, West and Northeast regions. Using VC as covariate, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the most relevant association in 2009. In 2011, South-Central, Venda Nova and Barreiro presented the greatest revelation associations. When DIR data were analyzed by logistic regression models, Pampulha, South-Central, Venda Nova, West, Northeast and East (2009) as well as South-Central, Venda Nova and West (2011) were the districts showing the strongest associations. Conclusions: We conclude that Ae. aegypti populations from Belo Horizonte exhibit wide variation in vector competence to transmit dengue. Therefore, vector control strategies should be adapted to the available data for each region. Further analysis should be conducted to better understand the reasons for this large variability in vector competence and how these parameters correlate with epidemiological findings in subsequent years.

396) Vector competence in west african Aedes aegypti is flavivirus species and genotype dependent
Autor: Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Viruses; Pathogens; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Yellow fever; Vectors; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 10, 2014.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Vector competence is defined as the intrinsic permissiveness of an arthropod vector for infection, dissemination, and transmission of a pathogen. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses worldwide and is divided into two subspecies: Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus. Aedes aegypti aegypti is found globally in tropical and subtropical regions, while Ae. aegypti formosus is mainly restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Aedes aegypti formosus is considered to be a poor vector for both yellow fever and dengue, but some of these original studies with yellow fever were performed with highly passaged viral isolates collected at different locations than the mosquitoes. Viral genetics is an important determinant of vector competence and virus/mosquito genetic specificity exists in Ae. aegypti aegypti. We compared the vector competence of multiple collections of Ae. aegypti from throughout Senegal for both yellow fever and dengue viruses to demonstrate that vector competence in Ae. aegypti formosus is dependent on viral genotype. In contrast to earlier claims, populations of Ae. aegypti in West Africa can be competent vectors of flaviviruses.

397) Molecular characterization of three zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Berthet N., Nakouné E., Kamgang B., Selekon B., Descorps-Declère S., Gessain A., Manuguerra J.-C., Kazanji M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, virus identification, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 14, n. 12, p. 862-865, dec. 2014
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

398) Distribution of yellow fever vectors in Northwestern and Western Provinces, Zambia
Autor: Masaninga, Freddie; Muleba, Mbanga; Masendu, Hieronymo;Songolo, Peter; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Siziya, Seter; Ayorinde, Olusegun
Assunto: Viral diseases; Vectors; Pest control; Hosts; Canoes; Disease transmission; Public health; Light traps; Risk factors; Yellow fever; Polymerase chain reaction; Forests; Infection; Culex; Aedes; Anopheles; Mansonia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 7, supl.1, p. 88-92, 2014.
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To determine the distribution of yellow fever (YF) vectors species in Northwestern and Western of Zambia, which sampled mosquitoes inside and outside houses in rural, urban, peri-urban and forest areas. Methods: Back-pack aspirators spray catches and CDC light traps collected adult mosquitoes including 405 Aedes, 518 Anopheles, 471 Culex and 71 Mansonia. Morphological vector identification and PCR viral determination were done at a WHO Regional Reference Centre (Institute Pasteur Dakar), Senegal. Results: The two main YF vectors were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus. The first was collected in peri-urban areas and the later was in forest areas, both sparsely distributed in Northwestern Province, where the 0.43 Breteau and 1.92 container indexes, respectively implied low risk to YF. Aedes (Aedimorphus) mutilus; Aedes (Aedimorphus) minutus and Aedes (Finlaya) wellmani were also found in Northwestern, not in Western Province. No Aedes were collected from rural peri-domestic areas. Significantly more Aedes species (90.7%, n=398) than Anopheles (9.1%, n=40) were collected in forest areas (P<0.001) or Culex species (0.2%, n=2) (P<0.001). Ae. aegypti was found only in a discarded container but not in flower pots, old tyres, plant axils, discarded shallow wells, disused container bottles and canoes inspected. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti and Aedes africanus YF vectors were found in the study sites in the Northwestern Province of Zambia, where densities were low and distribution was sparse. The low Breteau index suggests low risk of YF in the Northwestern Province. The presence of Aedes in Northwestern Province and its absence in the Western Province could be due to differing ecological factors in the sampled areas. Universal coverage of vector control interventions could help to reduce YF vector population and the risk to arthropod-borne virus infections.

399) High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the southeast of France
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Caro, Valerie;Diancourt, Laure; Delaunay, Pascal; Grandadam, Marc;Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Human diseases; Epidemics; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK) were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN) were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. Methodology and Principal Findings We used two strains of each virus, CHIK and DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM) was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Frejus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi). The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. Conclusions/Significance Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

400) Application of real-time RT-PCR in vector surveillance and assessment of replication kinetics of an emerging novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Agarwal Ankita,Singh Anil K,Sharma Shashi,Soni Manisha,Thakur Ashish K,Gopalan N,Parida M M,Rao P V L,Dash Paban K
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Chikungunya, Dissemination, RT-PCR, Transmission, Vector surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 193, n. 2, p. 419-425, 2013
ISSN: 1879-0984
Resumo: Chikungunya has emerged as one of the most important arboviral infection of global significance. Expansion of Chikungunya virus endemic areas can be ascribed to naive population, increasing vector population and adaptability of virus to new vector. In this study, a SYBR Green I based quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed. The assay was found to be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and no cross reactivity was observed with related alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The detection efficiency of the assay was impervious to mosquitoes of different pool sizes. Vector surveillance has resulted in detection of CHIKV RNA in Aedes aegypti, confirming its vectorial potential for CHIKV in northern India. The assessment of the assay was further carried out by studying the competence of Indian Ae. aegypti for CHIKV, which revealed 100% infection rate and dissemination rate with 60% transmission rate. The replication kinetics of CHIKV in different anatomical sites of Ae. aegypti revealed highest titre at day 6 post infection in midgut and at day 10 post infection in saliva, legs and wings. The implementation of the assay in detecting lower viral load makes it a remarkable tool for surveillance of virus activity in mosquitoes.

401) Host Defense via Symbiosis in Drosophila
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamilton, Phineas T.; Perlman, Steve J.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Plasmodium Infection; Dengue Virus; Wolbachia; Spiroplasma; Populations; Activation; Insects; Refractoriness; Endosymbionts
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 12, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo:

402) Colonized Aedes albopictus and its sexual performance in the wild: implications for SIT technology and containment
Autor: Hamady, Dieng; Ruslan, Norrafiza Binti; Ahmad, Abu Hassan;Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu;Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; FuKumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Fadzly, Nik; Ghani, Idris Abd;AbuBakar, Sazaly
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Laboratory strain; Wild strain; Mating affinity; Containment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 1, 2013.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some mosquitoes have an enormous reproductive potential for both themselves and pathogens and mating may contribute to persistence of infection in nature. As Aedes albopictus can transmit flaviviruses both sexually and horizontally, and as infected insects are usually derived from laboratory colonies, we investigated the implications of mating between a long-term laboratory colony of Ae. albopictus and wild populations. Methods: Through a series of mating experiments, we examined the reproductive outcomes of sexual cross-affinity between laboratory-raised and wild adults of Ae. albopictus. Results: The results indicated appreciable mating compatibility between laboratory-reared and wild adults, and equivalent levels of egg production among reciprocal crosses. We also observed comparable larval eclosion in lab females mated with wild males, and increased adult longevity in female offspring from wild females||laboratory males crosses. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that Ae. albopictus can preserve its reproductive fitness over a long period of time in the laboratory environment and has valuable attributes for SIT application. These observations together with the ability to successfully inseminate heterospecific females indicate the potential of Ae. albopictus to act as an ecological barrier if non-sterilized males are massively released in areas occupied by Aedes aegypti. The observed substantial reproductive fitness combined with the capability to reproduce both, itself and viruses illustrates the potential of Ae. albopictus to pose a serious threat if infected and released accidentally.

403) Characterization of an efficient dengue virus replicon for development of assays of discovery of small molecules against dengue virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yang, Chi-Chen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hu, Han-Shu; Pu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Ren-Huang; Wu, Szu-Huei; Lin, Hui-Mei; Song, Jen-Shin; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Yueh, Andrew
Assunto: Dengue virus; Dengue replicon; DNA - Launched dengue replicon; High throughput screening
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 98, n. 2, p. 228-241, 2013
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is a public health threat to approximately 40% of the global population. At present, neither licensed vaccines nor effective therapies exist, and the mechanism of viral RNA replication is not well understood. Here, we report the development of efficient Renilla luciferase reporter-based DENV replicons that contain the full-length capsid sequence for transient and stable DENV RNA replication. A comparison of the transient and stable expression of this RNA-launched replicon to replicons containing various deletions revealed dengue replicon containing entire mature capsid RNA element has higher replicon activity. An efficient DNA-launched DENV replicon, pCMV-DV2Rep, containing a full-length capsid sequence, was created and successfully applied to evaluate the potency of known DENV inhibitors. Stable cell lines harboring the DENV replicon were easily established by transfecting pCMV-DV2Rep into BHK21 cells. Steady and high replicon reporter signals were observed in the stable DENV replicon cells, even after 30 passages. The stable DENV replicon cells were successfully used to determine the potency of known DENV inhibitors. A high-throughput screening assay based on stable DENV replicon cells was evaluated and shown to have an excellent Z' factor of 0.74. Altogether, the development of our efficient DENV replicon system will facilitate the study of virus replication and the discovery of antiviral compounds. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

404) Use of anti-Aedes aegypti salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia
Autor: Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Cardenas, Lucio D; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M;Wesson, Dawn M; McCracken, Michael K; Carvajal, Daisy;Mores, Christopher N
Assunto: Human diseases; Antibodies; Glands; Biomarkers; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Bites; Dengue; Immunoglobulin G; Vectors; Infection; Salivary gland; Bioindicators; Risk assessment; Dengue virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence.

405) Genetic characterization of E2 region of Chikungunya virus circulating in Odisha, Eastern India from 2010 to 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sahu, Abhipsa; Das, Biswadeep; Das, Mumani; Patra, Aparna; Biswal, Sudarsan; Kar, Santanu K.; Hazra, Rupenangshu K.
Assunto: Chikungunya; Genetic analysis; T cell epitope; Positive selection; Transmembrane helix; Structural modeling
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Infection Genetics And Evolution, v. 18, p. 113-124, 2013
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has caught attention yet again as it rages around the globe affecting millions of people. The virus caused epidemic outbreaks affecting more than 15,000 people in Odisha, Eastern India since 2010. In this study, complete genetic characterization of E2 gene of CHIKV circulating in Odisha from 2010 to 2011 was performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR, molecular phyloGenetics and bioinformatics methods. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the circulation of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) strains of ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Odisha. Several mutations were detected in the E2 gene, viz. E2-R82G, E2-L210Q E2-I21 1T, E2-V229I and E2-S375T which had various adaptive roles during the Evolution of CHIKV. The CHIKV E2 peptide (KTDDSHD63)-K-57 was predicted to be the most probable T-cell epitope and peptide (84)FVRTSAPCT(92) predicted to be the common T and B cell epitope having high antigenicity. The amino acid positions 356-379 and 365-385 were predicted to be transmembrane helical domains and indicated E2 protein anchorage in intracellular membranes for effective interaction with the host receptors. Positive selection pressure was observed in five specific sites, 210, 211, 318, 375, and 377 which were observed to be fixed advantageously in most viral isolates. Structural modeling revealed that E2 gene of CHIKV was composed of 3 domains and the major adaptive mutations were detected in domain B, which can modulate binding of CHIKV to host cells, while the transmembrane domain in domain C and the epitopes were located in domain A, which was found to be most conserved. This is the first report from Eastern India demonstrating a predictive approach to the genetic variations, epitopic regions and the transmembrane helices of the E2 region. The results of this study, combined with other published observations, will expand our knowledge about the E2 region of CHIKV which can be exploited to develop control measures against CHIKV. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

406) Molecular investigations of dengue virus during outbreaks in Orissa state, Eastern India from 2010 to 2011
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Das, Biswadeep; Das, Mumani; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Santanu K.; Hazra, Rupenangshu K.
Assunto: Dengue virus; Orissa; Ae. albopictus; RT-PCR; Phylogenetics; Maximum likelihood estimate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Infection Genetics And Evolution v. 16, n. , p. 401-410, 2013
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Dengue is one of the most important arboviral diseases in India. Orissa state in Eastern India reported the first dengue outbreak in 2010, followed by extensive outbreaks in 2011, affecting large number of people. Detailed entomological, serological and phylogenetic investigations were performed in mosquitoes and patients serum collected from dengue virus (DENV) affected Areas of Orissa. The combination of DENV specific IgM capture-ELISA and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) detected high DENV positivity in serum samples. DENV was detected in mosquitoes reared from field caught pupae by RT-PCR, which confirmed the vertical transmission of DENV that may have an important role in the recurrence of dengue outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the circulation of Indian lineage of DENV-2 (genotype-IV) and DENV-3 (genotype-III) in vectors and patients serum in Orissa from 2010 to 2011, DENV-2 being the prevailing serotype. Selection analyses within the C-prM region showed that the emergence of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in Orissa was constrained by purifying selection which suggested the role of ecological factors like mosquito density and behavior in the recurrent outbreaks. Aedes albopictus was found to be the most abundant vector in the Areas surveyed, followed by Aedes aegypti. Indoor breeding spots (earthen pots) were most abundant, with high pupal productivity (38.50) and contributed maximum Aedes species in the affected Areas. The DENV infection rate estimated by maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) was high for indoor breeding Aedes (4.87; 95% CI: 1.82, 10.78) in comparison to outdoor breeding Aedes (1.55; 95% CI: 0.09, 7.55). The high MLE in Ae. albopictus (4.72; 95% CI: 1.94, 9.80) in comparison to Ae. aegypti (1.55; 95% Cl: 0.09, 7.54) indicated that Ae. albopictus was the main DENV vector responsible for the outbreaks. The results indicated the circulation of two virulent serotypes of DENV in Orissa, mainly by Ae. albopictus with the implication for implementation of intradomecile vector control measures to prevent the spread of dengue. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

407) Chikungunya virus with E1-A226V mutation causing two outbreaks in 2010, Guangdong, China
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wu, De; Zhang, Yonghui; Qiong ZhouHui; Kou, Jing; Liang, Wenjia; Zhang, Huan; Monagin, Corina; Zhang, Qiaoli; Li, Wenjie; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Li, Hui; Cai, Songwu; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Chikungunya fever; Phylogenetic analysis; Molecular epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Virology Journal , v. 10, n. 174, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: CHIKV is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans in tropical zones around the globe. A new variant of the virus, E1-A226V caused a large outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands and India from 2004-2007. CHIKV outbreak was initially reported in Dongguan region of Guangdong in 2010 in China, another smaller CHIKV outbreak was found in Yangjiang region of Guangdong two weeks later. The viral agent causing the two outbreaks was inferred to be the new E1-A226V variant and Yangjiang CHIKV might be introduced from Dongguan. To confirm the hypothesis and determine the origin of CHIKV causing the outbreaks, we described Yangjiang outbreak in this study, and the molecular characterization of CHIKV from Yangjiang and Dongguang outbreaks were analyzed.Results: 27 clinical cases of CHIK fever were reported in outbreak in Yangjiang region. Sera sample from 12 clinical cases were collected from the outbreak, and nucleic acid and antibody tests for CHIKV were performed using Real-time RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence. Positive samples of Real-time RT-PCR were subjected to viral isolation. The results showed 3/12 samples positive for Real-time RT-PCR. 7/12 and 4/12 samples were positive for IgM and IgG against CHIKV respectively, two virus strains were isolated. Four viral genomes from Dongguan and Yangjiang were sequenced, characterized and phylogeneticly analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four seqeunced viruses had the closest relationship (99.4 similar to 99.6% identify) with the Singapore 2008 isolate belonging to the Indian ocean clade. A common mutation at the site of the E1-A226V was observed among four viruses. Four and three aa substitutions were detected in the CHIKV sequence from the Dongguan and Yangjiang outbreak strains respectively.Conclusion: CHIKV with an E1-A226V mutation that originated from Southeast Asia isolates caused two outbreaks in China in 2010, and originated from two different infectious sources.

408) The Distribution of synonymous codon choice in the translation initiation region of dengue virus
Autor: Zhou, Jian-hua; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Dong-jie; Ma, Qi; Chen, Hao-tai; Ma, Li-na; Ding, Yao-zhong; Liu, Yong-sheng
Assunto: Geographical distribution; Translations; Adaptations; Mutations; Viruses; Genotypes; Public health; Translation; Translation initiation; tRNA; RNA viruses; copy number; Dengue; Codons; Mutation; Evolution; Open reading frames; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Pan troglodytes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 10, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been 'branded' on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.

409) Immunization with Culex tarsalis Mosquito Salivary Gland Extract Modulates West Nile Virus Infection and Disease in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reagan, Krystle; Wang, Tian; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Blair, Carol D.
Assunto: Host Immune-Response; Aedes-Aegypti; Immunomodulatory Factors; Cutaneous Leishmaniasis; Differential Modulation; Arthropod Saliva; North-America; Dengue-Virus; Cells; Encephalitis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 84-92, 2013
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Mosquito salivary proteins inoculated during blood feeding modulate the host immune response, which can contribute to the pathogenesis of viruses transmitted by mosquito bites. Previous studies with mosquito bite-naive mice indicated that exposure to arthropod salivary proteins resulted in a shift toward a Th2-type immune response in flavivirus-susceptible mice but not flavivirus-resistant animals. In the study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that immunization with high doses of Culex tarsalis salivary gland extracts (SGE) with an adjuvant would prevent Th2 polarization after mosquito bite and enhance resistance to mosquito-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV). Our results indicate that mice immunized with Cx. tarsalis SGE produced increased levels of Th1-type cytokines (IFN gamma and TNF alpha) after challenge with mosquito-transmitted WNV and exhibited both a delay in infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and significantly lower WNV brain titers compared to mock-immunized mice. Moreover, mortality was significantly reduced in the SGE-immunized mice, as none of these mice died, compared to mortality of 37.5% of mock-vaccinated mice by 8 days after infected mosquito bite. These results suggest that development of a mosquito salivary protein Vaccine might be a strategy to control arthropod-borne viral pathogens such as WNV.

410) Susceptibility of larval Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae) to dengue virus
Autor: Bara, J. J.; Clark, T. M.; Remold, S. K.
Assunto: Viral diseases; Larvae; Pest control; Tissue culture; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arthropoda; Culicidae; Diptera; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 1, p. 179-184, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Mosquitoes vertically transmit many arthropod borne viruses, and as a consequence arboviruses are often present within the larval environment. We tested the hypothesis that Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae were susceptible to dengue virus through two infection methods: exposure to dengue in the larval growth environment via viral supernatant, and exposure to infected tissue culture along with viral supernatant. In addition to investigating for the first time the susceptibility of larval Ae. albopictus to dengue virus, we analyzed the infection rate and viral titer of infected pools of Ae. aegypti when exposed to multiple serotypes of dengue. We found that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were susceptible to the three dengue virus serotypes to which they were exposed regardless of the exposure method and that there were significant differences between the serotypes in infection titer and infection rate. The finding that larval Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are susceptible to dengue indicates that dengue might be able to spread among larvae within the larval habitat potentially contributing to the persistence of dengue in the environment.

411) P53-Mediated Rapid Induction of Apoptosis Conveys Resistance to Viral Infection in Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Bo; Behura, Susanta K.; Clem, Rollie J.; Schneemann, Anette; Becnel, James; Severson, David W.; Zhou, Lei
Assunto: Flock house virus; Mosquito Aedes aegypti; Baculovirus infection; Antiviral response; Dengue 2 virus; DNA damage; Cells; Protein; Gene; Replication
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 9, n. 2, 2013
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Arthropod-borne pathogens account for millions of deaths each year. Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling vector susceptibility to pathogens has profound implications for developing novel strategies for controlling insect-transmitted infectious diseases. The fact that many viruses carry genes that have anti-apoptotic activity has long led to the hypothesis that induction of apoptosis could be a fundamental innate immune response. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating the induction of apoptosis following viral infection remained enigmatic, which has prevented experimental verification of the functional significance of apoptosis in limiting viral infection in insects. In addition, studies with cultured insect cells have shown that there is sometimes a lack of apoptosis, or the pro-apoptotic response happens relatively late, thus casting doubt on the functional significance of apoptosis as an innate immunity. Using in vivo mosquito models and the native route of infection, we found that there is a rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes within a few hours following exposure to DNA or RNA viruses. Recapitulating a similar response in Drosophila, we found that this rapid induction of apoptosis requires the function of P53 and is mediated by a stress-responsive regulatory region upstream of reaper. More importantly, we showed that the rapid induction of apoptosis is responsible for preventing the expression of viral genes and blocking the infection. Genetic changes influencing this rapid induction of reaper-like pro-apoptotic genes led to significant differences in susceptibility to viral infection.

412) Spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti related to breeding container characteristics in coastal Ecuador: implications for dengue control
Autor: Schafrick, Nathaniel H.; Milbrath, Meghan O.; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Wilson, Mark L.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.
Assunto: Coastal zone; Human diseases; Pest control; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Public health; Breeding; Dengue; Dispersal; Containers; Households; Towns; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 4, p. 758-765, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Mosquito management within households remains central to the control of dengue virus transmission. An important factor in these management decisions is the spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti. We measured spatial clustering of Ae. aegypti in the town of Borbo Ecuador and assessed what characteristics of breeding containers influenced the clustering. We used logistic regression to assess the spatial extent of that clustering. We found strong evidence for juvenile mosquito clustering within 20 m and for adult mosquito clustering within 10 m, and stronger clustering associations for containers > or = 40 L than those < 40 L. Aedes aegypti clusters persisted after adjusting for various container characteristics, suggesting that patterns are likely attributable to short dispersal distances rather than shared characteristics of containers in cluster areas. These findings have implications for targeting Ae. aegypti control efforts.

413) Isolation of infectious chikungunya virus and dengue virus using anionic polymer-coated magnetic beads
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Patramool, Sirilaksana; Bernard, Eric; Hamel, Rodolphe; Natthanej, Luplertlop; Chazal, Nathalie; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Daoust, Simon; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Thomas, Frederic; Briant, Laurence; Misse, Dorothee
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Magnetic beads; Viro-Adembeads
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 193, n. 1, p. 55-61, 2013
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Mosquitoes-borne viruses are a major threat for human populations. Among them, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) cause thousands of cases worldwide. The recent propagation of mosquito vectors competent to transmit these viruses to temperate Areas increases their potential impact on susceptible human populations. The development of sensitive methods allowing the detection and isolation of infectious viruses is of crucial interest for determination of virus contamination in humans and in competent mosquito vectors. However, simple and rapid method allowing the capture of infectious CHIKV and DENV from samples with low viral titers useful for further genetic and functional characterization of circulating strains is lacking. The present study reports a fast and sensitive isolation technique based on viral particles adsorption on magnetic beads coated with anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate) and suitable for isolation of infectious CHIKV and DENV from the four serotypes. Starting from quite reduced biological material, this method was accurate to combine with conventional detection techniques, including qRT-PCR and immunoblotting and allowed isolation of infectious particles without resorting to a step of cultivation. The use of polymer-coated magnetic beads is therefore of high interest for rapid detection and isolation of CHIKV and DENV from samples with reduced viral loads and represents an accurate approach for the surveillance of mosquito vector in Area at risk for arbovirus outbreaks. (c) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

414) A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model
Autor: Okamoto, Kenichi W.; Robert, Michael A.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Strains; Aquatic insects; Damping; Disease transmission; Public health; Mortality; Immigration; Vector-borne diseases; Vectors; Stochasticity; Genetic drift; Stochastic models; Migrants; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ;Aedes aegypti - Transmission; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

415) Molecular and Virological Investigation of a Focal Chikungunya Outbreak in Northern India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Soni, Manisha; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Agarwal, Ankita; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, P. V. Lakshmana; Parida, Manmohan; Dash, Paban Kumar
Assunto: Time Rt-Pcr; African Genotype; Virus; Reemergence; Replication; Epidemic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific World Journal, v. 2013, 2013
ISSN: 1537-744X
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is one of the most important arboviral infections of medical significance. The objective of the present study is to identify and characterize the etiology of a focal febrile arthritis outbreak from Gwalior, northern India, during October-November 2010. A detailed virological (isolation) and molecular (end-point RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and nucleotide sequencing) investigation of this outbreak was carried out by collecting and studying 52 clinical samples and 15 mosquito pools from the affected region. The investigation revealed the presence of CHIK viral RNA in 29% of clinical samples and 13% mosquito pool by RT-PCR. The quantification of CHIK viral RNA in samples varied from 10(2.50) to 10(6.67) copies/mL, as demonstrated through quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, six CHIK viruses were isolated from RT-PCR positive samples. The nucleotide Sequences of partial E1 gene of five representative CHIK viruses were deciphered, which revealed that all the viral strains from this outbreak belong to the recently emerging ECS African genotype. Identification of Chikungunya virus ECSA African genotype as the etiology of the present outbreak confirms the continued circulation of the novel genotype, since 2006, in India. The identification of CHIK virus in Aedes aegypti also confirmed it as the major vector in northern India.

416) Establishment of a novel one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid identification of RNA from the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.
Autor: Xu Haihong,Zhang Lei,Shen Guangqiang,Feng Cen,Wang Xinying,Yan Jie,Zhang Yanjun
Assunto: Detection, One-step, RT-LAMP, SFTSV
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 194, n. 1-2, p. 21-25, 2013
ISSN: 1879-0984
Resumo: As an emerging infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection has been found in many areas of China. Suitable laboratory diagnostic method is urgently needed in clinical detections and epidemiological investigations. In this study, a modified, low-cost and rapid visualized one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of RNA from the SFTSV has been established. In order to avoid the risk of aerosol contamination and facilitate the naked eye to observe, a microcrystalline wax-dye capsule wrapping the highly sensitive DNA fluorescence dye SYBR Green I was added to the RT-LAMP reaction tube before the initiation of the assay. The detection limit of the established RT-LAMP assay was 10 fg template RNA per reaction mixture. The RT-LAMP assay was confirmed to be high specific to SFTSV, and no cross-reaction was found with the detection of the Chikungunya fever virus, Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome virus (HFRSV), and Dengue fever virus. The assay was then applied for the detection of SFTSV RNA in 32 clinical serum samples and showed 94.4% consistence with the detection results of the real-time RT-PCR. The whole process, from sample preparation to result reporting, can be completed within 2h. This adapted, cost efficient and quick visualized RT-LAMP method is feasible for SFTSV field diagnosis in resource-limited field settings.

417) Quiescent innate response to infective filariae by human langerhans cells suggests a strategy of immune evasion
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B.; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei
Assunto: Brugia malayi; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Toxoplasma gondii; T-cells; Skin; Expression; Stage; Differentiation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Infection and Immunity, v. 81, n. 5, p. 1420-1429, 2013
ISSN: 0019-9567
Resumo: Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin(+) E-cadherin(+) CD1a(+)) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1 alpha, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite.

418) A review of dengue as an emerging disease in Pakistan
Autor: Rasheed, S. B.; Butlin, R. K.; Boots, M.
Assunto: Pakistan; Dengue vector; Dengue epidemics; Deaths due to dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Public Health, v. 127, n. 1, p. 11-17, 2013.
ISSN: 0033-3506
Resumo: The presence of dengue virus has been detected using neutralization and haemagglutination inhibition antibodies in local populations in Pakistan since the 1960s. However, the first epidemic was not reported until 1994. This was followed by some cases in 1995, but the disease was confined to the port city of Karachi. Since 2006, dengue epidemics have occurred every year and the range has extended to most cities in Pakistan. Dengue now affects thousands of people and has caused hundreds of deaths. It has become a major health problem in Pakistan, and it is likely to become an even greater health problem in the coming years. This review gives an insight into the dengue situation from the early 1960s to the most recent epidemics in Pakistan, and also describes the primary vector of this disease (Aedes aegypti) in Pakistan. As such, it provides the first comprehensive review of the emergence of this important public health problem.

419) Gravitraps for management of dengue clusters in Singapore
Autor: Lee, Caleb; Vythilingam, Indra; Chong, Chee-Seng; Razak, Muhammad Aliff Abdul; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Liew, Christina; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Ng, Lee-Ching
Assunto: Endemic species; Human diseases; Pest control; Hygiene; Oviposition; Aquatic insects; Public health; Breeding; Dengue; Control programs; Habitat; Hay; Risk reduction; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 5, p. 888-892, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Although Singapore has an intensive dengue control program, dengue remains endemic with regular outbreaks. We report development and use of a novel adult oviposition trap, the Gravitrap, in managing dengue cluster areas. The Gravitrap is a simple, hay infusion-filled cylindrical trap with a sticky inner surface to serve as an oviposition site for gravid female Aedes mosquitoes. Wire gauze fitted above the water level minimizes the risk of it being an unwanted breeding habitat. The Gravitrap was deployed in 11 dengue cluster areas throughout Singapore. Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito caught in the trap and some (5.73%) were found to be positive for dengue virus.

420) Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties
Autor: Temeyer, Kevin B.; Brake, Danett K.; Tuckow, Alexander P.; Li, Andrew Y.; de Leon, Adalberto A. Perez
Assunto: Sand fly; Acetylcholinesterase; P. papatasi; cDNA; AChE
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, n. 31, 2013
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduce or interrupt Leishmania transmission. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is vectored mainly by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Asia and Africa. Organophosphates comprise a class of insecticides used for sand fly control, which act through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system. Point mutations producing an altered, insensitive AChE are a major mechanism of organophosphate resistance in insects and preliminary evidence for organophosphate-insensitive AChE has been reported in sand flies. This report describes the identification of complementary DNA for an AChE in P. papatasi and the biochemical characterization of recombinant P. papatasi AChE. A P. papatasi Israeli strain laboratory colony was utilized to prepare total RNA utilized as template for RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase 1 using gene specific primers and 3'-5'-RACE. The cDNA was cloned into pBlueBac4.5/V5-His TOPO, and expressed by baculovirus in Sf21 insect cells in serum-free medium. Recombinant P. papatasi acetylcholinesterase was biochemically characterized using a modified Ellman's assay in microplates. A 2309 nucleotide sequence of PpAChE1 cDNA [GenBank: JQ922267] of P. papatasi from a laboratory colony susceptible to insecticides is reported with 73-83% nucleotide identity to acetylcholinesterase mRNA sequences of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Lutzomyia longipalpis, respectively. The P. papatasi cDNA ORF encoded a 710-amino acid protein [GenBank: AFP20868] exhibiting 85% amino acid identity with acetylcholinesterases of Cx. pipiens, Aedes aegypti, and 92% amino acid identity for L. longipalpis. Recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 was expressed in the baculovirus system and characterized as an insect acetylcholinesterase with substrate preference for acetylthiocholine and inhibition at high substrate concentration. Enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by eserine, BW284c51, malaoxon, and paraoxon, and was insensitive to the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors ethopropazine and iso-OMPA. Results presented here enable the screening and identification of PpAChE mutations resulting in the genotype for insensitive PpAChE. Use of the recombinant P. papatasi AChE1 will facilitate rapid in vitro screening to identify novel PpAChE inhibitors, and comparative studies on biochemical kinetics of inhibition.

421) Isolation of midgut escape mutants of two American genotype dengue 2 viruses from Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khoo, Cynthia C. H.; Doty, Jeffrey B.; Held, Nicole L.; Olson, Ken E.; Franz, Alexander W. E.
Assunto: Dengue virus type 2; American genotype; Aedes aegypti; Midgut escape mutant; Amino acid substitution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or inability to efficiently traverse membrane barriers encompassing organs such as the midgut or salivary glands are considered major factors negatively impacting viral fitness in the mosquito.Results: We analyzed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti for two American DENV2 strains, QR94 and PR159 originating from Mexico and Puerto-Rico, respectively. Both strains infected mosquito midguts following acquisition of infectious bloodmeals. However, DENV2-QR94 and DENV2-PR159 poorly disseminated from the midgut at 7 or 14 days post-bloodmeal (pbm). We detected one virus isolate, EM33, among 31 DENV2-QR94 infected mosquitoes, and one isolate, EM41, among 121 DENV2-PR159 infected mosquitoes, generating high virus titers in mosquito carcasses at 7 days pbm. In oral challenge experiments, EM33 and EM41 showed midgut dissemination rates of 40-50%. Replication efficiency of EM41 in secondary mosquito tissue was similar to that of a dissemination-competent control strain, whereas the replication efficiency of EM33 was significantly lower than that of the control virus. The genome Sequence of DENV2-QR94 encoded seven unique amino acids (aa), which were not found in 100 of the most closely related DENV2 strains. EM33 had one additional aa change, E202K, in the E protein. DENV2-PR159 encoded four unique aa residues, one of them E202K, whereas EM41 had two additional aa substitutions, Q77E in the E protein and E93D in NS3.Conclusions: Our results indicate that the midgut of Ae. aegypti acts as a selective sieve for DENV2 in which Genetically distinct, dissemination-competent virus variants are rapidly selected from the viral quasispecies to be transmitted to vertebrates.

422) Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti mosquito strains varying in vector competence to dengue virus
Autor: Charan, Shakti S.; Pawar, Kiran D.; Severson, David W.; Patole, Milind S.; Shouche, Yogesh S.
Assunto: Human diseases; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Community composition; Infectivity; Dengue; Gene libraries; Abundance; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; rRNA 16S; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Janthinobacterium; Rahnella; Pseudomonas; Pedobacter; Bacillus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 7, p. 2627-2637, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Differences in midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue viruses (DENV), might influence the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to infection by DENV. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, comparative analysis of bacterial communities from midguts of mosquito strains with differential genetic susceptibility to DENV was performed. 16S rRNA gene libraries and real-time PCR approaches were used to characterize midgut bacterial community composition and abundance in three Aedes aegypti strains: MOYO, MOYO-R, and MOYO-S. Although Pseudomonas spp.-related clones were predominant across all libraries, some interesting and potentially significant differences were found in midgut bacterial communities among the three strains. Pedobacter sp.- and Janthinobacterium sp.-related phylotypes were identified only in the MOYO-R strain libraries, while Bacillus sp. was detected only in the MOYO-S strain. Rahnella sp. was found in MOYO-R and MOYO strains libraries but was absent in MOYO-S libraries. Both 16S rRNA gene library and real-time PCR approaches confirmed the presence of Pedobacter sp. only in the MOYO-R strain. Further, real-time PCR-based quantification of 16S rRNA gene copies showed bacterial abundance in midguts of the MOYO-R strain mosquitoes to be at least 10-100-folds higher than in the MOYO-S and MOYO strain mosquitoes. Our study identified some putative bacteria with characteristic physiological properties that could affect the infectivity of dengue virus. This analysis represents the first report of comparisons of midgut bacterial communities with respect to refractoriness and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to DENV and will guide future efforts to address the potential interactive role of midgut bacteria of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in determining vectorial capacity for DENV.

423) Fine-Scale Analysis of Parasite Resistance Genes in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhong, Daibin; Pai, Aditi; Wang, Mei-Hui; Keech, Naomi; Yan, Guiyun
Assunto: Quantitative Trait Loci; Toll-Like Receptors; Advanced Intercross Line; Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Genome-Wide Survey; Tapeworm Infection; Anopheles-Gambiae; Molecular-Cloning; Expression; Malaria
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Genetics, v. 195, n. 1, p. 253-+, 2013
ISSN: 1943-2631
Resumo: Parasite infection impacts population dynamics through effects on fitness and fecundity of the individual host. In addition to the known roles of environmental factors, host susceptibility to parasites has a genetic basis that has not been well characterized. We previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for susceptibility to rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection in Tribolium castaneum using dominant AFLP markers; however, the resistance genes were not identified. Here, we refined the QTL locations and increased the marker density in the QTL regions using new microsatellite markers, Sequence-tagged site markers, and single-strand conformational polymorphism markers. Resistance QTL in three linkage groups (LG3, LG6, and LG8) were each mapped to intervals <1.0 cM between two codominant markers. The effects of 21 genes in the three QTL regions were investigated by using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and transcription profiles were obtained from the resistant TIW1 and the susceptible cSM strains. Based on transcription data, eight genes were selected for RNA interference analysis to investigate their possible roles in H. diminuta resistance, including cytochrome P450 (LOC657454) and Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13, LOC662131). The transcription of P450 and TLR13 genes in the resistant TIW1 strains was reduced more than ninefold relative to the control. Moreover, the effects of gene knockdown of P450 and TLR13 caused resistant beetles to become susceptible to tapeworm infection, which strongly suggests an important role for each in T. castaneum resistance to H. diminuta infection.

424) A Chimeric Dengue Virus Vaccine using Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Strain SA14-14-2 as Backbone Is Immunogenic and Protective against Either Parental Virus in Mice and Nonhuman Primates
Autor: Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hui-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Xue-Dong; Li, Shi-Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jie; Yu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Li, Yu-Hua; Qin, E-De; Shi, Pei-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Feng
Assunto: West ? Nile ? Virus ; Nonstructural protein Ns1 ; Cd8(+) T-Cells ; Neutralizing antibody ?Response ; Aedes ? Aegypti Mosquitos ; Yellow ? Fever Vaccine ; Sa 14-14-2 Vaccine ; Growth ? Characteristics ; Immune ? Responses ; Mouse model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 87, n. 24, p. 13694-13705, 2013
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The development of a safe and efficient dengue vaccine represents a global challenge in public health. Chimeric dengue viruses (DENV) based on an attenuated flavivirus have been well developed as vaccine candidates by using reverse genetics. In this study, based on the full-length infectious cDNA clone of the well-known Japanese encephalitis virus live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as a backbone, a novel chimeric dengue virus (named ChinDENV) was rationally designed and constructed by replacement with the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue 2 virus. The recovered chimeric virus showed growth and plaque properties similar to those of the parental DENV in mammalian and mosquito cells. ChinDENV was highly attenuated in mice, and no viremia was induced in rhesus monkeys upon subcutaneous inoculation. ChinDENV retained its genetic stability and attenuation phenotype after serial 15 passages in cultured cells. A single immunization with various doses of ChinDENV elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with wild-type DENV, all animals except one that received the lower dose were protected against the development of viremia. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDENV conferred efficient cross protection against lethal JEV challenge in mice in association with robust cellular immunity induced by the replicating nonstructural proteins. Taken together, the results of this preclinical study well demonstrate the great potential of ChinDENV for further development as a dengue vaccine candidate, and this kind of chimeric flavivirus based on JE vaccine virus represents a powerful tool to deliver foreign antigens.

425) MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CARBOXYLESTERASE GENES OF THE CITRUS RED MITE, Panonychus citri (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhang, Kun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Tian-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun
Assunto: Panonychus Citri; Cares; Cloning; Transcriptional Profiles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 82, n. 4, p. 213-226, 2013
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, is known for its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. To get better insight into the detoxification mechanism of P. citri, two carboxylesterase (CarE) genes, PCE1 and PCE2, were isolated and characterized. PCE1 and PCE2 contained open reading frames of 1,653 and 1,392 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 550 and 463 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PCE1 and PCE2 were most closely related to the CarE genes from other phytophagous mites. The transcriptional profiles of two CarE genes among developmental stages (egg, larva, nymph, adult female, and adult male), after exposing to four acaricides (avermectin, azocyclotin, pyridaben, and spirodiclofen) and acid rain were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that during development, PCE1 was highly expressed at the egg stage, whereas PCE2 was abundantly expressed at the adult stage of males. The expression levels of PCE1 were highly induced upon exposure to acaricides and acid rain. On the other hand, the expression levels of PCE2 were increased after treatment with avermectin and pyridaben. These results suggest that PCE1 and PCE2 may have distinct roles in different developmental stages and participate in the detoxification of acaricides.

426) Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes at Nonresidential Sites Might Be Related to Transmission of Dengue Virus in Monterrey, Northeastern Mexico
Autor: Arvid Zarate-Nahon, Ewry; Ramirez-Jimenez, Rocio; Selene Alvarado-Moreno, Marcela; Maria Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Sarai Sanchez-Rodriguez, Olga; Maria Rivas-Estilla, Ana; Ramos-Jimenez, Javier; Medina de la Garza, Carlos E.; Villareal-Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso
Assunto: Growth; Curculionidae; Coleoptera; Nitrogen; Insects; Agaves; Cacti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 38, n. 3, p. 465-486, 2013
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Traditionally the major risk environment for transmission of dengue virus has been assumed to be households. In Mexico, dengue outbreaks continue year after year despite intense control efforts. Nonresidential sites (public and private spaces) infested with Aedes aegypti (L.) were evaluated. In total, 141 nonresidential sites were sampled for the presence of potential and active oviposition sites and adult mosquitoes. Eighty percent of the sites were oviposition sites; Ae. aegypti adults were recovered at 94.7% of nonresidential sites. Most female Ae. aegypti, 21.6 and 10.4, were at schools and recreational sites, respectively. Chi-squared indicated no significant differences in the dengue vector to categories of sample sites (chi(2) = 17.76, df = 9, P = 0.38). Indoor-use patterns of adult mosquitoes indicated bathrooms and classrooms were preferred resting sites. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay did not identify dengue virus nucleic acids from a group of 221 pools containing 1,521 female Ae. aegypti. Daytime human activities; e.g., school and work, synchronize with the bimodal biting pattern of Ae. aegypti, increasing the chance of transferring dengue virus.

427) Genetic variation in the 3 ' untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Castro, Marcia Goncalves; de Nogueira, Fernanda Bruycker; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita Maria; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Flavia Barreto
Assunto: Dengue virus type 3; Aedes aegypti; 3 ' UTR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 3, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors.Methods: Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we Sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3' UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program.Results: Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully Sequenced. As an 8-nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11-nucleotides (nts) insertion on the variable region (VR) from the 3' UTR in this isolate, we further Sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3' UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains presenting the 11-nts insertion were similar in the predicted secondary structure.Conclusions: The phylogeny based on the analysis of the complete genome and 3' UTR characterized the DENV-3 isolated from both vector and human host as belonging to Genotype III (GIII), despite the differences observed on the 3' UTR. Further studies are needed to address the role of those mutations in the transmission of the different viral populations and vector competence.

428) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of zika virus and evaluation with field-caught mosquitoes.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Diawo; Diallo, Mawlouth; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - Molecular methods ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - Serology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013.
ISSN: 1743-422X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT-PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection.

429) Molecular characterization of a peritrophic membrane protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hu, Xiaolong; Chen, Lin; Yang, Rui; Xiang, Xingwei; Wu, Xiaofeng
Assunto: Silkworm; Peritrophic membrane (PM) protein; BmMtch; Molecular characterization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Molecular Biology Reports, v. 40, n. 2, p. 1087-1095, 2013
ISSN: 0301-4851
Resumo: The peritrophic membrane lines the gut of most insects at one or more stages of their life cycles. It facilitates the digestive processes in the guts and protects from invasion by pathogens or food particles. In the current study, a novel PM protein, designated as BmMtch, was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The open reading frame of BmMtch is 888 bp in length, encoding 295 amino acid residues consisting of two domains (Mito_carr domains) and three transmembrane regions. They are localized on the 11th chromosome as single copy with one exon only. Quantitative real time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR) revealed that BmMtch was mainly expressed in larval fat bodies, Malpighian tubules, testis and ovaries, and could be detected through all stages of the life cycle of silkworm. Immuno-fluorescence analysis indicated that BmMtch was localized within the goblet cell of larval midgut. Western blotting analysis showed that BmMtch were detected in total proteins of PM and larval midgut. The characteristics of BmMtch indicated that BmMtch represents a novel member of insect PM proteins, without chitin-binding domains.

430) Case report: Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwong J.C., Druce J.D., Leder K.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (etiology), travel, Zika virus infection (etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, sept. 2013
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

431) Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination
Autor: Silva, Flavia Corvello da; Barros, Francisco Maikon; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Silva, Onilda Santos da; Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Bordignon, Sergio Ade Loreto; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia;Poser, Gilsane Lino von
Assunto: Molecular structure; Lethal limits; Pesticides; Larvae; Hosts; Mortality causes; Public health; Mortality; Insecticides; Benzophenone; Phenolic compounds; Vectors; Lipophilic; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Clusiaceae; Hypericum; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 112, n. 6, p. 2367-2371, 2013.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In this study, the larvicidal activity of an enriched fraction of the major lipophilic phenolic compounds from Hypericum carinatum Griseb. (Clusiaceae) was investigated against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue virus in Brazil. The larval mortality rate ranged 37.33 to 72.00 % at concentrations of 66-200 mu g/mL. The effect demonstrated to be dose-dependent. The lethal concentration 50 % and confidence interval were 100 and 88-111 mu g/mL, respectively. The results could be attributed to the presence of cariphenone A and cariphenone B in concentrations of 1.24 plus or minus 0.04 and 0.56 plus or minus 0.01 %, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Besides, the results reinforce the potential of genus Hypericum as source of alternative insecticides.

432) Quantitative real-time PCR detection of Zika virus and evaluation with field-caught Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faye O., Faye O., Diallo D., Diallo M., Weidmann M., Sall A.A.
Assunto: Flavivirus, mosquito, virus detection, virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: Virology Journal, v. 10, n. 311, 2013
ISSN: 1743-422X (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology-which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses and/or absence or low titer of IgM and IgG antibodies at early phase of infection- virus isolation, which is labor intensive, time consuming and requires appropriate containment. Therefore, real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) is an appealing option as a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detection of ZIKV in the early stage of infection. So far, only one rRT-PCR assay has been described in the context of the outbreak in Micronesia in 2007. In this study, we described a one step rRT-PCR for ZIKV which can detect a wider genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates from Asia and Africa. Results: The NS5 protein coding regions of African ZIKV isolates were sequenced and aligned with representative flaviviruses sequences from GenBank to design primers and probe from conserved regions. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was evaluated to be 32 genome-equivalents and 0.05 plaque forming unit (pfu). The assay was shown to detect 37 ZIKV isolates covering a wide geographic in Africa and Asia over 36 years but none of the 31 other flaviviruses tested showing high analytical specificity. The rRT-PCR could be performed in less than 3 hours. This method was used successfully to detect ZIKV strains from field-caught mosquitoes. Conclusion: We have developed a rapid, sensitive and specific rRT - PCR for detection of ZIKV. This assay is a useful tool for detection of ZIKV infection in regions where a number of other clinically indistinguishable arboviruses like dengue or chikungunya co-circulate. Further studies are needed to validate this assay in clinical positive samples collected during acute ZIKV infection. © 2013 Faye et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

433) Regulation of Aedes aegypti population dynamics in field systems: quantifying direct and delayed density dependence
Autor: Walsh, Rachael K; Aguilar, Cristobal L; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M; Scott, Thomas W; Lloyd, Alun L; Gould, Fred
Assunto: Density dependence; Pest control; Resource development; Hygiene; Strains; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Public health; Age; Data processing; Food;Population regulation; Body size; Survival; Nutrients; Development; Population dynamics; Competition; Ecology; Dengue; Larvae; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 1, p. 68-77, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti have been engineered to help control transmission of dengue virus. Although resources have been invested in developing the strains, we lack data on the ecology of mosquitoes that could impact the success of this approach. Although studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted using Ae. aegypti larvae, none of these studies examine mixed age cohorts at densities that occur in the field, with natural nutrient levels. Experiments were conducted in Mexico to determine the impact of direct and delayed density dependence on Ae. aegypti populations. Natural water, food, and larval densities were used to estimate the impacts of density dependence on larval survival, development, and adult body size. Direct and delayed density-dependent factors had a significant impact on larval survival, larval development, and adult body size. These results indicate that control methods attempting to reduce mosquito populations may be counteracted by density-dependent population regulation.

434) An explosive epidemic of DENV-3 in Cairns, Australia
Autor: Ritchie, Scott A.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Day, Andrew; Mores, Christopher N.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Gubler, Duane J.; Bennett, Shannon N.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue virus Type-2; North Queensland; Puerto Rico; Model development; Lethal ovitrap; Vector control; Transmission; Mosquito; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Serology ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 7, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: From November 2008-May 2009 Cairns Queensland Australia was struck by an explosive epidemic of DENV-3 that exceeded the capacity of highly skilled dengue control team to control it. We describe the environmental, virological and entomological factors associated with this outbreak to better understand the circumstances leading to its occurrence. Patient interviews, serological results and viral sequencing strongly suggest that the imported index case was infected in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A delay in notification of 27 days from importation of the index case until Queensland Health was notified of dengue transmission allowed the virus to amplify and spread unchecked through November 2008. Unseasonably warm weather, with daily mean temperatures exceeding 30 degrees C, occurred in late November and would have shortened the extrinsic incubation period of the virus and enhanced transmission. Analysis of case movements early in the outbreak indicated that the total incubation period was as low as 9-11 days. This was supported by laboratory vector competence studies that found transmission by Aedes aegypti occurred within 5 days post exposure at 28 degrees C. Effective vector competence rates calculated from these transmission studies indicate that early transmission contributed to the explosive dengue transmission observed in this outbreak. Collections from BG sentinel traps and double sticky ovitraps showed that large populations of the vector Ae. aegypti occurred in the transmission areas from November - December 2008. Finally, the seasonal movement of people around the Christmas holiday season enhanced the spread of DENV-3. These results suggest that a strain of DENV-3 with an unusually rapid transmission cycle was able to outpace vector control efforts, especially those reliant upon delayed action control such as lethal ovitraps.

435) Computer-aided identification, design and synthesis of a novel series of compounds with selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bassetto, Marcella; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Delang, Leen; Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Zonta, Nicola; Gatti, Valerio; Colombano, Giampiero; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Tron, Gian Cesare; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Brancale, Andrea
Assunto: Antiviral; Chikungunya; CHIKV; Homology model; Molecular dynamics; Virtual screening
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 98, n. 1, p. 12-18, 2013
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Arbovirus that is transmitted to humans primarily by the mosquito species Aedes aegypti. Infection with this pathogen is often associated with fever, rash and arthralgia. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral drug is available for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Albeit considered a tropical pathogen, adaptation of the virus to the mosquito species Aedes albopictus, which is also very common in temperate zones, has resulted in recent outbreaks in Europe and the US. In the present study, we report on the discovery of a novel series of compounds that inhibit CHIKV replication in the low mu M range. In particular, we initially performed a virtual screening simulation of similar to 5 million compounds on the CHIKV nsP2, the viral protease, after which we investigated and explored the Structure-Activity Relationships of the hit identified in silico. Overall, a series of 26 compounds, including the original hit, was evaluated in a virus-cell-based CPE reduction assay. The study of such selective inhibitors will contribute to a better understanding of the CHIKV replication cycle and may represents a first step towards the development of a clinical candidate drug for the treatment of this disease. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

436) Subgenomic reporter RNA system for detection of Alphavirus infection in mosquitoes
Autor: Steel, J Jordan; Franz, Alexander WE; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Geiss, Brian J
Assunto: Genomes; Recombinants; Promoters; Viral diseases; Replication; Viruses; Aquatic insects; Public health; RNA; Reporter gene; Nucleotide sequence; Cell culture; RNA viruses; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Sindbis virus; Alphavirus; Togaviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 12, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae) infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.

437) Large diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) life-history traits
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B.; Seifert, Stephanie N.; Willits, Neil H.; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W.
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Entomology; Disease transmission; Public health; Blood; Feeding; Dengue; Vectors; Seasonal variations; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 1, p. 43-51, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Seasonal variation in dengue virus transmission in northwestern Thailand is inversely related to the magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations, although mean temperature does not vary significantly across seasons. We tested the hypothesis that diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence epidemiologically important life-history traits of the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), compared with a constant 26 degree C temperature. A large diurnal temperature range (DTR) ( approximately 18 degree C daily swing) extended immature development time (>1 d), lowered larval survival ( approximately 6%), and reduced adult female reproductive output by 25% 14 d after blood feeding, relative to the constant 26 degree C temperature. A small DTR ( approximately 8 degree C daily swing) led to a negligible or slightly positive effect on the life history traits tested. Our results indicate that there is a negative impact of large DTR on mosquito biology and are consistent with the hypothesis that, in at least some locations, large temperature fluctuations contribute to seasonal reduction in dengue virus transmission.

438) Comparison of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) resting behavior on two fabric types under consideration for insecticide treatment in a push-pull strategy
Autor: Tainchum, Krajana ; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Grieco, John P.; Suwonkerd, Wannapa; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L.
Assunto: Human diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Vaccines; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Vectors; Resting behavior; Light effects; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 50, n. 1, p. 59-68, 2013.
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, breeds and rests predominately inside human dwellings. With no current vaccine available, vector control remains the mainstay for dengue management and novel approaches continue to be needed to reduce virus transmission. This requires a full understanding of Ae. aegypti ecology to design effective strategies. One novel approach is the use of contact irritants at target resting sites inside homes to make the surface unacceptable and cause vectors to escape before biting. The objective of the current study was to observe indoor resting behavior patterns of female Ae. aegypti within experimental huts in response to two fabrics under consideration for insecticide treatment: cotton and polyester. Results indicate that fabric type, coverage ratio of dark to light fabric and placement configuration (vertical vs. horizontal) all influenced the resting pattern of mosquito cohorts. Findings from this study will guide evaluations of a push-pull strategy designed to exploit contact irritant behaviors and drive Ae. aegypti out of homes prefeeding.

439) Insights into the different functions of multiple peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immune response against bacteria in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, Songjie; Beerntsen, Brenda T.
Assunto: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins; RNAi; Bacterial challenge; Survival assay; Antimicrobial peptides; Phagocytosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 43, n. 6, p. 533-543, 2013
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a group of proteins that recognize and/or bind to peptidoglycan on the surface of a number of pathogens. To understand the roles of multiple PGRPs in the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (AsPGRPs), we studied the effects of infection of two bacteria, the gram negative Escherichia coli and the gram positive Micrococcus luteus, on the transcriptional expression of AsPGRPs and RNA interference (RNAi) of AsPGRPs on the immune responses of mosquitoes against the two bacteria. Injection of E. coli or M. luteus into adult mosquitoes both significantly increased the transcription of AsPGRP-S1, but not the other AsPGRPs. A mosquito survival assay using injection of E. coli or M. luteus into AsPGRP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injected mosquitoes showed that RNAi of AsPGRPs had different impacts on the survival abilities of mosquitoes, and that AsPGRP-LCs seem to be the most critical ones. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR) analysis indicated that the expression of four antimicrobial Peptides (AMPS) was dramatically changed after AsPGRP-LB and AsPGRP-LC RNAi, although AsPGRP-S1 and AsPGRP-LE had slight, but significant, effects, suggesting that the changes in survival abilities were potentially due to the changes in AMP expression after AsPGRP RNAi. In addition, bacterial challenges following AsPGRP-LC RNAi did not induce the expression of AMPs to their normal level as in control experiments. An in vivo assay indicated that AsPGRP-LC RNAi had no significant effects on the phagocytic ability of the hemocytes, suggesting that AsPGRP-LC is not a key factor mediating phagocytosis of bacteria in this mosquito. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

440) Distribution patterns and relationship between elevation and the abundance of Aedes aegypti in Mojokerto city 2012
Autor: Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Islamiyah, Madaniatul
Assunto: Dominant species; Endemic species; Human diseases; Epidemics; Ecological distribution; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Dengue; Abundance; Vectors; Dengue virus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Open Journal of Animal Sciences, v. 3, n. 4A, p. 11-16, 2013.
ISSN: 2161-7597
Resumo: Mosquitoes are one of the insects that have an important role as vectors of disease agents. The diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are still public health problems in Indonesia especially in East Java Province, for example, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). DHF is a very alarming disease because the occurrence of this epidemic is no longer just confined to certain geographic locations. At present, Mojokerto is a district in East Java region known as endemic for DHF in Indonesia. The number of cases in this district tends to rise and expand distributed. The spread pattern of dengue cases in this district is not certainly known. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution pattern of mosquitoes and its relationship between elevation and density of Aedes aegypti in the Mojokerto district that caused dengue virus transmission. Sampling was conducted at two locations in the Mojokerto district, in the urban and rural, namely Prajurit Kulon for urban and Dlanggu for rural. We used survey for mosquito larvae by WHO standard and for mosquito eggs by ovitrap. The coordinates of sampling locations are recorded using GPS and then identification of mosquitoes is performed at the Laboratory of Ecology and Animal Diversity, University of Brawijaya. Quantitative data were analyzed to determine the abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative frequency and IVI (Importance Value Index). Mosquito distribution patterns were analyzed with Morisita index. The research findings indicated that there are five mosquitoes species consisted of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes laniger, Culex bitaeniorchynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Aedes aegypti is the dominant species in urban area while Culex quinquefasciatus is the dominant species in rural area. Morisita index showed that mosquito dispersal on patterns in Mojokerto district is uniform. The elevation of the area and density of Aedes aegypti has a positive correlation.

441) Reduction of Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus under large temperature fluctuations
Autor: Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W
Assunto: Temperature effects; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Hygiene; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Midgut; Infection; Diurnal variations; Dengue; Temperature; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 88, n. 4, p. 689-697, 2013.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6 [degrees]C around a 26[degrees]C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6 [degrees]C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV transmission dynamics will come with improved knowledge of temperature effects on mosquito-virus interactions.

442) Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.
Autor: Kwong Jason C,Druce Julian D,Leder Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 89, n. 3, p. 516-517, 2013
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

443) Genome Sequence Analysis of Dengue Virus 1 Isolated in Key West, Florida
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shin, Dongyoung; Richards, Stephanie L.; Alto, Barry W.; Bettinardi, David J.; Smartt, Chelsea T.
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; United-States; Puerto-Rico; Recombination; Competition; Culicidae; Infection; Mosquitos; Outbreak; Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 9, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL), including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and one isolate was provided for Sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify PCR fragments to Sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW), FL was Sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome Sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 Sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI) and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying Genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs.

444) An improved autocidal gravid ovitrap for the control and surveillance of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Mackay, Andrew J.; Amador, Manuel; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Oviposition; Sticky ovitraps; Vector surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 6, 2013.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Limited success has been achieved using traditional vector control methods to prevent the transmission of dengue viruses. Integrated control programs incorporating alternative tools, such as gravid ovitraps (lethal ovitraps and sticky ovitraps) may provide greater potential for monitoring and reducing vector populations and dengue virus transmission. We had developed an autocidal gravid ovitrap (AGO) as a simple, low-cost device for surveillance and control of Ae. aegypti without the use of pesticides that does not require servicing for an extended period of time. The purpose of our study was to improve the efficacy and efficiency of this device. Methods: Competitive assays were performed in the laboratory and an outdoor cage to evaluate whether modifications to the structure and appearance of our original trap design (AGO-A), and the addition of an olfactory bait (hay infusion), improve trap function. The performance of a modified trap design (AGO-B) was then assessed and compared with conventional ovitraps in a series of field tests in San Juan City, Puerto Rico. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze adult Ae. aegypti capture data from the laboratory, outdoor cage and field experiments. Results: Increasing the size of the trap entrance, altering the color of trap components, and increasing the volume/surface area of the aqueous bait significantly improved the performance of the AGO in the outdoor cage. In a subsequent field comparison, captures of Ae. aegypti females were 3.7 fold greater in the improved trap (AGO-B), compared with the original design (AGO-A). An infusion bait produced "in situ" significantly improved capture rates of the improved trap under both semi-natural and field conditions. Semi-weekly collections of Ae. aegypti females in the AGO-B were significantly correlated with cumulative rainfall 8 to 28 days prior to sampling, whereas egg collections in paired conventional ovitraps were not. When vector abundance was low, the AGO-B provided greater sensitivity and precision as a surveillance device, compared with paired conventional ovitraps. Conclusions: The AGO-B can be used to efficiently attract and capture gravid Ae. aegypti females for more than 8 weeks without the need for trap maintenance.

445) Transcriptomic and proteomic responses of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to thiamethoxam
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yang, Nina; Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Li, Rumei; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Baiming; Shi, Xiaobin; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 5, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most widely distributed agricultural pests. Although it has developed resistance to many registered insecticides including the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, the mechanisms that regulate the resistance are poorly understood. To understand the molecular basis of thiamethoxam resistance, "omics" analyses were carried out to examine differences between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci at both transcriptional and translational levels.Results: A total of 1,338 mRNAs and 52 proteins were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci. Among them, 11 transcripts had concurrent transcription and translation profiles. KEGG analysis mapped 318 and 35 differentially expressed genes and proteins, respectively, to 160 and 59 pathways (p<0.05). Thiamethoxam treatment activated metabolic pathways (e.g., drug metabolism), in which 118 transcripts were putatively linked to insecticide resistance, including up-regulated glutathione-S-transferase, UDP glucuronosyltransferase, glucosyl/glucuronosyl transferase, and cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology analysis placed these genes and proteins into protein complex, metabolic process, cellular process, signaling, and response to stimulus categories. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated "omics" response, and suggested a highly overexpressed P450, CYP6CX1, as a candidate molecular basis for the mechanistic study of thiamethoxam resistance in whiteflies. Finally, enzymatic activity assays showed elevated detoxification activities in the resistant B. tabaci.Conclusions: This study demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput omics tools for identifying molecular candidates related to thiamethoxam resistance in an agricultural important insect pest. In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide a solid foundation for future functional investigations into the complex molecular mechanisms governing the neonicotinoid resistance in whiteflies.

446) Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Abundance; Genetic diversity; Disease resistance; Infection; DNA microarrays; Gene expression; Colonies; Dengue; Gene regulation; RNA-mediated interference; Immune response; Gene silencing; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 7, n. 7, 2013.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. Genetic variations among Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can greatly influence their ability to transmit human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). Some of these variations between mosquito populations are represented by differences in the expression of specific genes that control susceptibility to a pathogen. We have compared susceptibilities to dengue virus infection and the genome-wide gene expression patterns between laboratory-maintained Aedes aegypti strains as well as field-derived colonies collected from geographically-distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. These analyses in conjunction with functional gene silencing assays showed that the basal immune activity is a likely determinant of resistance to the dengue virus, along with other novel factors. Our study also identified two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor, thereby elucidating novel aspects of dengue virus - mosquito interactions.

447) Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission
Autor: Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.
Assunto: Pathogens; Biomarkers; Population dynamics; Disease transmission; Public health; Initiation factors; Fat body; Cuticles; Electron transfer; Mass spectroscopy; Longevity; Post-translation; Multivariate analysis; Superoxide dismutase; Dengue; Manganese; Bioindicators; Risk factors; Abundance; Mass spectrometry; Proteins; Insects; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 8, n. 3, 2013.
ISSN:
Resumo: Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting mosquito longevity.

448) Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval competition; Innate immunity; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; Antimicrobial peptides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Insect Physiology, v. 59, n. 6, p. 604-610, 2013
ISSN: 0022-1910
Resumo: Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Tollflind pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2 L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, RellA, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14 days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14 days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7 days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Tollflmd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up:regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SW infection suppresses Tbll/rind-pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the upregulation of cecropin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

449) Molecular Cloning and Expression of CYP9A61: A Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl and Lambda-Cyhalothrin-Inducible Cytochrome P450 cDNA from Cydia pomonella
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yang, Xueqing; Li, Xianchun; Zhang, Yalin
Assunto: Cydia Pomonella; Cytochrome P450; Induction; Response; Insecticides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, v. 14, n. 12, p. 24211-24229, 2013
ISSN: 1422-0067
Resumo: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play paramount roles in detoxification of insecticides in a number of insect pests. However, little is known about the roles of P450s and their responses to insecticide exposure in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.), an economically important fruit pest. Here we report the characterization and expression analysis of the first P450 gene, designated as CYP9A61, from this pest. The full-length cDNA Sequence of CYP9A61 is 2071 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF) encodes 538 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows that CYP9A61 shares 51%-60% identity with other known CYP9s and contains the highly conserved substrate recognition site SRS1, SRS4 and SRS5. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CYP9A61 were 67-fold higher in the fifth instar larvae than in the first instar, and more abundant in the silk gland and fat body than other tissues. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to 12.5 mg L-1 of chlorpyrifos-ethyl for 60 h and 0.19 mg L-1 of lambda-cyhalothrin for 36 h resulted in 2.20-and 3.47-fold induction of CYP9A61, respectively. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to these two insecticides also significantly enhanced the total P450 activity. The results suggested that CYP9A61 is an insecticide-detoxifying P450.

450) Effect of wolbachia on replication of west nile virus in a mosquito cell line and adult mosquitoes
Autor: Hussain, Mazhar; Lu, Guangjin; Torres, Shessy; Edmonds, Judith H.; Kay, Brian H.; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Asgari, Sassan
Assunto: Life - Shortening wolbachia; Aedes aegypti; Monoclonal - Antibodies; Gene - Expression; Dengue; Infection; Recognition; Populations; Competence; Lipophorin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 87, n. 2, p. 851-858, 2013
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. Recently, it has been shown that wMelpop and wMel strains of Wolbachia inhibit the replication of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., Plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. In this study, we tested the effect of Wolbachia on the replication of West Nile Virus (WNV). Surprisingly, accumulation of the genomic RNA of WNV for all three strains of WNV tested (New York 99, Kunjin, and New South Wales) was enhanced in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells (Aag2). However, the amount of secreted virus was significantly reduced in the presence of Wolbachia. Intrathoracic injections showed that replication of WNV in A. aegypti mosquitoes infected with wMel strain of Wolbachia was not inhibited, whereas wMelPop strain of Wolbachia significantly reduced the replication of WNV in mosquitoes. Further, when wMelPop mosquitoes were orally fed with WNV, virus infection, transmission, and dissemination rates were very low in Wolbachia-free mosquitoes and were completely inhibited in the presence of Wolbachia. The results suggest that (i) despite the enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the Wolbachia-infected cell line the production of secreted virus was significantly inhibited, (ii) the antiviral effect in intrathoracically infected mosquitoes depends on the strain of Wolbachia, and (iii) replication of the virus in orally fed mosquitoes was completely inhibited in wMelPop strain of Wolbachia.

451) Inactivation of infectious virus and serological detection of virus antigen in Rift Valley fever virus-exposed mosquitoes fixed with paraformaldehyde
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kading, Rebekah; Crabtree, Mary; Miller, Barry
Assunto: Rift Valley fever virus; Paraformaldehyde fixation; Trypsin; Mosquito; Pathology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Serological diagnosis ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 189, n. 1, p. 184-188, 2013
ISSN: 0166-0934
Resumo: Formaldehyde is routinely used to fix tissues in preparation for pathology studies, however concerns remain that treatment of tissues with cellular fixatives may not entirely inactivate infectious virus particles. This concern is of particular regulatory importance for research involving viruses that are classified as select agents such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Therefore, the specific aims of this study were to (1) assay RVFV-exposed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for the presence of infectious RVFV particles at various time points following infection and (2) demonstrate the utility of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of RVFV antigen in various tissues of paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were administered an infectious blood meal containing one of two strains of RVFV, harvested at various time points following infection, intrathoracically inoculated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and fixed overnight at 4 degrees C. The infection status of a subset of mosquitoes was verified by IFA on leg tissues prior to fixation, and infectivity of RVFV in fixed mosquito carcasses was determined by Vero cell plaque assay. Paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes harvested 14 days post infection were also paraffin-embedded and sectioned for detection of RVFV antigen to particular tissues by IFA. None of the RVFV-exposed mosquitoes tested by Vero cell plaque assay contained infectious RVFV after fixation. Furthermore, incubation of mosquito sections with trypsin prior to antibody staining is recommended for optimal visualization of RVFV antigen in infected mosquito tissues by IFA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

452) First evidence of simultaneous circulation of three different dengue virus serotypes in Africa.
Autor: Caron Melanie,Grard Gilda,Paupy Christophe,Mombo Illich Mamfred,Bikie Bi Nso Branly,Kassa Kassa Fabrice Roland,Nkoghe Dieudonne,Leroy Eric Maurice
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: PloS One, v. 8, n. 10, 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Gabon, in Central Africa, was affected for the first time in 2007 and then in 2010 by simultaneous outbreaks of chikungunya and Dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) viruses. Through the national surveillance of dengue-like syndromes between 2007 and 2010, we observed continuous circulation of DENV-2 in a southward movement. This rapid spread of DENV-2 was associated with the emergence of DENV-1 in 2007 and DENV-3 in 2010. Interestingly, we detected six DENV-2 infected patients with hemorrhagic signs during the second outbreak in 2010. Although these cases do not meet all standard WHO criteria for severe Dengue with hemorrhage (formerly DHF), this is the first report of several dengue fever cases associated with hemorrhagic signs during a simultaneous circulation of different DENV serotypes in Africa. Together, these findings suggest that DENV is becoming more widely established on this continent and that DHF will likely become a serious public-health problem in the near future.

453) Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua
Assunto: Glutathione S-transferase; Apis cerana cerana; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant defense
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Naturwissenschaften, v. 100, n. 2, p. 153-163, 2013
ISSN: 0028-1042
Resumo: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional ass