Caracterização molecular e biológica

1) Ocular histopathologic features of congenital Zika syndrome
Autor: Fernandez, Maria P.; Saad, Edgar Parra; Martinez, Martha Ospina; Corchuelo, Sheryl; Reyes, Marcela Mercado; Herrera, Maria José; Saavedra, Miguel Parra; Rico, Angelica; Fernandez, Angela M.; Lee, Richard K.; Ventura, Camila V.; Berrocal, Audina M.; Dubovy, Sander R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis
Fonte: The Jama Network, v. 135, n. 11, p. 1163-1169, 2017
ISSN: 2168-6157
Resumo: Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is known to be associated with severe malformations in newborns. Although microcephaly is the hallmark of this disease, the ocular findings are important given the severe visual impairment that has been observed in these patients. Regardless of the increased number of CZS cases reported, to date, no studies have described the ocular histopathologic findings of this entity. To evaluate the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) antigens and describe the associated ocular histopathologic features of 4 cases of CZS. Design, Setting, and Participants In this observational case series performed from June 19, 2015, through April 30, 2017, ocular tissue samples from 4 deceased fetuses with a diagnosis of CZS from the National Institute of Health in Colombia were sent to the Florida Lions Ocular Pathology Laboratory for evaluation. Main Outcomes and Measures The microscopic features of each specimen were described, and immunostaining was performed using a ZIKV NS2B protein antibody. Ocular tissue samples from the 4 deceased fetuses (2 female, 2 male) ranging from 21.5 to 29 weeks' gestation with a diagnosis of CZS were studied. The 4 eyes manifested with pupillary membranes, immature anterior chamber angles, loss of pigment and thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium, choroidal thinning, undifferentiated nuclear layers of the retina, and a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate within the choroid. The optic nerve, present in 2 of the eyes, demonstrated atrophy. Expression of ZIKV antigen was present in the iris in cases 1, 3, and 4; the neural retina and choroid in case 1; and in the optic nerve in case 4. Conclusions and Relevance Loss of retinal pigment epithelium, the presence of a thin choroid, a perivascular choroidal inflammatory infiltrate, and atrophic changes within the optic nerve were consistently present. These findings may be attributed to ZIKV infection and warrant further study.

2) Specific biomarkers associated with neurological complications and congenital central nervous system abnormalities from Zika Virus-Infected patients in Brazil
Autor: Kam, Yiu-Wing; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Lum, Fok-Moon; Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Lee, Bernett; Judice, Carla C.; Teixeira, Daniel Augusto de Toledo; Andreata-Santos, Robert; Vinolo, Marco A.; Angerami, Rodrigo; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Freitas, Andre Ricardo Ribas; Amaral, Eliana; Passini Junior, Renato; Costa, Maria Laura; Guida, José Paulo; Arns, Clarice Weis; Ferreira, Luis Carlos S.; Rénia, Laurent; Proença-Modena, Jose Luiz; Costa, Fabio T. M.
Assunto: Viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 216, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2017
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked to different levels of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild rash and fever to severe neurological complications and congenital malformations. We investigated the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the immune mediators profile in 95 acute ZIKV-infected adult patients from Campinas, Brazil. These patients included 6 pregnant women who later delivered during the course of this study. Clinical observations were recorded during hospitalization. Levels of 45 immune mediators were quantified using multiplex microbead-based immunoassays. Whereas 11.6% of patients had neurological complications, 88.4% displayed mild disease of rash and fever. Several immune mediators were specifically higher in ZIKV-infected patients, and levels of interleukin 10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and hepatocyte growth factor differentiated between patients with or without neurological complications. Interestingly, higher levels of interleukin 22, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, TNF-?, and IP-10 were observed in ZIKV-infected pregnant women carrying fetuses with fetal growth-associated malformations. Notably, infants with congenital central nervous system deformities had significantly higher levels of interleukin 18 and IP-10 but lower levels of hepatocyte growth factor than those without such abnormalities born to ZIKV-infected mothers. This study identified several key markers for the control of ZIKV pathogenesis. This will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection in patients.

3) Characterization of cytopathic factors through genome-wide analysis of the Zika viral proteins in fission yeast
Autor: Ge Lia; Poulsena, Melissa; Fenyvuesvolgyia, Csaba; Yashirodab, Yoko; Yoshidab, Minoru; Simarda, J. Marc; Gallod, Robert C.; Zhaoa, Richard Y.
Assunto: Zika genome; Zika proteins; Fission yeast; Schizosaccharomyces pombe; Cytopathic factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis
Fonte: Proceedings of the Nacional Academy of Sciences of the United of America, v. 114, n. 3, 2017
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Little is known about how ZIKV causes these conditions or which ZIKV viral protein(s) is responsible for the associated ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects, including cell hypertrophy, growth restriction, cell-cycle dysregulation, and cell death. We used fission yeast for the rapid, global functional analysis of the ZIKV genome. All 14 proteins or small peptides were produced under an inducible promoter, and we measured the intracellular localization and the specific effects on ZIKV-associated cytopathic activities of each protein. The subcellular localization of each ZIKV protein was in overall agreement with its predicted protein structure. Five structural and two nonstructural ZIKV proteins showed various levels of cytopathic effects. The expression of these ZIKV proteins restricted cell proliferation, induced hypertrophy, or triggered cellular oxidative stress leading to cell death. The expression of premembrane protein (prM) resulted in cell-cycle G1 accumulation, whereas membrane-anchored capsid (anaC), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E), and nonstructural protein 4A (NS4A) caused cell-cycle G2/M accumulation. A mechanistic study revealed that NS4A-induced cellular hypertrophy and growth restriction were mediated specifically through the target of rapamycin (TOR) cellular stress pathway involving Tor1 and type 2A phosphatase activator Tip41. These findings should provide a reference for future research on the prevention and treatment of ZIKV diseases.

4) Structure of the immature Zika virus at 9 Å resolution
Autor: Prasad, Vidya Mangala; Miller, Andrew S.; Klose, Thomas; Sirohi, Devika; Buda, Geeta; Jiang, Wen; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.
Assunto: Electron microscopy; Virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; ZIKV - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; ZIKV - Epidemic
Fonte: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, v. 24, p. 184-186, 2017
ISSN: 1545-9993
Resumo: The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is characterized by severe pathogenicity in both children and adults. Sequence changes in ZIKV since its first isolation are apparent when pre-epidemic strains are compared with those causing the current epidemic. However, the residues that are responsible for ZIKV pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the immature ZIKV at 9-Å resolution. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. However, the immature ZIKV contains a partially ordered capsid protein shell that is less prominent in other immature flaviviruses. Furthermore, six amino acids near the interface between pr domains at the top of the spikes were found to be different between the pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV, possibly influencing the composition and structure of the resulting viruses.

5) Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells mediate cross-protection against subsequent Zika virus challenge
Autor: Wen, Jinsheng; Ngono, Annie Elong; Regla-Nava, Jose Angel; Kim, Kenneth; Gorman, Matthew J.; Diamond, Michael S.; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Antibodies; CD8-positive T cells; Dengue virus; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Nature Communications, n. 1459, 2017
ISSN: 2041-1723
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. Whether pre-existing DENV immunity can cross-protect or enhance ZIKV infection during sequential infection of the same host is unknown. Here, we show that DENV-immune Ifnar1?/? or wild-type C57BL/6 mice infected with ZIKV have cross-reactive immunity to subsequent ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8+ T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV. In contrast, passive transfer studies suggest that DENV-immune serum does not protect against ZIKV infection. Thus, CD8+ T cell immunity generated during primary DENV infection can confer protection against secondary ZIKV infection in mice. Further optimization of current DENV vaccines for T cell responses might confer cross-protection and prevent antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection.

6) Neurologic complications associated with the Zika Virus in Brazilian adults
Autor: Silva, Ivan Rocha Ferreira da; Frontera, Jennifer A.; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo de; Nascimento, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence
Fonte: The Jama Network, v. 74, n. 10, p. 1190-1198, 2017
ISSN: 2168-6157
Resumo: This longitudinal study assesses the long-term outcomes of systolic blood pressure levels recommended by the Eighth Joint National Committee and by the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial and determines if racial differences exist based on long-term cognitive trajectories

7) Evaluation of possible consequences of Zika Virus infection in the developing nervous system
Autor: Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Vedovello, Danila; Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Takada, Silvia Honda; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Whalley, Benjamin J.; Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki
Assunto: Neurodevelopment; Disease; Infection; Virulence; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Viral infections
Fonte: Molecular Neurobiology, 2017
ISSN: 1559-1182
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak that occurred in the northeast of Brazil in 2015 led to alarming numbers of babies born with microcephaly in this region. Since then, several studies have evaluated the relationship between ZIKV infection and development of the malformation although the specific mechanistic interaction between ZIKV and human physiological processes that ultimately manifest as microcephaly remains debated. Importantly, most current studies did not consider the specificities of the biology and life cycle of ZIKV. As a consequence, specificities of the infection on the developing central nervous system (CNS) were frequently disregarded. In order to begin to address this important gap in our knowledge, we have collated and critically reviewed the existing evidence in this area to identify any emerging consensus on this topic and thereafter describe possible mechanisms by which ZIKV infection could interfere with specific processes of CNS development, such as neuronal proliferation, and the complex interactions of immature neurons with radial glial cells. With this, we were able to present the current knowledge on this important topic in the neurobiology field.

8) Presence and persistence of Zika Virus RNA in semen, United Kingdom, 2016
Autor: Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Aarons, Emma J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 4, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged

9) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

10) Congenital Zika Virus infection induces severe spinal cord injury
Autor: Ramalho, Fernando S.; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Silva, Luis L. da; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Rocha, Lenaldo B.; Neder, Luciano; Teixeira, Sara R.; Apolinário, Letícia A.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.; Silva, Deisy M.; Coutinho, Conrado M.; Melli, Patrícia P.; Augusto, Marlei J.; Santoro, Ligia B.; Duarte, Geraldo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Spinal cord injury; Cortical atrophy; Cerebellar aplasia
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 65, n. 4, p. 687-690, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: We report 2 fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss, and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for ZIKV RNA.

11) Zika virus has oncolytic activity against glioblastoma stem cells
Autor: Zhe Zhu, Gorman, Matthew J.; McKenzie, Lisa D.; Chai, Jiani N.; Hubert, Christopher G.; Prager, Briana C.; Fernandez, Estefania; Richner, Justin M.; Zhang, Rong; Chao Shan; Wang, Xiuxing; Pei-Yong Shi; Diamond, Michael S.; Rich, Jeremy N.; Chheda, Milan G.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Cell ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2017
ISSN: 0022-1007
Resumo: Glioblastoma is a highly lethal brain cancer that frequently recurs in proximity to the original resection cavity. We explored the use of oncolytic virus therapy against glioblastoma with Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus that induces cell death and differentiation of neural precursor cells in the developing fetus. ZIKV preferentially infected and killed glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) relative to differentiated tumor progeny or normal neuronal cells. The effects against GSCs were not a general property of neurotropic flaviviruses, as West Nile virus indiscriminately killed both tumor and normal neural cells. ZIKV potently depleted patient-derived GSCs grown in culture and in organoids. Moreover, mice with glioblastoma survived substantially longer and at greater rates when the tumor was inoculated with a mouse-adapted strain of ZIKV. Our results suggest that ZIKV is an oncolytic virus that can preferentially target GSCs; thus, genetically modified strains that further optimize safety could have therapeutic efficacy for adult glioblastoma patients

12) Structure and function of the Zika virus full-length NS5 protein
Autor: Zhao, Baoyu; Yi, Guanghui; Du, Fenglei; Chuang, Yun-Chih; Vaughan, Robert C.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kao, C. Cheng; Li, Pingwei
Assunto: Virus structures; X-ray crystallography
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - RNA ; ZIKA virus - Proteins ; ZIKA virus - RNA
Fonte: Nature Communications, n. 14762, 2017
ISSN: 2041-1723
Resumo: The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected over 1 million people in over 30 countries. ZIKV replicates its RNA genome using virally encoded replication proteins. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains a methyltransferase for RNA capping and a polymerase for viral RNA synthesis. Here we report the crystal structures of full-length NS5 and its polymerase domain at 3.0 Å resolution. The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site. Key residues in the polymerase are located in similar positions to those of the initiation complex for the hepatitis C virus polymerase. The polymerase conformation is affected by the methyltransferase, which enables a more efficiently elongation of RNA synthesis in vitro. Overall, our results will contribute to future studies on ZIKV infection and the development of inhibitors of ZIKV replication

13) Vulnerability of primitive human placental trophoblast to Zika virus
Autor: Sheridana, Megan A.; Yunusova, Dinar; Balaramane, Velmurugan; Alexenkoa, Andrei P.; Yabeg, Shinichiro; Verjovski-Almeidac, Sergio; Schustg, Danny J.; Franze, Alexander W.; Sadovskyh, Yoel; Ezashia, Toshihiko; Roberts, R. Michael
Assunto: Embryonic stem cell; Placenta; Pregnancy; Trophoblast; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; ZIKV - Cell
Fonte: Proceedings of the Nacional Academy of Sciences of the United of America, v. 114, n. 9, 2017
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation. The cells from term placentas, which resist infection, do not express genes encoding most attachment factors implicated in ZIKV entry but do express many genes associated with antiviral defense. By contrast, the ESC-derived trophoblasts possess a wide range of attachment factors for ZIKV entry and lack components of a robust antiviral response system. These cells, particularly areas of syncytiotrophoblast within the colonies, quickly become infected, produce infectious virus and undergo lysis within 48 h after exposure to low titers (multiplicity of infection > 0.07) of an African lineage strain (MR766 Uganda: ZIKVU) considered to be benign with regards to effects on fetal development. Unexpectedly, lytic effects required significantly higher titers of the presumed more virulent FSS13025 Cambodia (ZIKVC). Our data suggest that the developing fetus might be most vulnerable to ZIKV early in the first trimester before a protective zone of mature villous trophoblast has been established. Additionally, MR766 is highly trophic toward primitive trophoblast, which may put the early conceptus of an infected mother at high risk for destruction.

14) Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: a developmental study
Autor: Xavier-Neto, José; Carvalho, Murilo; Pascoalino, Bruno dos Santos; Cardoso, Alisson Campos; Costa, Ângela Maria Sousa; Pereira, Ana Helena Macedo; Santos, Luana Nunes; Saito, Ângela; Marques, Rafael Elias; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Bandeira, Carla; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Bajgelman, Marcio Chaim; Oliveira, Bajgelman, Paulo Sérgio; Cordeiro, Mario Tenorio; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Granato, Daniela Campos; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Freitas, Carolina Borsoi Moraes Holanda de; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Bevilacqua, Estela; Franchini, Kleber
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 2, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans) produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc) embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5-9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities correlated with damage to the placenta, particularly to the labyrinthine layer, suggesting that circulatory changes are integral to the altered phenotypes.

15) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

16) A single mutation in the prM protein of Zika virus contributes to fetal microcephaly
Autor: Yuan, Ling; Huang, Xing-Yao; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Xing-Liang; Jiu-Yang Yu; Yan-Peng Xu; Guanghui Li; Cui Li; Hong-Jiang Wang; Yong-Qiang Deng; Menghua Wu; Meng-Li Cheng; Qing Ye; Dong-Yang Xie; Xiao-Feng Li; Xiangxi Wang; Weifeng Shi; Baoyang Hu; Pei-Yong Shi; Zhiheng Xu; Cheng-Feng Qin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: Science, v. 28, 2017
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) has evolved into a global health threat due to its unexpected causal link to microcephaly. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that contemporary epidemic strains have accumulated multiple substitutions from their Asian ancestor. Here, we show that a single serine to asparagine substitution (S139N) in the viral polyprotein substantially increased ZIKV infectivity in both human and mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs), led to more significant microcephaly in the mouse fetus, and higher mortality in neonatal mice. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the S139N substitution arose before the 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and has been stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. This functional adaption makes ZIKV more virulent to human NPCs, thus contributing to the increased incidence of microcephaly in recent ZIKV epidemics.

17) First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas
Autor: Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen,Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R.; Ladner, Jason T.; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya Virus - qRTPCR
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 6, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

18) Follow-up brain imaging of 37 children with congenital Zika syndrome: case series study
Autor: Petribu, Natacha Calheiros de Lima; Vasco, Aragão Maria de Fatima; Linden, Vanessa van der; Parizel, Paul; Jungmann, Patricia; Araújo, Luziany; Abath, Marília; Fernandes, Andrezza; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra; Holanda, Arthur; Mello, Roberto; Sarteschi, Camila; Duarte, Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis
Fonte: BMJ, v. 359, 2017
ISSN: 2044-6055
Resumo: To compare initial brain computed tomography (CT) scans with follow-up CT scans at one year in children with congenital Zika syndrome, focusing on cerebral calcifications. Case series study. Barão de Lucena Hospital, Pernambuco state, Brazil. children with probable or confirmed congenital Zika syndrome during the microcephaly outbreak in 2015 who underwent brain CT shortly after birth and at one year follow-up. Differences in cerebral calcification patterns between initial and follow-up scans. 37 children were evaluated. All presented cerebral calcifications on the initial scan, predominantly at cortical-white matter junction. At follow-up the calcifications had diminished in number, size, or density, or a combination in 34 of the children (92%, 95% confidence interval 79% to 97%), were no longer visible in one child, and remained unchanged in two children. No child showed an increase in calcifications. The calcifications at the cortical-white matter junction which were no longer visible at follow-up occurred predominately in the parietal and occipital lobes. These imaging changes were not associated with any clear clinical improvements. The detection of cerebral calcifications should not be considered a major criterion for late diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome, nor should the absence of calcifications be used to exclude the diagnosis.

19) Viral load and cytokine response profile does not support antibody-dependent enhancement in dengue-primed Zika Virus-infected patients
Autor: Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Silva, Rafael Alves da; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Rahal, Paula; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Kalil, Jorge; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda
Assunto: ZIKV; DENV; ADE; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - qRTPCR ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases; v. 65, n. 8, p. 1260-1265, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: The pathogenesis of severe dengue disease involves immune components as biomarkers. The mechanism by which some dengue virus (DENV)-infected individuals progress to severe disease is poorly understood. Most studies on the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease focus on the process of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) as a primary risk factor. With the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in DENV-endemic areas, many people infected by ZIKV were likely exposed to DENV. The influence of such exposure on Zika disease outcomes remains unknown. We investigated whether patients previously exposed to DENV exhibited higher viremia when exposed to a subsequent, heterologous dengue or Zika infection than those patients not previously exposed to dengue. We measured viral loads and cytokine profile during patients' acute infections. Neither dengue nor Zika viremia was higher in patients with prior DENV infection, although the power to detect such a difference was only adequate in the ZIKV analysis. Of the 10 cytokines measured, only 1 significant difference was detected: Levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were lower in dengue-infected patients who had experienced a previous dengue infection than patients infected with dengue for the first time. However, power to detect differences between groups was low. In Zika-infected patients, levels of IL-1? showed a significant, positive correlation with viral load. No signs of ADE were observed in vivo in patients with acute ZIKV infection who had prior exposure to DENV.

20) University of Georgia to collaborate with Geovax on zika vaccine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: States News Service, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

21) Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antioxidant activity; Biological control; Carassius auratus; Lethocerus indicus; Nanotechnology; Predation efficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1071-1083, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological niche of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

22) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

23) Fitness conSequences of altered feeding behavior in immune-challenged mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ohm, Johanna R.; Teeple, Janet; Nelson, William A.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Read, Andrew F.; Cator, Lauren J.
Assunto: Anopheles; Sickness behavior; Fitness; Parasite manipulation; Malaria
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 113, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria-infected mosquitoes have been reported to be more likely to take a blood meal when parasites are infectious than when non-infectious. This change in feeding behavior increases the likelihood of malaria transmission, and has been considered an example of parasite manipulation of host behavior. However, immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli induces the same behavior, suggesting that altered feeding behavior may be driven by adaptive responses of hosts to cope with an immune response, rather than by parasite-specific factors. Here we tested the alternative hypothesis that down-regulated feeding behavior prior to infectiousness is a mosquito adaptation that increases fitness during infection.Methods: We measured the impact of immune challenge and blood feeding on the fitness of individual mosquitoes. After an initial blood meal, Anopheles stephensi Liston mosquitoes were experimentally challenged with heat-killed E. coli at a dose known to mimic the same temporal changes in mosquito feeding behavior as active malaria infection. We then tracked daily egg production and survivorship of females maintained on blood-feeding regimes that either mimicked down-regulated feeding behaviors observed during early malaria infection, or were fed on a four-day feeding cycle typically associated with uninfected mosquitoes.Results: Restricting access to blood meals enhanced mosquito survival but lowered lifetime reproduction. Immune-challenge did not impact either fitness component. Combining fecundity and survival to estimate the population-scale intrinsic rate of increase (r), we found that, contrary to the mosquito adaptation hypothesis, mosquito fitness decreased if blood feeding was delayed following an immune challenge.Conclusions: Our data provide no support for the idea that malaria-induced suppression of blood feeding is an adaptation by mosquitoes to reduce the impact of immune challenge. Alternatively, the behavioral alterations may be neither host nor parasite adaptations, but rather a conSequence of constraints imposed on feeding by activation of the mosquito immune response, i.e. non-adaptive illness-induced anorexia. Future work incorporating field conditions and different immune challenges could further clarify the effect of altered feeding on mosquito and parasite fitness.

24) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

25) Interspecies transmission and Chikungunya virus emergence
Autor: Tsetsarkin Konstantin A, Chen Rubing, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 16, p. 143-150, 2016
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity - economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions -, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, - the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural - temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors - nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

26) Rapid and long-term immunity elicited by DNA encoded antibody prophylaxis and DNA vaccination against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Muthumani Karuppiah, Block Peter, Flingai Seleeke, Muruganantham Nagarajan, Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Tingey Colleen, Wise Megan, Reuschel Emma L, Chung Christopher, Muthumani Abirami, Sarangan Gopalsamy, Srikanth Padma, Khan Amir S, Vijayachari Paluru, Sardesai Niranjan Y, Kim J Joseph, Ugen Kenneth E, Weiner David B
Assunto: DNA plasmid; Chikungunya virus; dMAb; Monoclonal antibody; Passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 214, n. 3, p. 369-378, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Vaccination - passive antibody therapies are critical for controlling infectious diseases. Passive antibody administration has limitations including the necessity for purification - the delivery of multiple injections required for efficacy. Vaccination is associated with a lag phase before generation of immunity. Novel approaches reported here utilize the benefits of both methods for the rapid generation of effective immunity. An antibody-based prophylaxis/therapy entailing the electroporation-mediated delivery of synthetic plasmids, encoding biologically active anti-Chikungunya virus envelope mAb (designated dMAb), was designed - evaluated for anti-viral efficacy as well as for the ability to overcome shortcomings inherent with conventional active vaccination by a novel passive immune-based strategy. One intramuscular injection of the CHIKV-dMAb produced antibodies in vivo more rapidly than active vaccination with a CHIKV-DNA vaccine. This dMAb neutralized diverse CHIKV clinical isolates - protected mice from viral challenge. Combinations of both afford rapid as well as long-lived protection. We report that a DNA based dMAb strategy induces rapid protection against an emerging viral infection, which can be combined with DNA vaccination providing a uniquely both short term - long-term protection against this emerging infectious disease. These studies have implications for pathogen treatment - control strategies.

27) Co-expression of Dorsal and Rel2 Negatively Regulates Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhong, Xue; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yi, Hui-Yu; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang
Assunto: Immune signaling pathways; Mosquito Aedes - aegypti; Genome - Wide Analysis; C-Type lectin; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Recognition protein; Lipoteichoic acid; Bombyx - Mori; Prophenoloxidase activation; Transcriptional regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 20654, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-kappa B factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-kappa B factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Both MsRel2A and MsRel2B contain only a Rel homology domain (RHD) and lack the ankyrin-repeat inhibitory domain. Overexpression of the RHD domains of MsDorsal and MsRel2 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells can activate AMP gene promoters from M. sexta and D. melanogaster. We for the first time confirmed the interaction between MsDorsal-RHD and MsRel2-RHD, and suggesting that Dorsal and Rel2 may form heterodimers. More importantly, co-expression of MsDorsal-RHD with MsRel2-RHD suppressed activation of several M. sexta AMP gene promoters. Our results suggest that the short MsRel2 isoforms may form heterodimers with MsDorsal as a novel mechanism to prevent over-activation of antimicrobial peptides.

28) The role of TSPAN9 in alphavirus entry and early endosomes
Autor: Stiles Katie M, Kielian Margaret
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4289-4297, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that infect cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - low pH-triggered fusion in the early endosome. Using an siRNA screen in human cells, we previously identified TSPAN9 as a host factor that promotes infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis (SINV), Semliki Forest (SFV), - Chikungunya (CHIKV). Depletion of TSPAN9 specifically decreases SFV membrane fusion in endosomes. TSPAN9 is a member of the tetraspanin family of multi-pass membrane proteins, but its cellular function is currently unknown. Here we used U-2 OS cells stably overexpressing TSPAN9 to show that TSPAN9 is localized at the plasma membrane - in early - late endosomes. Internalized SFV particles co-localized with TSPAN9 in vesicles early during infection. Depletion of TSPAN9 led to a reduction in the amount of the late endosomal proteins LAMP1 - CD63 - an increase in LAMP2. However, TSPAN9 depletion did not alter the delivery of SFV to early endosomes, or change their pH or protease activity. Comparative studies showed that TSPAN9 depletion strongly inhibited infection by several viruses that fuse in early endosomes (SFV, SINV, CHIKV, VSV) while viruses that fuse in the late endosome (rVSV-Lassa, rVSV-Junin), including an SFV point mutant with a lower pH threshold for fusion (SFV E2 T12I), were relatively resistant. Our data suggest that TSPAN9 modulates the early endosome compartment to make it more permissive for membrane fusion of early-penetrating viruses. Alphaviruses are spread by mosquitos - can cause serious human diseases such as arthritis - encephalitis. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection are responsible for millions of cases of acute illness - long-term complications. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for these important human pathogens. Alphaviruses infect host cells by utilizing the endocytic machinery of the cell - fusing their membrane with that of the endosome. Although the mechanism of virus-membrane fusion is well studied, we still know relatively little about the host cell proteins that are involved in alphavirus entry. Here we characterized the role of the host membrane protein TSPAN9 in alphavirus infection. TSPAN9 was localized to early endosomes containing internalized alphavirus, - depletion of TSPAN9 inhibited virus fusion with the early endosome membrane. In contrast, infection of viruses that enter through the late endosome was relatively resistant to TSPAN9 depletion, suggesting an important role for TSPAN9 in the early endosome.

29) Calcium influx enhances neuropeptide activation of ecdysteroid hormone production by mosquito ovaries
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKinney, David A.; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Dhara, Animesh; Strand, Michael R.; Brown, Mark R.
Assunto: Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone; Insulin-like peptide; Prothoracicotropic hormone; Prothoracic gland; Bombyx mori; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, p. 160-169, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: A critical step in mosquito reproduction is the ingestion of a blood meal from a vertebrate host. In mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti, blood feeding stimulates the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3). This induces the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which then drives egg maturation. In many immature insects, prothoracicotropic hormone (PITH) stimulates the prothoracic glands to produce ECD that directs molting and metamorphosis. The receptors for OEH, ILP3 and PITH are different receptor tyrosine kinases with OEH and ILP3 signaling converging downstream in the insulin pathway and PITH activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Calcium (Ca2+) flux and CAMP have also been implicated in PTTH signaling, but the role of Ca2+ in OEH, ILP3, and cAMP signaling in ovaries is unknown. Here, we assessed whether Ca2+ flux affects OEH, ILP3, and cAMP activity in A. aegypti ovaries and also asked whether PTTH stimulated ovaries to produce ECD. Results indicated that Ca2+ flux enhanced but was not essential for OEH or ILP3 activity, whereas CAMP signaling was dependent on Ca2+ flux. Recombinant PTTH from Bombyx mori fully activated ECD production by B. mori PTGs, but exhibited no activity toward A. aegypti ovaries. Recombinant PTTH from A. aegypti also failed to stimulate either B. mori PTGs or A. aegypti ovaries to produce ECD. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of mosquito reproduction and ECD biosynthesis by insects generally. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

30) Evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses - Brazil, 2015
Autor: Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana; Rollin, Dominique; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Luz, Kleber G.; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria; Freire Davi, Helaine Pompeia; de Oliveria, Wanderson Kleber; Lanciotti, Robert; Lambert, Amy; Zaki, Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

31) Longitudinal analysis of natural killer cells in Dengue virus-infected patients in comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue virus-infected patients
Autor: Petitdemange Caroline, Wauquier Nadia, Devilliers Hervé, Yssel Hans, Mombo Illich, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghé Dieudonné, Debré Patrice, Leroy Eric, Vieillard Vincent
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004499, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America - Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development - outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering - principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV - DENV-2 infected patients. We observed that both activation - differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 - CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, - DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-? (IFN-?) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV - DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

32) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

33) Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Pyrethroids; RNA-seq; CYP6AA9; RNAi; Communicated by Q. Xia.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 291, n. 1, p. 309-321, 2016
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450 s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

34) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

35) Misguided strategy for mosquito control
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M, Vitule Jean R S, García-Berthou Emili, Pelicice Fernando M, Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

36) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

37) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Cytoplasmic Incompatibility; Drosophila-Simulans; Natural-Populations; Genetic-Structure; Infection; Dengue; Diptera; Culicidae; Release
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel Biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

38) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

39) Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression
Autor: Agarwal Ankita, Joshi Gaurav, Nagar Durga P, Sharma Ajay K, Sukumaran D, Pant Satish C, Parida Man Mohan, Dash Paban Kumar
Assunto: Chikungunya; Cutaneous immune response; Mosquito saliva; Pathogenesis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 40, p. 126-135, 2016
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic - immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic - adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis - hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-?, TNF-? - IFN-? in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 - IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum - peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration - degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration - associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better underst-ing of CHIKV pathobiology - promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV.

40) Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
Autor: Betancur Juan-Felipe, Navarro Erika Paola, Echeverry Alex, Suso Juan Pablo, Bravo Bonilla José Humberto, Daniel Cortés Armando, Cañas Dávila Carlos, Vélez Juan Diego, Tobón Gabriel J
Assunto: Chikungunya virus infection; Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome; Multiorgan failure; Systemic lupus erythematosus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 68, n. 4, p. 1044, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo:

41) Cloning and expressing trypsin modulating oostatic factor in chlorella desiccata to control mosquito larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chlorella desiccata; Genetic engineering; Trypsin modulating oostatic factor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 91, n. 1, p. 17-36, 2016
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 +/- 4 g +/- SEM and 17 +/- 3 g +/- SEM, respectively in 3 x 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh.

42) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

43) Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Azadirachta indica; Biological control; Biosafety; Botanical byproduct; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanobiotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1015-1025, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

44) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

45) Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martinez-Garcia, P. J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
Assunto: RNA-Seq; Cryptococcus; Phytophthora; Juglans regia; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: AMB EXPRESS, v. 6, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 2191-0855
Resumo: Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of similar to 400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

46) Low seroprevalence indicates vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to infection with Chikungunya virus
Autor: Adam Awadalkareem, Seidahmed Osama M E, Weber Christopher, Schnierle Barbara, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Reiche Sven, Jassoy Christian
Assunto: Chikungunya; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 4, p. 290-291, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern - central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

47) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

48) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

49) Pharmacological regulation of digestion in the anautogenous flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, by simple injection of 6-hydroxydopamine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bil, Magdalena; Huybrechts, Roger
Assunto: 6-hydroxydopamine; Oxidopamine; Digestion; Vitellogenesis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology , v. 91, n. 3, p. 137-151, 2016
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Female anautogenous Sarcophaga flesh flies need a protein meal to start large-scale yolk polypeptides (YPs) production and oocyte maturation. Protein meal rapidly elicits a brain-dependent increase in midgut proteolytic activity. Trypsin and chymotrypsin together represent over 80% of protease activity in liver-fed flies. Abdominal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) dose-dependently prohibits this increase in proteolytic activity at translational level in a similar way as post liver feeding decapitation. Delayed injection of 6-OHDA later than 6 h post liver meal has no effect. In flesh flies, chemical decapitation by 6-OHDA, by interrupting the brain-gut dopaminergic signaling, can be used as tool for the controlled inhibition of midgut proteolytic activity and subsequent ovarial development. Inhibition of ovarial development is probably indirect due to a deficit in circulating amino acids needed for YPs synthesis. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

50) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

51) Physiological and biochemical response of Aedes aegypti tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wu, Songqing; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Zhaoxia; Rebeca, Carballar-Lejarazu; Fu, Tao; Han, Chaoqiang; Shao, Ensi; Pan, Xiaohong; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Zou, Shuangquan; Zhang, Lingling; Guan, Xiong
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Aedes aegypti; Detoxifying enzymes; Mosquito tolerance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biocontrol Science and Technology, v. 26, n. 2, p. 227-238, 2016
ISSN: 0958-3157
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) represents the only eco-friendly bio-degradable insecticide for mosquito-borne disease control. Our research aims to identify if mosquito detoxification enzymes play an important role in Bti tolerance mechanisms in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Several enzymes, such as amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analysed and level of activity determined in Ae. aegypti larvae after Bti treatment. Bti exposure significantly increased the level of amylase (183.2%) as well as the activity of cytochromes P450 (177.5%), and Na+/K+-ATPase (142.9%). On the other hand, there was a decrease of 8.6% and 11.4% in acetylcholinesterase and GST activity, and no significant effect in the total level of protease activity. We suggest that the variation in amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and GST activity may be associated with the Bti insecticidal mechanism. This study provides the basis of detoxifying enzymes in Bti tolerance.

52) Zika virus on the move.
Autor: Robert P. Kruger
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-587, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo:

53) Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Leal dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Mayaro Virus; Entomological Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 111, n. 1, p. 20-29, 2016
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171 Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiaba has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

54) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

55) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Crotalaria verrucosa leaves against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what happens around? An analysis of dragonfly predatory behaviour after exposure at ultra-low doses
Autor: Murugan Kadarkarai, Sanoopa C P, Madhiyazhagan Pari, Dinesh Devakumar, Subramaniam Jayapal, Panneerselvam Chellasamy, Roni Mathath, Suresh Udaiyan, Nicoletti Marcello, Alarfaj Abdullah A, Munusamy Murugan A, Higuchi Akon, Kumar Suresh, Perumalsamy Haribalan, Ahn Young-Joon, Benelli Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brachydiplax sobrina; EDX; FTIR; SEM; Green synthesis; Nanobiotechnologies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 30, n. 7, p. 826-833, 2016
ISSN: 1478-6427
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease infecting 50-100 million people every year. Here, we biosynthesised mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa. The green synthesis of AgNP was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX and FTIR. C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNPs were toxic against A. aegypti larvae and pupae. LC50 of AgNP ranged from 3.496 ppm (I instar larvae) to 17.700 ppm (pupae). Furthermore, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of dragonfly nymphs, Brachydiplax sobrina, against II and III instar larvae of A. aegypti in an aquatic environment contaminated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. Under standard laboratory conditions, predation after 24 h was 87.5% (II) and 54.7% (III). In an AgNP-contaminated environment, predation was 91 and 75.5%, respectively. Overall, C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNP could be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval population of dengue vectors enhancing predation rates of dragonfly nymphs.

56) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

57) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

58) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

59) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Rash maculopapular ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

60) Oxis Biotech Inc. Says It Has Identified Inhibitors That Could Block Zika Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Mass communications and publishing; News, opinion and commentary; Business and industries; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Proteins
Fonte: PR Newswire, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

61) The neurotranscriptome of the Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Matthews Benjamin J,McBride Carolyn S,DeGennaro Matthew,Despo Orion,Vosshall Leslie B
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; mRNA-sequencing; De novo genome assembly; Host-seeking behavior; Neural genes; Chemosensory receptors; Ion channels; G protein-coupled receptors; Gonotrophic cycle; Neurogenetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 17, n. 1, p. 32, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: A complete genome sequence and the advent of genome editing open up non-traditional model organisms to mechanistic genetic studies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and has a large and complex genome, which has slowed annotation efforts. We used comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of adult gene expression to improve the genome annotation and to provide a detailed tissue-specific catalogue of neural gene expression at different adult behavioral states. We carried out deep RNA sequencing across all major peripheral male and female sensory tissues, the brain and (female) ovary. Furthermore, we examined gene expression across three important phases of the female reproductive cycle, a remarkable example of behavioral switching in which a female mosquito alternates between obtaining blood-meals from humans and laying eggs. Using genome-guided alignments and de novo transcriptome assembly, our re-annotation includes 572 new putative protein-coding genes and updates to 13.5 and 50.3 % of existing transcripts within coding sequences and untranslated regions, respectively. Using this updated annotation, we detail gene expression in each tissue, identifying large numbers of transcripts regulated by blood-feeding and sexually dimorphic transcripts that may provide clues to the biology of male- and female-specific behaviors, such as mating and blood-feeding, which are areas of intensive study for those interested in vector control. This neurotranscriptome forms a strong foundation for the study of genes in the mosquito nervous system and investigation of sensory-driven behaviors and their regulation. Furthermore, understanding the molecular genetic basis of mosquito chemosensory behavior has important implications for vector control.

62) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

63) SUN2 overexpression deforms nuclear shape and inhibits HIV
Autor: Donahue Daniel A, Amraoui Sonia, di Nunzio Francesca, Kieffer Camille, Porrot Françoise, Opp Silvana, Diaz-Griffero Felipe, Casartelli Nicoletta, Schwartz Olivier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4199-4214, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: In a previous screen of putative interferon-stimulated genes, SUN2 was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in an uncharacterized manner. SUN2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein belonging to the linker of nucleoskeleton - cytoskeleton complex. We have analyzed here the role of SUN2 in HIV infection. We report that in contrast to what was initially thought, SUN2 is not induced by type-I interferon, - that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection. However, SUN2 overexpression in cell lines - in primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells inhibits replication of HIV but not murine leukemia virus or chikungunya virus. We identified HIV-1 - HIV-2 strains that are unaffected by SUN2, suggesting that the effect is specific to particular viral components or cofactors. Intriguingly, SUN2 overexpression induces a multilobular flower-like" nuclear shape that does not impact cell viability, - is similar to cells isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia or with progeria. Nuclear shape changes - HIV inhibition both mapped to the nucleoplasmic domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. This block to HIV replication occurs between reverse transcription - nuclear entry, - passaging experiments selected for a single amino acid change in capsid (CA) that leads to resistance to overexpressed SUN2. Furthermore, using chemical inhibition or silencing of cyclophilin A (CypA), as well as CA mutant viruses, we implicated CypA in the SUN2-imposed block to HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 overexpression perturbs both nuclear shape - early events of HIV infection. Cells encode proteins that interfere with viral replication, a number of which have been identified in overexpression screens. SUN2 is a nuclear membrane protein that was shown to inhibit HIV infection in such a screen, but how it blocked HIV infection was not known. We show that SUN2 overexpression blocks infection of certain strains of HIV, before nuclear entry. Mutation of the viral capsid protein yielded SUN2-resistant HIV. Additionally, the inhibition of HIV infection by SUN2 involves Cyclophilin A, a protein that binds the HIV capsid - directs subsequent steps of infection. We also found that SUN2 overexpression substantially changes the shape of the cell's nucleus resulting in many "flower-like" nuclei. Both HIV inhibition - deformation of nuclear shape required the domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 interferes with HIV infection, - highlight novel links between nuclear shape - viral infection."

64) Zika virus: a new threat from mosquitoes.
Autor: Li Xiao-Feng,Han Jian-Feng,Shi Pei-Yong,Qin Cheng-Feng
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Science China, 2016
ISSN: 1869-1889
Resumo:

65) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango Ayubo, Abílio Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; New record; Dengue; Chikungunya; Maputo City; Mozambique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 76, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

66) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

67) Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs
Autor: Miesen Pascal, Ivens Alasdair, Buck Amy H, van Rij Ronald P
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004452, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.

68) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth.
Autor: Tang Hengli,Hammack Christy,Ogden Sarah C,Wen Zhexing,Qian Xuyu,Li Yujing,Yao Bing,Shin Jaehoon,Zhang Feiran,Lee Emily M,Christian Kimberly M,Didier Ruth A,Jin Peng,Song Hongjun,Ming Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

69) The response of claudin-like transmembrane septate junction proteins to altered environmental ion levels in the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Jonusaite Sima,Kelly Scott P,Donini Andrew
Assunto: Claudins; Mosquito; Neurexin IV; Osmoregulation; Salinity; Septate junctions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, v. 186, n. 5, p. 589-602, 2016
ISSN: 1432-136X
Resumo: Septate junctions (SJs) occlude the paracellular pathway and function as paracellular diffusion barriers within invertebrate epithelia. However, integral components of SJs and their contribution to barrier properties have received considerably less attention than those of vertebrate occluding junctions. In arthropods, SJ proteins have only been identified in Drosophila and among these are three integral claudin-like proteins, Megatrachea (Mega), Sinuous (Sinu) and Kune-kune (Kune), as well as a receptor-like transmembrane SJ protein known as Neurexin IV (Nrx IV). In this study, mega, sinu, kune and nrx IV are identified and characterized in aquatic larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and a role for these proteins in ionoregulatory homeostasis is considered. Transcripts encoding Mega, Sinu, Kune and Nrx IV were found in iono/osmoregulatory tissues such as the midgut, Malpighian tubules, hindgut and anal papillae, but abundance was greater in the hindgut and anal papillae. Using immunohistochemical and western blot analysis it was found that Kune localized to the regions of intercellular contact between epithelial cells of the rectum and posterior midgut and in the apical membrane domain of the syncytial epithelium of anal papillae. To investigate a potential role for integral SJ proteins in larval A. aegypti iono/osmoregulation, abundance was examined in animals reared in freshwater or brackish water (30 % seawater). In iono/osmoregulatory epithelia, larvae exhibited tissue-specific alterations in mega mRNA and Kune protein abundance, but not sinu or nrx IV mRNA. These studies provide a first look at the potential contribution of integral SJ components to iono/osmoregulatory homeostasis in an aquatic invertebrate.

70) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

71) The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014
Autor: Mboera Leonard E G,Mweya Clement N,Rumisha Susan F,Tungu Patrick K,Stanley Grades,Makange Mariam R,Misinzo Gerald,De Nardo Pasquale,Vairo Francesco,Oriyo Ndekya M
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004313, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16). There was no significant difference in pooled infection rates between the districts. Dengue viruses in the tested mosquitoes clustered into serotype 2 cosmopolitan genotype. Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Dar es Salaam and breeds mainly in medium size plastic containers and tires. The Aedes house indices were high, indicating that the three districts were at high risk of dengue transmission. The 2014 dengue outbreak was caused by Dengue virus serotype 2. The high mosquito larval and pupal indices in the area require intensification of vector surveillance along with source reduction and health education.

72) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia.
Autor: Jouannic Jean-Marie,Friszer Stephanie,Leparc-Goffart Isabelle,Garel Catherine,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051-1052, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

73) Transcriptome Analysis and Discovery of Genes Relevant to Development in Bradysia odoriphaga at Three Developmental Stages
Autor: Gao Huanhuan,Zhai Yifan,Wang Wenbo,Chen Hao,Zhou Xianhong,Zhuang Qianying,Yu Yi,Li Rumei
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 2, p. e0146812, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most important pest of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) in Asia; however, the molecular genetics are poorly understood. To explore the molecular biological mechanism of development, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly were performed in the third-instar, fourth-instar, and pupal B. odoriphaga. The study resulted in 16.2 Gb of clean data and 47,578 unigenes (?125bp) contained in 7,632,430contigs, 46.21% of which were annotated from non-redundant protein (NR), Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. It was found that 19.67% of unigenes matched the homologous species mainly, including Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ceratitis capitata, and Anopheles gambiae. According to differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, 143, 490, and 309 DEGs were annotated as involved in the developmental process in the GO database respectively, in the comparisons of third-instar and fourth-instar larvae, third-instar larvae and pupae, and fourth-instar larvae and pupae. Twenty-five genes were closely related to these processes, including developmental process, reproduction process, and reproductive organs development and programmed cell death (PCD). The information of unigenes assembled in B. odoriphaga through transcriptome and DEG analyses could provide a detailed genetic basis and regulated information for elaborating the developmental mechanism from the larval, pre-pupal to pupal stages of B. odoriphaga.

74) Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae
Autor: Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri;Suharjono, Suharjono
Assunto: Toxicants; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Larvae; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Phylogeny; Beaches; Toxins; Soil; Colonies; Islands; Saline water; Cytology; Heat shock; Toxicity testing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 2, p. 148-154, 2016.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island. Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology, and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus 2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values within 48 h. PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16s rDNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes (using multiplex PCR). Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates (namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1-2 bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes. Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

75) Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: another viral cause to add to the list
Autor: Smith David W,Mackenzie John
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Lancet (London, England), v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1486-1488, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

76) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

77) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016,
Autor: Olson Christine K.; Iwamoto Martha; Perkins Kiran M.; Polen Kara N. D.; Hageman Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman Dana; Igbinosa Irogue I.; Khan Sumaiya.; Honein Margaret A.; Bell Michael; Rasmussen Sonja A.; Jamieson Denise J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

78) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.
Autor: Gyurech Danielle,Schilling Julian,Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas,Cassinotti Pascal,Kaeppeli Franz,Dobec Marinko
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, 2016
ISSN: 1424-3997
Resumo:

79) Recognition and Management of Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Children.
Autor: Nelson Gary R,Bonkowsky Joshua L,Doll Elizabeth,Green Michael,Hedlund Gary L,Moore Kevin R,Bale James F
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, enterovirus, flaccid paralysis, myelitis, poliomyelitis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis
Fonte: Pediatric Neurology, v. 55, p. 17-21, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5150
Resumo: In 2014-2015, several regions of the United States experienced an outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis in pediatric patients. A common, unique feature was disease localization to the gray matter of the spinal cord. We report 11 children, ages 13 months to 14 years (median 9 years), in the Intermountain West who presented with extremity weakness (n = 10) or cranial neuropathy (n = 1) of varying severity without an apparent etiology. All children experienced acute paralysis, and 10 had symptoms or signs that localized to the spinal cord. Maximum paralysis occurred within 4 days of onset in all patients. All had spinal gray matter lesions consistent with acute myelitis detected by magnetic resonance imaging; no single infectious cause was identified. Despite therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, or plasma exchange, nine of 10 (90%) children had motor deficits at follow-up. Recognition of this disorder enables clinicians to obtain appropriate imaging and laboratory testing, initiate treatment, and provide families with accurate prognostic information. In contrast to other causes of acute flaccid paralysis in childhood, most children with acute flaccid myelitis have residual neurological deficits.

80) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

81) Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Autor: Gatherer Derek,Kohl Alain
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Arbovirus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

82) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

83) Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can rarely mimic an acute peripheral neuropathy.
Autor: Galassi Giuliana; Forghieri Fabio; Malagoli Marcella
Assunto: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Hodgkin lymphoma, chemotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, neurolymphomatosis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo:

84) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

85) Severe porphyric neuropathy--importance of screening for porphyria in Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Schutte Clara-Maria,van der Meyden Cornelius H,van Niekerk Linette,Kakaza Mandisa,van Coller Riaan,Ueckermann Veronica,Oosthuizen Nicky M
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis
Fonte: South African Medical Journal, v. 106, n. 1, p. 44-47, 2016
ISSN: 0256-9574
Resumo: The hepatic porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders, each of which is associated with a specific enzymatic alteration in the haem biosynthesis pathway. In South Africa (SA), a high incidence of variegate porphyria (VP) is seen as a result of a founder effect, but acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is also encountered. The development of acute neurovisceral attacks is related to environmental factors, including medications, hormones and diet. A possible manifestation of a severe attack is rapidly progressing quadriparesis, which may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome. We present four such cases, highlighting that acute porphyria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Three patients presented to Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA, with progressive quadriparesis, and one to a private hospital with acute abdominal pain followed by rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Two patients had started antiretroviral therapy before the development of symptoms, and one had started antituberculosis therapy. All patients had marked weakness with depressed reflexes, and showed varying degrees of confusion. An initial diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome led to administration of intravenous immunoglobulins in two patients. On testing for porphyria, it was found that two patients had AIP and two VP. Electrophysiological investigations revealed severe mainly motor axonal neuropathy in all. Two patients deteriorated to the point of requiring mechanical ventilation, and one of them died due to complications of critical illness. Haemin was administered to three patients, but the process of obtaining this medication was slow, which delayed the recommended early administration. The surviving patients showed minimal recovery and remained severely disabled. Porphyric neuropathy should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in a patient with an acute neuropathy, especially in SA. Absence of abdominal pain does not exclude the possibility of porphyria, and attacks may be precipitated by antiretroviral and antituberculosis medication. The outcome of our patients was not favourable; specifically, obtaining haemin was a challenge in the state hospital setting.

86) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

87) Immunotherapy in Peripheral Neuropathies.
Autor: Léger Jean-Marc; Guimarães-Costa Raquel; Muntean Cristina
Assunto: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, IgM anti-myelin-associated-glycoprotein neuropathy, Immune-mediated neuropathies, Immunomodulatory treatments, Multifocal motor neuropathy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis
Fonte: Neurotherapeutics, v. 13, n. 1, p. 96-107, 2016
ISSN: 1878-7479
Resumo: Immunotherapy has been investigated in a small subset of peripheral neuropathies, including an acute one, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 3 chronic forms: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and neuropathy associated with IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein. Several experimental studies and clinical data are strongly suggestive of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Either cell-mediated mechanisms or antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin, or nodal antigens are considered to act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Immunomodulatory treatments used in these neuropathies aim to act at various steps of this pathogenic process. However, there are many phenotypic variants and, consequently, there is a significant difference in the response to immunotherapy between these neuropathies, as well as a need to improve our knowledge and long-term management of chronic forms.

88) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

89) Locked-in-like fulminant infantile Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus 1 infection.
Autor: Dilena Robertino; Strazzer Sandra; Esposito Susanna; Paglialonga Fabio; Tadini Laura; Barbieri Sergio; Giannini Alberto
Assunto: EMG, Guillain-Barré syndrome, herpes simplex virus 1, locked-in syndrome, plasmapheresis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, v. 53, n. 1, p. 140-143, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may rarely manifest as a peripheral locked-in syndrome. Clinical and instrumental features of a fulminant form of infantile GBS were assessed. After 2 days of rhinitis, a 6-month-old infant was intubated in the emergency room for sudden-onset respiratory failure. Neurological examination showed generalized areflexic flaccid paralysis with no detectable interaction, which resembled a coma. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis (43 cells/mm(3) ) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) PCR positivity. EEG showed normal sleep-wake cycles, and EMG demonstrated nerve inexcitability. Acyclovir and immunoglobulins provided no benefit. After 1 week, lumbar puncture showed albuminocytological dissociation (protein 217 mg/dl). Plasmapheresis was then started, and progressive improvement occurred. At age 1 year, the child had recovered well with residual distal lower limb hyporeflexic weakness. A fulminant infantile GBS variant presenting as peripheral locked-in syndrome can be associated with HSV1 infection likely due to autoimmune cross-reactivity. Muscle Nerve 53: 140-143, 2016.

90) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

91) Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Mosquito-borne diseases; Yellow fever; CO1; DNA barcoding; PhyloGenetics; Ancestral lineage; Purifying selection; Molecular Ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1149-1160, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban Areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their Molecular Ecology and Evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes Sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to Molecular Ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

92) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

93) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Crotalaria verrucosa leaves against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what happens around? An analysis of dragonfly predatory behaviour after exposure at ultra-low doses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Sanoopa, C. P.; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Roni, Mathath; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Higuchi, Akon; Kumar, Suresh; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brachydiplax sobrina; Green synthesis; Nanobiotechnologies; EDX; FTIR; SEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 30, n. 7, p. 826-833, 2016
ISSN: 1478-6419
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease infecting 50-100million people every year. Here, we biosynthesised mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa. The green synthesis of AgNP was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX and FTIR. C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNPs were toxic against A. aegypti larvae and pupae. LC50 of AgNP ranged from 3.496ppm (I instar larvae) to 17.700ppm (pupae). Furthermore, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of dragonfly nymphs, Brachydiplax sobrina, against II and III instar larvae of A. aegypti in an aquatic environment contaminated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. Under standard laboratory conditions, predation after 24h was 87.5% (II) and 54.7% (III). In an AgNP-contaminated environment, predation was 91 and 75.5%, respectively. Overall, C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNP could be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval population of dengue vectors enhancing predation rates of dragonfly nymphs.

94) Pseudotyping viral vectors with emerging virus envelope proteins
Autor: Steffen Imke, Simmons Graham
Assunto: Pseudotypes; Lentiviral vectors; Rhabdoviral vectors; Emerging viruses; Enveloped viruses; Serology; Drug screening
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Current Gene Therapy, v. 16, n. 1, p. 47-55, 2016
ISSN: 1875-5631
Resumo: Previously unidentified viruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, continue to emerge - threaten populations, while powerful new techniques have identified many new human - animal viruses. Similarly, existing viruses, from Ebola virus to chikungunya virus, are reemerging - spreading to new geographical regions. These viruses often pose a challenge for researchers to study due to their highly pathogenic nature. Lentiviral - rhabdoviral pseudotypes are excellent tools for studying enveloped viruses - have contributed to many recent advances in areas such as receptor usage, viral entry - serology. In particular, pseudotypes allow the safe study of unknown or highly pathogenic viruses. They also allow the initial characterization of aspects of infection such as cellular tropism for difficult to culture viruses. In this review we will introduce various pseudotyping systems for emerging viruses, including chikungunya virus, Ebola virus, SARS - MERS coronaviruses - Nipah virus, as well as their use in diverse studies including drug screening - antibody neutralization. We will also discuss the limitations - potential caveats using pseudotypes.

95) Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Roni, Mathath; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Kumar, Suresh; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Anophelinae; Antioxidant; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanosynthesis; Nanotechnology; Smoke toxicity; Longevity; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 997-1013, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 mu g/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 mu g/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 x LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 mu g/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 mu g/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing.

96) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

97) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

98) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

99) Fighting arboviral diseases: low toxicity on mammalian cells, dengue growth inhibition (in vitro), and mosquitocidal activity of Centroceras clavulatum-synthesized silver nanoparticles
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aruna, Palanimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Syuhei, Ban; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Biopesticide; Biosafety; Cytotoxicity; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 651-662, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of the world in recent years. Female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, transmit dengue. Approximately 3,900 million people, in 128 countries, are at risk of dengue infection. Recently, a focus has been provided on the potential of green-synthesized nanoparticles as inhibitors of the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in Vero cells and downregulators of the expression of dengue viral E gene. Algae are an outstanding reservoir of novel compounds, which may help in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were rapidly synthesized using a cheap extract of the alga Centroceras clavulatum. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 values of C. clavulatum extract against A. aegypti larvae and pupae were 269.361 ppm (larva I), 309.698 ppm (larva II), 348.325 ppm (larva III), 387.637 ppm (larva IV), and 446.262 ppm (pupa). C. clavulatum extract also exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, both in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays. LC50 values of C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP were 21.460 ppm (larva I), 23.579 ppm (larva II), 25.912 ppm (larva III), 29.155 ppm (larva IV), and 33.877 ppm (pupa). Furthermore, C. clavulatum-synthesized AgNP inhibited dengue (serotype dengue virus type-2 (DEN-2)) viral replication in Vero cells. Notably, 50 mu g/ml of green-synthesized AgNP showed no cytotoxicity on Vero cells while reduced DEN-2 viral growth of more than 80 %; 12.5 mu g/ml inhibited viral growth of more than 50 %. Cellular internalization assays highlighted that untreated infected cells showed high intensity of fluorescence emission, which denotes high level of viral internalization. Conversely, AgNP-treated infected cells showed reduced levels of fluorescence, failing to show significant viral load. Overall, our study showed that alga-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles may be considered to develop newer, safer, and cheap tools in the fight against the dengue virus, serotype DEN-2, and its vector A. aegypti, with little cytotoxicity on mammalian cells.

100) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

101) Quantitative trait locus mapping and functional genomics of an organophosphate resistance trait in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Coates, B. S.; Alves, A. P.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.; Nowatzki, T.; Chen, H.; Rangasamy, M.; Robertson, H. M.; Whitfield, C. W.; Walden, K. K.; Kachman, S. D.; French, B. W.; Meinke, L. J.; Hawthorne, D.; Abel, C. A.; Sappington, T. W.; Siegfried, B. D.; Miller, N. J.
Assunto: Pesticide resistance; Methyl-parathionresistance; Genome mapping; Functional genomics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 25, n. 1, p. 1-15, 2016
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is an insect pest of corn and population suppression with chemical insecticides is an important management tool. Traits conferring organophosphate insecticide resistance have increased in frequency amongst D. v. virgifera populations, resulting in the reduced efficacy in many corn-growing regions of the USA. We used comparative functional genomic and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches to investigate the genetic basis of D. v. virgifera resistance to the organophosphate methyl-parathion. RNA from adult methyl-parathion resistant and susceptible adults was hybridized to 8331 microarray probes. The results predicted that 11 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in resistant phenotypes, with the most significant (fold increases >= 2.43) being an alpha-esterase-like transcript. Differential expression was validated only for the alpha-esterase (ST020027A20C03), with 11- to 13-fold greater expression in methyl-parathion resistant adults (P < 0.05). Progeny with a segregating methylparathion resistance trait were obtained from a reciprocal backcross design. QTL analyses of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data predicted involvement of a single genome interval. These data suggest that a specific carboyx-esterase may function in field-evolved corn rootworm resistance to organophosphates, even though direct linkage between the QTL and this locus could not be established.

102) Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus
Autor: Hidajat Rachmat, Nickols Brian, Forrester Naomi, Tretyakova Irina, Weaver Scott, Pushko Peter
Assunto: Alphavirus; CHIKV; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccine; Live attenuated vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virology, v. 490, p. 83-90, 2016
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a p-emic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared - compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 - E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 - E2-82 were 0.064% - 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% - 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety.

103) Identification of Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus isolated in Mexico
Autor: Díaz-Quiñonez José Alberto, Escobar-Escamilla Noé, Ortíz-Alcántara Joanna, Vázquez-Pichardo Mauricio, de la Luz Torres-Rodríguez María, Nuñez-León Alma, Torres-Longoria Belem, López-Martínez Irma, Ruiz-Matus Cuitláhuac, Kuri-Morales Pablo, Ramírez-González José Ernesto
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Methagenomics; Mexico; Phylogeny
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 52, n. 1, p. 127-129, 2016
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: We identified 25 autochthonous chikungunya virus cases in Mexico, initially detected by RT-PCR targeting the E1 gene - propagated in C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells, in 2014. To determine the type of virus found, in a previous report, the genomes of 2 CHIKV strains were fully sequenced. Genome sequence analysis revealed that these isolates from Mexico belonged to the Asian genotype, - a phylogenetic association with the circulating strain in the British Virgin Isl-s was also established in the same year. This was further supported by changes in specific amino acids, E2-V368A - 6K-L20M. For these reasons, it can be inferred that the route of virus entry to Mexico was held across the countries in the Caribbean - Central America. The presence of E1-A226V mutation associated with more efficient replication in the salivary gl- of the A. albopictus mosquito was not observed. Interestingly, a newly acquired NSP4-S399C mutation was observed; however, the significance of changes in amino acid found in non-structural proteins in autochthonous strains remains to be elucidated.

104) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.
Autor: Hamel Rodolphe,Liégeois Florian,Wichit Sineewanlaya,Pompon Julien,Diop Fodé,Talignani Loïc,Thomas Frédéric,Desprès Philippe,Yssel Hans,Missé Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA, arbovirus, epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, vector
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

105) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Autor: Pastula Daniel M, Smith Daniel E, Beckham J David, Tyler Kenneth L
Assunto: Arboviral disease; Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Jamestown Canyon virus; North America; Powassan virus; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 257-260, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or s-flies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families - genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, - Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts - pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, - perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

106) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

107) Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014
Autor: Rossini G, Gaibani P, Vocale C, Finarelli A C, Landini M P
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Italy; Epidemiology; Phylogeny
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 9, p. 1912-1916, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV - its establishment in the Caribbean - in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) - Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean - Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation - clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance - early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe - North America.

108) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

109) Transcriptome analysis and discovery of genes relevant to development in Bradysia odoriphaga at three developmental stages
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gao, Huanhuan; Zhai, Yifan; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Xianhong; Zhuang, Qianying; Yu, Yi; Li, Rumei
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most important pest of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) in Asia; however, the molecular genetics are poorly understood. To explore the molecular biological mechanism of development, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly were performed in the third-instar, fourth-instar, and pupal B. odoriphaga. The study resulted in 16.2 Gb of clean data and 47,578 unigenes (>= 125bp) contained in 7,632,430contigs, 46.21% of which were annotated from non-redundant protein (NR), Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. It was found that 19.67% of unigenes matched the homologous species mainly, including Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ceratitis capitata, and Anopheles gambiae. According to differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, 143, 490, and 309 DEGs were annotated as involved in the developmental process in the GO database respectively, in the comparisons of third-instar and fourth-instar larvae, third-instar larvae and pupae, and fourth-instar larvae and pupae. Twenty-five genes were closely related to these processes, including developmental process, reproduction process, and reproductive organs development and programmed cell death (PCD). The information of unigenes assembled in B. odoriphaga through transcriptome and DEG analyses could provide a detailed genetic basis and regulated information for elaborating the developmental mechanism from the larval, pre-pupal to pupal stages of B. odoriphaga.

110) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

111) Hydrothermal synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: mosquitocidal potential and anticancer activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kavithaa, Krishnamoorthy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Ponraj, Thondhi; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Apoptosis; Antibacterial activity; Chemotherapy; Cytotoxicity; DAPI; MCF-7 cells; TiO2; Western blot
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1085-1096, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for transmission of serious diseases worldwide. Mosquito control is being enhanced in many Areas, but there are significant challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of alternative, cost-effective, and eco-friendly products. To deal with these crucial issues, recent emphasis has been placed on plant materials with mosquitocidal properties. Furthermore, cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Nanotechnology is a promising field of research and is expected to give major innovation impulses in a variety of industrial sectors. In this study, we synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDX). The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial cells (HBL-100). After 24-h incubation, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 60 and 80 mu g/mL on MCF-7 and normal HBL-100 cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments conducted against the primary dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti, LC50 values of nanoparticles were 4.02 ppm (larva I), 4.962 ppm (larva II), 5.671 ppm (larva III), 6.485 ppm (larva IV), and 7.527 ppm (pupa). Overall, our results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may be considered as a safe tool to build newer and safer mosquitocides and chemotherapeutic agents with little systemic toxicity.

112) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

113) Insulin-Related Peptide 5 is Involved in Regulating Embryo Development and Biochemical Composition in Pea Aphid with Wing Polyphenism
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Tong-Xian
Assunto: Aphid; Insulin-Like Peptide; Wing Polyphenism; Wing Differentiation; Biochemical Components
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Frontiers in Physiology, v. 7, 2016
ISSN: 1664-042X
Resumo: In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS) pathway regulate alternation of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5) affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax in the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryos, and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to the control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

114) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

115) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Autor: Aubry Maite, Richard Vaea, Green Jennifer, Broult Julien, Musso Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen - ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, - dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers - RNA loads were measured in plasma before - after amotosalen - UVA photochemical treatment. The mean ZIKV titers - RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL - 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells - did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

116) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

117) Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: African-Green Monkey; Aedes-Aegypti; Monoclonal-Antibodies; Phenotypic Characterization; Evolutionary Genetics; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Emergence; Transmission; Strains; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian Evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from approximate to 120 years to approximate to 315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted.

118) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

119) Protein kinase C modulates transcriptional activation by the juvenile hormone receptor methoprene-tolerant
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ojani, Reyhaneh; Liu, Pengcheng; Fu, Xiaonan; Zhu, Jinsong
Assunto: Juvenile hormone; Protein kinase C; Phospholipase C; Hormone receptor; Gene regulation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, p. 44-52, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Juvenile hormone OH) controls many biological events in insects by triggering dramatic changes in gene expression in target cells. The Methoprene-tolerant (MET) protein, an intracellular JH receptor, acts as a transcriptional regulator and binds to the promoters of tissue- and stage-specific JH target genes when JH is present. Our recent study has demonstrated that the transcriptional activation by MET is modulated by a membrane-initiated JH signaling pathway, involving phospholipase C (PLC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC) is another essential intermediate of this pathway. PKC was activated by JH and this action was PLC-dependent. Inhibition of the PKC activity substantially weakened the JH-induced gene expression in mosquito cells. RNAi experiments indicated that several PKC isoforms were involved in the JH action during the post-emergence development of adult female mosquitoes. JH treatment considerably increased the binding of MET to the promoters of JH response genes in cultured mosquito abdomens that were collected from newly emerged female adults. The JH-induced DNA binding of MET was hindered when the abdomens were treated with a PKC inhibitor and JH. Therefore, the results suggest that PKC modulates the transactivation activity of MET by enhancing the binding of MET to JH response elements in the JH target genes. This mechanism may allow for variable and stage- and tissue-specific genomic responses to JH. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

120) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

121) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Calvet Guilherme A, Filippis Ana Maria B, Mendonça Marcos Cesar L, Sequeira Patricia C, Siqueira Andre M, Veloso Valdilea G, Nogueira Rita M, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brazil; HIV; ZIKV; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya - ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis - the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection - endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms - recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

122) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Biological control; Genetics; Population genetics; Human diseases; DNA; Natural populations; Public health; Mitochondrial DNA; Immigration; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Haplotypes; Dengue; Population studies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016.
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

123) External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Jacobsen Sonja, Patel Pranav, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Teichmann Anette, Zeller Herve, Niedrig Matthias
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Diagnosis; EQA; Molecular; Proficiency test; Quality control; Serology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 76, p. 55-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 - the recent outbreak in the Caribbean isl-s with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular - serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular - 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity - specificity of molecular - serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 - 60 data sets were returned for IgG - IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable - 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable - the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable - 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity - specificity for the molecular - serology diagnostic required for the quick - reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance.

124) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

125) Genetic variability in the natural populations of Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), detected by RAPD markers and by esterase isozymes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Coelho-Bortolo, T.; Mangolin, C. A.; Lapenta, A. S.
Assunto: Lasioderma Serricorne; Genetic Structure; Polymorphism; Genetic Variability
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 106, n. 1, p. 47-53, 2016
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Lasioderma serricorne (F.) is a small cosmopolitan beetle regarded as a destructive pest of several stored products such as grains, flour, spices, dried fruit and tobacco. Chemical insecticides are one of the measures used against the pest. However, intensive insecticide use has resulted in the appearance of resistant insect populations. Therefore, for the elaboration of more effective control programs, it is necessary to know the biological aspects of L. serricorne. Among these aspects, the genetic variability knowledge is very important and may help in the development of new control methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of 11 natural populations of L. serricorne collected respectively in three and four towns in the states of Parana and Sao Paulo, Brazil, using 20 primers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and polymorphisms of esterases. These primers produced 352 polymorphic bands. Electrophoretic analysis of esterases allowed the identification of four polymorphic loci (Est-2, Est-4, Est-5 and Est-6) and 18 alleles. Results show that populations are Genetically differentiated and there is a high level of genetic variability within populations. The high degree of genetic differentiation is not directly correlated to geographical distance. Thus, our data indicate that movement of infested commodities may contribute to the dissemination of L. serricorne, facilitating gene flow.

126) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

127) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus-induced cell death by salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues provides additional evidence for a PKC-independent pathway
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Near Katherine E, Nakagawa Yu, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 79, n. 4, p. 680-684, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been spreading rapidly, with over one million confirmed or suspected cases in the Americas since late 2013. Infection with CHIKV causes devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. Currently, there is no therapy to treat this disease, - the only medications focus on relief of symptoms. Recently, protein kinase C (PKC) modulators have been reported to inhibit CHIKV-induced cell death in cell assays. The salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues described here are structurally simplified PKC modulators that are more synthetically accessible than the natural product bryostatin 1, a PKC modulator - clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication. Evaluation of the anti-CHIKV activity of these salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues in cell culture indicates that they are among the most potent cell-protective agents reported to date. Given that they are more accessible - significantly more active than the parent natural product, they represent new therapeutic leads for controlling CHIKV infection. Significantly, these analogues also provide evidence for the involvement of a PKC-independent pathway. This adds a fundamentally distinct aspect to the importance or involvement of PKC modulation in inhibition of chikungunya virus replication, a topic of recent - growing interest.

128) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

129) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2016
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

130) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

131) Regulatory T and B lymphocytes in a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy
Autor: Quan S,Sheng J R,Abraham P M,Soliven B
Assunto: Bregs; CIDP; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Tregs; Co-stimulatory molecules
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell
Fonte: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, v. 184, n. 1, p. 50-61, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2249
Resumo: B7-2(-/-) non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy (SAP) that mimics the progressive form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). In this study, we focused on the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) and regulatory B cells (Bregs ) in SAP. We found that deletion of B7-2 in female NOD mice led to a lower frequency and number of Tregs and Bregs in spleens and lymph nodes. Tregs but not Bregs suppressed antigen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, whereas Bregs inhibited the T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine response. Both Tregs and Bregs induced an increase in CD4(+) interleukin (IL)-10(+) cells, although less effectively in the absence of B7-2. Adoptive transfer studies revealed that Tregs , but not Bregs , suppressed SAP, while Bregs attenuated disease severity when given prior to symptom onset. B cell deficiency in B cell-deficient (muMT)/B7-2(-/-) NOD mice prevented the development of SAP, which would indicate that the pathogenic role of B cells predominates over its regulatory role in this model. We conclude that Bregs and Tregs control the immunopathogenesis and progression of SAP in a non-redundant fashion, and that therapies aimed at expansion of Bregs and Tregs may be an effective approach in autoimmune neuropathies.

132) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

133) Ultrasound and electrophysiologic findings in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome at disease onset and over a period of six months
Autor: Grimm Alexander,Décard Bernhard F,Schramm Axel,Pröbstel Anne-Katrin,Rasenack Maria,Axer Hubertus,Fuhr Peter
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; Immune-mediated neuropathy; Nerve ultrasonography; Spinal nerves; Vagus nerve
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology
Fonte: Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, v. 127, n. 2, p. 1657-1663, 2016
ISSN: 1872-8952
Resumo: To investigate cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of several peripheral nerves including the vagus nerve and the diameter of spinal nerves as measured by nerve ultrasound (NUS) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients over at least six months compared to healthy controls. NUS and/or NCS of several nerves, the vagus nerve, and the 5th/6th cervical spinal nerves were performed in patients with GBS at days 2-3 after symptom onset, at days 10-14 after immunoglobulin therapy and after six months compared to healthy controls. 27 GBS-patients and 31 controls were included. Using NUS significant enlargement was found in all measured nerves (P<0.001), except the sural nerve (P=0.086) compared to the controls at onset. The vagus (median 3.0mm(2) vs. 2.0mm(2), P<0.0001) and the cervical spinal nerves were significantly enlarged (median 3.5/4.0mm vs. 2.6/3.2mm, p<0.0001), the vagus most obviously in patients with autonomic dysregulation (AD, 4.0mm(2)). Six months later, NCS showed persisting pathology in CMAP-amplitudes with amelioration of F-wave pathology. NUS showed restitution in the spinal nerves (median 2.6/3.2mm) and the vagus (median 2.0mm(2)) in all patients excluding the vagus in those with persistent AD (median 4.0mm(2)). The peripheral nerves did not change significantly (P>0.05). Ultrasonographic detection of cervical spinal nerve enlargement supports the diagnosis of GBS in the early phase. Its regression may be a good parameter for the clinical restitution over time. Vagus enlargement may be a risk marker for development of AD. Ultrasound is a reliable diagnostic follow-up tool in early GBS.

134) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

135) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

136) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

137) Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

138) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

139) Impact of Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Disease: a Review of Immune Mechanisms.
Autor: Wong Priscilla H.; White Kevin M.
Assunto: Autoimmune; Immunomodulation; Inflammatory diseases; Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy; Pediatric diseases
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 303-314, 2016
ISSN: 1559-0267
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual. In immune thrombocytopenia, IVIG targets the underlying increased platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Although theoretically promising, IVIG shows no clear clinical benefit in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Limitations in research design combined with the unique neonatal immunologic environment offer explanations for this finding. Inflammation from aberrant immune activation underlies the myelinotoxic effects of Guillain-Barré syndrome. HIV-1 exerts a broad range of immunologic effects and was found to decrease serious bacterial infections in the pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era, although its practical relevance in the post-HAART era has waned. Clinical and experimental data support the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy. IVIG exerts anti-epileptic effects through targeting upregulated cytokine pathways and antibodies thought to contribute to epilepsy. Applications in six additional pediatric diseases including pediatric asthma, atopic dermatitis, cystic fibrosis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), autism, and transplantation will also be briefly reviewed. From autoimmunity to immunodeficiency, a dynamic immunologic basis underlies major pediatric diseases and highlights the broad potential of IVIG therapy.

140) Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Bravo-Filho V., Góis A.L., Belfort R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), macular degeneration, macular neuroretinal atrophy, microcephaly (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

141) Unusual Presentation of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After Mandibular Fracture Treatment: A Review of the Literature and a New Case
Autor: Samieirad Sahand,Khajehahmadi Saeedeh,Tohidi Elahe,Barzegar Mohsen
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology
Fonte: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, v. 74, n. 1, p. 129.e1-129.e6, 2016
ISSN: 1531-5053
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a multifactorial and lethal inflammatory demyelinating neuronal disorder with concurrent polyradiculopathy and polyneuropathy presentations. This rare syndrome affects the peripheral nerve myelin sheath and is characterized by ascending muscle weakness and paralysis. There have been rare reports of GBS after head or brachial plexus trauma, general anesthesia, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, cesarean section, laparoscopy, and general surgery, and the occurrence of GBS after oral and maxillofacial surgery is not common. A review of the related literature and a new case of GBS after maxillofacial surgery are presented.

142) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

143) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Rash maculopapular ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

144) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

145) Metals and Neurodegeneration.
Autor: Chen Pan; Miah Mahfuzur Rahman; Aschner Michael
Assunto: Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, metal accumulation, neurodegeneration, neurological disorders
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular Structure
Fonte: F1000 Research, v. 5, 2016
ISSN: 2046-1402
Resumo: Metals play important roles in the human body, maintaining cell structure and regulating gene expression, neurotransmission, and antioxidant response, to name a few. However, excessive metal accumulation in the nervous system may be toxic, inducing oxidative stress, disrupting mitochondrial function, and impairing the activity of numerous enzymes. Damage caused by metal accumulation may result in permanent injuries, including severe neurological disorders. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a strong correlation between aberrant metal exposure and a number of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, Guillain-Barré disease, Gulf War syndrome, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Wilson's disease. Here, we briefly survey the literature relating to the role of metals in neurodegeneration.

146) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

147) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

148) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Autor: Calvet Guilherme, Aguiar Renato S, Melo Adriana S O, Sampaio Simone A, de Filippis Ivano, Fabri Allison, Araujo Eliane S M, de Sequeira Patricia C, de Mendonça Marcos C L, de Oliveira Louisi, Tschoeke Diogo A, Schrago Carlos G, Thompson Fabiano L, Brasil Patricia, Dos Santos Flavia B, Nogueira Rita M R, Tanuri Amilcar, de Filippis Ana M B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 6, p. 653-660, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors - several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect - sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' - 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, - rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA - RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR - viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction - investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains - from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, - parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, - that in both envelope - NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North - South America, southeast Asia, - the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus - other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus - cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

149) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

150) Simplified bryostatin analogues protect cells from Chikungunya virus-induced cell death
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Schrier Adam J, Loy Brian A, Verma Vishal A, DeChristopher Brian A, Near Katherine E, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products v. 79, n. 4, p. 675-679, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus showing a recent resurgence - rapid spread worldwide. While vaccines are under development, there are currently no therapies to treat this disease, except for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, which alleviate the devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. To identify novel inhibitors of the virus, analogues of the natural product bryostatin 1, a clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication, were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity - were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication reported to date. Bryostatin-based therapeutic efforts - even recent anti-CHIKV strategies have centered on modulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Intriguingly, while the C ring of bryostatin primarily drives interactions with PKC, A- - B-ring functionality in these analogues has a significant effect on the observed cell-protective activity. Significantly, bryostatin 1 itself, a potent pan-PKC modulator, is inactive in these assays. These new findings indicate that the observed anti-CHIKV activity is not solely mediated by PKC modulation, suggesting possible as yet unidentified targets for CHIKV therapeutic intervention. The high potency - low toxicity of these bryologs make them promising new leads for the development of a CHIKV treatment.

151) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection
Autor: Biacchesi Stéphane, Jouvion Grégory, Mérour Emilie, Boukadiri Abdelhak, Desdouits Marion, Ozden Simona, Huerre Michel, Ceccaldi Pierre-Emmanuel, Brémont Michel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Veterinary Research, v. 47, n. 1, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1297-9716
Resumo: Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis - atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV - its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, - the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo - ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, - the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed - virus replication - persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

152) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

153) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

154) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

155) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

156) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

157) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

158) Whole-genome sequencing analysis from the Chikungunya virus Caribbean outbreak reveals novel evolutionary genomic elements
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Moratorio Gonzalo, Henningsson Rasmus, Chen Rubing, Matheus Séverine, Enfissi Antoine, Weissglas-Volkov Daphna, Isakov Ofer, Blanc Hervé, Mounce Bryan C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle, Shomron Noam, Weaver Scott, Fontes Magnus, Rousset Dominique, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004402, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus - member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to underst- how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak. We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants - diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe - Martinique, two isl-s in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak - identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR) structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells. Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to underst- the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

159) Zika virus: A previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gatherer D., Kohl A.
Assunto: pandemic, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099 (electronic),0022-1317
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

160) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Sexual; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2. p. 93-97, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current p-emic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) - flaviviruses (dengue - Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti - A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype - temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan - Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis - not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual - via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain - persistent immune response. Two c-idate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR - ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, - plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR - virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA - plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion - fenitrothion) - pyrethroids (permethrin - deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive - biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

161) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

162) Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: A new emerging neurotropic virus
Autor: Carod-Artal F J
Assunto: Enfermedad por virus Zika; Epidemiología; Flavivirus; Guillain-Barré; Microcefalia; Virus Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista de Neurologia, v. 62, n. 7, p. 317-328, 2016
ISSN: 1576-6578
Resumo: The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 - since then it has been reported in 31 countries - territories in America. The epidemiological - clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa - Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting - last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions - Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta - amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly - in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, - serological tests (IgM ELISA - neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue - chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus - its long-term consequences in adults - newborn infants is still limited.

163) Reversible estrous cycle suppression in prepubertal female rabbits treated with slow-release deslorelin implants
Autor: Geyer, A.; Daub, L.; Otzdorff, C.; Reese, S.; Braun, J.; Walter, B.
Assunto: Deslorelin; Female rabbit; GNRH stimulation test; Long-term contraception; GnRH; GNRH - Agonist implant; Long-term contraception; Pseudopregnant rabbits; Analog deslorelin; Plasma progesterone; Ovarian activity; Domestic cats; Male dogs; LH Surge; Ovulation
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry
Fonte: Theriogenology, v. 85, n. 2, p. 282-287, 2016
ISSN: 0093-691X
Resumo: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of a 4.7-mg deslorelin GnRH analog implant on ovarian function in the prepubertal female rabbit. Seven female rabbits (group 1) were treated with the implant at the age of 60 days. The implant was inserted subcutaneously in the umbilical region. Two animals (group 2) were not treated and served as a control group. The vulva of all 9 animals was examined for the presence of typical cyclical changes, additionally the occurrence of mounting behavior was recorded. Ovarian function was checked by administration of a short-acting GnRH agonist to induce ovulation and pseudopregnancy (0.8 mu g of buserelin per animal intramuscularly). Ten days after each treatment with buserdin, blood was collected for progesterone measurement to confirm pseudopregnancy. After implant insertion, the first blood collection (Day 10) was done without preceding induction of ovulation to screen for implant induced ovulation and pseudopregnancy. The implant was in situ for 273 days, and during this time span, 12 attempts of induction of ovulation were caiTied out in intervals of 21 days, beginning at the age ofBl days. Afterward, it was removed under local anesthesia and 3 further inductions of ovulation by the same scheme were conducted. The insertion of the implant led to the establishment of a pseudopregnancy in 2 of 7 animals; the remaining 5 animals did not show elevated progesterone values. Attempts to induce ovulation by administration of the short-acting GnRH analog while the slow-release GnRH analog implant was in place were not successful in treated animals, and progesterone concentrations were basal. The effect was reversible as ovulation could be induced in 2 subsequent cycles in all animals by the third induction of ovulation after implant removal. Induction of ovulation in control animals at the age of 110 and 131 days resulted in elevated progesterone levels after 10 days. No adverse side effects could be observed in implanttreated animals. The typical red coloration of the vulva could be seen in group 2 and after implant removal in group 1. The results suggest that in 5 of 7 rabbits, puberty was delayed by the treatment with the 4.7-mg deslorelin slow-release analog until the implant had been removed. In the other animals, the treatment induced an initial flare-up phenomenon. Afterward, the treatment could reversibly suppress ovarian function in all 7 treated animals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

164) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

165) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

166) Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia
Autor: Riswari S F, Ma'roef C N, Djauhari H, Kosasih H, Perkasa A, Yudhaputri F A, Artika I M, Williams M, van der Ven A, Myint K S, Alisjahbana B, Ledermann J P, Powers A M, Jaya U A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Indonesia; Infection kinetics; Viremia profile
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 61-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in B-ung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells - tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, - CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified - studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset - extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics - thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks.

167) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvez E., Guillaumot L., Millet L., Marie J., Bossin H., Rama V., Faamoe A., Kilama S., Teurlai M., Mathieu-Daudé F., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, insect genetics
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding: We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (F(ST) = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

168) The presence and seroprevalence of arthropod-borne viruses in nasiriyah governorate, southern iraq: A cross-sectional study
Autor: Barakat Ali Mohammed, Smura Teemu, Kuivanen Suvi, Huhtamo Eili, Kurkela Satu, Putkuri Niina, Hasony Hassan J, Al-Hello Haider, Vapalahti Olli
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 4, p. 794-799, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: The knowledge on the presence - seroprevalence of arboviruses in Iraq is fragmental. To assess the exposure of the population to arbovirus infections in southern Iraq, we conducted a serological screening of the most common arbovirus groups using immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition - neutralization tests. Serum samples of 399 adult volunteers were collected in Nasiriyah, Iraq. Antibodies were detected against West Nile virus (WNV) (11.6%), s-fly-borne Sicilian virus serocomplex (18.2%), s-fly-borne Naples virus serocomplex (7.8%), Sindbis virus (1.5%), chikungunya virus (0.5%), - Tahyna virus (2.0%). The results suggest that WNV - s-fly-borne phlebovirus infections are common in southern Iraq, - these viruses should be considered as potential causative agents in patients with febrile disease -/or neurological manifestations.

169) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

170) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

171) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

172) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

173) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

174) Versatile trans-replication systems for Chikungunya virus allow functional analysis and tagging of every replicase protein
Autor: Utt Age, Quirin Tania, Saul Sirle, Hellström Kirsi, Ahola Tero, Merits Andres
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 3, p. e0151616, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, - the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-str- RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression - RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein - template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase - encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates - synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein - nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs - a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional - maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA - wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability - represents an efficient, sensitive - reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process.

175) ZIKATracker: A mobile App for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin, Alyson A., Banner, David, Pamplona, Luciano, Alencar, Carlos, Rubino, Salvatore, Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika virus, Mobile apps, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

176) The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East.
Autor: Tridane Abdessamad,El Khajah Abdelmajid,Ali Bassam R
Assunto: Congenital microcephaly, Middle East, Travel warning, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo:

177) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

178) Expression of a sugar Glade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori
Autor: Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi
Assunto: Juvenile Hormone; 20-Hydroxyecdysone; Post-Translation Modification; Cholesterol; Lipid Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, n. , p. 85-98, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar Glade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

179) Quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters in reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification enabling bright, single-step, closed-tube, and multiplexed detection of RNA viruses
Autor: Ball Cameron S, Light Yooli K, Koh Chung-Yan, Wheeler Sarah S, Coffey Lark L, Meagher Robert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Analytical Chemistry, v. 88, n. 7, p. 3562-3568, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6882
Resumo: Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has frequently been proposed as an enabling technology for simplified diagnostic tests for RNA viruses. However, common detection techniques used for LAMP - RT-LAMP have drawbacks, including poor discrimination capability, inability to multiplex targets, high rates of false positives, - (in some cases) the requirement of opening reaction tubes postamplification. Here, we present a simple technique that allows closed-tube, target-specific detection, based on inclusion of a dye-labeled primer that is incorporated into a target-specific amplicon if the target is present. A short, complementary quencher hybridizes to unincorporated primer upon cooling down at the end of the reaction, thereby quenching fluorescence of any unincorporated primer. Our technique, which we term QUASR (for quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters, read quasar"), does not significantly reduce the amplification efficiency or sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Equipped with a simple LED excitation source - a colored plastic gel filter, the naked eye or a camera can easily discriminate between positive - negative QUASR reactions, which produce a difference in signal of approximately 10:1 without background subtraction. We demonstrate that QUASR detection is compatible with complex sample matrices such as human blood, using a novel LAMP primer set for bacteriophage MS2 (a model RNA virus particle). Furthermore, we demonstrate single-tube duplex detection of West Nile virus (WNV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA."

180) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

181) The reemergence of Zika virus: A review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Autor: Shuaib Waqas, Stanazai Hashim, Abazid Ahmad G, Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil; Chikungunya; Dengue; Microcephaly; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, v. 129, n. 8, p. 879.e7-879.e12, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: That extreme care should be exercised in the selection of lower primates for purposes of studying exotic viral agents is clearly indicated by the data presented. Although no viremia was found in the animals tested, adherence to a rigid program of housing and protective screening is essential if a serious transmission hazard is to be minimized, particularly in areas of high arthropod activity.

182) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

183) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

184) Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida
Autor: Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim
Assunto: Olfactory system; Neuropeptide; Serotonin; Insect; 3D reconstruction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Cell and Tissue Research, v. 363, n. 3, p. 679-692, 2016
ISSN: 0302-766X
Resumo: The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures.

185) Zika virus genome from the Americas.
Autor: Enfissi Antoine,Codrington John,Roosblad Jimmy,Kazanji Mirdad,Rousset Dominique
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

186) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Autor: Ginier Mylène, Neumayr Andreas, Günther Stephan, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Blum Johannes
Assunto: Flavivirus infection; Travel medicine; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence - rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical - diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril - afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation - cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy - foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women - women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low - seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America - Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission."

187) Evidences for the action mechanism of angiotensin II and its analogs on Plasmodium sporozoite membranes
Autor: Torossian Torres, Marcelo Der; Silva, Adriana Farias; Alves, Flavio Lopes; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Miranda, Antonio; Cordeiro, Rodrigo Maghdissian; Oliveira Junior, Vani Xavier
Assunto: Angiotensin II; Malaria; Molecular dynamics; Plasmodium
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry
Fonte: Journal of Peptide Science, v. 22, n. 3, p. 132-142, 2016
ISSN: 1075-2617
Resumo: Malaria is an infectious disease responsible for approximately one million deaths annually. Oligopeptides such as angiotensin II (AII) and its analogs are known to have antimalarial effects against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium falciparum. However, their mechanism of action is still not fully understood at the molecular level. In the work reported here, we investigated this issue by comparing the antimalarial activity of AII with that of (i) its diastereomer formed by only d-amino acids; (ii) its isomer with reversed sequence; and (iii) its analogs restricted by lactam bridges, the so-called VC5 peptides. Data from fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the antiplasmodial activities of both all-D-AII and all-D-VC5 were as high as those of the related peptides AII and VC5, respectively. In contrast, retro-AII had no significant effect against P. gallinaceum. Conformational analysis by circular dichroism suggested that AII and its active analogs usually adopted a -turn conformation in different solutions. In the presence of membrane-mimetic micelles, AII had also a -turn conformation, while retro-AII was random. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the AII chains were slightly more bent than retro-AII at the surface of a model membrane. At the hydrophobic membrane interior, however, the retro-AII chain was severely coiled and rigid. AII was much more flexible and able to experience both straight and coiled conformations. We took it as an indication of the stronger ability of AII to interact with membrane headgroups and promote pore formation. Copyright (c) 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

188) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

189) Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control
Autor: Leftwich, Philip T.; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey
Assunto: Fitness; Genetic Modification; Release Of Insects Carrying A Dominant Lethal; Resistance; Selection; Sterile Insect Technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 9, n. 1, p. 212-230, 2016
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

190) Zika virus: a roar after years of whispering
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balkhair, Abdullah ; Al- Maamari, Khuloud ; Alawi , Fatma Ba ; Al- Adawi, Badriya
Assunto: Medical science and research; Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA
Fonte: Oman Medical Journal, v. 3, n. 2, p. 87, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

191) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

192) The Chikungunya virus: An emerging US pathogen
Autor: Nappe Thomas M, Chuhran Craig M, Johnson Steven A
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Mosquito-borne disease; Polyarthralgia
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: World Journal of Emergency Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 65-67, 2016
ISSN: 1920-8642
Resumo: The Chikungunya (CHIK) virus was recently reported by the CDC to have spread to the United States. We report an early documented case of CHIK from the state of Pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from Haiti in June of 2014. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, fatigue, polyarthralgias - a diffuse rash for two days. Four days before, he returned from a mission trip to Haiti - reported that four of his accompanying friends had also become ill. A CHIK antibody titer was obtained - it was found to be positive. During his hospital stay, he responded well to supportive care, including anti-inflammatories, intravenous hydration - anti-emetics. His condition improved within two days - he was ultimately discharged home. Manifestations of CHIK can be similar to Dengue fever, which is transmitted by the same species of mosquito, - occasionally as a co-infection. Clinicians should include Chikungunya virus in their differential diagnosis of patients who present with fever, polyarthralgia - rash with a recent history of travel to endemic areas, including those within the United States.

193) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

194) Scientists probe Zika link to birth defects: Mosquito-borne virus is now present in 33 countries
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Check Hayden E.
Assunto: congenital malformation (congenital disorder), Flavivirus infection, Zika infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

195) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

196) Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: another viral cause to add to the list.
Autor: Smith David W,Mackenzie John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1486-1488, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

197) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

198) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

199) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

200) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Brazil is facing a disturbing spike in a severe birth defect called microcephaly. Babies are born with heads that are far too small, a sign that the brain failed to fully develop. Doctors there have reported nearly 3000 cases since July 2015--more than 20 times the usual rate. Scientists are scrambling to understand what is going on. The leading theory so far is that the condition is caused by a little known mosquito-borne virus called Zika that surfaced in Brazil in March and is quickly spreading through Latin America. The news has prompted the government to declare a public health emergency; some doctors are recommending women not get pregnant until more is known. Researchers are trying to develop better diagnostic tests for the virus so they can track whether mothers of affected babies were infected during their pregnancies, and other groups are hoping to use stem cell models of the developing human brain to understand how the virus might affect fetal growth. Meanwhile, the virus is advancing fast. It surfaced in Colombia, Suriname, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico in October and November; Puerto Rico reported its first cases in late December. Researchers warn that countries across the Americas should be prepared for a similar wave of birth defects in coming months.

201) Vectorborne Infections, Mali
Autor: Safronetz David, Sacko Moussa, Sogoba Nafomon, Rosenke Kyle, Martellaro Cynthia, Traoré Sékou, Cissé Issa, Maiga Ousmane, Boisen Matt, Nelson Diana, Oottamasathien Darin, Millett Molly, Garry Robert F, Branco Luis M, Doumbia Seydou, Feldmann Heinz, Traoré Mamadou S
Assunto: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Leptospira; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Bunyavirus; Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Flavivirus; Hantavirus; Rodentborne viruses; Togavirus; Vector-borne infections; Viruses; Zoonotic diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 22, n. 2, p. 340-342, 2016
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

202) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

203) Zika virus in the americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Autor: Fauci Anthony S, Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

204) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

205) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher, Ortiz Kristina, Ansari Aftab, Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience - information has spread rapidly - wildly through the internet - other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Ug-a, hence its name, - is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny isl- of Yap located between the Philippines - Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial b- in Africa - Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania - then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage - microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, - within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected - for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue - Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests - vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides - preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

206) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

207) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

208) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

209) Analysis of the miRNA expression profile in an Aedes albopictus cell line in response to bluetongue virus infection
Autor: Xing, Shanshan; Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong
Assunto: Aedes albopictus cell line; Bluetongue virus; Deep sequencing; MicroRNAs
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 39, p. 74-84, 2016
ISSN: 1567-1348
Resumo: Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be key regulators of virus-host interactions. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-borne virus that causes huge economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. Aedes albopictus cell lines have become powerful and convenient tools for studying BTV-vector interactions. However, the role of miRNAs in A. albopictus cells during BTV infection is not well understood. In this study, we performed a deep sequencing analysis of small RNA libraries of BTV-infected and mock-infected A. albopictus cells, and a total of 11,206,854 and 12,125,274 clean reads were identified, respectively. A differential expression analysis showed that 140 miRNAs, including 15 known and 125 novel miRNAs, were significantly dysregulated after infection, and a total of 414 and 2307 target genes were annotated, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validated the expression patterns of 11 selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets. Functional annotation of the target genes suggested that these target genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, endocytosis, RNA transport, as well as the FoxO, Hippo, Jak-STAT, and MAPK signaling pathways. This is the first systematic study on the effect of BTV infection on miRNA expression in A. albopictus cells. This investigation provides information concerning the cellular miRNA expression profile in response to BTV infection, and it offers clues for identifying potential candidates for vector-based antiviral strategies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

210) Dynamics of Chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells
Autor: Hoornweg Tabitha E, van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Ayala Nuñez Nilda V, Albulescu Irina C, van Hemert Martijn J, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4745-562016, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia - the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell, as several studies suggest that it enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while some other studies show that CHIKV enters cells independently of clathrin. Here, we applied live-cell microscopy - monitored the cell entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain a detailed insight in the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 minutes post-addition to the cells. The vast majority of particles that fused first colocalized with clathrin. The time from initial colocalization with clathrin till the moment of membrane fusion was on average 1.7 minutes, highlighting the fast nature of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results also show that the virus spends a profound time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was predominantly observed from within Rab5-positive endosomes - often occurred within 40 seconds post-delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position E1-226 enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV cell entry occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. Since its re-emergence in 2004 chikungunya (CHIKV) has rapidly spread around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available against CHIKV. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell entry process of the virus. However, contradicting results were published with regard to the cell entry pathway used by CHIKV. Here, we applied a novel technology to visualize the entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells. Our results show that CHIKV cell entry is extremely rapid - occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Membrane fusion is seen from within acidic early endosomes. Furthermore, the membrane fusion capacity of CHIKV is strongly promoted by cholesterol in the target membrane. Taken together, this study provides an exquisite insight in the cell entry process of CHIKV.

211) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anAedesmosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 - then rapidly spread throughout the tropical - subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus - chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

212) Re-evaluating the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted Ross River virus infection
Autor: Seed C R, Hoad V C, Faddy H M, Kiely P, Keller A J, Pink J
Assunto: Ross River virus; Blood safety; Residual risk estimation; Transfusion-transmissible infection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 110, n. 4, p. 317-323, 2016
ISSN: 1423-0410
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV) is an enveloped, RNA alphavirus in the same antigenic group as chikungunya virus. Australia records an annual average of 5000 laboratory-confirmed RRV infections. While RRV is currently geographically restricted to the Western Pacific, the capacity of arboviruses for rapid expansion is well established. The first case of RRV transfusion-transmission was recently described prompting a comprehensive risk assessment. To estimate the RRV residual risk, we applied laboratory-confirmed RRV notifications to two published models. This modelling generated point estimates for the risk of viraemia in the donor population, the risk of collecting a viraemic donation - the predicted number of infected components. The EUFRAT model estimated the risk of infection in donors as one in 95 039 (one in 311 328 to one in 32 399) to one in 14 943 (one in 48 593 to one in 5094). The point estimate for collecting a RRV viraemic donation varied from one in 166 486 (one in 659 078 to one in 49 158) (annualized national risk) to one in 26 117 (one in 103 628 to one in 7729) (area of high transmission). The modelling predicted 8-11 RRV-infected labile blood components issued in Australia during a 1-year period. Considering the uncertainty in the modelled estimates, the unknown rate of RRV donor viraemia - the low severity of any recipient RRV infection, additional risk management for RRV in Australia will initially be restricted to strengthening the messaging to donors regarding prompt reporting of any postdonation illnesses.

213) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

214) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

215) Effect of promoters and plasmid copy number on Cyt1A synthesis and crystal assembly in bacillus thuringiensis
Autor: Park, Hyun-Woo; Hice, Robert H.; Federici, Brian A.
Assunto: Messenger - RNA sequence; SUBSP Israelensis; Culex - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Protein; Expression; Resistance; Toxin; Construction; Sphaericus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Current Microbiology, v. 72, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 0343-8651
Resumo: Cyt1Aa is a major mosquitocidal protein synthesized during sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, composing more than 50 % of its parasporal body. This high level of synthesis is due to several factors including three strong sporulation-dependent promoters, a strong transcription termination sequence, and an associated 20-kDa helper protein. Cyt1Aa's toxicity is low compared to the Cry proteins of this species, namely, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa, but it nevertheless plays an important role in the biology of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in that it synergizes their mosquitocidal toxicity and suppresses the evolution of resistance. In the present study, the effects of using different cyt1Aa promoter combinations and plasmid copy number on synthesis of Cyt1Aa were evaluated. Using the 4Q7 (plasmid-cured) strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis as an experimental host, a plasmid copy number of two or three yielded no Cyt1Aa, whereas a copy number of four yielded only small crystals, even when expression was driven by one of the wild-type promoters. However, using all three wild-type promoters and a plasmid copy number of 20 yielded Cyt1A crystals tenfold larger than those produced by one promoter and a plasmid copy number of four. High levels of Cyt1Aa synthesis resulted in significantly fewer spores per unit medium and imperfectly formed crystals. Similar results were obtained when Cyt1Aa synthesis was evaluated using the same expression constructs in a mutant strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis that lacks the cyt1Aa gene.

216) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

217) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

218) Mechanisms of sex determination and transmission ratio distortion in Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kim Phuc Hoang; Tze Min Teo; Thien Xuan Ho; Vinh Sy Le
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Sex determination; Transformer-2; Meiotic drive; Spermatogenesis; Culicinae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: More effective mosquito control strategies are urgently required due to the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance. The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal allele (RIDL) are two proposed methods for environmentally-friendly, species-targeted population control. These methods may be more suitable for developing countries if producers reduce the cost of rearing insects. The cost of control programs could be reduced by producing all-male mosquito populations to circumvent the isolation of females before release without reducing male mating competitiveness caused by transgenes.Results: An RNAi construct targeting the RNA recognition motif of the Aedes aegypti transformer-2 (tra-2) gene does not trigger female-to-male sex conversion as commonly observed among dipterous insects. Instead, homozygous insects show greater mortality among m-chromosome-bearing sperm and mm zygotes, yielding up to 100 % males in the subsequent generations. The performance of transgenic males was not significantly different to wild-type males in narrow-cage competitive mating experiments.Conclusion: Our data provide preliminary evidence that the knockdown of Ae. aegypti tra-2 gene expression causes segregation distortion acting at the level of gametic function, which is reinforced by sex-specific zygotic lethality. This finding could promote the development of new synthetic sex distorter systems for the production of genetic sexing mosquito strains.

219) Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase
Autor: Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Ammonia; Gene silencing; Protein expression; Uric acid; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: FASEB Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 111-120, 2016
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose-and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected controlmosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. FASEB J. 30, 111-120 (2016). www.fasebj.org

220) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

221) Evolution of the assassin's arms: insights from a phylogeny of combined transcriptomic and ribosomal DNA data (Heteroptera: Reduvioidea)
Autor: Zhang, Junxia; Gordon, Eric R. L.; Forthman, Michael; Hwang, Wei Song; Walden, Kim; Swanson, Daniel R.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Meier, Rudolf; Weirauch, Christiane
Assunto: Bugs Hemiptera Reduviidae; Attachment Structures; Insecta-Heteroptera; Molecular Phylogeny; Fossula Spongiosa; Data Sets; Cimicomorpha; Models; Characters; Morphology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 22177, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Assassin bugs (Reduvioidea) are one of the most diverse (> 7,000 spp.) lineages of predatory animals and have evolved an astounding diversity of raptorial leg modifications for handling prey. The evolution of these modifications is not well understood due to the lack of a robust phylogeny, especially at deeper nodes. We here utilize refined data from transcriptomes (370 loci) to stabilize the backbone phylogeny of Reduvioidea, revealing the position of major clades (e.g., the Chagas disease vectors Triatominae). Analyses combining transcriptomic and Sanger-sequencing datasets result in the first well-resolved phylogeny of Reduvioidea. Despite amounts of missing data, the transcriptomic loci resolve deeper nodes while the targeted ribosomal genes anchor taxa at shallower nodes, both with high support. This phylogeny reveals patterns of raptorial leg evolution across major leg types. Hairy attachment structures (fossula spongiosa), present in the ancestor of Reduvioidea, were lost multiple times within the clade. In contrast to prior hypotheses, this loss is not directly correlated with the evolution of alternative raptorial leg types. Our results suggest that prey type, predatory behavior, salivary toxicity, and morphological adaptations pose intricate and interrelated factors influencing the evolution of this diverse group of predators.

222) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

223) Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Biosafety; Green synthesis; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 925-935, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)(50) values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 mu g/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 mu g/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

224) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue virus type 1
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo, Patriota João Veras, Lourdes de Souza Maria de, Felix Alvina Clara, Mamede Nubia, Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, p. e3201, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies - advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus - molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) - Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), - coinfection of DENV - ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV - 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 - the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, - CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine - differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current - future prevention strategies.

225) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

226) Salivary transmission of the Chikungunya arbovirus
Autor: Rolph Michael S, Zaid Ali, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immunodeficiency; Saliva; Virus transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Trends in Microbiology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 86-87, 2016
ISSN: 1878-4380
Resumo: The emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a re-think of how preventative solutions should be approached since recent studies support the notion of salivary transmission. With the threat of significant health - economic burden, new control strategies aimed at limiting salivary transmission are needed to avoid further outbreaks.

227) Monkey study reveals zika damage in developing brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Showing the closest link yet between Zika virus and fetal brain injury in an animal model that closely resembles humans, researchers today described brain abnormalities in the fetus of a macaque experimentally infected during the late stage of her pregnancy. In other developments, Thailand reported several more Zika cases, many of them linked to a cluster in Bangkok, as the number of infections in Singapore grew steadily. In Florida, health officials denied a newspaper report charging problems with Zika reporting, and Broward County began aerial spraying withan organic pesticide as a prevention step

228) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

229) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

230) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication by 1-[(2-Methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) Methyl]-2-Oxo-Indolin-3-ylidene] Amino] Thiourea(MBZM-N-IBT)
Autor: Mishra Priyadarsee, Kumar Abhishek, Mamidi Prabhudutta, Kumar Sameer, Basantray Itishree, Saswat Tanuja, Das Indrani, Nayak Tapas Kumar, Chattopadhyay Subhasis, Subudhi Bharat Bhusan, Chattopadhyay Soma
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 20122, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is one of the most challenging human Arboviral infections with global significance - without any specific antiviral. In this investigation, 1-[(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) methyl]-2-oxo-indolin-3-ylidene] amino] thiourea (MBZM-N-IBT) was synthesised as a molecular hybrid of 2-methyl benzimidazole - isatin-?-thiosemicarbazone - its anti-CHIKV property was evaluated. The release of infectious virus particles was calculated by plaque assay, expression profile of viral RNA was estimated by RT-PCR - viral protein profiles were assessed by Western blot - FACS analyses. The safety index of MBZM-N-IBT was found to be >21. The CHIKV infectious viral particle formation was abrogated around 76.02% by MBZM-N-IBT during infection in mammalian system - the viral RNA synthesis was reduced by 65.53% - 23.71% for nsP2 - E1 respectively. Surprisingly, the viral protein levels were reduced by 97% for both nsP2 - E2. In the time-of-addition experiment it abrogated viral infection at early as well as late phase of viral life cycle, which indicates about multiple mechanisms for its anti-CHIKV action. In silico analysis justified development of MBZM-N-IBT with good affinities for potential target proteins of CHIKV - related virus. With predictions of good drug-likeness property, it shows potential of a drug c-idate which needs further experimental validation.

231) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

232) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

233) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

234) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

235) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

236) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: Insights for mosquito vector control
Autor: Benelli Giovanni, Mehlhorn Heinz
Assunto: Arbovirus; Artemisinin; Biological control; Boosted SIT; Nanosynthesis; Sex pheromones; Sound traps; Sterile insect technique; Swarming behaviour; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 5, p. 1747-1754, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], - the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention - control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, - RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America - the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades - became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) - chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective - eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles - Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations - even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps - the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. lure - kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming - mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic - symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates."

237) Association of Oligoadenylate Synthetase Gene Cluster and DC-SIGN (CD209) Gene Polymorphisms with Clinical Symptoms in Chikungunya Virus Infection
Autor: Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Muruganandam Nagarajan, Surya Palani, Anwesh Maile, Alagarasu Kalichamy, Vijayachari Paluru
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: DNA and Cell Biology, v. 35, n. 1, p. 44-50, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7430
Resumo: Biology and pathogenesis of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are not clearly established. Host factors play an important role in determining the progression - severity of the disease. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of CD209 gene (rs735239, rs4804803, rs2287886) - OAS1 (rs1131454 - rs10774671), OAS2 (rs15895 - rs1732778), - OAS3 (rs2285932 - rs2072136) genes were investigated in 100 patients with CHIKV infection - 101 healthy controls to find out the association of these polymorphisms with CHIKV infection. To evaluate the association of OAS - CD209 gene polymorphisms with the presence or absence of disease symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. DNA was extracted - typed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results revealed that the allele - genotype frequencies of OAS1, OAS3, - OAS2 gene polymorphisms were not different between healthy controls - CHIKV patients. The frequency of CD209 gene G/G genotype of rs4804803 was significantly higher in CHIKV patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.046). The present study suggests that rs4804803 GG genotype of CD209 gene is associated with susceptibility to CHIKV infection. To conclude, the present preliminary study suggests that OAS gene cluster - CD209 gene polymorphisms influence the risk of developing clinical symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. Further follow-up studies with a large number of samples are needed to assess the role of these genes in association with post-sequela symptoms observed in CHIKV patients. A detailed research is required in these directions to underst- the biology behind CHIKV infection - disease severity.

238) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

239) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

240) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

241) Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study
Autor: Prabhu Prashanth
Assunto: Anxiety; Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder; Chikungunya; Depression; Tinnitus; Tullio's phenomenon
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, v. 273, n. 1, p. 257-261, 2016
ISSN: 1434-4726
Resumo: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in underst-ing speech, tinnitus - vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus - it was persistent causing significant h-icap to him based on self report tinnitus h-icap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety - stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression - anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells - may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon - absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD - vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies.

242) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

243) Comparative analysis of viral RNA signatures on different RIG-I-like receptors
Autor: Sanchez David Raul Y, Combredet Chantal, Sismeiro Odile, Dillies Marie-Agnès, Jagla Bernd, Coppée Jean-Yves, Mura Marie, Guerbois Galla Mathilde, Despres Philippe, Tangy Frédéric, Komarova Anastassia V
Assunto: Human; Immunology; Infectious disease; Microbiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: eLife, v. 5, p. e11275, 2016
ISSN: 2050-084X
Resumo: The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) play a major role in sensing RNA virus infection to initiate - modulate antiviral immunity. They interact with particular viral RNAs, most of them being still unknown. To decipher the viral RNA signature on RLRs during viral infection, we tagged RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5, LGP2) - applied tagged protein affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of associated RNA molecules. Two viruses with negative- - positive-sense RNA genome were used: measles (MV) - chikungunya (CHIKV). NGS analysis revealed that distinct regions of MV genome were specifically recognized by distinct RLRs: RIG-I recognized defective interfering genomes, whereas MDA5 - LGP2 specifically bound MV nucleoprotein-coding region. During CHIKV infection, RIG-I associated specifically to the 3' untranslated region of viral genome. This study provides the first comparative view of the viral RNA lig-s for RIG-I, MDA5 - LGP2 in the presence of infection.

244) Establishment of a novel primary human skeletal myoblast cellular model for Chikungunya virus infection and pathogenesis
Autor: Hussain Khairunnisa' Mohamed, Lee Regina Ching Hua, Ng Mary Mah-Lee, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 21406, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus known to cause chronic myalgia - arthralgia - is now considered endemic in countries across Asia - Africa. The tissue tropism of CHIKV infection in humans remains, however, ill-defined. Due to the fact that myositis is commonly observed in most patients infected with CHIKV, we sought to develop a clinically relevant cellular model to better underst- the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection. In this study, primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were established as a novel human primary cell line that is highly permissive to CHIKV infection, with maximal amounts of infectious virions observed at 16 hours post infection. Genome-wide microarray profiling analyses were subsequently performed to identify - map genes that are differentially expressed upon CHIKV infection. Infection of HSMM cells with CHIKV resulted in altered expressions of host genes involved in skeletal- - muscular-associated disorders, innate immune responses, cellular growth - death, host metabolism - virus replication. Together, this study has shown the establishment of a clinically relevant primary human cell model that paves the way for the further analysis of host factors - their involvement in the various stages of CHIKV replication cycle - viral pathogenesis.

245) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

246) Cover.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Genome editing, Government policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Time International (Atlantic Edition), v. 187, n. 5, p. C1, 2016
ISSN: 9288430
Resumo: The cover page of the journal is presented which includes information on a conversation with U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, the associated between the mosquito-borne Zika virus and microcephaly in bewborn infants, and the approval of human embryos gene editing in Great Britain.

247) Traveler's Diarrhea
Autor: Giddings Stanley L,Stevens A Michal,Leung Daniel T
Assunto: Antibiotic prophylaxis; Diarrhea; Epidemiology; Probiotics; Risk factors; Travel
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: The Medical Clinics of North America, v. 100, n. 2, p. 317-330, 2016
ISSN: 1557-9859
Resumo: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return.

248) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Ballesteros Gabriela, Gresh Lionel, Mohamed-Hadley Alisha, Tellez Yolanda, Sahoo Malaya K, Abeynayake Janaki, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Molecular diagnostics; Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop - evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection - differentiation of DENV - CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, - the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype - CHIKV, - the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, - it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs - streamlining molecular workflow.

249) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

250) Detection of persistent Chikungunya virus RNA but not infectious virus in experimental vertical transmission in Aedes aegypti from Malaysia
Autor: Wong Hui Vern, Vythilingam Indra, Sulaiman Wan Yusof Wan, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres, Chan Yoke Fun, Sam I-Ching
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 1, p. 182-186, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs - adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs - 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs - progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism - significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.

251) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

252) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

253) Arboviruses and apoptosis: the role of cell death in determining vector competence
Autor: Clem Rollie J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 5, p. 1033-1036, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: A relatively small number of mosquito species transmit arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya - West Nile viruses to hundreds of millions of people each year, yet we still lack a thorough underst-ing of the molecular factors that determine vector competence. Apoptosis has been shown to be an important factor in determining the outcome of virus infection for many viruses. However, until recently, it was not clear whether apoptosis plays a role in determining the outcome of arbovirus infections in mosquitoes. Recent work has begun to shed light on the roles of apoptosis in this important process.

254) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

255) ZIKA virus circulates in new regions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Attar N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 62, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1740-1534 (electronic),1740-1526
Resumo:

256) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

257) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

258) Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies
Autor: Deeba Farah, Islam Asimul, Kazim Syed Naqui, Naqvi Irshad Hussain, Broor Shobha, Ahmed Anwar, Parveen Shama
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Disease dissemination; Host-pathogen interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Disease, v. 74, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 2049-632X
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea - joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation - molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells - organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load - cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine c-idates have been tested on humans - animal models during clinical - preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology - recent advances in the development of drugs - vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection.

259) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

260) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010
Autor: Laoprasopwattana K, Suntharasaj T, Petmanee P, Suddeaugrai O, Geater A
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Dengue viral infection; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 144, n. 2, p. 381-388, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection - maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thail-. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thail-, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG - dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% - the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes - congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK - DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV - DENV are endemic in southern Thail-; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

261) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

262) Effects of an in-frame deletion of the 6k gene locus from the genome of Ross River virus
Autor: Taylor Adam, Melton Julian V, Herrero Lara J, Thaa Bastian, Karo-Astover Liis, Gage Peter W, Nelson Michelle A, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Lidbury Brett A, Ewart Gary D, McInerney Gerald M, Merits Andres, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4150-4159, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The alphaviral 6k region encodes the two structural proteins 6K protein -, due to a ribosomal frameshift event, TF protein. Here, we characterized the role of the 6k proteins in the arthritogenic alphavirus Ross River virus (RRV) in infected cells - in mice, using a novel 6k in-frame deletion mutant. Comprehensive microscopic analysis revealed that the 6k proteins were predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of RRV-infected cells. RRV virions that lack the 6k proteins were more vulnerable to changes in pH - corresponding virus had increased sensitivity to higher temperature. While the 6k deletion did not reduce RRV particle production in BHK-21 cells, it affected virion release from the host cell. Subsequent in vivo studies demonstrated that RRV-(?6K) caused a milder disease than wild-type virus, with reduced viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation of mice with RRV-(?6K) resulted in reduced viral load - accelerated viral elimination upon secondary infection with WT-RRV or another alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Our results show that the 6k proteins may contribute to alphaviral disease manifestations - suggest that manipulating the 6k gene may be a potential strategy to facilitate viral vaccine development. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) cause epidemics of debilitating rheumatic disease in endemic areas - can emerge in new regions worldwide. RRV is of considerable medical significance in Australia, where it is the leading cause of arboviral disease. The mechanisms by which alphaviruses persist - cause disease in the host are ill-defined. This paper describes the phenotypic properties of an RRV 6k-deletion mutant. The absence of the 6k gene reduced virion release from infected cells - also reduced the severity of disease - viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation with the mutant virus protected mice against viraemia not only upon exposure to RRV, but also upon challenge with CHIKV. These findings could lead to the development of safer - more immunogenic alphavirus vectors for vaccine delivery.

263) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

264) Chikungunya virus sequences across the first epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015
Autor: Wang Chunling, Saborio Saira, Gresh Lionel, Eswarappa Meghana, Wu Diane, Fire Andrew, Parameswaran Poornima, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 400-403, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 - Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported - 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 - April 2015. One full-length - two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported - 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases - three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date.

265) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

266) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

267) Status of vaccine research and development for Campylobacter jejuni
Autor: Riddle Mark S,Guerry Patricia
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni; Enteric vaccine development; Impact assessment; Travelers' diarrhea
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 34, n. 26, p. 2903-2906, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine.

268) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

269) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

270) Zika virus: A new global threat for 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

271) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

272) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

273) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, n. 5, p. 587-590, 2016.
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

274) Correlation of phylogenetic clade diversification and in vitro infectivity differences among Cosmopolitan genotype strains of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Abraham Rachy, Manakkadan Anoop, Mudaliar Prashant, Joseph Iype, Sivakumar Krishnankutty Chandrika, Nair Radhakrishnan Reghunathan, Sreekumar Easwaran
Assunto: Bayesian analysis; Chikungunya; Infection kinetics; Mammalian cell
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 37, p. 174-184, 2016
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Cosmopolitan genotypes of Chikungunya virus caused the large-scale febrile disease outbreaks in the last decade in Asian - African continents. Molecular analyses of these strains had revealed significant genetic diversification - occurrence of novel mosquito-adaptive mutations. In the present study we looked into whether the genetic diversification has implications in the infectivity phenotype. A detailed sequence - phylogenetic analyses of these virus strains of Indian Ocean lineage from Kerala, South India from the years 2008 to 2013 identified three distinct genetic clades (I, II - III), which had presence of clade-specific amino acid changes. The E2 envelope protein of the strains from the years 2012 to 2013 had a K252Q or a novel K252H change. This site is reported to affect mosquito cell infectivity. Most of these strains also had the E2 G82R mutation, a mutation previously identified to increase mammalian cell infectivity, - a novel mutation E2 N72S. Positive selection was identified in four sites in the envelope proteins (E1 K211E, A226V - V291I; E2 K252Q/H). In infectivity analysis, we found that strains from clade III had enhanced cytopathogenicity in HEK293 - Vero cells than by strains representing other two clades. These two strains formed smaller sized plaques - had distinctly higher viral protein expression, infectious virus production - apoptosis induction in HEK293 cells. They had novel mutations R171Q in the nsP1; I539S in nsP2; N409T in nsP3; - N72S in E2. Our study identifies a correlation between phylogenetic clade diversification - differences in mammalian cell infectivity phenotype among Cosmopolitan genotype CHIKV strains.

275) Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses
Autor: Varghese Finny S, Kaukinen Pasi, Gläsker Sabine, Bespalov Maxim, Hanski Leena, Wennerberg Krister, Kümmerer Beate M, Ahola Tero
Assunto: Alphavirus; Antiviral screening; Chikungunya virus; RNA replication; Yellow fever virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 126, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type - reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 ?M) - ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 ?M) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 ?M) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner - had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses - Semliki Forest virus - Sindbis virus. Abamectin - ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic - antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle.

276) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

277) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

278) Development of a TaqMan array card for acute-febrile-illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including Ebola virus
Autor: Liu Jie, Ochieng Caroline, Wiersma Steve, Ströher Ute, Towner Jonathan S, Whitmer Shannon, Nichol Stuart T, Moore Christopher C, Kersh Gilbert J, Kato Cecilia, Sexton Christopher, Petersen Jeannine, Massung Robert, Hercik Christine, Crump John A, Kibiki Gibson, Maro Athanasia, Mujaga Buliga, Gratz Jean, Jacob Shevin T, Banura Patrick, Scheld W Michael, Juma Bonventure, Onyango Clayton O, Montgomery Joel M, Houpt Eric, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity - mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, - many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results - can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan - Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, - yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, - Yersinia pestis), - 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., - Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 - bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction - amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, - specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, - the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity - a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

279) Alphavirus capsid proteins self-assemble into core-like particles in insect cells: A promising platform for nanoparticle vaccine development
Autor: Hikke Mia C, Geertsema Corinne, Wu Vincen, Metz Stefan W, van Lent Jan W, Vlak Just M, Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto: Alphavirus; Baculovirus expression; Core-like particle; Protein carrier; Subunit vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Biotechnology Journal, v. 11, n. 2, p. 266-273, 2016
ISSN: 1860-7314
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes arthritic diseases in humans, whereas the aquatic salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is associated with high mortality in aquaculture of salmon - trout. Using modern biotechnological approaches, promising vaccine c-idates based upon highly immunogenic, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) have been developed. However, the eVLP structure (core, lipid membrane, surface glycoproteins) is more complex than that of non-enveloped, protein-only VLPs, which are structurally - morphologically 'simple'. In order to develop an alternative to alphavirus eVLPs, in this paper we engineered recombinant baculovirus vectors to produce high levels of alphavirus core-like particles (CLPs) in insect cells by expression of the CHIKV - SAV capsid proteins. The CLPs localize in dense nuclear bodies within the infected cell nucleus - are purified through a rapid - scalable protocol involving cell lysis, sonication - low-speed centrifugation steps. Furthermore, an immunogenic epitope from the alphavirus E2 glycoprotein can be successfully fused to the N-terminus of the capsid protein without disrupting the CLP self-assembling properties. We propose that immunogenic epitope-tagged alphavirus CLPs produced in insect cells present a simple - perhaps more stable alternative to alphavirus eVLPs.

280) Acute uncomplicated febrile illness in children aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - aetiologies, antibiotic treatment and outcome
Autor: Elfving Kristina, Shakely Deler, Andersson Maria, Baltzell Kimberly, Ali Abdullah S, Bachelard Marc, Falk Kerstin I, Ljung Annika, Msellem Mwinyi I, Omar Rahila S, Parola Philippe, Xu Weiping, Petzold Max, Trollfors Birger, Björkman Anders, Lindh Magnus, Mårtensson Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 1, p. e0146054, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, - multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) - rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH - GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical - laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR - GE-qPCR detected ?1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) - 153/164 (93%) of patients - 158/166 (95%) - 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) - group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral - bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever - West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 - three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel - a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low.

281) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

282) Zika virus emergence and expansion: Lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 15-18, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Preexisting yellow fever antibody appeared to interfere with the antibody response to YF vaccine. Administration of YF vaccine did elicit antibodies capable of cross-reacting with West Nile, and less so with Langat, arbovirus antigens.

283) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

284) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

285) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

286) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

287) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

288) Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F-1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traore, Sekou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frederic
Assunto: Hybrid Vigor; Heterosis; Inbreeding; Colonization; Mating Competitiveness
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 12, p. 2693-2709, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or Genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health.

289) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

290) Estimating air travel-associated importations of dengue virus into Italy
Autor: Quam Mikkel B, Khan Kamran, Sears Jennifer, Hu Wei, Rocklöv Joacim, Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 186-193, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Southern Europe is increasingly at risk for dengue emergence, given the seasonal presence of relevant mosquito vectors - suitable climatic conditions. For example, Aedes mosquitoes, the main vector for both dengue - chikungunya, are abundant in Italy, - Italy experienced the first ever outbreak of chikungunya in Europe in 2007. We set out to estimate the extent of dengue virus importations into Italy via air travelers. We attempted to quantify the number of dengue virus importations based on modeling of published estimates on dengue incidence in the countries of disembarkation - analysis of data on comprehensive air travel from these countries into Italy's largest international airport in Rome. From 2005 to 2012, more than 7.3 million air passengers departing from 100 dengue-endemic countries arrived in Rome. Our Importation Model, which included air traveler volume, estimated the incidence of dengue infections in the countries of disembarkation, - the probability of infection coinciding with travel accounted for an average of 2,320 (1,621-3,255) imported dengue virus infections per year, of which 572 (381-858) were apparent" dengue infections - 1,747 (1,240-2,397) "inapparent." Between 2005 - 2012, we found an increasing trend of dengue virus infections imported into Rome via air travel, which may pose a potential threat for future emergence of dengue in Italy, given that the reoccurring pattern of peak importations corresponds seasonally with periods of relevant mosquito vector activity. The observed increasing annual trends of dengue importation - the consistent peaks in late summer underpin the urgency in determining the threshold levels for the vector - infected human populations that could facilitate novel autochthonous transmission of dengue in Europe."

291) Activity of andrographolide against Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Wintachai Phitchayapak, Kaur Parveen, Lee Regina Ching Hua, Ramphan Suwipa, Kuadkitkan Atichat, Wikan Nitwara, Ubol Sukathida, Roytrakul Sittiruk, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Smith Duncan R
Assunto: Alphaviruses; Microbiology techniques
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 14179, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, - development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. -rographolide is derived from -rographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of -rographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. -rographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection - reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 ?M without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition - RNA transfection studies showed that -rographolide affected CHIKV replication - the activity of -rographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that -rographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

292) Knockdown of a putative alanine aminotransferase gene affects amino acid content and flight capacity in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wan, Pin-Jun; Fu, Kai-Yun; Lu, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing
Assunto: Leptinotarsa decemlineata; Alanine aminotransferase; RNA interference; Enzyme activity; Flight; Mortality
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Amino Acids, v. 47, n. 7, p. 1445-1454, 2015
ISSN: 0939-4451
Resumo: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays important physiological and biochemical roles in insect. In this study, a full-length Ldalt cDNA was cloned from Leptinotarsa decemlineata. It was ubiquitously expressed in the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. In the adults, Ldalt mRNA was widely distributed in thorax muscles, fat body, midgut, foregut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, ventral ganglion and epidermis, with the expression levels from the highest to the lowest. Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2) targeting Ldalt were constructed and bacterially expressed. After adults fed on dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-immersed foliage for 3 day, Ldalt mRNA abundance was significantly decreased by 79.5 and 71.1 %, and ALT activities were significantly reduced by 64.5 and 67.6 %, respectively. Moreover, silencing Ldalt affected free amino acid contents. Lysine was decreased by 100.0 and 100.0 %, and arginine was reduced by 87.5 and 89.4 %, respectively, in the hemolymph from dsLdalt1- and dsLdalt2-ingested beetles, compared with control ones. In contrast, proline was increased by 88.7 and 96.4 %. Furthermore, ingestion of dsLdalt1 and dsLdalt2 significantly decreased flight speed, shortened flight duration time and flight distance. In addition, knocking down Ldalt significantly increased adult mortality. These data imply that LdALT plays important roles in amino acid metabolism and in flight in L. decemlineata.

293) Loss of TLR3 aggravates CHIKV replication and pathology due to an altered virus-specific neutralizing antibody response
Autor: Her Zhisheng, Teng Terk-Shin, Tan Jeslin J L, Teo Teck-Hui, Kam Yiu-Wing, Lum Fok-Moon, Lee Wendy W L, Gabriel Christelle, Melchiotti Rossella, Andiappan Anand K, Lulla Valeria, Lulla Aleksei, Win Mar K, Chow Angela, Biswas Subhra K, Leo Yee-Sin, Lecuit Marc, Merits Andres, Rénia Laurent, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; TLR3; Innate immunity; Joint inflammation; Neutralizing antibodies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: EMBO Molecular Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 24-41, 2015
ISSN: 1757-4684
Resumo: RNA-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immunity - regulate anti-viral response. We show here that TLR3 regulates host immunity - the loss of TLR3 aggravates pathology in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Susceptibility to CHIKV infection is markedly increased in human - mouse fibroblasts with defective TLR3 signaling. Up to 100-fold increase in CHIKV load was observed in Tlr3-/- mice, alongside increased virus dissemination - pro-inflammatory myeloid cells infiltration. Infection in bone marrow chimeric mice showed that TLR3-expressing hematopoietic cells are required for effective CHIKV clearance. CHIKV-specific antibodies from Tlr3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower in vitro neutralization capacity, due to altered virus-neutralizing epitope specificity. Finally, SNP genotyping analysis of CHIKF patients on TLR3 identified SNP rs6552950 to be associated with disease severity - CHIKV-specific neutralizing antibody response. These results demonstrate a key role for TLR3-mediated antibody response to CHIKV infection, virus replication - pathology, providing a basis for future development of immunotherapeutics in vaccine development.

294) Estimating drivers of autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus in its invasion of the americas
Autor: Perkins T Alex, Metcalf C Jessica E, Grenfell Bryan T, Tatem Andrew J
Assunto: Aedes; Chikungunya; R0; TSIR; Arbovirus; Epidemic; invasion; Mathematical model; Mosquito; Seasonality
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Currents, v. 7, 2015
ISSN: 2157-3999
Resumo: Background Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that has caused explosive outbreaks in Africa - Asia for decades - invaded the Americas just over a year ago. During this ongoing invasion, it has spread to 45 countries where it has been transmitted autochthonously, infecting nearly 1.3 million people in total. Methods Here, we made use of weekly, country-level case reports to infer relationships between transmission - two putative climatic drivers: temperature - precipitation averaged across each country on a monthly basis. To do so, we used a TSIR model that enabled us to infer a parametric relationship between climatic drivers - transmission potential, - we applied a new method for incorporating a probabilistic description of the serial interval distribution into the TSIR framework. Results We found significant relationships between transmission - linear - quadratic terms for temperature - precipitation - a linear term for log incidence during the previous pathogen generation. The lattermost suggests that case numbers three to four weeks ago are largely predictive of current case numbers. This effect is quite nonlinear at the country level, however, due to an estimated mixing parameter of 0.74. Relationships between transmission - the climatic variables that we estimated were biologically plausible - in line with expectations. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Americas can be correlated successfully with putative climatic drivers, even at the coarse scale of countries - using long-term average climate data. Overall, this provides a preliminary suggestion that successfully forecasting the future trajectory of a Chikungunya outbreak - the receptivity of virgin areas may be possible. Our results also provide tentative estimates of timeframes - areas of greatest risk, - our extension of the TSIR model provides a novel tool for modeling vector-borne disease transmission.

295) Zika: The new arbovirus threat for latin america
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
Assunto: Arbovirus, threat, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 684-685, july 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo:

296) Human keratinocytes restrict Chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step
Autor: Bernard Eric, Hamel Rodolphe, Neyret Aymeric, Ekchariyawat Peeraya,Molès Jean-Pierre, Simmons Graham, Chazal Nathalie, Desprès Philippe, Missé Dorothée, Briant Laurence
Assunto: Chikungunya; Innate immunity; Keratinocytes; Replication
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Virology, v. 476, p. 1-10, 2015
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells - CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II - type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes - efficient fusion of virus - cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins - genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue - West Nile mosquito-borne viruses.

297) Identification, molecular cloning, and analysis of full-length hepatitis C virus transmitted/founder genotypes 1, 3, and 4
Autor: Stoddard Mark B, Li Hui, Wang Shuyi, Saeed Mohsan, Andrus Linda, Ding Wenge, Jiang Xinpei, Learn Gerald H, von Schaewen Markus, Wen Jessica, Goepfert Paul A, Hahn Beatrice H, Ploss Alexander, Rice Charles M, Shaw George M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: mBio, v. 6, n. 2, p. e02518, 2015
ISSN: 2150-7511
Resumo: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by persistent replication of a complex mixture of viruses termed a quasispecies." Transmission is generally associated with a stringent population bottleneck characterized by infection by limited numbers of "transmitted/founder" (T/F) viruses. Characterization of T/F genomes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been integral to studies of transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we describe the identification of complete T/F genomes of HCV by single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA from acutely infected subjects. A total of 2,739 single-genome-derived amplicons comprising 10,966,507 bp from 18 acute-phase - 11 chronically infected subjects were analyzed. Acute-phase sequences diversified essentially r-omly, except for the poly(U/UC) tract, which was subject to polymerase slippage. Fourteen acute-phase subjects were productively infected by more than one genetically distinct virus, permitting assessment of recombination between replicating genomes. No evidence of recombination was found among 1,589 sequences analyzed. Envelope sequences of T/F genomes lacked transmission signatures that could distinguish them from chronic infection viruses. Among chronically infected subjects, higher nucleotide substitution rates were observed in the poly(U/UC) tract than in envelope hypervariable region 1. Fourteen full-length molecular clones with variable poly(U/UC) sequences corresponding to seven genotype 1a, 1b, 3a, - 4a T/F viruses were generated. Like most unadapted HCV clones, T/F genomes did not replicate efficiently in Huh 7.5 cells, indicating that additional cellular factors or viral adaptations are necessary for in vitro replication. Full-length T/F HCV genomes - their progeny provide unique insights into virus transmission, virus evolution, - virus-host interactions associated with immunopathogenesis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2% to 3% of the world's population - exhibits extraordinary genetic diversity. This diversity is mirrored by HIV-1, where characterization of transmitted/founder (T/F) genomes has been instrumental in studies of virus transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we show that despite major differences in genome organization, replication strategy, - natural history, HCV (like HIV-1) diversifies essentially r-omly early in infection, - as a consequence, sequences of actual T/F viruses can be identified. This allowed us to capture by molecular cloning the full-length HCV genomes that are responsible for infecting the first hepatocytes - eliciting the initial immune responses, weeks before these events could be directly analyzed in human subjects. These findings represent an enabling experimental strategy, not only for HCV - HIV-1 research, but also for other RNA viruses of medical importance, including West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, Venezuelan encephalitis, - Ebola viruses."

298) Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of Chikungunya viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hinson Juanita M, Davé Sonia, McMenamy Scott S, Davé Kirti, Turell Michael J
Assunto: Arbovirus; Dipstick; Rapid detection; Surveillance; Wicking assay
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 699-704, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The outbreak of disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2006 - the recent spread of this virus to the Americas in 2013 indicate the potential for this virus to spread - cause significant disease. However, there are currently no accurate - reliable field-usable, diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of CHIKV within the vector populations in order to implement appropriate vector control - personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect CHIKV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes containing a single CHIKV-infected mosquito. The CHIKV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, - provided clear results within 1 h. It was highly specific - did not cross-react with samples spiked with a variety of other alpha, bunya, - flaviviruses. The CHIKV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of CHIKV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment - the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.

299) Development of a Real-Time Cell Analysing (RTCA) method as a fast and accurate screen for the selection of Chikungunya virus replication inhibitors
Autor: Marlina Suria, Shu Meng-Hooi, AbuBakar Sazaly, Zandi Keivan
Assunto: Real-time cell analysis; Cytopathogenicity; Antiviral screening; Chikungunya; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 579, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The xCELLigence real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system is an established electronic cell sensor array. This system uses microelectronic biosensor technology that is verified for real-time, label-free, dynamic - non-offensive monitoring of cellular features, including detection of viral cytopathic effect (CPE). Screening viral replication inhibitors based on presence of CPE has been applied for different viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). However, most CPE-based methods, including MTT - MTS assays, do not provide information on the initiation of CPE nor the changes in reaction rate of the virus propagation over time. Therefore, in this study we developed an RTCA method as an accurate - time-based screen for antiviral compounds against CHIKV. CHIKV-infected Vero cells were used as an in vitro model to establish the suitability of the RTCA system as a quantitative analysis method based on the induction of CPE. We also performed an MTS assay as a CPE-based conventional method. Experimental assays were carried out to evaluate the optimal seeding density of the Vero cells, cytotoxicity of the tested compounds, titration of CHIKV - the antiviral activity of ribavirin, which has been reported as an effective compound against CHIKV in vitro replication. The optimal time point for viral inoculation was 18 h after seeding the cells. We determined that the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of ribavirin was 200 ?g/ml for Vero cells. Regarding the dynamic monitoring of Vero cell properties during antiviral assay, approximately 34 h post-infection, the normalised Cell Index (CI) values of CHIKV-infected Vero cells started to decrease, while the vehicle controls did not show any significant changes. We also successfully showed the dose dependent manner of ribavirin as an approved in vitro inhibitor for CHIKV through our RTCA experiment. RTCA technology could become the prevailing tool in antiviral research due to its accurate output - the opportunity to carry out quality control - technical optimisation.

300) Identifying genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti by deep targeted sequencing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faucon, Frederic; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gaude, Thierry; Navratil, Vincent; Boyer, Frederic; Chandre, Fabrice; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Girod, Romain; Corbel, Vincent; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Vector Anopheles-Funestus; Major Malaria Vector; Pyrethroid Resistance; Molecular-Basis; Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Detoxification Genes; Lucilia-Cuprina; Metabolism; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Research, v. 25, n. 9, p. 1347-1359, 2015
ISSN: 1088-9051
Resumo: The capacity of mosquitoes to resist insecticides threatens the control of diseases such as dengue and malaria. Until alternative control tools are implemented, characterizing resistance mechanisms is crucial for managing resistance in natural populations. Insecticide biodegradation by detoxification enzymes is a common resistance mechanism; however, the genomic changes underlying this mechanism have rarely been identified, precluding individual resistance genotyping. In particular, the role of copy number variations (CNVs) and polymorphisms of detoxification enzymes have never been investigated at the genome level, although they can represent robust markers of metabolic resistance. In this context, we combined target enrichment with high-throughput sequencing for conducting the first comprehensive screening of gene amplifications and polymorphisms associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. More than 760 candidate genes were captured and deep Sequenced in several populations of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti displaying distinct genetic backgrounds and contrasted resistance levels to the insecticide deltamethrin. CNV analysis identified 41 gene amplifications associated with resistance, most affecting cytochrome P450s overtranscribed in resistant populations. Polymorphism analysis detected more than 30,000 variants and strong selection footprints in specific genomic regions. Combining Bayesian and allele frequency filtering approaches identified 55 nonsynonymous variants strongly associated with resistance. Both CNVs and polymorphisms were conserved within regions but differed across continents, confirming that genomic changes underlying metabolic resistance to insecticides are not universal. By identifying novel DNA markers of insecticide resistance, this study opens the way for tracking down metabolic changes developed by mosquitoes to resist insecticides within and among populations.

301) Arboviral infections diagnosed in a European area colonized by Aedes albopictus (2009-2013, Catalonia, Spain)
Autor: Valerio Lluís, Roure Sílvia, Fernández-Rivas Gema, Ballesteros Angel-Luis, Ruiz Jessica, Moreno Nemesio, Bocanegra Cristina, Sabrià Miquel, Pérez-Quilez Olga, de Ory Fernando, Molina Israel
Assunto: Arboviral diseases; Chikungunya; Dengue; Europe; Spain
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 13, n. 5, p. 415-421, 2015
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, with proven vectorial ability to transmit European autochthonous cycles of dengue - chikungunya virus, has currently colonized every coastal department of Eastern Spain. The main objective of the study was to define the epidemiological - clinical characteristics as well as the trends of these two arboviral diseases in a European area heavily colonized by Ae. albopictus. A voluntarily-based, prospective - multicenter surveillance study was performed in all medical units of the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona (406,000 inhabitants, Catalonia; Spain) with diagnostic capability from 2009 to 2013. Since any possible increase in arboviral cases could be justified by changes in traveling behaviors along the study period (especially longer trips) the trend showed by these two arboviral diseases was compared with that displayed by malaria cases during the same period. 38 out of 52 (73.1%) suspected cases could be serologically confirmed (IgM+): dengue 34/38 (89.5%) - chikungunya 4/38 (11.5%). No autochthonous cases were identified. The overall incidence of both arboviruses was 0.19 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.07-0.3); dengue = 0.17 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.05-0.3), - chikungunya = 0.02 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.001-0.03). The Incidence Relative Risk of arboviral disease between 2009 - 2013 shown a significant trend (IRR = 1.27. IC 95%: 1.01-1.59; p = 0.043) when compared with that displayed by malaria (IRR = 1.04. IC 95%: 0.924-1.192). If no unexpected circumstances concur, the arboviral disease incidence tax would equal that of malaria about 2021-2022. The incidence of dengue - chikungunya is steadily increasing in the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona, a region densely colonized by Ae. albopictus, at the entire expense of imported cases (especially Visiting Friends - Relatives travelers). To date, no secondary autochthonous cases have been identified -, thus, they have not taken part in this rise.

302) Heterogeneity in symbiotic effects facilitates Wolbachia establishment in insect populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souto-Maior, Caetano; Lopes, Joao S.; Gjini, Erida; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Teixeira, Luis; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.
Assunto: Wolbachia; Symbiont; Heterogeneity; Invasion threshold; Bistable dynamics; Mathematical model
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Theoretical Ecology, v. 8, n. 1, p. 53-65, 2015
ISSN: 1874-1738
Resumo: Facultative vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts often manipulate its host's reproductive biology and thus facilitate their persistence. Wolbachia is one such symbiont where frequency-dependent reproductive benefits are opposed by frequency-independent fitness costs leading to bistable dynamics. Introduction of carriers does not assure invasion unless the initial frequency is above a threshold determined by the balance of costs and benefits. Recent laboratory experiments have uncovered that Wolbachia also protects their hosts from pathogens. The expected conSequence of this phenotype in natural environments is to lower the invasion threshold by a factor that increases with the extent of pathogen exposure. Here, we introduce a series of mathematical models to address how pathogen protection affects Wolbachia invasion. First, under homogeneous symbiotic effects, we obtain an analytical expression for the invasion threshold in terms of pathogen exposure, and find a regime where symbiont releases may result in elimination of the entire host population provided that abundance of virulent pathogens is high. Second, we distribute Wolbachia effects such that some carriers are totally protected and others not at all, and explore how this interplays with different pathogen intensities, to conclude that heterogeneity further lowers the threshold for Wolbachia invasion. Third, we replicate the analysis using a realistic distribution of protective effects and confirm that heterogeneity increases system resilience by reducing the odds of population collapse.

303) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

304) GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and synthesis of gold nanoparticle using Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract and its larvicidal activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Deepak, Paramasivam; Arul, Dhayalan; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Antimicrobial Activity; Silver Nanoparticles; Green Synthesis; Aqueous Extract; Aedes-Aegypti;Biosynthesis; Leaves; Chemistry; Efficacy; Larvae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal Of Photochemistry And Photobiology B-Biology, v. 148, p. 1-8, 2015
ISSN: 1011-1344
Resumo: A rapid bio-reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was achieved by Chloroxylon swietenia DC leaf extract (CSLE), which resulted in the formation of well dispersed C. swietenia gold nanoparticles (CSGNPs). The formation of GNPs was confirmed by color changes from yellowish green to purple and their characteristic peak at 545 nm. The characterization of synthesized CSGNPs was made through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) followed by size and zeta potential analyses. The GC-MS profile of C. swietenia methanolic leaf extract (CSMLE) resulted 20 phytocomponents, among those heptacosanoic acid, 25-methyl-, methyl ester (C29H58O2) attributes highest peak Area. The efficiency of the synthesized CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were tested against fourth instar larvae of malarial and dengue vector, which resulted more substantial upshot than with leaf extract treated. The Lethal concentration (LC50) values of CSMLE, CSGNPs and CSLE were found to be 0.509, 0.340, 0.423 ppm and 0.602, 0.188, 0.646 ppm on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, respectively. The findings form an important baseline information proceeding biologically innocuous biopesticide for controlling the malarial and dengue vectors. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

305) ?? T cells play a protective role in chikungunya virus-induced disease
Autor: Long Kristin M, Ferris Martin T, Whitmore Alan C, Montgomery Stephanie A, Thurlow Lance R, McGee Charles E, Rodriguez Carlos A, Lim Jean K, Heise Mark T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 433-443, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of polyarthralgia in humans. Because CHIKV is initially introduced via the skin, where ?? T cells are prevalent, we evaluated the response of these cells to CHIKV infection. CHIKV infection led to a significant increase in ?? T cells in the infected foot - draining lymph node that was associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines - chemokines in C57BL/6J mice. ?? T cell(-/-) mice demonstrated exacerbated CHIKV disease characterized by less weight gain - greater foot swelling than occurred in wild-type mice, as well as a transient increase in monocytes - altered cytokine/chemokine expression in the foot. Histologically, ?? T cell(-/-) mice had increased inflammation-mediated oxidative damage in the ipsilateral foot - ankle joint compared to wild-type mice which was independent of differences in CHIKV replication. These results suggest that ?? T cells play a protective role in limiting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory response - subsequent tissue - joint damage. Recent epidemics, including the 2004 to 2007 outbreak - the spread of CHIKV to naive populations in the Caribbean - Central - South America with resultant cases imported into the United States, have highlighted the capacity of CHIKV to cause explosive epidemics where the virus can spread to millions of people - rapidly move into new areas. These studies identified ?? T cells as important to both recruitment of key inflammatory cell populations - dampening the tissue injury due to oxidative stress. Given the importance of these cells in the early response to CHIKV, this information may inform the development of CHIKV vaccines - therapeutics.

306) Unravelling the evolution of the allatostatin-type A, KISS and galanin peptide-receptor gene families in Bilaterians: insights from Anopheles mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Felix, Rute C.; Trindade, Marlene; Pires, Isa R. P.; Fonseca, Vera G.; Martins, Rute S.; Silveira, Henrique; Power, Deborah M.; Cardoso, Joao C. R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A) peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system. To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. Phylogeny and gene synteny suggested that invertebrate AST-A receptors and peptide genes shared a common evolutionary origin with KISS/GAL receptors and ligands. AST-ARs and KISSR emerged from a common gene ancestor after the divergence of GALRs in the bilaterian genome. In arthropods, the AST-A system evolved through lineage-specific events and the maintenance of two receptors in the flies and mosquitoes (Diptera) was the result of a gene duplication event. Speciation of Anophelesmosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2) revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa(2+)-signalling pathway was stimulated. GPRALS1 and 2 were expressed mainly in mosquito midgut and ovaries and transcript abundance of both receptors was modified by feeding. A blood meal strongly up-regulated expression of both GPRALS in the midgut (p < 0.05) compared to glucose fed females. Based on the results we hypothesise that the AST-A system in insects shared a common origin with the vertebrate KISS system and may also share a common function as an integrator of metabolism and reproduction. Highlights: AST-A and KISS/GAL receptors and ligands shared common ancestry prior to the protostome-deuterostome divergence. Phylogeny and gene synteny revealed that AST-AR and KISSR emerged after GALR gene divergence. AST-AR genes were present in the hemichordates but were lost from the chordates. In protostomes, AST-ARs persisted and evolved through lineage-specific events and duplicated in the arthropod radiation. Diptera acquired and maintained functionally divergent duplicate AST-AR genes.

307) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

308) High throughput profiling of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera immunotranscriptome during the fungal and bacterial infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Xiong, Guang-Hua; Xing, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zhe; Saha, Tusar T.; Wang, Chengshu; Jiang, Haobo; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Helicoverpa armigera; Fungal infection; Bacterial challenge; Innate immunity; RNA-seq; Fat body; Hemocytes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Innate immunity is essential in defending against invading pathogens in invertebrates. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of the most destructive lepidopteran pests, which causes enormous economic losses in agricultural production worldwide. The components of the immune system are largely unknown in this insect. The application of entomopathogens is considered as an alternative to the chemical insecticides for its control. However, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions between pest insects and their pathogens. Here, we investigated the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae and examined gene expression changes after pathogen infections. This study provided insights into the potential immunity-related genes and pathways in H. armigera larvae.Results: Here, we adopted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to determine the immunotranscriptome of H. armigera larvae injected with buffer, fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana, or Gram-negative bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. Based on Sequence similarity to those homologs known to participate in immune responses in other insects, we identified immunity-related genes encoding pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, immune effectors, and nearly all members of the Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways. The RNA-seq data indicated that some immunity-related genes were activated in fungus-and bacterium-challenged fat body while others were suppressed in B. bassiana challenged hemocytes, including the putative IMD and JAK-STAT pathway members. Bacterial infection elevated the expression of recognition and modulator genes in the fat body and signal pathway genes in hemocytes. Although fat body and hemocytes both are important organs involved in the immune response, our transcriptome analysis revealed that more immunity-related genes were induced in the fat body than that hemocytes. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that, consistent with the RNA-seq data, the transcript abundances of putative PGRP-SA1, Serpin1, Toll-14, and Spz2 genes were elevated in fat body upon B. bassiana infection, while the mRNA levels of defensin, moricin1, and gloverin1 were up-regulated in hemocytes.Conclusions: In this study, a global survey of the host defense against fungal and bacterial infection was performed on the non-model lepidopteran pest species. The comprehensive Sequence resource and expression profiles of the immunity-related genes in H. armigera are acquired. This study provided valuable information for future functional investigations as well as development of specific and effective agents to control this pest.

309) Potent antibody protection against an emerging alphavirus threat
Autor: Kielian Margaret, Saphire Erica Ollmann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell, v. 163, n. 5, p. 1053-1054, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo: Chikungunya virus recently caused large outbreaks world-wide. In this issue of Cell, Fox et al. describe several potently neutralizing antibodies against multiple alphaviruses. The structure of the virus in complex with one of the antibodies reveals the antibody-induced rearrangement - crosslinking of the viral surface proteins that result in neutralization.

310) Identification of genes associated with blood feeding in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Greene, Wayne K.; Macnish, Marion G.; Rice, Kim L.; Thompson, R. C. Andrew
Assunto: Cat flea; Ctenocephalides felis; Blood feeding; cDNA; Suppression subtractive hybridization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a blood-feeding ectoparasitic insect and particular nuisance pest of companion animals worldwide. Identification of genes that are differentially expressed in response to feeding is important for understanding flea biology and discovering targets for their control.Methods: C. felis fleas were maintained and fed for 24 h using an artificial rearing system. The technique of suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to screen for mRNAs specifically expressed in fed fleas.Results: We characterized nine distinct full-length flea transcripts that exhibited modulated or de novo expression during feeding. Among the predicted protein Sequences were two serine proteases, a serine protease inhibitor, two mucin-like molecules, a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme associated with GPI-mediated cell membrane attachment of proteins and a component of the insect innate immune response.Conclusions: Our results provide a molecular insight into the physiology of flea feeding. The protein products of the genes identified may play important roles during flea feeding in terms of blood meal digestion, cellular growth/repair and protection from feeding-associated stresses.

311) Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: A mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis
Autor: Miner Jonathan J, Aw Yeang Han Xian, Fox Julie M, Taffner Samantha, Malkova Olga N, Oh Stephen T, Kim Alfred H J, Diamond Michael S, Lenschow Deborah J, Yokoyama Wayne M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Clinical examination ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 67, n. 5, p. 1214-1220, 2015
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 - to the US in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months or years, but little is known about the rheumatologic - immunologic features of CHIKV-related arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. Patient history was obtained - physical examination - laboratory tests were performed. All patients with CHIKV-related arthritis had detectable levels of anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, - patients with untreated, active RA. Among 10 CHIKV-infected individuals, 8 developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis that met the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA - CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated - effector CD4+ - CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection - patients with RA develop very similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical - immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis.

312) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Newton, Irene L. G.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr; Sheehan, Kathy B.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221)/+ and chic(1320)/+) or villin (qua(6-396)/+) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic221 heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.

313) Risks to the Americas associated with the continued expansion of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Powers Ann M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, Pt 1, p. 1-5, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne virus that has been responsible for over 2 million human infections during the past decade. This virus, which previously had a geographical range primarily restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent - South East Asia, has recently moved to subtropical latitudes as well as the western hemisphere. This expansion into novel habitats brings unique risks associated with further spread of the virus - the disease it causes.

314) Inflammasome signaling pathways exert antiviral effect against Chikungunya virus in human dermal fibroblasts
Autor: Ekchariyawat Peeraya, Hamel Rodolphe, Bernard Eric, Wichit Sineewanlaya, Surasombatpattana Pornapat, Talignani Loïc, Thomas Frédéric, Choumet Valérie, Yssel Hans, Desprès Philippe, Briant Laurence, Missé Dorothée
Assunto: AIM2; Arbovirus; Caspase 1; Chikungunya virus; Inflammasome; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 32, p. 401-408, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human. They are transmitted to vertebrates by the bite of infected arthropods. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture - deposition of virus in this organ. However, events at the bite site remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - West Nile virus (WNV), despite belonging to distinct viral families, elicit a common antiviral signature in primary human dermal fibroblasts, attesting for the up regulation of interferon signaling pathways - leading to an increased expression of IFN-?, interleukins - chemokines. Remarkably, CHIKV - WNV enhance IL-1? expression - induce maturation of caspase-1, indicating the capacity of these pathogens to elicit activation of the inflammasome program in resident skin cells. CHIKV - WNV also induce the expression of the inflammasome sensor AIM2 in dermal fibroblasts, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 - AIM2 with siRNA interferes with both CHIKV- - WNV-induced IL-1? production by these cells. Finally, inhibition of the inflammasome via caspase-1 silencing was found to enhance CHIKV replication in dermal fibroblasts. Together, these results indicate that the skin contributes to the pro-inflammatory - anti-viral microenvironment via the activation of the inflammasome in the early stages following infection with arboviruses.

315) A systematic meta-analysis of immune signatures in patients with acute Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Teng Terk-Shin, Kam Yiu-Wing, Lee Bernett, Hapuarachchi Hapuarachchige Ch-itha, Wimal Abeyewickreme, Ng Lee-Ching, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Acute infection; Chemokines; Chikungunya virus; Cytokines; Meta-analysis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 211, n. 12, p. 1925-1935, 2015
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Individuals infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) normally exhibit a variety of clinical manifestations during the acute phase of infection. However, studies in different patient cohorts have revealed that disease manifestations vary in frequency. Disease profiles between patients with acute CHIKV-infection - febrile patients without CHIKV were compared - examined to determine whether any clinical presentations were associated with the clinical outcome of CHIKV infection. Circulatory immune mediators profiles were then characterized - compared with data from 14 independent patient cohort studies. The particular immune mediator signature that defines acute CHIKV infection was determined. Our findings revealed a specific pattern of clinical presentations of joint-specific arthralgia from this CHIKV cohort. More importantly, we identified an immune mediator signature dominated by proinflammatory cytokines, which include interferon ? - ? - interleukin 2, 2R, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, - 18, across different patient cohorts of CHIKV load associated with arthralgia. To our knowledge, this is the first study that associated levels of CHIKV load with arthralgia as an indicator of acute CHIKV infection. Importantly, our findings also revealed specific immune mediator signatures that can be used to better define CHIKV infection.

316) Genetic divergence between populations of feral and domestic forms of a mosquito disease vector assessed by transcriptomics
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Price, Dana C.; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Culex pipiens complex; Molestus; Cx. quinquefasciatus; Mosquito; Natural selection; Ka/Ks; Cryptic species; Domestication; Arthropod vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteome
Fonte: Peerj, v. 3, n. e807, 2015
ISSN: 2167-8359
Resumo: Culex pipiens, an invasive mosquito and vector of West Nile virus in the US, has two morphologically indistinguishable forms that differ dramatically in behavior and physiology. Cx. pipiens form pipiens is primarily a bird-feeding temperate mosquito, while the sub-tropical Cx. pipiens form molestus thrives in sewers and feeds on mammals. Because the feral form can diapause during the cold winters but the domestic form cannot, the two Cx. pipiens forms are allopatric in northern Europe and, although viable, hybrids are rare. Cx. pipiens form molestus has spread across all inhabited continents and hybrids of the two forms are common in the US. Here we elucidate the genes and gene families with the greatest divergence rates between these phenotypically diverged mosquito populations, and discuss them in light of their potential biological and ecological effects. After generating and assembling novel transcriptome data for each population, we performed pairwise tests for nonsynonymous divergence (Ka) of homologous coding Sequences and examined gene ontology terms that were statistically over-represented in those Sequences with the greatest divergence rates. We identified genes involved in digestion (serine endopeptidases), innate immunity (fibrinogens and alpha-macroglobulins), hemostasis (D7 salivary proteins), olfaction (odorant binding proteins) and chitin binding (peritrophic matrix proteins). By examining molecular divergence between closely related yet phenotypically divergent forms of the same species, our results provide insights into the identity of rapidly-evolving genes between incipient species. Additionally, we found that families of signal transducers, ATP synthases and transcription regulators remained identical at the amino acid level, thus constituting conserved components of the Cx. pipiens proteome. We provide a reference with which to gauge the divergence reported in this analysis by performing a comparison of transcriptome Sequences from conspecific (yet allopatric) populations of another member of the Cx. pipiens complex, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

317) Suramin inhibits Chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms
Autor: Albulescu Irina C, van Hoolwerff Marcella, Wolters Laura A, Bottaro Elisabetta, Nastruzzi Claudio, Yang Shih Chi, Tsay Shwu-Chen, Hwu Jih Ru, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya virus; Entry; Inhibitor; RNA synthesis; Suramin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 39-46, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe - often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ?5?M). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ?80?M (CC50>5mM) - was also active against Sindbis virus - Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture - the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent -/or treat CHIKV infections.

318) Evaluation of multiple antigenic peptides based on the Chikungunya E2 protein for improved serological diagnosis of infection
Autor: Bhatnagar Santwana, Kumar Pradeep, Mohan Teena, Verma Priyanka, Parida M M, Hoti S L, Rao D N
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 2, p. 107-112, 2015
ISSN: 1557-8976
Resumo: In recent years, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) reemerged - numerous outbreaks were reported all over the world. After screening CHIKV-positive sera, we had already reported many dominant epitopes within the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV. In the present study, we aimed at developing a highly sensitive immunodiagnostic assay for CHIKV based on a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) approach using selective epitopes of the E2 protein. MAPs in four different E2 peptide combinations were screened with CHIKV-positive sera. The MAPs reacted with all CHIKV-positive sera - no reactivity was seen with healthy or dengue-positive sera. Our results indicate that MAP 1 seems to be an alternate antigen to full-length protein E2 for immunodiagnosis of CHIKV infections with high sensitivity - specificity.

319) The potential threat to blood transfusion safety of emerging infectious disease agents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Stramer S.L.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, communicable disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, v. 13, n. 7, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1543-0790
Resumo:

320) Genome Sequence of Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T), a symbiotic bacterium from entomopathogenic nematode
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kwak, Yunyoung; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho
Assunto: Serratia nematodiphila; Symbiont; Single molecule real-time sequencing; Whole genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Journal Of Biotechnology, v. 193, p. 1-2, 2015
ISSN: 0168-1656
Resumo: Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) (=CGMCC 1.6853(T), DZ0503SBS1(T)), isolated from the intestine of Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis, has been known to have symbiotic-pathogenic life cycle, on the multilateral relationships with entomopathogenic nematode and insect pest. In order to better understanding of this rare feature in Serratia species, we present here the genome Sequence of S. nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) with the significance of first genome Sequence in this species. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

321) Sphingosine kinase 2 is a Chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex
Autor: Reid St Patrick, Tritsch Sarah R, Kota Krishna, Chiang Chih-Yuan, Dong Lian, Kenny Tara, Brueggemann Ernest E, Ward Michael D, Cazares Lisa H, Bavari Sina
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; nsP3; Sphingosine kinase 2; Viral replication complex
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 10, p. e61, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus which causes severe - prolonged arthralgic febrile illness. The recent global spread of the virus - lack of approved therapeutic options makes it imperative to gain greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CHIKV pathogenesis, in particular host factors recruited by the virus. In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection. SK2 was demonstrated to co-localize with viral RNA - nonstructural proteins. Targeted impairment of SK2 expression or function significantly inhibited CHIKV infection. Furthermore, affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies revealed that SK2 associates with a number of proteins involved in cellular gene expression specifically during viral infection, suggesting a role in replication. Collectively these results identify SK2 as a novel CHIKV host factor.

322) Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Alba Lorono-Pino, Maria; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.
Assunto: Sodium-Channel Gene; Detoxification Genes; Mitochondrial-Dna; Dengue Vector; Yellow-Fever; Populations; Genome; Transcription; Selection; Thailand
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 201-209, 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and Evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

323) Entomological factors of arboviruses emergences
Autor: Jourdain F, Roiz D, Perrin Y, Grucker K, Simard F, Paupy C
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Emergence; Gestion du risque; Monitoring; Risk management; Surveillance; Émergence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique, v. 22, n. 3, p. 101-106, 2015
ISSN: 1953-8022
Resumo: Arboviruses - viruses transmitted by haematophagous arthropods - are responsible for febrile syndromes, which sometimes include haemorrhagic or neurological symptoms. Human activities have facilitated the emergence of these originally zoonotic viruses - the domestication - spread throughout the world of their major vectors. The last decade has seen significant changes in the epidemiology of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, particularly in relation to the intercontinental spread of Aedes albopictus. Here, we address the epidemiological consequences of the invasion by this species into Central Africa - Europe in a context of viral globalization. The risk of transmission in these areas is influenced by virus-vector adaptation phenomena as well as environmental phenomena including climate. Faced with these new risks, it is essential to develop competences in entomological - virological surveillance, risk assessment - forecasting of epidemic risk in order to develop strategies for the prevention - control of epidemics.

324) Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pinheiro-Silva, Renato; Borges, Lara; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdes, James J.; do Rosario, Virgilio; de la Fuente, Jose; Domingos, Ana
Assunto: Anopheles Coluzzii; Salivary Glands; Plasmodium Berghei; Sporozoite; RNA-Seq; Glucose Transporter; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 485, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Malaria is a devastating infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Salivary glands are the only mosquito tissue invaded by Plasmodium sporozoites, being a key stage for the effective parasite transmission, making the study of Anopheles sialome highly relevant.Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to compare differential gene expression in salivary glands of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes. RNA-seq results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The transmembrane glucose transporter gene AGAP007752 was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The effect of gene silencing on infection level was evaluated. The putative function and tertiary structure of the protein was assessed.Results: RNA-seq data showed that 2588 genes were differentially expressed in mosquitoes salivary glands in response to P. berghei infection, being 1578 upregulated and 1010 downregulated. Metabolism, Immunity, Replication/Transcription/Translation, Proteolysis and Transport were the mosquito gene functional classes more affected by parasite infection. Endopeptidase coding genes were the most abundant within the differentially expressed genes in infected salivary glands (P < 0.001). Based on its putative function and expression level, the transmembrane glucose transporter gene, AGAP007752, was selected for functional analysis by RNA interference. The results demonstrated that the number of sporozoites was 44.3 % lower in mosquitoes fed on infected mice after AGAPP007752 gene knockdown when compared to control (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the protein encoded by the gene AGAPP007752 may play a role on An. coluzzii salivary glands infection by Plasmodium parasite, working as a sporozoite receptor and/or promoting a favorable environment for the capacity of sporozoites.

325) Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity
Autor: Long Feng, Fong Rachel H, Austin Stephen K, Chen Zhenguo, Klose Thomas, Fokine Andrei, Liu Yue, Porta Jason, Sapparapu Gopal, Akahata Wataru, Doranz Benjamin J, Crowe James E, Diamond Michael S, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto: Chikungunya virus-antibody complexes; Cryo-electron microscopy structure; Neutralizing mechanism; Viral fusion inhibition
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 45, p. 13898-13903, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute - chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine - human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 - 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A - B domains, as well as to the B domain's ?-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints of these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. This finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A - B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein - therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral - host membranes.

326) Genome mining offers a new starting point for Parasitology Research
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao
Assunto: Genomics; Parasite; Host; Drug; Vaccine; Diagnosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 399-409, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical Vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and Vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

327) Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of dengue and chikungunya viruses
Autor: Cecilia D, Kakade M, Alagarasu K, Patil J, Salunke A, Parashar D, Shah P S
Assunto: Dengue; Chikungunya; Multiplex real time RT-PCR assay; Diagnosis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 160, n. 1, p. 323-327, 2015
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Dengue - chikungunya viruses co-circulate - cause infections that start with similar symptoms but progress to radically different outcomes. Therefore, an early diagnostic test that can differentiate between the two is needed. A single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously detect - quantitate RNA of all dengue virus (DENV) serotypes - chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The sensitivity was 100 % for DENV - 95.8 % for CHIKV, whilst the specificity was 100 % for both viruses when compared with conventional RT-PCR. The detection limit ranged from 1 to 50 plaque-forming units. The assay was successfully used for differential diagnosis of dengue - chikungunya in Pune, where the viruses co-circulate.

328) Infectious causes of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003-2005
Autor: Olsen Sonja J, Campbell Angela P, Supawat Krongkaew, Liamsuwan Sahas, Chotpitayasunondh Tawee, Laptikulthum Somsak, Viriyavejakul Akravudh, Tantirittisak Tasanee, Tunlayadechanont Supoch, Visudtibhan Anannit, Vasiknanonte Punnee, Janjindamai Supachai, Boonluksiri Pairoj, Rajborirug Kiatsak, Watanaveeradej Veerachai, Khetsuriani Nino, Dowell Scott F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 280-289, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thail-, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003-August 2005 - selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia - with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood - cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0-83) years, 84 (56%) were male, - 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) - possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, - Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown.

329) The use of serum spotted onto filter paper for diagnosing and monitoring Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Matheus Séverine, Huc Patricia, Labeau Bhety, Bremand Laetitia, Enfissi Antoine, Merle Olivier, Flusin Olivier, Rousset Dominique, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle
Assunto: Chikungunya; Diagnosis; Filter paper
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 71, p. 89-92, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: The recent emergence of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Americas constitutes a major public health problem on this continent, where the mosquito vector is widespread. The rapid diagnosis of suspected cases is essential for the monitoring - control of this ongoing outbreak. However, this requires reliable tools that are difficult to establish in areas without specialized laboratories. The aim was to evaluate the performances of serum samples spotted onto filter paper for molecular - serological diagnosis of Chikungunya infection. Analyses were performed from frozen sera - serum spotted onto filter paper provided from 121 Chikungunya suspected cases collected at a biological laboratory on Saint-Martin Isl-. This approach performed well in comparisons with st-ard methods, with a sensitivity of 100% - a specificity of 93.6% for the combined technical approaches (RT-PCR - serological results). Comparisons of serum samples spotted onto filter paper - frozen samples showed a concordance rate of 94.8% in molecular tests - 98.2% in serological tests. This simple sampling technique could overcome the problems of the lack of efficient CHIKV diagnosis tools in remote regions, providing good results regardless of the molecular or serological approach used. This simple filter paper-based method can be used to diagnose both chikungunya - dengue infections, as previously demonstrated following transport at ambient temperature to specialized laboratories. Given the set-up costs - high performance of this method, it could be recommended for the monitoring - control of Chikungunya virus expansion in the Americas - in other affected regions.

330) Envelope specific T cell responses & cytokine profiles in chikungunya patients hospitalized with different clinical presentations
Autor: Tripathy Anuradha S, Tandale Babasaheb V, Balaji Saravana S, Hundekar Supriya L, Ramdasi Ashwini Y, Arankalle Vidya A
Assunto: Atypical/severe chikungunya infection; Cytokines; E2 specific response
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 2, p. 205-212, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Since the 2006 massive outbreaks, chikungunya (CHIK) is a major public health concern in India. The aim of this study was to assess envelope specific immune responses in patients with chikungunya infection. This study included 46 hospitalized patients with chikungunya virus infection (encephalitis, n=22, other systemic involvement, OSI, n=12, classical, n=12) - six controls from Ahmedabad city, Gujarat, India. T cell responses - the levels of Th1, pro/ anti-inflammatory cytokines against the CHIK virus envelope antigens were assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assay - by cytometric bead array in flow cytometry, respectively. Lymphoproliferative response was uniform among the patients. Comparisons of cytokines revealed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4 - IL-5 in encephalitis, OSI - classical patients versus controls. The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? were higher in classical patients categories compared to the controls. Interferon (IFN)-? levels were lower in encephalitis patients versus control. Our findings showed recognition of T cell epitopes on the envelope region of chikungunya virus by all patient categories. Lower level of IFN-? may be associated with the severity of disease in these patients.

331) Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine
Autor: Saisawang Chonticha, Saitornuang Sawanan, Sillapee Pornpan, Ubol Sukathida, Smith Duncan R, Ketterman Albert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 17125, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional - is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease - show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine - serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases - would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target.

332) Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses
Autor: Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto: Arbovirus; Baculovirus expression system; Chikungunya; Vaccine; Virus-like particle
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Biotechnology Journal, v. 10, n. 5, p. 659-670, 2015
ISSN: 1860-7314
Resumo: Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human - animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses. In this short review, I highlight the successes - challenges in eVLP production for members of the three major arbovirus families: Flaviviridae (e.g., dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis); Bunyaviridae (e.g., Rift Valley fever); - Togaviridae (e.g., chikungunya). The results from pre-clinical testing will be discussed as well as specific constraints to the large-scale manufacture - purification of eVLPs, which are complex assemblies of membranes - viral glycoproteins. Insect cells emerge as ideal substrates for correct arboviral glycoprotein folding - posttranslational modification to yield high quality eVLPs. Furthermore, baculovirus expression in insect cell culture is scalable - has a proven safety record in industrial human - veterinary vaccine manufacturing. In conclusion, eVLPs produced in insect cells using modern biotechnology have a realistic potential to be used in novel vaccines against arboviral diseases.

333) Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Gene Expression of the Circadian Clock Gene Period in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; de la Luz Martinez-Fierro, Margarita; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Zamudio Osuna, Michelle de Jesus; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura Elia; Guzman-Velasco, Antonio; Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Genome Sequence; Timeless Gene; Transcription; Mosquito; Oscillators
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-80, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the Period (PER) gene is important for the circadian clock that regulates some rhythmic biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. PER messenger amplification was done by RT-PCR from southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, larvae collected at three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. The amplified products were cloned, Sequenced, and compared/analyzed with those of other species of mosquitoes. A 3,093-bp amplified product was synthesized by PCR, which is the complete coding DNA Sequence (3,027 bp) of PER encoding an open reading frame of 996 amino acid residues and much smaller than the orthologous in other mosquitoes analyzed. No other simultaneous amplification was visualized; thus, possible alternative splicings were discarded or at least not detected by the method. Because PER is a widely conserved gene in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and maintaining colonies of southern house mosquitoes is relativity easy, determining the Sequence of the gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of using the gene as a model and generating data on the role in the circadian clock.

334) Infectious Chikungunya virus in the saliva of mice, monkeys and humans
Autor: Gardner Joy, Rudd Penny A, Prow Natalie A, Belarbi Essia, Roques Pierre, Larcher Thibaut, Gresh Lionel, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Schroder Wayne A, Suhrbier Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 10, p. e0139481, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed - bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 - 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon ?/? responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, - subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal - oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, - analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA - infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA - infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities.

335) Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014
Autor: Delisle E, Rousseau C, Broche B, Leparc-Goffart I, L'Ambert G, Cochet A, Prat C, Foulongne V, Ferre J B, Catelinois O, Flusin O, Tchernonog E, Moussion I E, Wieg-t A, Septfons A, Mendy A,Moyano M B,Laporte L,Maurel J,Jourdain F,Reynes J,Paty M C,Golliot F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 17, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed - 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations - the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area - around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya - dengue surveillance system in mainl- France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Isl-s. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

336) Highly evolvable malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arca, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L. M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K. N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simao, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.
Assunto: Antennal Transcriptome Profiles; Sex-Chromosome Evolution; Cuticular Protein Genes; Aedes-Aegypti; R Consensus; Gambiae; Drosophila; Expression; Annotation; Family
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 347, n. 6217, 2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we Sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning similar to 100 million years of Evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-Sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts.

337) Chikungunya, the emerging migratory rheumatism
Autor: Javelle Emilie, Gautret Philippe, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 509-510, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

338) Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Glutathione-S-Transferase; Cytochrome-P450 Gene Superfamily; Red Flour Beetle; Insecticide-Resistance; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Malaria Vector; Culex-Quinquefasciatus; Diptera-Culicidae; Aedes-Aegypti; Molecular Characterization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

339) Viral polymerase-helicase complexes regulate replication fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide depletion
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Rozen-Gagnon Kathryn, Das Pratyush Kumar, Saul Sirle, Poirier Enzo Z, Blanc Hervé, Vidalain Pierre-Olivier, Merits Andres, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 22, p. 11233-11244, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: To date, the majority of work on RNA virus replication fidelity has focused on the viral RNA polymerase, while the potential role of other viral replicase proteins in this process is poorly understood. Previous studies used resistance to broad-spectrum RNA mutagens, such as ribavirin, to identify polymerases with increased fidelity that avoid misincorporation of such base analogues. We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a functional linkage that was conserved among the alphavirus genus. Purified chikungunya virus nsP2 presented delayed helicase activity of the high-fidelity enzyme, - yet purified replication complexes manifested stronger RNA polymerization kinetics. Because mutagenic nucleoside analogs such as ribavirin also affect intracellular nucleotide pools, we addressed the link between nucleotide depletion - replication fidelity by using purine - pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors. High-fidelity viruses were more resistant to these conditions, - viral growth could be rescued by the addition of exogenous nucleosides, suggesting that mutagenesis by base analogues requires nucleotide pool depletion. This study describes a novel function for nsP2, highlighting the role of other components of the replication complex in regulating viral replication fidelity, - suggests that viruses can alter their replication complex fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide-depleting conditions. Previous studies using the RNA mutagen ribavirin to select for drug-resistant variants have highlighted the essential role of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in regulating replication fidelity. However, the role of other viral replicase components in replication fidelity has not been studied in detail. We identified here an RNA mutagen-resistant variant of the nsP2 helicase/protease that conferred increased fidelity - yet could not operate in the same manner as high-fidelity polymerases. We show that the alphavirus helicase is a key component of the fidelity-regulating machinery. Our data show that the RNA mutagenic activity of compounds such as ribavirin is coupled to - potentiated by nucleotide depletion - that RNA viruses can fine-tune their replication fidelity when faced with an intracellular environment depleted of nucleotides.

340) Tenosynovitis associated to Chikungunya virus (CHKV) infection: a response
Autor: Seijo Alfredo
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 75, n. 2, p. 130, 2015
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo:

341) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rúa Anubis, Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo, Mousson Laurence, Vazeille Marie, Fuchs Sappho, Yébakima André, Gustave Joel, Girod Romain, Dusfour Isabelle, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Vanlandingham Dana L, Huang Yan-Jang S, Lounibos L Philip, Mohamed Ali Souand, Nougairede Antoine, de Lamballerie Xavier, Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003780, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mainly transmitted in urban areas by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, constitutes a major public health problem. In late 2013, CHIKV emerged on Saint-Martin Isl- in the Caribbean - spread throughout the region reaching more than 40 countries. Thus far, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes have been implicated as the sole vector in the outbreaks, leading to the hypothesis that CHIKV spread could be limited only to regions where this mosquito species is dominant. We determined the ability of local populations of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus from the Americas - Europe to transmit the CHIKV strain of the Asian genotype isolated from Saint-Martin Isl- (CHIKV_SM) during the recent epidemic, - an East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype CHIKV strain isolated from La Réunion Isl- (CHIKV_LR) as a well-characterized control virus. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus. We found that (i) Aedes aegypti from Saint-Martin Isl- transmit CHIKV_SM - CHIKV_LR with similar efficiency, (ii) Ae. aegypti from the Americas display similar transmission efficiency for CHIKV_SM, (iii) American - European populations of the alternative vector species Ae. albopictus were as competent as Ae. aegypti populations with respect to transmission of CHIKV_SM - (iv) exposure of European Ae. albopictus to low temperatures (20°C) significantly reduced the transmission potential for CHIKV_SM. CHIKV strains belonging to the ECSA genotype could also have initiated local transmission in the new world. Additionally, the ongoing CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- - Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas with possible imported cases of CHIKV to Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. Colder temperatures may decrease the local transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus, potentially explaining the lack of autochthonous transmission of CHIKV_SM in Europe despite the hundreds of imported CHIKV cases returning from the Caribbean.

342) Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Muturi, Ephantus J.; Gardner, Allison M.; Bara, Jeffrey J.
Assunto: Invasive Honeysuckle; Native Mosquito Species; Invasive Mosquito Species
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus
Fonte: Environmental Entomology, v. 44, n. 5, p. 1308-1315, 2015
ISSN: 0046-225X
Resumo: We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species.

343) Development of a hamster model for Chikungunya virus infection and pathogenesis
Autor: Bosco-Lauth Angela M, Han Sushan, Hartwig Airn, Bowen Richard A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 6, p. e0130150, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquitoes - causes severe, debilitating infectious arthritis in humans. The need for an animal model to study the disease process - evaluate potential treatments is imminent as the virus continues its spread into novel geographic locations. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are often used as outbred laboratory animal models for arboviral diseases. Here we demonstrate that hamsters inoculated with chikungunya virus developed viremia - histopathologic lesions in their limbs - joints similar to those seen in human patients. The virus disseminated rapidly - was found in every major organ, including brain, within a few days of infection. Hamsters did not manifest overt clinical signs, - the virus was generally cleared within 4 days, followed by a strong neutralizing antibody response. These results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to chikungunya virus infection - develop myositis - tenosynovitis similar to human patients followed by a complete recovery. This animal model may be useful for testing antiviral drugs - vaccines.

344) Knickkopf and retroactive proteins are required for formation of laminar serosal procuticle during embryonic development of Tribolium castaneum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Noh, Mi Young; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A.; Kramer, Karl J.; Beeman, Richard W.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam
Assunto: Chitin; Knickkopf; Retroactive; Chitin synthase; RNA interference (RNAi); Serosal cuticle
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 60, n. , p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Chitin, a homopolymer of beta-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine synthesized by chitin synthase A (Chs-A), is organized in the procuticle of the postembryonic cuticle or exoskeleton, which is composed of laminae stacked parallel to the cell surface to give stability and integrity to the underlying insect epidermal and other tissues. Our previous work has revealed an important role for two proteins from Tribolium castaneum named Knickkopf (TcKnk) and Retroactive (TcRtv) in postembryonic cuticular chitin maintenance. TcKnk and TcRtv were shown to be required for protection and organization of newly synthesized procuticular chitin. To study the functions of TcKnk and TcRtv in serosal and larval cuticles produced during embryogenesis in T castaneum, dsRNAs specific for these two genes were injected into two week-old adult females. The effects of dsRNA treatment on ovarial integrity, oviposition, egg hatching and adult survival were determined. Insects treated with dsRNA for chitin synthase-A (TcChs-A) and tryptophan oxygenase (TcVer) were used as positive and negative controls for these experiments, respectively. Like TcChs-A RNAi, injection of dsRNA for TcKnk or TcRtv into adult females exhibited no adult lethality and oviposition was normal. However, a vast majority of the embryos did not hatch. The remaining (similar to 10%) of the embryos hatched into first instar larvae that died without molting to the second instar. Chitin content analysis following TcKnk and TcRtv parental RNAi revealed approximately 50% reduction in chitin content of eggs in comparison with control TcVer RNAi, whereas TcChs-A dsRNA-treatment led to >90% loss of chitin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of serosal cuticle from TcChs-A, TcKnk and TcRtv dsRNA-treated insects revealed a complete absence of laminar organization of serosal (and larval) procuticle in comparison with TcVer dsRNA-treated controls, which exhibited normal laminar organization of procuticular chitin. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to their essential roles in maintenance and organization of chitin in epidermal cuticle in larval and later stages of insect development, TcKnk and TcRtv also are required for egg hatch, chitin maintenance and laminar organization of both serosal and larval cuticle during embryonic development of T. castaneum. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

345) Mimics and chameleons in Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes.
Autor: Wakerley Benjamin R.; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: NEUROPATHY
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 2, p. 90-99, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variant, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) have several subtypes, together forming a continuous spectrum of discrete and overlapping syndromes. Such is the heterogeneity within this spectrum that many physicians may be surprised to learn that these disorders are related pathophysiologically, and therefore share certain clinical features. These include history of antecedent infection, monophasic disease course and symmetrical cranial or limb weakness. The presence of cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation (raised protein, normal cell count), antiganglioside antibodies and neurophysiological evidence of axonal or demyelinating neuropathy also support a diagnosis in many cases, but should not be relied upon. Mimics of GBS and MFS can broadly be divided into those presenting with symmetrical limb weakness and those presenting with brainstem signs. MFS and the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of GBS are frequently mistaken for brainstem stroke, botulism or myasthenia gravis, whereas Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis is often diagnosed as Wernicke's encephalopathy. Chameleons or atypical presentations of GBS-related disorders include: paraparetic GBS, bifacial weakness with paraesthesias, acute ataxic neuropathy, acute ophthalmoparesis, acute ptosis and acute mydriasis. Many neurologists may also not be aware that deep tendon reflexes remain present or may even appear brisk in up to 10% of patients with GBS. Correct diagnosis of GBS-related disorders helps to avoid unnecessary investigations and allows early immunotherapy if appropriate.

346) Juvenile hormone-activated phospholipase C pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the methoprene-tolerant protein
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Pengcheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Jinsong
Assunto: Insect Hormone; Development; Phospholipase C; Protein Kinase; Transcription
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 15, p. E1871-E1879, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of a wide diversity of developmental and physiological events in insects. Although the intracellular JH receptor methoprene-tolerant protein (MET) functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for specific JH-regulated genes, some JH responses are mediated by signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins associated with plasma membrane. It is unknown whether the JH-regulated gene expression depends on the membrane-mediated signal transduction. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we found that JH activated the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway and quickly increased the levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and intracellular calcium, leading to activation and autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). When abdomens from newly emerged mosquitoes were cultured in vitro, the JH-activated gene expression was repressed substantially if specific inhibitors of PLC or CaMKII were added to the medium together with JH. In newly emerged female mosquitoes, RNAi-mediated depletion of PLC or CaMKII considerably reduced the expression of JH-responsive genes, including the Keppel homolog 1 gene (AaKr-h1) and the early trypsin gene (AaET). JH-induced loading of MET to the promoters of AaKr-h1 and AaET was weakened drastically when either PLC or CaMKII was inactivated in the cultured tissues. Therefore, the results suggest that the membraneinitiated signaling pathway modifies the DNA-binding activity of MET via phosphorylation and thus facilitates the genomic responses to JH. In summary, this study reveals an interplay of genomic and nongenomic signaling mechanisms of JH.

347) Collaborative study for the characterization of a chikungunya virus RNA reference reagent for use in nucleic acid testing
Autor: Añez G, Jiang Z, Heisey D A R, Kerby S, Rios M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Nucleic acid amplification tests; Reference standards
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 109, n. 4, p. 312-318, 2015
ISSN: 1423-0410
Resumo: Infections with the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can cause febrile illness or be asymptomatic. Laboratory diagnosis of CHIKV is often made with laboratory-developed nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays because there are no U.S. Food - Drug Administration (FDA)-approved diagnostic or blood screening assays. We aimed to produce a well-characterized CHIKV RNA reference reagent (CHIKV-RR) for use in NAT assays. A CHIKV RNA-RR consisting of cell culture-grown, heat-inactivated CHIKV diluted in human plasma was assessed by 8 laboratories in a collaborative study. The participants were asked to test the CHIKV-RR using their NAT assay(s) by qualitative testing (determination of RNA end-point by testing log - half-log dilutions followed by calculation of estimated NAT-detectable units/ml, after adjustment for the sample volume used for testing), - by quantitative testing, when available. Results from the testing showed that the CHIKV-RR had an estimated overall mean of 7.56 log10 detectable units/ml, ranging from 6.2 log10 to 8.6 log10. The Center for Biologics for Evaluation - Research/FDA CHIKV RNA-RR for NAT was established with a concentration of 7.56 log10 detectable units/ml.

348) GRP78/BiP/HSPA5/Dna K is a universal therapeutic target for human disease
Autor: Booth Laurence, Roberts Jane L, Cash Devin R, Tavallai Seyedmehrad, Jean Sophonie, Fidanza Abigail, Cruz-Luna Tanya, Siembiba Paul, Cycon Kelly A, Cornelissen Cynthia N, Dent Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Cellular Physiology, v. 230, n. 7, p. 1661-1676, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4652
Resumo: The chaperone GRP78/Dna K is conserved throughout evolution down to prokaryotes. The GRP78 inhibitor OSU-03012 (AR-12) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) to rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes - as a single agent reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data with the drug combination were obtained for: HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP58, HSP27, HSP40 - HSP60. OSU-03012/sildenafil treatment killed brain cancer stem cells - decreased the expression of: NPC1 - TIM1; LAMP1; - NTCP1, receptors for Ebola/Marburg/Hepatitis A, Lassa fever, - Hepatitis B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with OSU-03012/sildenafil reduced expression of the coxsakie - adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 adenovirus or coxsakie virus B4 to infect - to reproduce. Similar data were obtained using Chikungunya, Mumps, Measles, Rubella, RSV, CMV, - Influenza viruses. OSU-03012 as a single agent at clinically relevant concentrations killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli - clinical isolate multi-drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae - MRSE which was in bacteria associated with reduced Dna K - Rec A expression. The PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil or tadalafil enhanced OSU-03012 killing in N. gonorrhoeae - MRSE - low marginally toxic doses of OSU-03012 could restore bacterial sensitivity in N. gonorrhoeae to multiple antibiotics. Thus, Dna K - bacterial phosphodiesterases are novel antibiotic targets, - inhibition of GRP78 is of therapeutic utility for cancer - also for bacterial - viral infections.

349) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G, Sinka Marianne E, Duda Kirsten A, Mylne Adrian, Shearer Freya M, Brady Oliver J, Messina Jane P, Barker Christopher M, Moore Chester G, Carvalho Roberta G, Coelho Giovanini E, Van Bortel Wim, Hendrickx Guy, Schaffner Francis, Wint G R William, Elyazar Iqbal R F, Teng Hwa-Jen, Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue - chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy - sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus between 1960 - 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature - unpublished studies including national entomological surveys - expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management - quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 - 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping - spatial analyses of the vectors -, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

350) Host-pathogen interactome analysis of Chikungunya virus envelope proteins E1 - E2
Autor: Dudha Namrata, Rana Jyoti, Rajasekharan Sreejith, Gabrani Reema, Gupta Amita, Chaudhary Vijay Kumar, Gupta Sanjay
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Envelope proteins; Virus-host interaction
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 50, n. 2, p. 200-209, 2015
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: The envelope proteins of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are known to play crucial roles in viral infection - spread. Although the role of envelope proteins in viral infection has been studied, the cellular interactors of these proteins are still elusive. In the present study, the ectodomains of CHIKV envelope proteins (E1 - E2) have been used for a high throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening to identify the interacting host protein partners. Following a comparative analysis between the viral-host protein interaction data generated from Y2H - computational approach, five host proteins interacting with E1 - three host proteins interacting with E2 common to both datasets were identified. These associations were further verified independently by pull down - protein interaction ELISA. The identified interactions shed light on the possible cellular machinery that CHIKV might be employing during viral entry, trafficking, - evasion of immune system.

351) Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology), virus transmission, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887-1889, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

352) How great is the threat of Chikungunya virus?
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Alphavirus; Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Emerging infectious diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, v. 13, n. 3, p. 291-293, 2015
ISSN: 1744-8336
Resumo: In the last decade, chikungunya virus has emerged from an obscure arbovirus that caused limited outbreaks of disease in Africa - Asia to the cause of a p-emic affecting millions of people - spanning five continents. Two separate chikungunya virus genotypes have been responsible for outbreaks during this period, including strains adapted to transmission in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Further spread of this virus into new regions of the Western Hemisphere is predicted during the present rainy season in the tropics, - recurrent viral introductions - disease outbreaks, as occurred in Réunion in 2010, should be expected. Chikungunya virus no longer simply threatens; it has arrived as a significant, global pathogen.

353) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

354) Host-Seeking behavior and Arbovirus detection in mosquitoes of habahe county, xinjiang uigur autonomous region, China
Autor: Guo Xiao-Xia, Zhang Ying-Mei, Li Chun-Xiao, Zhang Gui-Lin, Zheng Zhong, Dong Yan-De, Xue Rui-De, Xing Dan, Zhao Tong-Yan
Assunto: Aedes vexans; Xingjiang; Arbovirus; Blood meal; Host-seeking
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 329-335, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior - virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, - 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), - An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans - An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, - chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito - arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetl-.

355) What's new in clinical dermatology?
Autor: Valeyrie-Allanore L
Assunto: Agents infectieux émergeants; Burden; Drug adverse reaction; Emerging infectious agents; Fardeau; Hidradenitis suppurativa; IgG4-related disease; Maladie de Verneuil; Maladie à IgG4; Neuropathie des petites fibres; Pemphigoid; Pemphigoïde; Psoriasis; Small-fiber neuropathy; Toxidermies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Ve?ne?re?ologie, v. 142, Supl 3, p. S1-S7, 2015
ISSN: 0151-9638
Resumo: Significant advances have been performed in cutaneous adverse reactions leading to primary prevention strategy - implication of new signaling pathways. Histological features of DRESS - methotrexate toxicity are detailed. New emerging infectious agents are reported including Zika Virus, an arbovirus which can be confused with dengue or chikungunya, a new cowpox virus transmitted by domestic cat leading to lymphadenitis, Spirurina type X larva transmitted in Japan by eating raw squid or fish. Malignancies in pemphigus - pemphigoid are emphasized. Expert recomm-ations are developped on definitions, diagnosis - disease activity of mucous membrane pemphigoid, bubllous pemphigoid - pemphigus. Psoriasis - cardiometabolic association are discussed. This risk association appears higher in hidradenitis suppurativa, which seems more frequent in patients of African ancestry. IgG4-related disease is an immune mediated entity characterized by fibroinflammatory lesions often misdiagnosed. Pruritus, heat sensations, numbness could be recognized as a small-fiber neuropathy symptoms. Burden impact in common dermatosis is demonstrated - should be integrated in our daily practice.

356) Identification of Chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors using structure-base approaches
Autor: Nguyen Phuong T V, Yu Haibo, Keller Paul A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Molecular docking; Molecular dynamics simulations; Nsp2 protease; Structure-based approaches; Virtual screening
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening
Fonte: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling, v. 57, p. 1-8, 2015
ISSN: 1873-4243
Resumo: The nsP2 protease of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the essential components of viral replication - it plays a crucial role in the cleavage of polyprotein precursors for the viral replication process. Therefore, it is gaining attention as a potential drug design target against CHIKV. Based on the recently determined crystal structure of the nsP2 protease of CHIKV, this study identified potential inhibitors of the virus using structure-based approaches with a combination of molecular docking, virtual screening - molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The top hit compounds from database searching, using the NCI Diversity Set II, with targeting at five potential binding sites of the nsP2 protease, were identified by blind dockings - focused dockings. These complexes were then subjected to MD simulations to investigate the stability - flexibility of the complexes - to gain a more detailed insight into the interactions between the compounds - the enzyme. The hydrogen bonds - hydrophobic contacts were characterized for the complexes. Through structural alignment, the catalytic residues Cys1013 - His1083 were identified in the N-terminal region of the nsP2 protease. The absolute binding free energies were estimated by the linear interaction energy approach - compared with the binding affinities predicted with docking. The results provide valuable information for the development of inhibitors for CHIKV.

357) Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein
Autor: Tong W, Yin X-X, Lee B-J, Li Y-G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Virologica, v. 59, n. 2, p. 189-193, 2015
ISSN: 0001-723X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia - severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment - no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient - easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein - the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

358) Insect-pathogen interactions: contribution of viral adaptation to the emergence of vector-borne diseases, the example of chikungunya
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zouache, Karima; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Aedes-Albopictus; Southeastern Senegal; Adaptive Landscape; Mosquito Vectors; Virus Evolution; Dengue Viruses; Public-Health; Aegypti; Transmission; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 14-21, 2015
ISSN: 2214-5745
Resumo: The emergence or re-emergence of vector borne diseases represents a major public health problem. In general, therapeutic or prophylactic treatments along with Vaccines are missing or inefficient, emphasizing the need for increased control of vector populations. Understanding the interactions of human pathogens with their insect vectors will aid us in our understanding of viral emergence and the dynamics of these events. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that typically causes incapacitating arthralgia, rash, and fever. It is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti and secondarily by Aedes albopictus. Since its emergence in 2004, CHIKV has continued to spread globally due in large part to an enhanced transmission of the virus by the vector Ae. albopictus. Ae. albopictus-adaptive mutations modulated by epistatic interactions have modified CHIKV transmission and thus the global spread and dynamics of this disease.

359) A rodent model of Chikungunya virus infection in RAG1 -/- Mice, with features of persistence, for vaccine safety evaluation
Autor: Seymour Robert L, Adams A Paige, Leal Grace, Alcorn Maria D H, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003800, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive sense, single str-ed RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus, - the etiologic agent of epidemics of severe arthralgia in Africa, Asia, Europe -, most recently, the Americas. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever (CHIK), a syndrome characterized by rash, fever, - debilitating, often chronic arthritis. In recent outbreaks, CHIKV has been recognized to manifest more neurologic signs of illness in the elderly - those with co-morbidities. The syndrome caused by CHIKV is often self-limited; however, many patients develop persistent arthralgia that can last for months or years. These characteristics make CHIKV not only important from a human health st-point, but also from an economic st-point. Despite its importance as a reemerging disease, there is no licensed vaccine or specific treatment to prevent CHIK. Many studies have begun to elucidate the pathogenesis of CHIKF - the mechanism of persistent arthralgia, including the role of the adaptive immune response, which is still poorly understood. In addition, the lack of an animal model for chronic infection has limited studies of CHIKV pathogenesis as well as the ability to assess the safety of vaccine c-idates currently under development. To address this deficiency, we used recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1-/-) knockout mice, which are deficient in both T - B lymphocytes, to develop a chronic CHIKV infection model. Here, we describe this model as well as its use in evaluating the safety of a live-attenuated vaccine c-idate.

360) Flavivirus sfRNA suppresses antiviral RNA interference in cultured cells and mosquitoes and directly interacts with the RNAi machinery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moon, Stephanie L.; Dodd, Benjamin J. T.; Brackney, Doug E.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Wilusz, Jeffrey
Assunto: Flavivirus; Dengue virus; Kunjin virus; RNA interference; SfRNA; Mosquito; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 485, p. 322-329, 2015
ISSN: 0042-6822
Resumo: Productive arbovirus infections require mechanisms to suppress or circumvent the cellular RNA interference (RNA pathway, a major antiviral response in mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate that two flaviviruses, Dengue virus and Kunjin virus, significantly repress siRNA-mediated RNAi in infected human cells as well as during infection of the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses generate a small structured non-coding RNA from the viral 3' UTR referred to as sfRNA. Analysis of infections with a mutant Kunjin virus that is unable to generate appreciable amounts of the major sfRNA species indicated that RNAi suppression was associated with the generation of the non-coding sfRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation of sfRNA with RNAi mediators Dicer and Ago2 suggest a model for RNAi suppression. Collectively, these data help to establish a clear role for sfRNA in RNAi suppression and adds to the emerging impact of viral long non-coding RNAs in modulating aspects of anti-viral immune processes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

361) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

362) Vector competence of the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Island, Cape Verde, to different serotypes of dengue virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fernandes da Moura, Aires Janurio; Varjal de Melo Santos, Maria Alice; Fontes Oliveira, Claudia Maria; Duarte Guedes, Duschinka Ribeiro; de Carvalho-Leandro, Danilo; da Cruz Brito, Maria Lidia; Ribeiro Rocha, Helio Daniel; Gomez, Lara Ferrero; Junqueira Ayres, Constancia Flavia
Assunto: Dengue; RT-PCR; Vector; NS1 antigen; Cape Verde
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), whose main vectors are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Aedes aegypti is the only DENV vector in Cape Verde, an African country that suffered its first outbreak of dengue in 2009. However, little is known about the variation in the level of vector competence of this mosquito population to the different DENV serotypes. This study aimed to evaluate the vector competence of Aedes aegypti from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, to four DENV serotypes and to detect DENV vertical transmission.Methods: Mosquitoes were fed on blood containing DENV serotypes and were dissected at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to detect the virus in the midgut, head and salivary glands (SG) using RT-PCR. Additionally, the number of copies of viral RNA present in the SG was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, eggs were collected in the field and adult mosquitoes obtained were analyzed by RT-PCR and the platelia dengue NS1 antigen kit to detect transovarial transmission.Results: High rates of SG infection were observed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 whereas for DENV-1, viral RNA was only detected in the midgut and head. DENV-4 did not spread to the head or SG, maintaining the infection only in the midgut. The number of viral RNA copies in the SG did not vary significantly between DENV-2 and DENV-3 or among the different periods of incubation and the various titers of DENV tested. With respect to DENV surveillance in mosquitoes obtained from the eggs collected in the field, no samples were positive.Conclusion: Although no DENV positive samples were collected from the field in 2014, it is important to highlight that the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Islands exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to DENV serotypes. This population showed a high vector competence for DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains and a low susceptibility to DENV-1 and DENV-4. Viral RNA copies in the SG remained constant for at least 21 dpi, which may enhance the vector capacity of Aedes aegypti and suggests the presence of a mechanism modulating virus replication in the SG.

363) Development and evaluation of a SYBR green-based real-time multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection and serotyping of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses
Autor: Chen Huixin, Parimelalagan Mariya, Lai Yee Ling, Lee Kim Sung, Koay Evelyn Siew-Chuan, Hapuarachchi Hapuarachchige C, Ng Lee Ching, Ho Phui San, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, v. 17, n. 6, p. 722-728, 2015
ISSN: 1943-7811
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue virus (DENV) have emerged as the two most important arbovirus diseases of global health significance. Similar clinical manifestations, transmission vectors, geographical distribution, - seasonal correlation often result in misdiagnosis of chikungunya infections as dengue cases - vice versa. In this study, we developed a rapid - accurate laboratory confirmative method to simultaneously detect, quantify, - differentiate DENV serotypes 1, 2, 3, - 4 - CHIKV. This SYBR Green I-based one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay is highly sensitive - specific for CHIKV - DENV. Melting temperature analysis of PCR amplicons was used to serotype DENV - to differentiate from CHIKV. The detection limit of the assay was 20, 10, 50, 5, - 10 RNA copies/reaction for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, - CHIKV, respectively. Our assay did not cross-react with a panel of viruses that included other flaviviruses, alphaviruses, influenza viruses, human enteroviruses, - human coronaviruses. The feasibility of using this assay for clinical diagnosis was evaluated in DENV- - CHIKV-positive patient sera. Accordingly, the assay sensitivity for DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, - CHIKV was 89.66%, 96.67%, 96.67%, 94.12%, - 95.74%, respectively, with 100% specificity. These findings confirmed the potential of our assay to be used as a rapid test for simultaneous detection - serotyping of DENV - CHIKV in clinical samples.

364) Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zou, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Quantitative Trait Loci; Vector Anopheles-Funestus; Insecticide Resistance; Malaria Vector; Linkage Map; Permethrin Resistance; Pyrethroid Resistance; Genetic-Linkage; Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F-2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker Sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome Sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait.

365) Novel mode of ISG15-mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice
Autor: Morales David J, Monte Kristen, Sun Lulu, Struckhoff Jessica J, Agapov Eugene, Holtzman Michael J, Stappenbeck Thaddeus S, Lenschow Deborah J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 337-349, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier - one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins - a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, - underst-ing how these modifications affect the interferon response - virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, - in the case of influenza B virus - vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting the virus burden. In order to better underst- the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus - Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation-dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication - did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but nonantiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 - demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo. It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. Since ISG15 is one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. Although a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a small effect on virus replication in tissue culture, few studies have confirmed this mechanism of protection in vivo. In these studies we have found that while ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus - Sendai virus infections, ISGylation does not appear to mediate this protection through the direct inhibition of virus replication or the modulation of the acute immune response. Thus, in addition to showing a novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection from virus infection, this study demonstrates the importance of studying the role of ISG15 in vivo.

366) Localization and role of inward rectifier K+ channels in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Piermarini, Peter M.; Dunemann, Sonja M.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Calkins, Travis L.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Beyenbach, Klaus W.
Assunto: Potassium channels; Pharmacology; Small molecules; Immunolocalization; Electrophysiology; Transepithelial fluid secretion
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 67, p. 59-73, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti express three inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel subunits: AeKir1, AeKir2B and AeKir3. Here we 1) elucidate the cellular and membrane localization of these three channels in the Malpighian tubules, and 2) characterize the effects of small molecule inhibitors of AeKir1 and AeKir2B channels (VU compounds) on the transepithelial secretion of fluid and electrolytes and the electrophysiology of isolated Malpighian tubules. Using subunit-specific antibodies, we found that AeKir1 and AeKir2B localize exclusively to the basolateral membranes of stellate cells and principal cells, respectively; AeKir3 localizes within intracellular compartments of both principal and stellate cells. In isolated tubules bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. the peritubular application of VU590 (10 mu M), a selective inhibitor of AeKir1, inhibited transepithelial fluid secretion 120 min later. The inhibition brings rates of transepithelial KCI and fluid secretion to 54% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. VU590 had no effect on the basolateral membrane voltage (VIA) of principal cells, but it significantly reduced the cell input conductance (gin) to values 63% of the control within similar to 90 min. In contrast, the peritubular application of VU625 (10 mu M), an inhibitor of both AeKir1 and AeKir2B, started to inhibit transepithelial fluid secretion as early as 60 min later. At 120 min after treatment, VU625 was more efficacious than VU590, inhibiting transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to similar to 35% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. Moreover, VU625 caused the V-bl and g(in) of principal cells to respectively drop to values 62% and 56% of the control values within only similar to 30 min. Comparing the effects of VU590 with those of VU625 allowed us to estimate that AeKir1 and AeKir2B respectively contribute to 46% and 20% of the transepithelial K+ secretion when the tubules are bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. Thus, we uncover an important role of AeKir1 and stellate cells in transepithelial K+ transport under conditions of peritubular K+ challenge. The physiological role of AeKir3 in intracellular membranes of both stellate and principal cells remains to be determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

367) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

368) Transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, Hepialus xiaojinensis, during an Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meng, Qian; Yu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Meng-Long; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Zhou, Gui-Ling; Li, Xuan; Qin, Qi-Lian; Hu, Song-Nian; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Hepialus xiaojinensis; Ophiocordyceps sinensis; Transcriptome; Insect immunity; Phylogenetic analysis; Expression profiling; Fat body
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 64, p. 1-15, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of Lepidopteran insect. The fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. However, little sequence information is available for this insect. A time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to O. sinensis infection. In total, 50,164 unigenes were obtained by assembling the reads from two high-throughput approaches: 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina Hiseq2000. Hierarchical clustering and functional examination revealed four major gene clusters. Clusters 1-3 included transcripts markedly induced by the fungal infection within 72 h. Cluster 4, with a lower number of transcripts, was suppressed during the early phase of infection but returned to normal expression levels sometime before 1 year. Based on sequence similarity to orthologs known to participate in immune defenses, 258 candidate immunity-related transcripts were identified, and their functions were hypothesized. The genes were more primitive than those in other Lepidopteran insects. In addition, lineage-specific family expansion of the clip-domain serine proteases and C-type lectins were apparent and likely caused by selection pressures. Global expression profiles of immunity-related genes indicated that H. xiaojinensis was capable of a rapid response to an O. sinensis challenge; however, the larvae developed tolerance to the fungus after prolonged infection, probably due to immune suppression. Specifically, antimicrobial peptide mRNAs could not be detected after chronic infection, because key components of the Toll pathway (MyD88, Pelle and Cactus) were downregulated. Taken together, this study provides insights into the defense system of H. xiaojinensis, and a basis for understanding the molecular aspects of the interaction between the host and the entomopathogen. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

369) Molecular Characterization Of An Apolipophorin-Iii Gene From The Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea Pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Antheraea Pernyi; Apolipophorin III; Expression; Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 88, n. 3, p. 155-167, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein Sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

370) Emerging viruses in the republic of suriname: Retrospective and prospective study into Chikungunya circulation and suspicion of human hantavirus infections, 2008-2012 and 2014
Autor: Goeijenbier Marco, Aron Georgina, Anfasa Fatih, Lundkvist Åke, Verner-Carlsson Jenny, Reusken Chantal B E M, Martina Byron E E, van Gorp Eric C M, Resida Lesley
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emerging infectious diseases; Hantavirus; Hemorrhagic fever; Suriname
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 10, p. 611-618, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Suriname is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is unique in the sense that different ethnic cultures live together within the country, resulting in high levels of transport of both humans - products between the Asian, African, - European continents as well as the Caribbean. Travel is only one of the many factors present in Suriname contributing to the risk for the emergence or introduction of any infectious disease. Recently, circulation of both chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - hantavirus was reported in areas neighboring Suriname. Here we report a retrospective - prospective study into chikungunya - hantavirus circulation. A chikungunya - hantavirus retrospective serological study was conducted on samples submitted for dengue, leptospirosis, -/or influenza virus diagnostics between 2008 - 2012 to the Bureau of Public Health in Suriname. This was followed by a prospective CHIKV serological - molecular surveillance study until the detection of the first autochthonous CHIKV cases in Suriname in May - June of 2014. None of the tested samples showed the presence of CHIKV antibodies in the retrospective serological study. Prospective testing of CHIKV-suspected patients resulted in the detection of the first autochthonous CHIKV cases in Suriname in May, 2015. In one sample, we were able to isolate - sequence the virus. Retrospective testing for the presence of hantavirus antibodies showed a relative high response in both pan-hantavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - immunofluorescence assay (IFA). However, neutralization tests did not yield any evidence for infection with either Seoul or -es hantavirus. Here we report the presence of CHIKV in the republic of Suriname - the first serological indication of hantavirus infections in symptomatic patients.

371) Assessing Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Traps for Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Surveillance
Autor: Harwood James F, Arimoto Hanayo, Nunn Peter, Richardson Alec G, Obenauer Peter J
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; BG-Mosquitito Trap; BG-Sentinel 2; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap; Zumba Trap
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 242-247, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the st-ard trap for DENV - CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable - better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, - relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the st-ard Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, - BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield - field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV - CHIKV vectors than the st-ard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, - BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

372) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli Farner as an epidemic vector of Chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage Harry M, Ledermann Jeremy P, Yug Laurence, Burkhalter Kristen L, Marfel Maria, Hancock W Thane
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 2, p. 429-436, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Isl-: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner - the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, - one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli - Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Isl- - the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage - closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean.

373) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

374) Isolation and Characterization of New Bacillus thuringiensis Strains with Insecticidal Activity to Difficult to Control Lepidopteran Pests
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lee, You Kyoung; Jin, Na Young; Lee, Bo Ram; Seo, Mi Ja; Youn, Young Nam; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa; Yu, Yong Man
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Plutella xylostella; Spodoptera exigua; Spodoptera litura
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of The Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, v. 60, n. 1, p. 103-112, 2015
ISSN: 0023-6152
Resumo: Strains were isolated from soil samples collected from mountains and fields of Yeong-Dong and Ok-cheon, ChungBuk province in order to select B. thuringiensis strains with high insecticidal activities against lepidopteran pests. Eight B. thuringiensis strains producing spores and endotoxin proteins were selected from a total of 26 soil samples. Tests of biological activities in Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, and Aedes aegypti were performed with 8 isolates of B. thuringiensis. CAB565 and CAB566 strains were selected, because such strains showed more than 80% of insecticidal activities against four kinds of pests. Selected two strains formed endotoxin proteins in a typical bipyramidal type. CAB565 and CAB566 strains were identified as thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, respectively. LC50 of CAB566 strain against larvae of S. litura at the fourth stage was 7.7x10(3) (cfu/ml), which was the highest activity. LC50 value of CAB565 strain against larvae of S. exigua at the fifth stage was 3.0x10(6) (cfu/ml), which was high activity. Through SDS PAGE, CAB565 and CAB566 strains showed a band at 130 kDa. After it reacted with midgut juice of S. litura and S. exigua, a band of toxin protein was shown at 65 kDa. According to results of PCR analysis, it was found that cry1Aa, cry1Ac and cry1I genes were present in CAB565 strain and it was different from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. cry1Aa, cry1C, cry1D and cry1I genes were present in CAB566 strain and it was different from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. As a result of plasmid DNA patterns, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki 103099 strain and CAB565 strain had 5 and 10 plasmid DNAs, respectively. B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai KB098 strain and CAB566 strain had 9 and 7 plasmid DNAs, respectively.

375) Assessment of arbovirus surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States
Autor: Hadler James L, Patel Dhara, Nasci Roger S, Petersen Lyle R, Hughes James M, Bradley Kristy, Etkind Paul, Kan Lilly, Engel Jeffrey
Assunto: United States; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Capacity building; Health departments; Mosquito-borne encephalitis; Surveillance; Vector-borne infections; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 7, p. 1159-1166, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, - many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state - selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State - Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 - in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states - assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, - human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity - anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance - laboratory testing capacity - had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect - provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks - other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

376) Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America
Autor: Fernández-Salas Ildefonso, Danis-Lozano Rogelio, Casas-Martínez Mauricio, Ulloa Armando, Bond J Guillermo, Marina Carlos F, Lopez-Ordóñez Teresa, Elizondo-Quiroga Armando, Torres-Monzón Jorge A, Díaz-González Esteban E
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 124, p. 30-42, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics - challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue - CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti - Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species - failures of surveillance - vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant - persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

377) Viral exanthems
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L, Saunderson Rebecca B, Kok Jen, Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto: Exanthem; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome; Rash; Viral infection; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems - suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, - the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration - rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe - the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries - secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean - Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming - spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence - spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution - morphology, geographic location - potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting - treatment is supportive.

378) Chikungunya virus pathogenesis and immunity
Autor: Gasque Philippe, Couderc Therese,Lecuit Marc, Roques Pierre, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Adaptive immunity; Chikungunya; Cytokines and chemokines; Inflammation; Innate immunity; Target cells
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 241-249, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus associated with acute - chronic arthralgia that re-emerged in the Indian Ocean isl-s in 2005-2006 - is currently responsible for the ongoing outbreaks in the Caribbean isl-s - the Americas. We describe here the acute - chronic clinical manifestations of CHIKV in patients that define the disease. We also review the various animal models that have been developed to study CHIKV infection - pathology - further strengthened the underst-ing of the cellular - molecular mechanisms of CHIKV infection - immunity. A complete underst-ing of the immunopathogenesis of CHIKV infection will help develop the needed preventive - therapeutic approaches to combat this arbovirosis.

379) The mosquito-borne viruses in Europe
Autor: Rossati Antonella, Bargiacchi Olivia, Kroumova Vesselina, Garavelli Pietro Luigi
Assunto: Dengue; Mosquitoes; Vectors; West Nile virus; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Recenti Progressi in Medicina, v. 106, n. 3, p. 125-130, 2015
ISSN: 2038-1840
Resumo: Epidemiologic changes of vector-borne diseases in recent years have multiple causes, including climate change. There are about 3500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, three-quarters of which live in tropical - subtropical wetl-s. Main viruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Europe belong to the genus Flavivirus; some of them have been recently reported in Italy (Usutu - Japanese encephalitis virus), while others have been circulating for years - autochthonous transmission has been documented (West Nile virus). Mosquito-borne viruses can be classified according to the vector (Aedes or Culex), which, in turn, is associated with different vertebrate host - pathology. The Flavivirus transmitted by Culex have birds as a reservoir - can cause meningoencephalitis, while viruses transmitted by Aedes have primates as reservoir, do not have neurotropism - mainly cause hemorrhagic diseases. Other arbovirus, potentially responsible of epidemics, are the Chikungunya virus (Alphavirus family), introduced for the first time in Europe in 2007, - the virus of Rift Valley fever (Phlebovirus family). The spread in non-endemic areas of vector-born diseases have highlighted the importance of surveillance systems - vector control strategies.

380) Chikungunya virus vaccines: current strategies and prospects for developing plant-made vaccines
Autor: Salazar-González Jorge A, Angulo Carlos, Rosales-Mendoza Sergio
Assunto: E antigen; Edible crop; Oral vaccine; Transgenic plant; Transient expression; Transplastomic plant; Vaccine cost; Virus like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 31, p. 3650-3658, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is an emerging pathogen initially found in East Africa - currently spread into the Indian Ocean Isl-s, many regions of South East Asia, - in the Americas. No licensed vaccines against this eminent pathogen are available - thus intensive research in this field is a priority. This review presents the current scenario on the developments of Chikungunya virus vaccines - identifies the use of genetic engineered plants to develop attractive vaccines. The possible avenues to develop plant-made vaccines with distinct antigenic designs - expression modalities are identified - discussed considering current trends in the field.

381) Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak
Autor: Boisen Matthew L, Schieffelin John S, Goba Augustine, Oottamasathien Darin, Jones Abigail B, Shaffer Jeffrey G, Hastie Kathryn M, Hartnett Jessica N, Momoh Mambu, Fullah Mohammed, Gabiki Michael, Safa Sidiki, Zandonatti Michelle, Fusco Marnie, Bornholdt Zach, Abelson Dafna, Gire Stephen K, Andersen Kristian G, Tariyal Ridhi, Stremlau Mathew, Cross Robert W, Geisbert Joan B, Pitts Kelly R, Geisbert Thomas W, Kulakoski Peter, Wilson Russell B, Henderson Lee, Sabeti Pardis C, Grant Donald S, Garry Robert F, Saphire Erica O, Branco Luis M, Khan Sheik Humarr
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 1, p. 19-31, 2015
ISSN: 1557-8976
Resumo: Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services - clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), - therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM - IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, - typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, - a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 - 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest - most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

382) Highly efficient Cas9-mediated gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gantz, Valentino M.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Tatarenkova, Olga; Fazekas, Aniko; Macias, Vanessa M.; Bier, Ethan; James, Anthony A.
Assunto: Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Aedes-Aegypti; Plasmodium-Falciparum; Promoter; Transmission; Expression; Repair; Mutagenesis; Antibodies; Disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 49, p. E6736-E6743, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Genetic engineering technologies can be used both to create transgenic mosquitoes carrying antipathogen effector genes targeting human malaria parasites and to generate gene-drive systems capable of introgressing the genes throughout wild vector populations. We developed a highly effective autonomous Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated gene-drive system in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, adapted from the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR). This specific system results in progeny of males and females derived from transgenic males exhibiting a high frequency of germ-line gene conversion consistent with homology-directed repair (HDR). This system copies an similar to 17-kb construct from its site of insertion to its homologous chromosome in a faithful, site-specific manner. Dual anti-Plasmodium falciparum effector genes, a marker gene, and the autonomous gene-drive components are introgressed into similar to 99.5% of the progeny following outcrosses of transgenic lines to wild-type mosquitoes. The effector genes remain transcriptionally inducible upon blood feeding. In contrast to the efficient conversion in individuals expressing Cas9 only in the germ line, males and females derived from transgenic females, which are expected to have drive component molecules in the egg, produce progeny with a high frequency of mutations in the targeted genome Sequence, resulting in near-Mendelian inheritance ratios of the transgene. Such mutant alleles result presumably from non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) events before the segregation of somatic and germ-line lineages early in development. These data support the design of this system to be active strictly within the germ line. Strains based on this technology could sustain control and elimination as part of the malaria eradication agenda.

383) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

384) In vitro and in vivo host range of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Barik, Tapan K.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Rasgon, Jason L.
Assunto: Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis; Aedes-Aegypti Mosquitos; Infection; Malaria; Virus; Pathogenesis; Trafficking; Parvovirus; Expression; Nucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential Biological Control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Culex tarsalis). In vitro, efficient viral invasion, replication and GFP expression was only observed in MOS55 An. gambiae cells. In vivo, high levels of GFP were observed in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Intermediate levels of GFP were observed in the closely related species An. arabiensis. Low levels of GFP were observed in An. stephensi, Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. These results suggest that AgDNV is a specific gene transduction tool for members of the An. gambiae species complex, and could be potentially developed into a Biocontrol agent with minimal off-target effects.

385) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Autor: Newton Irene L G, Savytskyy Oleksandr, Sheehan Kathy B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004798, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus - important human pathogens such as Dengue - Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within - transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221/+) - chic(1320/+)) or villin (qua(6-396/+)) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results - cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, - number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies - chic(221) heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype - conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission - maintenance within Drosophila.

386) Emergent Chikungunya virus and arthritis in the Americas
Autor: Rolph Michael S, Foo Suan Sin, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 9, p. 1007-1008, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

387) Development and evaluation of an in-House IgM-Capture ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya and its application to a Dengue outbreak situation in Kenya in 2013
Autor: Wasonga Caroline, Inoue Shingo, Kimotho James, Morita Kouichi, Ongus Juliette, Sang Rosemary, Musila Lillian
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; IgM-capture ELISA; Focus reduction neutralization test; Kenya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 410-414, 2015
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne viral disease. In the 2004 CHIK outbreak in Kenya, diagnosis was delayed because of the lack of accurate diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to develop - evaluate an in-house IgM-capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (in-house ELISA) for the detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections. Anti-CHIKV antibodies were raised in rabbits, purified - conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. These anti-CHIKV antibodies - cell-culture derived antigen were used to develop the ELISA. To validate the in-house ELISA, 148 patient sera from the 2005 Comoros CHIK outbreak were tested with centers for disease control - prevention (CDC) IgM-capture ELISA (CDC ELISA) - focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) as reference assays. The in-house ELISA had a sensitivity of 97.6% - specificity of 81.3% compared to the CDC ELISA - a sensitivity of 91.1% - specificity of 96.7% compared to FRNT. Furthermore, 254 clinically suspected dengue patient samples from Eastern Kenya, collected in 2013, were tested for CHIKV IgM using the in-house ELISA. Out of the 254 samples, 26 (10.2%) were IgM positive, - of these 26 samples, 17 were further analyzed by FRNT - 14 (82.4%) were positive. The in-house ELISA was able to diagnose CHIKV infection among suspected dengue cases in the 2013 outbreak.

388) Eilat virus host range restriction is present at multiple levels of the virus life cycle
Autor: Nasar Farooq, Gorchakov Rodion V, Tesh Robert B, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 2, p. 1404-1418, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne - exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, - nonhuman primates. This ability of most alphaviruses to infect arthropods - vertebrates is essential for their maintenance in nature. Recently, a new alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described, - in contrast to all other mosquito-borne viruses, it is unable to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. Investigations into the nature of its host range restriction showed the inability of genomic EILV RNA to replicate in vertebrate cells. Here, we investigated whether the EILV host range restriction is present at the entry level - further explored the viral factors responsible for the lack of genomic RNA replication. Utilizing Sindbis virus (SINV) - EILV chimeras, we show that the EILV vertebrate host range restriction is also manifested at the entry level. Furthermore, the EILV RNA replication restriction is independent of the 3' untranslated genome region (UTR). Complementation experiments with SINV suggested that RNA replication is restricted by the inability of the EILV nonstructural proteins to form functional replicative complexes. These data demonstrate that the EILV host range restriction is multigenic, involving at least one gene from both nonstructural protein (nsP) - structural protein (sP) open reading frames (ORFs). As EILV groups phylogenetically within the mosquito-borne virus clade of pathogenic alphaviruses, our findings have important evolutionary implications for arboviruses. Our work explores the nature of host range restriction of the first mosquito-only alphavirus," EILV. EILV is related to pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses (Eastern equine encephalitis virus [EEEV], Western equine encephalitis virus [WEEV], Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], - Chikungunya virus [CHIKV]) that cause severe disease in humans. Our data demonstrate that EILV is restricted both at entry - genomic RNA replication levels in vertebrate cells. These findings have important implications for arbovirus evolution - will help elucidate the viral factors responsible for the broad host range of pathogenic mosquito-borne alphaviruses, facilitate vaccine development, - inform potential strategies to reduce/prevent alphavirus transmission."

389) Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 372, n. 13, p. 1231-1239, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

390) High Rate of Subclinical Chikungunya Virus Infection and Association of Neutralizing Antibody with Protection in a Prospective Cohort in The Philippines
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yoon, In-Kyu; Alera, Maria Theresa; Lago, Catherine B.; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Villa, Daisy; Fernandez, Stefan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Klungthong, Chonticha; Levy, Jens W.; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G., Jr.; Salje, Henrik; Macareo, Louis R.; Hermann, Laura L.; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon
Assunto: Aedes-Aegypti; Indian-Ocean; Vaccine; Dengue; Seroprevalence; Outbreak; Fever; Epidemic; Disease; Spread
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.Methods/FindingsA prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects >= 6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by >= 8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer < 10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation and envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) and 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2: 1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12: 1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer >= 10 was associated with 100% (95% CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.ConclusionsSubclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting Vaccine development.

391) Chikungunya: here today, where tomorrow?
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: International Health, v. 7, n. 1, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 1876-3405
Resumo:

392) Eilat virus induces both homologous and heterologous interference
Autor: Nasar Farooq, Erasmus Jesse H, Haddow Andrew D, Tesh Robert B, Weaver Scott C
Assunto: Alphavirus; Eilat virus; Superinfection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Virology, v. 484, p. 51-58, 2015
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne - exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates including birds, rodents, equids, - humans. Occasionally, alphaviruses can spill over into the human population - cause disease characterized by debilitating arthralgia or fatal encephalitis. Recently, a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described that readily infects mosquito but not vertebrate cell lines. Here, we investigated the ability of EILV to induce superinfection exclusion. Prior infection of C7/10 (Aedes albopictus) cells with EILV induced homologous - heterologous interference, reducing the virus titers of heterologous superinfecting viruses (SINV, VEEV, EEEV, WEEV, - CHIKV) by ~10-10,000 fold - delaying replication kinetics by 12-48h. Similar to in vitro infection, prior in vivo EILV infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes delayed dissemination of chikungunya virus for 3 days. This is the first evidence of heterologous interference induced by a mosquito-specific alphavirus in vitro - in vivo.

393) New genetic regulators question relevance of abundant yolk protein production in C. elegans
Autor: Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Borghgraef, Charline; Beets, Isabel; Caers, Jelle; Temmerman, Liesbet
Assunto: Nuclear hormone receptor; Caenorhabditis elegans; Life span; Reproductive development; Vitellogenin receptors; Larval development; RNA interference; Homeobox genes; Aedes aegypti; Pest control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Vitellogenesis or maternal yolk formation is considered critical to the reproduction of egg-laying animals. In invertebrates, however, most of its regulatory genes are still unknown. Via a combined mapping and whole-genome sequencing strategy, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate novel regulators of yolk production in the nematode model system Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to isolating new alleles of rab-35, rab-10 and M04F3.2, we identified five mutant alleles corresponding to three novel regulatory genes potently suppressing the expression of a GFP-based yolk reporter. We confirmed that mutations in vrp-1, ceh-60 and lrp-2 disrupt endogenous yolk protein synthesis at the transcriptional and translational level. In contrast to current beliefs, our discovered set of mutants with strongly reduced yolk proteins did not show serious reproduction defects. This raises questions as to whether yolk proteins per se are needed for ultimate reproductive success.

394) In-depth characterization of trypsin-like serine peptidases in the midgut of the sugar fed Culex quinquefasciatus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Borges-Veloso, Andre; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Domont, Gilberto B.; Britto, Constanca; Cuervo, Patricia; De Jesus, Jose B.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Trypsin-like serine peptidases; Zymography; Mass spectrometry
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Culex quinquefasciatus is a hematophagous insect from the Culicidae family that feeds on the blood of humans, dogs, birds and livestock. This species transmits a wide variety of pathogens between humans and animals. The midgut environment is the first location of pathogen-vector interactions for blood-feeding mosquitoes and the expression of specific peptidases in the early stages of feeding could influence the outcome of the infection. Trypsin-like serine peptidases belong to a multi-gene family that can be expressed in different isoforms under distinct physiological conditions. However, the confident assignment of the trypsin genes that are expressed under each condition is still a challenge due to the large number of trypsin-coding genes in the Culicidae family and most likely because they are low abundance proteins.Methods: We used zymography for the biochemical characterization of the peptidase profile of the midgut from C. quinquefasciatus females fed on sugar. Protein samples were also submitted to SDS-PAGE followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for peptidase identification. The peptidases Sequences were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to assess their distinct features.Results: Zymography revealed that trypsin-like serine peptidases were responsible for the proteolytic activity in the midgut of females fed on sugar diet. After denaturation in SDS-PAGE, eight trypsin-like serine peptidases were identified by LC-MS/MS. These peptidases have structural features typical of invertebrate digestive trypsin peptidases but exhibited singularities at the protein Sequence level such as: the presence of different amino acids at the autocatalytic motif and substrate binding regions as well as different number of disulfide bounds. Data mining revealed a group of trypsin-like serine peptidases that are specific to C. quinquefasciatus when compared to the culicids genomes Sequenced so far.Conclusion: We demonstrated that proteomics approaches combined with bioinformatics tools and zymographic analysis can lead to the functional annotation of trypsin-like serine peptidases coding genes and aid in the understanding of the complexity of peptidase expression in mosquitoes.

395) Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant aged ?2 years: an open-label study.
Autor: Cordonnier Catherine; Ljungman Per; Juergens Christine; Maertens Johan; Selleslag Dominik; Sundaraiyer Vani; Giardina Peter C.; Clarke Keri; Gruber William C.; Scott Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma Beate
Assunto: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, v. 61, n. 3, p. 313-323, 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: Life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections often occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); vaccination is important for prevention. In an open-label study, patients (n = 251) 3-6 months after allogeneic HSCT received 3 doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at 1-month intervals, a fourth dose 6 months later, and 1 dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 1 month later. Immunogenicity at prespecified time points and vaccine safety were assessed. In the evaluable immunogenicity population (N = 216; mean age, 37.8 years), geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations from baseline to postdose 3 showed significant increases in antibody levels across all PCV13 serotypes (GMFR range, 2.99-23.85; 95% confidence interval lower limit, >1); there were significant declines over the next 6 months, significant increases from predose 4 to postdose 4 (GMFR range, 3.00-6.97), and little change after PPSV23 (GMFR range, 0.86-1.12). Local and systemic reactions were more frequent after dose 4. Six patients experienced serious adverse events possibly related to PCV13 (facial diplegia, injection-site erythema and pyrexia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and suspected lack of vaccine efficacy after dose 3 leading to pneumococcal infection), PCV13 and PPSV23 (Guillain-Barré syndrome), or PPSV23 (cellulitis). There were 14 deaths, none related to study vaccines. A 3-dose PCV13 regimen followed by a booster dose may be required to protect against pneumococcal disease in HSCT recipients. Dose 4 was associated with increased local and systemic reactions, but the overall safety profile of a 4-dose regimen was considered acceptable. NCT00980655.

396) Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Overcash, Justin M.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Gene editing; TALEN; CRISPR; DNA repair
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Chromosome Research, v. 23, n. 1, p. 31-42, 2015
ISSN: 0967-3849
Resumo: Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes.

397) Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, first-in-man trial
Autor: Ramsauer Katrin, Schwameis Michael, Firbas Christa, Müllner Matthias, Putnak Robert J, Thomas Stephen J, Desprès Philippe, Tauber Erich, Jilma Bernd, Tangy Frederic
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 519-527, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA - Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity - safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a r-omised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men - women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were r-omly assigned, by computer-generated block r-omisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-r-omised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants - study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat - per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, - Feb 25, 2014, we r-omly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The c-idate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, - 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the c-idate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the c-idate vaccine groups. The c-idate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, - the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose - volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, - had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH.

398) IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Qian, Cen; Fu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Sun, Yu; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Bombyx Mandarina; Vitellogenin Receptor; Expression; Tissue Distribution; Rnai
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 89, n. 4, p. 181-192, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid Sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain Sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni-NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1: 12,800 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT-qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR-related genes (Vg, egg-specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

399) Detection of Chikungunya virus in Nepal
Autor: P-ey Basu Dev, Neupane Biswas, Pandey Kishor, Tun Mya Myat Ngwe, Morita Kouichi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 4, p. 697-700, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphaviral disease - a public health problem in South Asia including Nepal in recent years. In this study, sera were collected from patients presenting with fever, headache, muscular pain, fatigue, - joint pain of both upper - lower extremities. A total of 169 serum samples were tested for CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) by using Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method during August to November 2013. Results showed that 3.6% - 27.8% samples were positive for CHIKV - DENV IgM positive, respectively. Similarly, results of IgG showed 3.0% samples were positive for CHIKV IgG - 29.0% were for DENV IgG positive. Further, a 50% focal reduction neutralization test (FRNT50) was performed to confirm the presence of CHIKV, which demonstrated that 8.9% of CHIKV IgM -/or IgG ELISA positive possessed neutralizing anti-CHIK antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which the presence of CHIKV is confirmed in Nepalese patients by FRNT50. Basic scientists - clinicians need to consider CHIKV as a differential diagnosis in febrile Nepalese patients, - policy makers should consider appropriate surveillance - actions for control strategies.

400) Functional characterization of five different PRXamide receptors of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with peptidomimetics and identification of agonists and antagonists
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Park, Yoonseong
Assunto: GPCR; Pyrokinin; CAPA; PBAN; ETH; pharmacology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis
Fonte: Peptides, v. 68, p. 246-252, 2015
ISSN: 0196-9781
Resumo: The neuropeptidergic system in insects is an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized five different G protein-coupled receptors in a phylogenetic cluster, containing receptors for PRXamide in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, by evaluating a series of 70 different Peptides and peptidomimetics. Three pyrokinin receptors (TcPKr-A, -B, and -C), cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (TcCAPAr) and ecdysis triggering hormone receptor (TcETHr) were included in the study. Strong agonistic or antagonistic peptidomimetics were identified, and included beta-proline (beta P-3) modification of the core amino acid residue proline and also a cyclo-peptide. It is common for a ligand to act on multiple receptors. In a number of cases, a ligand acting as an agonist on one receptor was an efficient antagonist on another receptor, suggesting complex outcomes of a peptidomimetic in a biological system. Interestingly, TcPK-A was highly promiscuous with a high number of agonists, while TcPK-C and TcCAPAr had a lower number of agonists, but a higher number of compounds acting as an antagonist. This observation suggests that a target GPCR with more promiscuity will provide better success for peptidomimetic approaches. This study is the first description of peptidomimetics on a CAPA receptor and resulted in the identification of peptidomimetic analogs that demonstrate antagonism of CAPA ligands. The PRXamide receptor assays with peptidomimetics provide useful insights into the biochemical properties of receptors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

401) New and Common Haplotypes Shape Genetic Diversity in Asian Tiger Mosquito Populations from Costa Rica and Panama
Autor: Futami, K.; Valderrama, A.; Baldi, M.; Minakawa, N.; Marin Rodriguez, R.; Chaves, L. F.
Assunto: Mitochodrial COI; ND5; Aedes albopictus ; Invasive species; Dengue vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA
Fonte: Journal of Economic Entomology, v. 108, n. 2, p. 761-768, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0493
Resumo: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panama and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (similar to 558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panama'. In contrast, a long COI sequence (similar to 1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (+/- SD) was relatively high in CR (0.72 +/- 0.04) when compared with Panama' (0.33 +/- 0.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.89 +/- 0.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panama'. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panama' belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panama' and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (K-st = 1.33; P < 0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panama

402) Frizzled 2 is a key component in the regulation of TOR signaling-mediated egg production in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weng, Shih-Che; Shiao, Shin-Hong
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vitellogenesis; TOR; Wnt; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 61, n. , p. 17-24, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: The Wnt signaling pathway was first discovered as a key event in embryonic development and cell polarity in Drosophila. Recently, several reports have shown that Wnt stimulates translation and cell growth by activating the mTOR pathway in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway plays an important role in mosquito vitellogenesis. However, the interactions between these two pathways are poorly understood in the mosquito. In this study, we hypothesized that factors from the TOR and Wnt signaling pathways interacted synergistically in mosquito vitellogenesis. Our results showed that silencing Aedes aegypti Frizzled 2 (AaFz2), a transmembrane receptor of the Wnt signaling pathway, decreased the fecundity of mosquitoes. We showed that AaFz2 was highly expressed at the transcriptional and translational levels in the female mosquito 6 h after a blood meal, indicating amino acid-stimulated expression of AaFz2. Notably, the phosphorylation of S6K, a downstream target of the TOR pathway, and the expression of vitellogenin were inhibited in the absence of AaFz2. A direct link was found in this study between Wnt and TOR signaling in the regulation of mosquito reproduction. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

403) A vaccine against an explosively spreading virus
Autor: Cassone Antonio
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 2, p. 43, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7732
Resumo:

404) Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma
Assunto: Setaria cervi; Protein tyrosine phosphatase; MALDI-MS/MS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4267-4279, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its Peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 A degrees C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-l-tyrosine and O-P-l-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis.

405) Therapeutics and vaccines against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Ahola Tero, Courderc Therese, Ng Lisa F P, Hallengärd David, Powers Ann, Lecuit Marc, Esteban Mariano, Merits Andres, Roques Pierre, Liljeström Peter
Assunto: Antibodies; Antiviral; Attenuated virus; Chikungunya; DNA chimeric viruses; Polymerase; Protease; Vaccine; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 250-257, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 - Kaur - Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.

406) Increase in tolerance of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) to the insecticide temephos after exposure to atrazine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacquet, M.; Tilquin, M.; Ravanel, P.; Boyer, S.
Assunto: Mosquito; Temephos; Atrazine; Aedes Aegypti; Resistance; Pesticide Interactions
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 110-119, 2015
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya viruses. Pre-exposure of Ae. aegypti larvae to the herbicide atrazine significantly reduced their sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide temephos. Mosquito larvae pre-exposed for 48 h to non-lethal concentrations of atrazine ranging from 1 to 10 mu g/l commonly encountered in the field, appeared slightly less sensitive to temephos than non-pre-exposed larvae. The effect of a pre-exposure to atrazine on larval tolerance to temephos did not seem to be related to an induction of detoxification processes by this herbicide. Noimportant increase in glutathione transferase, or alpha- and beta-esterase activities was observed in pre-exposed larvae, while P450 monooxygenase activities increased.

407) Zika virus ,2015
Autor: Shapshak P., Somboonwit C., Foley B.T., Alrabaa S.F., Wills T., Sinnott J.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus; Dengue Virus; Emerging Virus; Flavivirus; Global Warming; Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Mosquito; Social Mobility; Tick; Urbanization; Vector; West Nile Virus; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 477-500,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Zika virus is an arbovirus in the Flavivirus family that includes yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was discovered in a sentinel monkey in Uganda in 1947. Subsequently, this virus was detected over the years in Africa and Asia. Human-to-human transmission of Zika virus was described in the USA, from a scientist who contracted the infection in Senegal in2008. Zika virus is an emerging pathogen and the point of this review is to highlight its epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular biology. The detection of Zika virus demonstrates association with the other related viruses that are more pathogenic. Although Zika virus is a relatively non-lethal virus, it is potentially dangerous as it is genetically related to more virulent and perilous viruses: e.g., yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. It could conceivably mutate into a more pathogenic form. Under the current conditions of emergent viruses, human behaviors, modern technology, mobile society, urbanization, and global climate changes, we suggest continued monitoring of Zika virus because of the dangers posed by the members of the virulent virus group to which it is related. © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

408) Association of FCGR2A p.R131H - CCL2 c.-2518 A>G gene variants with thrombocytopenia in patients with dengue virus infection
Autor: Alagarasu Kalichamy, Bachal Rupali V, Damle Indraneel, Shah Paresh S, Cecilia Dayaraj
Assunto: CCL2; Dengue; Dengue fever; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; FCGR2A; Gene polymorphisms; Thrombocytopenia
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Human Immunology, v. 76, n. 11, p. 819-822, 2015
ISSN: 1879-1166
Resumo: FCGR2A - CCL2 gene variants are important in dengue pathogenesis - were investigated in 122 dengue patients (DENs) [89 dengue fever (DF) - 33 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)] - 107 healthy controls (HCs) to find out their association with severity of dengue. Genotype frequencies of FCGR2A p.R131H - CCL2 c.-2518 A > G polymorphisms were not different between DF, DHF - HC. Significantly higher frequency of R/R genotype of FCGR2A p.R131H was observed in DEN cases with thrombocytopenia (TP) while the G/G genotype of CCL2 c.-2518 A > G was observed only in DEN cases with TP (p < 0.005). These results suggest that FCGR2A - CCL2 gene variants were associated with the risk of TP in dengue infections.

409) The impact of wolbachia on virus infection in mosquitoes
Autor: Johnson Karyn N
Assunto: Drosophila; Wolbachia; Antiviral effects; Antiviral protection; Arbovirus; Insect virus; Mosquito; Symbiosis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 11, p. 5705-5717, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile - chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity - mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection - transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species - the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally - artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

410) Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Aging; Anopheles Stephensi; Insulin Signaling; Vitellogenin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Faseb Journal, v. 29, n. 4, p. 1404-1413, 2015
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.

411) A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment
Autor: Hasan Md Anayet, Khan Md Arif, Datta Amit, Mazumder Md Habibul Hasan, Hossain Mohammad Uzzal
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; HLA; Inhibitor; Pharmacophore study; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteome ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 65, n. 1, p. 189-204, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever - devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks - lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics - docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database - perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral - cell-mediated immunity by T cell - B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 - the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell - T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs - showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation - verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites - suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing - target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro - in vivo experiments.

412) Effective cutaneous vaccination using an inactivated Chikungunya virus vaccine delivered by Foroderm
Autor: Rudd Penny A, Raphael Anthony P, Yamada Miko, Nufer Kaitlin L, Gardner Joy, Le Thuy T T, Prow Natalie A, Dang Nhung, Schroder Wayne A, Prow Tarl W, Suhrbier Andreas
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Cutaneous vaccination; Foroderm; Vaccine delivery
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 39, p. 5172-5180, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Foroderm is a new cutaneous delivery technology that uses high-aspect ratio, cylindrical silica microparticles, that are massaged into the skin using a 3D-printed microtextured applicator, in order to deliver payloads across the epidermis. Herein we show that this technology is effective for delivery of a non-adjuvanted, inactivated, whole-virus chikungunya virus vaccine in mice, with minimal post-vaccination skin reactions. A single topical Foroderm-based vaccination induced T cell, Th1 cytokine - antibody responses, which provided complete protection against viraemia - disease after challenge with chikungunya virus. Foroderm vaccination was shown to deliver fluorescent, virus-sized beads across the epidermis, with beads subsequently detected in draining lymph nodes. Foroderm vaccination also stimulated the egress of MHC II(+) antigen presenting cells from the skin. Foroderm thus has potential as a simple, cheap, effective, generic, needle-free technology for topical delivery of vaccines.

413) The potential for the establishment of new arbovirus transmission cycles in Europe
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Arbovirus; Europe
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 9, p. 543-544, 2015
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses are an increasing health threat to humans, - potentially other vertebrates, in areas where they have not previously existed or from which they had been eradicated. Chikungunya virus emergence exemplifies how multiple factors can act synergistically resulting in rapid, large-scale redistribution - establishment. Despite our increased capacity to collect - analyze large amounts of data, we still lack epidemiological models to facilitate accurate predictions of when - where new diseases may occur. Models focusing on climate changes may have long-term value; however, there is an urgent need for mathematical modeling of viral epidemiology to enable forecasting immediate or near-term threats.

414) High seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus antibodies among pregnant women living in an urban area in Benin, West Africa
Autor: Bacci Anastasia, Marchi Serena, Fievet Nadine, Massougbodji Achille, Perrin Renè Xavier, Chippaux Jean-Philippe, Sambri Vittorio, Landini Maria Paola, Varani Stefania, Rossini Giada
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 6, p. 1133-1136, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antichikungunya virus (anti-CHIKV) antibodies in pregnant women living in an urban area of Benin (West Africa). Results were obtained by screening sera collected in 2006 - 2007 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin G (IgG) - IgM. Positive results were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test - microneutralization assay. We found that a large proportion (36.1%) of pregnant women living in Cotonou had specific IgG against CHIKV, indicating a high seroprevalence of the infection in urban southern Benin, whereas no active cases of CHIKV infection were detected.

415) Neuroborreliosis: the Guillain-Barré mimicker.
Autor: Tyagi Niharika; Maheswaran Tim; Wimalaratna Sunil
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serology
Fonte: BMJ Case Reports, 2015
ISSN: 1757-790X
Resumo: A 34-year-old woman presented to the medical admissions unit with progressive ascending weakness of her limbs and areflexia. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected and she was started on intravenous immunoglobulins. Owing to a poor initial response, further exploratory history revealed travel to the New Forest and a possible tick bite; subsequent investigations confirmed positive serology for antibodies against Borrelia. The patient's weakness improved with intravenous ceftriaxone for neuroborreliosis, a manifestation of Lyme disease. With inpatient neurorehabilitation, she made good recovery and was able to mobilise with a stick from being completely bed bound 6 weeks after completion of her antibiotics.

416) How do hosts react to endosymbionts? A new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the Wolbachia-host association
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhang, Y. -K.; Ding, X. -L.; Rong, X.; Hong, X. -Y.
Assunto: Two-Spotted Spider Mite; Wolbachia; Transcriptome Sequencing; Gene Expression
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 1-12, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Wolbachia is an intracellular bacterium that has aroused intense interest because of its ability to alter the biology of its host in diverse ways. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, Wolbachia can induce complex cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenotypes and fitness changes, although little is known about the mechanisms. In the present study, we selected a strain of T.urticae, in which Wolbachia infection was associated with strong CI and enhanced female fecundity, to investigate changes in the transcriptome of T.urticae in Wolbachia-infected vs. uninfected lines. The responses were found to be sex-specific, with the transcription of 251 genes being affected in females and 171 genes being affected in males. Some of the more profoundly affected genes in both sexes were lipocalin genes and genes involved in oxidation reduction, digestion and detoxification. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential roles in reproduction. Interestingly, unlike certain Wolbachia transinfections in novel hosts, the Wolbachia-host association in the present study showed no clear evidence of host immune priming by Wolbachia, although a few potential immune genes were affected.

417) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

418) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

419) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

420) Tree holes as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in urban, suburban and forest habitats in a dengue affected area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mangudo, C.; Aparicio, J. P.; Gleiser, R. M.
Assunto: Culicidae; Landscape; Phytotelmata; Population ecology; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 679-684, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue and urban yellow fever in the world, is highly adapted to the human environment. Artificial containers are the most common larval habitat for the species, but it may develop in tree holes and other phytotelmata. This study assessed whether tree holes in San Ramon de la Nueva Oran, a city located in subtropical montane moist forest where dengue outbreaks occur, are relevant as larval habitat for Ae. aegypti and if the species may be found in natural areas far from human habitations. Water holding tree holes were sampled during 3 years once a month along the rainy season using a siphon bottle, in urban and suburban sites within the city and in adjacent forested areas. Larvae and pupae were collected and the presence and volume of water in each tree hole were recorded. Finding Ae. aegypti in forested areas was an isolated event; however, the species was frequently collected from tree holes throughout the city and along the sampling period. Moreover, larvae were collected in considerably high numbers, stressing the importance of taking into account these natural cavities as potential reinfestation foci within dengue control framework.

421) The phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine receptor CD300a binds Dengue virus and enhances infection
Autor: Carnec Xavier, Meertens Laurent, Dejarnac Ophélie, Perera-Lecoin Manuel, Hafirassou Mohamed Lamine, Kitaura Jiro, Ramdasi Rasika, Schwartz Olivier, Amara Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 92-102, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM - TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles - enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus - Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages - anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth - PtdSer present on virions - enhance infection. Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans - is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM - TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells - mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a-dependent DENV infection relies on the direct recognition of phosphatidylethanolamine - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms that mediate DENV entry - reinforce the concept that DENV uses an apoptotic mimicry strategy for viral entry.

422) Early events in Chikungunya virus infection-from virus cellbinding to membrane fusion
Autor: van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Hoornweg Tabitha E, Rodenhuis-Zybert Izabela A, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Cell tropism; Clathrin; Endocytosis; Entry; Entry inhibitors; Fusion; Neutralizing antibodies; Receptor
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 7, p. 3647-3674, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical - subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia - arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion - review the molecules - compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry - to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

423) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior Vitor Laerte, Luz Kleber, Parreira Ricardo, Ferrinho Paulo
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae Infections
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Me?dica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus - West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Ug-a, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries - at the end of the 70's in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia - other isl-s in the Pacific Ocean - more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a 'dengue-like' syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever - an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths - complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG - IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus - its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses whichimposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis - healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue - chikungunya which are based in health education - vector control.

424) Increased production of piRNAs from euchromatic clusters and genes in Anopheles gambiae compared with Drosophila melanogaster
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: George, Phillip; Jensen, Silke; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Lee, Jiyoung; Xing, Yi; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal; Sharakhov, Igor V.
Assunto: Anopheles gambiae; Development; Drosophila melanogaster; Euchromatin; Germline; Heterochromatin; piRNA clusters; Reproduction; Small RNAs; Transposable element
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Epigenetics & Chromatin, v. 8, n. 50, 2015
ISSN: 1756-8935
Resumo: Specific genomic loci, termed Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) clusters, manufacture piRNAs that serve as guides for the inactivation of complementary transposable elements (TEs). The piRNA pathway has been accurately detailed in Drosophila melanogaster, while it remains poorly examined in other insects. This pathway is increasingly recognized as critical for germline development and reproduction. Understanding of the piRNA functions in mosquitoes could offer an opportunity for disease vector control by the reduction of their reproductive potential.Results: To analyze the similarities and differences in this pathway between Drosophila and mosquito, we performed an in-depth analysis of the genomic loci producing piRNAs and their targets in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. We identified 187 piRNA clusters in the An. gambiae genome and 155 piRNA clusters in the D. melanogaster genome. We demonstrate that many more piRNA clusters in the mosquito compared with the fruit fly are uni-directionally transcribed and are located outside pericentromeric heterochromatin. About 11 % of the An. gambiae piRNA population map to gene transcripts. This is a noticeable increase compared with the similar to 6 % of the piRNA population mapped to genes in D. melanogaster. A subset of the piRNA-enriched genes in An. gambiae has functions related to reproduction and development. At least 24 and 65 % of the mapped piRNAs correspond to genomic TE Sequences in An. gambiae and D. melanogaster, respectively. DNA transposons and non-LTR retrotransposons are more abundant in An. gambiae, while LTR retrotransposons are more abundant in D. melanogaster. Yet, piRNAs predominantly target LTR retrotransposons in both species, which may point to a distinct feature of these elements compared to the other classes of TEs concerning their silencing by the piRNA pathway.Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate that piRNA-producing loci have more ubiquitous distribution in the An. gambiae genome than in the genome of D. melanogaster. Also, protein-coding genes have an increased role in production of piRNAs in the germline of this mosquito. Genes involved in germline and embryonic development of An. gambiae generate a substantial portion of piRNAs, suggesting a role of the piRNA pathway in the epigenetic regulation of the reproductive processes in the African malaria vector.

425) Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Circadian Clock Timeless Gene in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pablo Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram; Karina Villanueva-Segura, Olga; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Elizabeth Flores-Suarez, Adriana; de Lourdes Garza-Rodriguez, Maria; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Elia Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura; Canales del Castillo, Ricardo; Favela-Lara, Susana; Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; Lugo-Trampe, Angel; del Carmen Trujillo-Murillo, Karina; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ignacio Gonzalez-Rojas, Jose; Alberto Barrera-Saldana, Hugo; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo
Assunto: Anopheles-Gambiae; Aedes-Aegypti; Rhythmic Expression; Drosophila-Period; Biological Clocks; Species Complex; Genome Sequence; Flies; Transcription; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 53-70, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: In eukaryotes, the timeless (TIM) gene plays a fundamental role in the control of the circadian clock by regulating several biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes. RT-PCR was used to amplify TIM mRNA from larval southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, from three locations in the State of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico. The 3062 bp TIM cDNA was assembled from three overlapping PCRs that were cloned and Sequenced. DNA Sequence analysis used amplified cDNA fragments to complete coding the DNA Sequence (2991 bp). Tim ORF consisting of 996 codons was shorter than the orthologous genes from other mosquito species. A series of deletions in the core Sequence of TIM were detected. No other amplification products were visualized, and thus, the possibility of alternative spliced mRNA species was discarded. Because TIM is a widely conserved gene in eukaryotes, and maintaining colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus is easy, determining the Sequence of the TIM gene in the mosquito provides the possibility of its use as a model for circadian clock experimentation.

426) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of chikungunya pathogenesis
Autor: Lum Fok-Moon, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immune response; Immunopathogenesis; Pathology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 165-174, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that causes chikungunya fever, a disease characterized by the onset of fever - rashes, with arthralgia as its hallmark symptom. CHIKV has re-emerged over the past decade, causing numerous outbreaks around the world. Since late 2013, CHIKV has reached the shores of the Americas, causing more than a million cases of infection. Despite concentrated efforts to underst- the pathogenesis of the disease, further outbreaks remain a threat. This review highlights important findings regarding CHIKV-associated immunopathogenesis - offers important insights into future directions. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

427) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

428) Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Terezinha M.; Bezerra Menezes, Erika S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo V.; Filho, Luiz Carlos P. Almeida; Martins, Jorge M.; Moreno, Frederico B.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O.; Araripe Moura, Arlindo A.; Urano Carvalho, Ana F.
Assunto: Comparative proteomics; Detoxification; Natural insecticide; m-Pentadecadienyl-phenol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteome ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 152, p. 49-55, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24 h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

429) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

430) East/Central/South African genotype Chikungunya virus, Brazil, 2014
Autor: Teixeira Maria G, Andrade Alcina M S, Costa Maria da Conceição N, Castro JesuA-Na S M, Oliveira Francisca L S, Goes Cristina S B, Maia Maricelia, Santana Eloisa B, Nunes Bruno T D, Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto: African genotype; Brazil; Chikungunya virus; Alphaviruses; Arboviruses; Vector-borne infections; Viruses; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 906-907, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

431) Dengue hemorrhagic fever at 60 years: Early evolution of concepts of causation and treatment
Autor: Halstead Scott B, Cohen Sanford N
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, v. 79, n. 3, p. 281-291, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5557
Resumo: During the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever - dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), was described by collaborative research performed by Thai scientists from many institutions - by workers at the U.S. Army's SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thail-. Careful clinical - physiological studies provided the initial description of DSS. DSS cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) - not chikungunya (CHIK) virus or DENV 5 - 6, were associated with a secondary-type dengue antibody response in children over the age of 1 year, were associated with a primary antibody response in infants less than 1 year old whose mothers had neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV, were associated more frequently with secondary DENV 2 infections than those due to DENV 1 - 3, - were more common in females than males over the age of 3 years. Robust laboratory methods for growth - recovery of DENV in tissue cultures were introduced. In addition, life-saving principles of fluid - plasma protein resuscitation of hypovolemia were described. Most epidemiological observations made during the decade of the 1960s have been confirmed in the succeeding 45 years. Much contemporary research on pathogenesis fails to address the two distinct immunological antecedents of DHF/DSS.

432) Functional characterization of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Drake, Lisa L.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Hansen, Immo A.
Assunto: Water Channel; Molecular Characterization; Trehalose Transporter; Clinical Medicine; Anopheles-Gambiae; Bombyx-Mori; Big-Brain; Fat-Body; Glycerol; Insect
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. 7795, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: After taking vertebrate blood, female mosquitoes quickly shed excess water and ions while retaining and concentrating the mostly proteinaceous nutrients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are an Evolutionary conserved family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the flow of water and in some cases glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes. In a previous study, we found six putative AQP genes in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Ae. aegypti, and demonstrated the involvement of three of them in the blood meal-induced diuresis. Here we characterized AQP expression in different tissues before and after a blood meal, explored the substrate specificity of AQPs expressed in the Malpighian tubules and performed RNAi-mediated knockdown and tested for changes in mosquito desiccation resistance. We found that AQPs are generally down-regulated 24 hrs after a blood meal. Ae. aegypti AQP 1 strictly transports water, AQP 2 and 5 demonstrate limited solute transport, but primarily function as water transporters. AQP 4 is an aquaglyceroporin with multiple substrates. Knockdown of AQPs expressed in the MTs increased survival of Ae. aegypti under dry conditions. We conclude that Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes utilize three distinct AQPs and one aquaglyceroporin in their osmoregulatory functions.

433) Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral
Autor: Vilibic-Cavlek Tatjana, Pem-Novosel Iva, Kaic Bernard, Babi?-Erceg Andrea, Kucinar Jasmina, Klobucar Ana, Medic Alan, Pahor Djana, Barac-Juretic Katija, Gjenero-Margan Ira
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Croatia; Entomology; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica, v. 62, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1217-8950
Resumo: During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from r-omly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) - only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

434) Global transcriptional dynamics of diapause induction in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Aedes albopictus
Autor: Huang Xin, Poelchau Monica F, Armbruster Peter A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003724, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a vector of increasing public health concern due to its rapid global range expansion - ability to transmit Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus - a wide range of additional arboviruses. Traditional vector control strategies have been largely ineffective against Ae. albopictus - novel approaches are urgently needed. Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial ecological adaptation in a wide range of temperate insects. Therefore, targeting the molecular regulation of photoperiodic diapause or diapause-associated physiological processes could provide the basis of novel approaches to vector control. We investigated the global transcriptional profiles of diapause induction in Ae. albopictus by performing paired-end RNA-Seq of biologically replicated libraries. We sequenced RNA from whole bodies of adult females reared under diapause-inducing - non-diapause-inducing photoperiods either with or without a blood meal. We constructed a comprehensive transcriptome assembly that incorporated previous assemblies - represents over 14,000 annotated dipteran gene models. Mapping of sequence reads to the transcriptome identified differential expression of 2,251 genes in response to diapause-inducing short-day photoperiods. In non-blood-fed females, potential regulatory elements of diapause induction were transcriptionally up-regulated, including two of the canonical circadian clock genes, timeless - cryptochrome 1. In blood-fed females, genes in metabolic pathways related to energy production - offspring provisioning were differentially expressed under diapause-inducing conditions, including the oxidative phosphorylation pathway - lipid metabolism genes. This study is the first to utilize powerful RNA-Seq technologies to elucidate the transcriptional basis of diapause induction in any insect. We identified c-idate genes - pathways regulating diapause induction, including a conserved set of genes that are differentially expressed as part of the diapause program in a diverse group of insects. These genes provide c-idates whose diapause-associated function can be further interrogated using functional genomics approaches in Ae. albopictus - other insects.

435) Relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome, influenza-related hospitalizations, and influenza vaccine coverage
Autor: Iqbal Shahed,Li Rongxia,Gargiullo Paul,Vellozzi Claudia
Assunto: Epidemiology; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Influenza; Influenza vaccine; Vaccine safety; Vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 17, p. 2045-2049, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Some studies reported an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within six weeks of influenza vaccination. It has also been suggested that this finding could have been confounded by influenza illnesses. We explored the complex relationship between influenza illness, influenza vaccination, and GBS, from an ecologic perspective using nationally representative data. We also studied seasonal patterns for GBS hospitalizations. Monthly hospitalization data (2000-2009) for GBS, and pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were included. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage for 2004-2005 through the 2008-2009 influenza seasons (August-May) was estimated from the National Health Interview Survey data. GBS seasonality was determined using Poisson regression. GBS and P&I temporal clusters were identified using scan statistics. The association between P&I and GBS hospitalizations in the same month (concurrent) or in the following month (lagged) were determined using negative binomial regression. Vaccine coverage increased over the years (from 19.7% during 2004-2005 to 35.5% during 2008-2009 season) but GBS hospitalization did not follow a similar pattern. Overall, a significant correlation between monthly P&I and GBS hospitalizations was observed (Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.7016, p<0.0001). A significant (p=0.001) cluster of P&I hospitalizations during December 2004-March 2005 overlapped a significant (p=0.001) cluster of GBS hospitalizations during January 2005-February 2005. After accounting for effects of monthly vaccine coverage and age, P&I hospitalization was significantly associated (p<0.0001) with GBS hospitalization in the concurrent month but not with GBS hospitalization in the following month. Monthly vaccine coverage was not associated with GBS hospitalization in adjusted models (both concurrent and lagged). GBS hospitalizations demonstrated a seasonal pattern with winter months having higher rates compared to the month of June. P&I hospitalization rates were significantly correlated with hospitalization rates for GBS. Vaccine coverage did not significantly affect the rates of GBS hospitalization at the population level.

436) Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic
Autor: Desdouits Marion, Kamgang Basile, Berthet Nicolas, Tricou Vianney, Ngoagouni Carine, Gessain Antoine, Manuguerra Jean-Claude, Nakouné Emmanuel, Kazanji Mirdad
Assunto: Central African Republic, Chikungunya virus, Genetic variability
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 33, p. 25-31, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia - Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity - background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 - 1984 - also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human - vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

437) Chikungunya on the move
Autor: Johansson Michael A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 31, n. 2, p. 43-45, 2015
ISSN: 1471-5007
Resumo: In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected - confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning - that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon.

438) Innate Antiviral Immunity against Dengue Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Makhluf, Huda; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Interferon; STAT1; STAT2; IRF; ISG
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Critical Reviews in Immunology, v. 35, n. 3, p. 253-260, 2015
ISSN: 1040-8401
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans worldwide, causes dengue fever, a mild form of the disease, as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, a more severe form which can be life-threatening. The four serotypes of DENV (DENV1-4) are positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Together, they are estimated to cause almost 100 million symptomatic cases, 2.1 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, and 21,000 deaths per year worldwide. There are currently no effective Vaccines or antiviral treatment for DENV. Innate immune defenses play a key role in controlling DENV infection in the early stages. Herein we review the innate antiviral immunity against DENV by delineating the intracellular mechanisms of the immune response and the evasion mechanisms evolved by the virus. A better understanding of the innate immune response will impact the development of novel animal models, antiviral drugs as well as potential targeted adjuvants for DENV Vaccines.

439) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

440) Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kistler, Kathryn E.; Vosshall, Leslie B.; Matthews, Benjamin J.
Assunto: Germ-Line Transformation; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Zinc-Finger Nucleases; Homing Endonucleases; Drosophila; Vector; Cas9; Specificity; Discovery; Sequence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Cell Reports, v. 11, n. 1, p. 51-60, 2015
ISSN: 2211-1247
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a potent vector of the chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, responsible for hundreds of millions of infections and over 50,000 human deaths per year. Mutagenesis in Ae. aegypti has been established with TALENs, ZFNs, and homing endonucleases, which require the engineering of DNA-binding protein domains to provide genomic target Sequence specificity. Here, we describe the use of the CRISPRCas9 system to generate site-specific mutations in Ae. aegypti. This system relies on RNA-DNA basepairing to generate targeting specificity, resulting in efficient and flexible genome-editing reagents. We investigate the efficiency of injection mix compositions, demonstrate the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate different types of mutations via disparate repair mechanisms, and report stable germline mutations in several genomic loci. This work offers a detailed exploration into the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in Ae. aegypti that should be applicable to nonmodel organisms previously out of reach of genetic modification.

441) Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia
Autor: Aguirre-Obando, Oscar A.; Dalla Bona, Ana C.; Duque L., Jonny E.; Navarro-Silva, Mário A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Bioassays; Insecticides; Genetic isolation; Pest control; Public health; Haplotypes; Gene flow; Mitochondria; Genetic diversity; Vaccines; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Zoologia, v. 32, n. 1, p. 14-22, 2015.
ISSN: 1984-4670
Resumo: Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca and Montenegro) were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca, Montenegro and Barcelona). Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% plus or minus 2) and Calarca (62% plus or minus 14), and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% plus or minus 8). The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro) to 6.0 (Calarca). The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val) and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile). The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindio is required.

442) Global protein profiling studies of Chikungunya virus infection identify different proteins but common biological processes
Autor: Smith Duncan R
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Reviews in Medical Virology, v. 25, n. 1, p. 3-18, 2015
ISSN: 1099-1654
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) caused by the mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) swept into international prominence from late 2005 as an epidemic of CHIKF spread around countries surrounding the Indian Ocean. Although significant advances have been made in underst-ing the pathobiology of CHIKF, numerous questions still remain. In the absence of commercially available specific drugs to treat the disease, or a vaccine to prevent the diseases, the questions have particular significance. A number of studies have used global proteome analysis to increase our underst-ing of the process of CHIKV infection using a number of different experimental techniques - experimental systems. In all, over 700 proteins have been identified in nine different analyses by five different groups as being differentially regulated. Remarkably, only a single protein, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, has been identified by more than two different groups as being differentially regulated during CHIKV infection. This review provides a critical overview of the studies that have used global protein profiling to underst- CHIKV infection - shows that while a broad consensus is emerging on which biological processes are altered during CHIKV infection, this consensus is poorly supported in terms of consistent identification of any key proteins mediating those biological processes.

443) Chikungunya: evolutionary history and recent epidemic spread
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Forrester Naomi L
Assunto: Alphavirus; Arbovirus; Arthralgia; Chikungunya; Mosquito; Urbanization
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 32-39, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has a long history of emergence into urban transmission cycles from its ancestral, enzootic, sylvatic foci in Sub-Saharan Africa, most recently spreading to the Americas beginning in 2013. Since 2004, reemergence has resulted in millions of cases of severe, debilitating - often chronic arthralgia on five continents. Here, we review this history based on phylogenetic studies, - discuss probable future spread - disease in the Americas. We also discuss a series of mutations in the recently emerged Indian Ocean Lineage that has adapted the virus for transmission for the first time by the Aedes albopictus urban mosquito vector, - compare CHIKV to other arboviruses with - without similar histories of urbanization. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

444) Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection
Autor: Maharaj Payal D, Widen Steven G, Huang Jing, Wood Thomas G, Thangamani Saravanan
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, p. e0003386, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection - establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, - are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum - saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva - their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified - were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, - our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission - establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host.

445) Syndromic approach to arboviral diagnostics for global travelers as a basis for infectious disease surveillance
Autor: Cleton Natalie B, Reusken Chantal B E M, Wagenaar Jiri F P, van der Vaart Elske E, Reimerink Johan, van der Eijk Annemiek A, Koopmans Marion P G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. e0004073, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions - can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis - surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning travelers. To map the patients high at risk of missed clinical arboviral infections we compared the quantity of all arboviral diagnostic requests by physicians in the Netherl-s, from 2009 through 2013, with a literature-based assessment of the travelers' likely exposure to an arbovirus. 2153 patients, with travel - clinical history were evaluated. The diagnostic assay for dengue virus (DENV) was the most commonly requested (86%). Of travelers returning from Southeast Asia with symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus (CHIKV), only 55% were tested. For travelers in Europe, arbovirus diagnostics were rarely requested. Over all, diagnostics for most arboviruses were requested only on severe clinical presentation. Travel destination - syndrome were used inconsistently for triage of diagnostics, likely resulting in vast under-diagnosis of arboviral infections of public health significance. This study shows the need for more awareness among physicians - st-ardization of syndromic diagnostic algorithms.

446) GRP78/dna K is a target for nexavar/stivarga/votrient in the treatment of human malignancies, viral infections and bacterial diseases
Autor: Roberts Jane L, Tavallai Mehrad, Nourbakhsh Aida, Fidanza Abigail, Cruz-Luna Tanya, Smith Elizabeth, Siembida Paul, Plamondon Pascale, Cycon Kelly A, Doern Christopher D, Booth Laurence, Dent Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Cellular Physiology, v. 230, n. 10, p. 2552-2578, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4652
Resumo: Prior tumor cell studies have shown that the drugs sorafenib (Nexavar) - regorafenib (Stivarga) reduce expression of the chaperone GRP78. Sorafenib/regorafenib - the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) to further rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes - as single agents to reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data were obtained in tumor cells in vitro - in drug-treated mice for: HSP70, mitochondrial HSP70, HSP60, HSP56, HSP40, HSP10, - cyclophilin A. Prolonged 'rafenib/sildenafil treatment killed tumor cells - also rapidly decreased the expression of: the drug efflux pumps ABCB1 - ABCG2; - NPC1 - NTCP, receptors for Ebola/Hepatitis A - B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with the 'Rafenib/sildenafil combination reduced expression of the Coxsackie - Adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 Adenovirus or Coxsackie virus B4 to infect - to reproduce. Sorafenib/pazopanib - sildenafil was much more potent than sorafenib/pazopanib as single agents at preventing Adenovirus, Mumps, Chikungunya, Dengue, Rabies, West Nile, Yellow Fever, - Enterovirus 71 infection - reproduction. 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib as single agents killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli which was associated with reduced Dna K - Rec A expression. Marginally toxic doses of 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib restored antibiotic sensitivity in pan-antibiotic resistant bacteria including multiple strains of blakpc Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, Dna K is an antibiotic target for sorafenib, - inhibition of GRP78/Dna K has therapeutic utility for cancer - for bacterial - viral infections.

447) Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Biomarker: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects.
Autor: Isgrò Maria Antonietta; Bottoni Patrizia; Scatena Roberto
Assunto: ENO1, ENO2, ENO3, NSE as biomarker, NSE assays in body fluids, NSE biochemical properties, NSE clinical indications, NSE in brain damage, NSE in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, NSE in lung cancer, NSE in melanoma, NSE in neuroblastoma, NSE in neuroendocrine tumours, NSE in seminoma, NSE mapping and gene function, Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Tissue NSE expression
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biochemistry ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular Structure ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening
Fonte: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, v. 867, p. 125-143, 2015
ISSN: 0065-2598
Resumo: Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. In vertebrate organisms three isozymes of enolase, expressed by different genes, are present: enolase ? is ubiquitous; enolase ? is muscle-specific and enolase ? is neuron-specific. The expression of NSE, which occurs as ??- and ??-dimer, is a late event in neural differentiation, thus making it a useful index of neural maturation.NSE is a highly specific marker for neurons and peripheral neuroendocrine cells. As a result of the findings of NSE in specific tissues under normal conditions, increased body fluids levels of NSE may occur with malignant proliferation and thus can be of value in diagnosis, staging and treatment of related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).NSE is currently the most reliable tumour marker in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), even though increased levels of NSE have been reported also in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of NSE correlates with tumour burden, number of metastatic sites and response to treatment.NSE can be also useful at diagnosis of NETs and gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs.Raised serum levels of NSE have been found in all stages of neuroblastoma, although the incidence of increased concentration is greater in widespread and metastatic disease. Moreover, NSE determination in cord blood offers an early postnatal possibility of confirming the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in newborns.NSE has been demonstrated to provide quantitative measures of brain damage and/or to improve the diagnosis and the outcome evaluation in ischaemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, comatose patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury.Increased NSE serum levels have also been found associated with melanoma, seminoma, renal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumour, carcinoid tumours, dysgerminomas and immature teratomas, malignant phaechromocytoma, Guillain-Barré syndrome and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

448) Transcriptome profiling and genetic study reveal amplified carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance, in the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grigoraki, Linda; Lagnel, Jacques; Kioulos, Ilias; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Morou, Evangelia; Labbe, Pierrick; Weill, Mylene; Vontas, John
Assunto: Insecticide resistance; Esterase gene; Small portions; Culex pipiens; Amplification; Mechanisms; Expression; Microassay; Culicidae; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Principal findingsTemephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.SignificanceThe identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.

449) West nile virus encephalitis 16 years later
Autor: Kleinschmidt-DeMasters Bette K, Beckham J David
Assunto: Arbovirus; Epidemic; Infection; Neuropathology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Brain Pathology, v. 25, n. 5, p. 625-633, 2015
ISSN: 1750-3639
Resumo: Arboviruses (Arthropod-borne viruses) include several families of viruses (Flaviviridae, Togaviradae, Bunyaviradae, Reoviradae) that are spread by arthropod vectors, most commonly mosquitoes, ticks - s-flies. The RNA genome allows these viruses to rapidly adapt to ever-changing host - environmental conditions. Thus, these virus families are largely responsible for the recent expansion in geographic range of emerging viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus - Chikungunya virus. This review will focus on WNV, especially as it has progressively spread westward in North America since its introduction in New York in 1999. By 2003, WNV infections in humans had reached almost all lower 48 contiguous United States (US) - since that time, fluctuations in outbreaks have occurred. Cases decreased between 2008 - 2011, followed by a dramatic flair in 2012, with the epicenter in the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas. The 2012 outbreak was associated with an increase in reported neuroinvasive cases. Neuroinvasive disease continues to be a problem particularly in the elderly - immunocompromised populations, although WNV infections also represented the second most frequent cause of pediatric encephalitis in these same years. Neuropathological features in cases from the 2012 epidemic highlight the extent of viral damage that can occur in the CNS.

450) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca Camila, Melo Vanessa Campos Andrade de, Mosimann Ana Luiza Pamplona, Santos Glauco Igor Viana Dos, Santos Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos, Luz Kleber
Assunto: Zika virus; "dengue-like syndrome"; Brazil
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memo?rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p. 569-572, 2015
ISSN: 1678-8060
Resumo: In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis - arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular - serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients - the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

451) Autochthonous chikungunya transmission and extreme climate events in Southern France
Autor: Roiz David, Boussès Philippe, Simard Frédéric, Paupy Christophe, Fontenille Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003854, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding - mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community - public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased - extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. We report results from close monitoring of the adult - egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species - extension of the transmission period. Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change - extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics - the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood.

452) Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, S.; Beerntsen, B. T.
Assunto: Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins; RNA Interference; Bacterial Challenge; Survival; Antimicrobial Peptides; Toll And Immunodeficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 293-310, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP Sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial Peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.coli and M.luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.aegypti.

453) Complete genome sequence of a chikungunya virus imported from bali to Germany
Autor: Wölfel Silke, Vollmar Patrick, Poluda David, Zange Sabine, Antwerpen Markus H, Löscher Thomas, Dobler Gerhard
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 3, n. 2, 2015
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) strain DH130003 was isolated from a traveler with Chikungunya fever returning from Bali to Germany. Although strains of the east-central/south African lineage bearing the A226V mutation have predominated in most parts of Asia since 2005, CHIKV DH130003 belongs to the Asian lineage.

454) Horizontal transmission of an R4 clade non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon between the divergent Aedes and Anopheles mosquito genera
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Biedler, J. K.; Chen, X.; Tu, Z.
Assunto: Horizontal Transfer; Mosquito; Evolution; Transposable Elements; Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 331-337, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: AaegR4_1 and AgamR4_1 are the sole R4 clade non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, two species that diverged approximately 145-200 million years ago. Twelve full-length copies were found in Ae.aegypti and have less than 1% nucleotide (nt) divergence, suggesting recent activity on an Evolutionary time scale. Five of these copies have intact open reading frames and the 3.6kb open reading frame of AaegR4_1.1 has 78% nt identity to AgamR4_1.1. No intact copies were found in An.gambiae. Searches of 25 genomic databases for 22 mosquito species from three genera revealed R4 clade representatives in Aedes and Anopheles genera but not in Culex. Interestingly, these elements are present in all six species of the An.gambiae species complex that were searched but not in 13 other anopheline species. These results combined with divergence vs. age analysis suggest that horizontal transfer is the most likely explanation for the low divergence between R4 clade retrotransposon Sequences of the divergent mosquito species from the Aedes and Anopheles genera. This is the first report of the horizontal transfer of an R4 clade non-LTR retrotransposon and the first report of the horizontal transfer of a non-LTR retrotransposon in mosquitoes.

455) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus Zika: Um Novo Capítulo na História da Medicina
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Flaviviridae, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 679-680, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo:

456) Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mills, M. K.; Nayduch, D.; Michel, K.
Assunto: Biting Midge; Vector-Borne Disease; Orbivirus; Reverse Genetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 105-114, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a Sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C.sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C.sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C.sonorensis.

457) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

458) Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005)
Autor: Wasonga Caroline, Inoue Shingo, Rumberia Cecilia, Michuki George, Kimotho James, Ongus Juliette R, Sang Rosemary, Musila Lillian
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Comoros Island; Genetic variation; Variants
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 51, n. 3, p. 323-328, 2015
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Isl-, showed distinct - reproducible large (L2) - small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain - plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines - their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment - phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants - S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) - 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 - S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution - a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity - dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain - its variants clustered closely together with each other - with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to underst- the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence - viral transmission in mosquito - mammalian hosts.

459) Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon
Autor: Murali Krishnan Saravana, Sivasubramanian Srinivasan, Vincent Savariar, Murugan Shanmugaraj Bala, Giridaran Bupesh, Dinesh Sundaram, Gunasekaran Palani, Krishnasamy Kaveri, Sathishkumar Ramalingam
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Apigenin; Chikungunya virus; Cynodon dactylon; Flavonoids; Luteolin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 8, n. 5, p. 352-358, 2015
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To obtain luteolin - apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers - evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity - anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC - GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical st-ards. Cytotoxicity - the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC - GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin - apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, - the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin - apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

460) Immune challenges trigger cellular and humoral responses in adults of Pterostichus melas italicus (Coleoptera, Carabidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Pasqua, Teresa; Angelone, Tommaso; Battistella, Silvia; Giulianini, Piero G.
Assunto: Carabid beetle; Cellular immunity; Microscopy; Nitric oxide synthase; Phenoloxidase; Phagocytosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure
Fonte: Arthropod Structure & Development, v. 44, n. 3, p. 209-217, 2015
ISSN: 1467-8039
Resumo: The present study focuses on the ability of Pterostichus melas italicus Dejean to mount cellular and humoral immune responses against invading pathogens. Ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of five morphologically distinct types of hemocytes: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids and macrophage-like cells. Differential hemocyte counts showed that plasmatocytes and granulocytes were the most abundant circulating cell types and plasmatocytes exhibited phagocytic activity following the latex bead immune challenge. Macrophage-like cells were recruited after the immune challenge to remove exhausted phagocytizing cells, apoptotic cells and melanotic capsules formed to immobilize the latex beads. Total hemocyte counts showed a significant reduction of hemocytes after latex bead treatment. Phenoloxidase (PO) assays revealed an increase of total PO in hemolymph after immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, the LPS-stimulated hemocytes showed increased protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, indicating that the cytotoxic action of nitric oxide was engaged in this antimicrobial collaborative response. These results provide a knowledge base for further studies on the sensitivity of the P. melas italicus immune system to the environmental perturbation in order to evaluate the effect of chemicals on non-target species in agroecosystems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

461) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

462) Wolbachia influences the production of Octopamine and affects Drosophila male aggression
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rohrscheib, Chelsie E.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W., II; Brownlie, Jeremy C.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-aegypti; Behavior; Melanogaster; Infection; Strain; Populations; Manipulate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 81, n. 14, p. 4573-4580, 2015
ISSN: 0099-2240
Resumo: Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine beta-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

463) A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.
Autor: Weber Christopher, Büchner Sarah M, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003684, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes high fever - severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe - has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change - vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle -, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses. E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells - a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 - consisting of linear -/or structural antigens were created, - were expressed in - purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins - the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L) - surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA) alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B - a part of the ?-ribbon (called B+) was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+) induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ -/or the recombinant protein sAB+ - were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice. The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice - its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

464) Immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in Bombyx mori
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiabin; Lu, Yahong; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang
Assunto: Silkworm; JAK/STAT pathway; Toll pathway; Imd pathway; RNAi pathway; Innate immunity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 65, n. 2, p. 391-397, 2015
ISSN: 0161-5890
Resumo: The JAK/STAT, Toll, Imd, and RNAi pathways are the major signaling pathways associated with insect innate immunity. To explore the different immune signaling pathways triggered in response to pathogenic micro-organism infections in the silkworm, Bombyx mari, the expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (BmSTAT), spatzle-1 (Bmspz-1), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (BmPGRP-LB), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LE (BmPGRP-LE), argonaute 2 (Bmago2), and dicer-2 (Bmdcr2) genes after challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Serratiamarcescens (Sm), Bacillus born-byseptieus (Bab), Beauveriabassiana (Beb), nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), cypovirus (BmCPV), bidensovirus (BmBDV), or Nosemabombycis (Nb) were determined using real-time PCR. We found that the JAK/STAT pathway could be activated by challenge with BmNPV and BmBDV, the Toll pathway could be most robustly induced by challenge with Beb, the Imd pathway was mainly activated in response to infection by E. coli and Sm, and the RNAi pathway was not activated by viral infection, but could be triggered by some bacterial infections. These findings yield insights into the immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in the silkworm. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved:

465) High rate of subclinical Chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines
Autor: Yoon In-Kyu, Alera Maria Theresa, Lago Catherine B, Tac-An Ilya A, Villa Daisy, Fernandez Stefan, Thaisomboonsuk Butsaya, Klungthong Chonticha, Levy Jens W, Velasco John Mark, Roque Vito G, Salje Henrik, Macareo Louis R, Hermann Laura L, Nisalak Ananda, Srikiatkhachorn Anon
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003764, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical - symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation. A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ?6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, - 8 day visits, - at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute - 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples -/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment - 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ?8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation - envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) - 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ?10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia - the Caribbean. Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, underst-ing virus transmission, - supporting vaccine development.

466) Identifying the role of E2 domains on alphavirus neutralization and protective immune responses
Autor: Weger-Lucarelli James, Aliota Matthew T, Kamlangdee Attapon, Osorio Jorge E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 10, p. e0004163, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - other alphaviruses are the etiologic agents of numerous diseases in both humans - animals. Despite this, the viral mediators of protective immunity against alphaviruses are poorly understood, highlighted by the lack of a licensed human vaccine for any member of this virus genus. The alphavirus E2, the receptor-binding envelope protein, is considered to be the predominant target of the protective host immune response. Although envelope protein domains have been studied for vaccine - neutralization in flaviviruses, their role in alphaviruses is less characterized. Here, we describe the role of the alphavirus E2 domains in neutralization - protection through the use of chimeric viruses. Four chimeric viruses were constructed in which individual E2 domains of CHIKV were replaced with the corresponding domain from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) (?DomA/?DomB/?DomC/ ?DomA+B). Vaccination studies in mice (both live - inactivated virus) revealed that domain B was the primary determinant of neutralization. Neutralization studies with CHIKV immune serum from humans were consistent with mouse studies, as ?DomB was poorly neutralized. Using chimeric viruses, it was determined that the alphavirus E2 domain B was the critical target of neutralizing antibodies in both mice - humans. Therefore, chimeric viruses may have more relevance for vaccine discovery than peptide-based approaches, which only detect linear epitopes. This study provides new insight into the role of alphavirus E2 domains on neutralization determinants - may be useful for the design of novel therapeutic technologies.

467) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe, Martínez Norma E, Cruz-Nolasco Maximina, Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano, López-Damián Leonardo, Ibarra-López Jesús, Martini Andres, Torres-Leyva Joel, Bibiano-Marín Wilbert, Tornez-Benitez Citlalli, Ayora-Talavera Guadalupe, Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guerrero; Mexico; Chikungunya; Dengue; Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We carried out dengue (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a st-ard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect DENV - CHIKV. We report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco - Juchitán in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

468) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 2013-June 2014.
Autor: Haber Penina; Moro Pedro L.; Cano Maria; Lewis Paige; Stewart Brock; Shimabukuro Tom T.
Assunto: Live attenuated influenza vaccine, Post-licensure surveillance, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 16, p. 1987-1992, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) was approved in 2012 for healthy persons aged 2-49 years. Beginning with the 2013-2014 influenza season, LAIV4 replaced trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). We analyzed LAIV4 reports to VAERS, a national spontaneous reporting system. LAIV4 reports in 2013-2014 were compared to LAIV3 reports from the previous three influenza seasons. Medical records were reviewed for non-manufacturer serious reports (i.e., death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability) and reports of selected conditions of interest. We conducted Empirical Bayesian data mining to identify disproportional reporting for LAIV4. In 2013-2014, 12.7 million doses of LAIV4 were distributed and VAERS received 779 reports in individuals aged 2-49 years; 95% were non-serious. Expired drug administered (42%), fever (13%) and cough (8%) were most commonly reported in children aged 2-17 years when LAIV4 was administered alone, while headache (18%), expired drug administered (15%) and exposure during pregnancy (12%) were most common in adults aged 18-49 years. We identified one death report in a child who died from complications of cerebellar vascular tumors. Among non-death serious reports, neurologic conditions were common in children and adults. In children, seizures (3) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (2) were the most common serious neurologic outcomes. We identified three serious reports of asthma/wheezing following LAIV4 in children. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for vaccine administration errors and for influenza illness in children. Our analysis of VAERS reports for LAIV4 did not identify any concerning patterns. The data mining finding for reports of influenza illness is consistent with low LAIV4 vaccine effectiveness observed for influenza A disease in children in 2013-2014. Reports of LAIV4 administration to persons in whom the vaccine is not recommended (e.g., pregnant women) indicate the need for education, training and screening regarding indications.

469) Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Odorant-Binding Proteins in Apolygus lucorum
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yuan, Hai-Bin; Ding, Yu-Xiao; Gu, Shao-Hua; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hang-Wei; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan
Assunto: Bug Adelphocoris-Lineolatus; Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Plant Bug; Chemosensory Proteins; Hemiptera-Miridae; Pheromone-Binding; Olfactory Genes; Meyer-Dur; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Genome Annotation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 10, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important agricultural pests, with broad host range and cryptic feeding habits in China. Chemosensory behavior plays an important role in many crucial stages in the life of A. lucorum, such as the detection of sex pheromone cues during mate pursuit and fragrant odorants during flowering host plant localization. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. In the present study, a transcriptomics-based approach was used to identify potential OBPs in A. lucorum. In total, 38 putative OBP genes were identified, corresponding to 26 'classic' OBPs and 12 'Plus-C' OBPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. lucorum OBP proteins are more closely related to the OBP proteins of other mirid bugs as the same family OBP clustering together. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis for the first reported 23 AlucOBPs revealed that the expression level of 11 AlucOBP genes were significantly higher in antennae of both sexes than in other tissues. Three of them were male antennae-biased and six were female antennae-biased, suggesting their putative roles in the detection of female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. In addition, three, four, two and one AlucOBPs had the highest degree of enrichment in the stylet, head, leg, and in abdomen tissues, respectively. Two other OBPs were ubiquitously expressed in the main tissues, including antennae, stylets, heads, legs and wings. Most orthologs had similar expression patterns, strongly indicating that these genes have the same function in olfaction and gustation.

470) Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system
Autor: John Chandy C, Carabin Hélène, Montano Silvia M, Bangirana Paul, Zunt Joseph R, Peterson Phillip K
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 527, n. 7578, p. S178-S186, 2015
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo: Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus - chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis - sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) - parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis - soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children - adults in low- - middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, - there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive - mental health impairment; vaccines - other interventions for preventing infections; improved underst-ing of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat - prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; - improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies - therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity - mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- - middle-income countries.

471) Congenital Chikungunya virus infection in Sincelejo, Colombia: A case series
Autor: Villamil-Gómez Wilmer, Alba-Silvera Luz, Menco-Ramos Antonio, Gonzalez-Vergara Alfonso, Molinares-Palacios Tatiana, Barrios-Corrales María, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto: Chikungunya; Colombia; Arbovirus; Congenital; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, v. 61, n. 5, p. 386-392, 2015
ISSN: 1465-3664
Resumo: Congenital chikungunya virus (CHIK) infection has been infrequently reported, even more so during the current 2013-15 outbreak in Latin America. In this study, the consequences of CHIK on pregnancy outcomes - particularly consequences in infants born to infected women were assessed in a case series from a single private institution in the north of Colombia. During September 2014 to February 2015, seven pregnant women with serological - reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive test for CHIK delivered eight infants with CHIK. These newborns required admission to pediatric intensive care, - related support, owing to severe clinical manifestations, which included respiratory distress, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, edema, bullous dermatitis - pericarditis. There were three deaths (case fatality rate of 37.5%). Pregnant women - newborns with CHIK long term should be followed up, given the implications of chronic sequelae (e.g. chronic inflammatory rheumatism in women) as well as recently described neurocognitive impairment in infants.

472) High rates of co-infection of Dengue and Chikungunya virus in Odisha and Maharashtra, India during 2013
Autor: Saswat Tanuja, Kumar Abhishek, Kumar Sameer, Mamidi Prabhudutta, Muduli Sagarika, Debata Nagen Kumar, Pal Niladri Shekhar, Pratheek B M, Chattopadhyay Subhasis, Chattopadhyay Soma
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya virus; Co-infection; Dengue virus; Epidemiology; Flavivirus; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 35, p. 134-141, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Dengue viral (DENV) infection is endemic in different parts of India - because of similar primary signs - symptoms, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is mostly undiagnosed. Hence, we investigated 204 suspected Dengue cases in a hospital based cross-sectional study in Odisha, India in 2013. It was observed that 50 samples were positive for DENV only, 28 were positive for CHIKV only - interestingly, 28 patients were co-infected with both DENV - CHIKV. Additionally, a total of 18 confirmed Dengue samples from Maharashtra, India were screened for CHIKV - out of those, 15 were co-infected. All CHIKV strains were of East Central South African (ECSA) type - serotype 2 (genotype IV) was predominant in the DENV samples. Additionally, Dengue serotype 1 - 3 were also detected during this time. Further, sequence analysis of E1 gene of CHIKV strains revealed that two substitution mutations (M269V - D284E) were observed in almost 50% strains - they were from co-infected patients. Similarly, sequence analysis of C-prM gene showed the presence of five substitution mutations, (G70S, L72F, N90S, S93N - I150L) in all serotype 1 - two consistent mutations (A101V - V112A) in serotype 2 Dengue samples. Together, it appears that a significantly high number of dengue patients (43, 44.8%) were co-infected with DENV - CHIKV during this study. This emphasizes the need of a routine diagnosis of CHIKV along with DENV for febrile patients. This will be useful in early - proper recognition of infecting pathogen to study the correlation of clinical symptoms with single or co-infection which will ultimately help to implement proper patient care in future.

473) Suppression of the arboviruses dengue and chikungunya using a dual-acting group-I intron coupled with conditional expression of the bax C-terminal domain
Autor: Carter James R, Taylor Samantha, Fraser Tresa S, Kucharski Cheryl A, Dawson James L, Fraser Malcolm J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 11, p. e0139899, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In portions of South Asia, vectors - patients co-infected with dengue (DENV) - chikungunya (CHIKV) are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, - guide sequences that permit homologous recognition - splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, - examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV - CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ?N Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ?N Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ?N Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, - DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV - CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, - demonstrates that we can target DENV - CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, - thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

474) TSS seq based core promoter architecture in blood feeding Tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans) vector of Trypanosomiasis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mwangi, Sarah; Attardo, Geoffrey; Suzuki, Yutaka; Aksoy, Serap; Christoffels, Alan
Assunto: Glossina morsitans morsitans; Transcription start site; Core promoters; TSS seq
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: Transcription initiation regulation is mediated by sequence-specific interactions between DNA-binding proteins (transcription factors) and cis-elements, where BRE, TATA, INR, DPE and MTE motifs constitute canonical core motifs for basal transcription initiation of genes. Accurate identification of transcription start site (TSS) and their corresponding promoter regions is critical for delineation of these motifs. To this end, the genome scale analysis of core promoter architecture in insects has been confined to Drosophila. The recently sequenced Tsetse fly genome provides a unique opportunity to analyze transcription initiation regulation machinery in blood-feeding insects.Results: A computational method for identification of TSS in newly sequenced Tsetse fly genome was evaluated, using TSS seq tags sampled from two developmental stages namely; larvae and pupae. There were 3134 tag clusters among which 45.4 % (1424) of the tag clusters mapped to first coding exons or their proximal predicted 5'UTR regions and 1.0 % (31) tag clusters mapping to transposons, within a threshold of 100 tags per cluster. These 1393 non transposon-derived core promoters had propensity for AT nucleotides. The -1/+1 and 1/+1 positions in D. melanogaster, and G. m. morsitans had propensity for CA and AA dinucleotides respectively. The 1393 tag clusters comprised narrow promoters (5 %), broad with peak promoters (23 %) and broad without peak promoters (72 %). Two-way motif co-occurrence analysis showed that the MTE-DPE pair is overrepresented in broad core promoters. The frequently occurring triplet motifs in all promoter classes are the INR-MTEDPE, TATA-MTE-DPE and TATA-INR-DPE. Promoters without the TATA motif had higher frequency of the MTE and INR motifs than those observed in Drosophila, where the DPE motif occur more frequently in promoters without TATA motif. Gene ontology terms associated with developmental processes were overrepresented in the narrow and broad with peak promoters.Conclusions: The study has identified different motif combinations associated with broad promoters in a blood-feeding insect. In the case of TATA-less core promoters, G. m. morsitans uses the MTE to compensate for the lack of a TATA motif. The increasing availability of TSS seq data allows for revision of existing gene annotation datasets with the potential of identifying new transcriptional units.

475) Chikungunya: an arbovirus infection in the process of establishment and expansion in Brazil
Autor: Honório Nildimar Alves, Câmara Daniel Cardoso Portela, Calvet Guilherme Amaral, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Cadernos de Sau?de Pu?blica, v. 31, n. 5, p. 906-908, 2015
ISSN: 1678-4464
Resumo:

476) Arbovirus Infections
Autor: Beckham J David, Tyler Kenneth L
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Continuum, v. 21, n. 6, p. 1599-1611, 2015
ISSN: 1538-6899
Resumo: Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the United States through both endemic transmission - travel-associated infections. This article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the United States. West Nile virus continues to be an important cause of epidemic encephalitis, while emerging arbovirus infections such as dengue - chikungunya have rapidly exp-ed their geographic distribution. As emerging arboviruses exp- in new geographic regions, neurologic abnormalities are reported in new patient populations. Emerging arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease throughout the world - in the United States. While no US Food - Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy is yet available for these infections, prompt recognition - diagnosis from the consulting neurologist will ensure appropriate supportive care for the patient.

477) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

478) Evidence for homologous recombination in Chikungunya virus
Autor: Casal Pablo E, Chouhy Diego, Bolatti Elisa M, Perez Germán R, Stella Emma J, Giri Adriana A
Assunto: Bayesian phylogeny; Chikungunya virus; Complete ORFs/E1 gene; East/Central/South African clade; Nucleotide identity classification; Recombination
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, v. 85, p. 68-75, 2015
ISSN: 1095-9513
Resumo: Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, causes acute fever - joint pain in humans. Recently, endemic CHIKV infection outbreaks have jeopardized public health in wider geographical regions. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic associations of CHIKV - explore the potential recombination events on 152 genomic isolates deposited in GenBank database. The CHIKV genotypes [West African, Asian, East/Central/South African (ECSA)], - a clear division of ECSA clade into three sub-groups (I-II-III), were defined by Bayesian analysis; similar results were obtained using E1 gene sequences. A nucleotide identity-based approach is provided to facilitate CHIKV classification within ECSA clade. Using seven methods to detect recombination, we found a statistically significant event (p-values range: 1.14×10(-7)-4.45×10(-24)) located within the nsP3 coding region. This finding was further confirmed by phylogenetic networks (PHI Test, p=0.004) - phylogenetic tree incongruence analysis. The recombinant strain, KJ679578/India/2011 (ECSA III), derives from viruses of ECSA III - ECSA I. Our study demonstrates that recombination is an additional mechanism of genetic diversity in CHIKV that might assist in the cross-species transmission process.

479) Zika virus: A new chapter in the history of medicine
Autor: Brito C.
Assunto: Article; Brazil; Congenital Infection; Disease Association; Encephalomyelitis; Flaviviridae; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Human; Meningoencephalitis; Microcephaly; Neurotropism; Pregnancy; Virus Infection; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 679-680,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: [No abstract available]

480) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of Chikungunya virus and Dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols J T, Huang Y-J S, Higgs S, Miller A L, Pyles R B, Spratt H M, Horne K M, Vanlandingham D L
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution - shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) - Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 × 10(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV - 3.2 × 10(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders - evaluated for dissemination - transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV - DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

481) Pentosan polysulfate: A novel glycosaminoglycan-like molecule for effective treatment of alphavirus-induced cartilage destruction and inflammatory disease
Autor: Herrero Lara J, Foo Suan-Sin, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Chen Weiqiang, Forwood Mark R, Bucala Richard, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8063-8076, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease - have been progressively exp-ing their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV - CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection - investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, - fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV - CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 - reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage - loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has exp-ed into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, - the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, - is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- - CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation - joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising c-idate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis.

482) Buzzkill: regulatory uncertainty plagues rollout of genetically modified mosquitoes
Autor: Chakradhar Shraddha
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 21, n. 5, p. 416-418, 2015
ISSN: 1546-170X
Resumo:

483) A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients.
Autor: Goh Lucas Y H, Kam Yiu-Wing, Metz Stefan W, Hobson-Peters Jody, Prow Natalie A, McCarthy Suzi, Smith David W, Pijlman Gorben P, Ng Lisa F P, Hall Roy A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Clinical diagnostic; Epitope-blocking ELISA; Monoclonal antibodies; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 222, p. 55-61, 2015
ISSN: 1879-0984
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development - evaluation of a sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA (EB-ELISA) capable of specifically detecting anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antibodies in clinical samples. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds an epitope on the E2 protein of CHIKV - does not exhibit cross-reactivity to other related alphaviruses. We also demonstrated the use of recombinant CHIK virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe alternative antigen to infectious virions in the assay. Based on testing of 60 serum samples from patients in the acute or convalescent phase of CHIKV infection, the EB-ELISA provided us with 100% sensitivity, - exhibited 98.5% specificity when Ross River virus (RRV)- or Barmah Forest virus (BFV)-immune serum samples were included. This assay meets the public health dem-s of a rapid, robust, sensitive - specific, yet simple assay for specifically diagnosing CHIK-infections in humans.

484) Expanding regulatory T cells alleviates Chikungunya virus-induced pathology in mice
Autor: Lee Wendy W L, Teo Teck-Hui, Her Zhisheng, Lum Fok-Moon, Kam Yiu-Wing, Haase Doreen, Rénia Laurent, Rötzschke Olaf, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 7893-7904, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a re-emerging p-emic human arboviral disease. CD4(+) T cells were previously shown to contribute to joint inflammation in the course of CHIKV infection in mice. The JES6-1 anti-IL-2 antibody selectively exp-s mouse regulatory T cells (Tregs) by forming a complex with IL-2. In this study, we show that the IL-2 JES6-1-mediated expansion of Tregs ameliorates CHIKV-induced joint pathology. It does so by inhibiting the infiltration of CD4(+) T cells due to the induction of anergy in CHIKV-specific CD4(+) effector T cells. These findings suggest that activation of Tregs could also become an alternative approach to control CHIKV-mediated disease. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged as a pathogen of global significance. Patients infected with CHIKV suffer from incapacitating joint pain that severely affects their daily functioning. Despite the best efforts, effective treatment is still inadequate. While T cells-mediated immunopathology in CHIKV infections has been reported, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has not been explored. The JES6-1 anti-IL-2 antibody has been demonstrated to selectively exp- mouse Tregs by forming a complex with IL-2. We reveal here that IL-2 JES6-1-mediated expansion of Tregs ameliorates the CHIKV-induced joint pathology in mice by neutralizing virus-specific CD4+ effector T (Teff) cells. We show that this treatment abrogates the infiltration of pathogenic CD4+ T cells through induction of anergy in CHIKV-specific CD4+ Teff cells. This is the first evidence where the role of Tregs is demonstrated in CHIKV pathogenesis - its expansion could control virus-mediated immunopathology.

485) Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014
Autor: Aubry Maite, Teissier Anita, Roche Claudine, Richard Vaea, Yan Aurore Shan, Zisou Karen, Rouault Eline, Maria Véronique, Lastère Stéphane, Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai, Musso Didier
Assunto: CHIKV; French Polynesia; Pacific; Arboviruses; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Outbreak; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 724-726, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

486) Tenosynovitis and Chikungunya virus
Autor: Wiwanitkit Somsri, Wiwanitkit Viroj
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 75, n. 2, p. 130, 2015
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo:

487) Complete genome sequences of chikungunya virus strains isolated in Mexico: First detection of imported and autochthonous cases
Autor: Díaz-Quiñonez José Alberto, Ortiz-Alcántara Joanna, Fragoso-Fonseca David Esaú, Garcés-Ayala Fabiola, Escobar-Escamilla Noé, Vázquez-Pichardo Mauricio, Núñez-León Alma, Torres-Rodríguez María de la Luz, Torres-Longoria Belem, López-Martínez Irma, Ruíz-Matus Cuitláhuac, Kuri-Morales Pablo, Ramírez-González José Ernesto
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 3, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 - InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco - Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype.

488) Extended preclinical safety, efficacy and stability testing of a live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine candidate
Autor: Plante Kenneth S, Rossi Shannan L, Bergren Nicholas A, Seymour Robert L, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. e0004007, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine c-idate for chikungunya (CHIK) fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic - efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV) challenge of mice - nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution - viral loads in interferon-?/? receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine c-idate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV), both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues - organs, including the brain - leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination - viral loads compared to 181/clone25, - was never found outside the blood, spleen - muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture - hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental - passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability - survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from <10% to >30%) - mortality (from 0 to 100%), CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss - no mortality). These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine c-idate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.

489) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola, Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa - Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia - State of Rio Gr-e do Norte, - one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti - Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology - epidemiology, including the distribution - vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, - yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil - neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission - the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities - introduction in Brazil.

490) Prognostic factors and complication rates for double-filtration plasmapheresis in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Lin Jui-Hsiang; Tu Kun-Hua; Chang Chih-Hsiang; Chen Yung-Chang; Tian Ya-Chung; Yu Chun-Chen; Hung Cheng-Chieh; Fang Ji-Tseng; Yang Chih-Wei; Chang Ming-Yang
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, Plasmapheresis, Prognostic factors
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Transfusion and Apheresis Science, v. 52, n. 1, p. 78-83, 2015
ISSN: 1473-0502
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy that could lead to disabilities if not properly treated. There are only limited data on the prognostic factors and complications when using double-filtration plasmapheresis in these patients. We reviewed the medical records of 60 GBS patients who underwent double-filtration plasmapheresis as the first-line therapy at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The severity of disease was evaluated at different time points using disability scores. Functional outcome was defined as good (GBS disability score 0 to 2) or poor (GBS disability score 3 to 6) at 28 days after admission. The cohort included 22 women and 38 men with a mean age of 50 ± 18 years. In univariate logistic regression analysis, potential factors associated with poor outcome include an older age (P = 0.101), the absence of preceding respiratory tract infection (P = 0.043), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.016), a lower hematocrit (p = 0.072), a lower serum sodium level (P = 0.153) and a higher disability score on admission (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, a higher disability score on admission was associated with a poorer outcome (OR, 5.61; 95% CI, 2.34 to 13.43; P < 0.001), whereas the presence of prodromal upper respiratory tract infection correlated with a better outcome (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.59; P = 0.009). Among 60 patients, eleven (18.3%) have various complications attributed to plasmapheresis treatment. Six patients (10.0%) developed deep vein thrombosis and two experienced catheter-related infection (3.3%). Hypotension, allergy and hemolysis occurred in one patient each (1.7%). In conclusion, we describe our experiences of using DFPP in the treatment of GBS. The pretreatment severity score was the most significant predictor of treatment outcome, suggesting that early referral and timely treatment are important. Potential complications such as catheter-related infection and deep vein thrombosis should be monitored carefully.

491) Pandemic influenza A vaccination and incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Korea.
Autor: Kim Changsoo,Rhie Seonkyeong,Suh Mina,Kang Dae Ryong,Choi Yoon Jung,Bae Geun-Ryang,Choi Young-Chul,Jun Byung Yool,Lee Joon Soo
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, Incidence rate, Influenza, Vaccination
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 15, p. 1815-1823, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Many studies have investigated the association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and vaccinations during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic of 2009 (pH1N1). Based on a nationally representative sample, we estimated the incidence of GBS during the pandemic period in Korea. All medical records of GBS cases were reviewed in 28 randomly selected hospitals during 2008-2010, and the number of GBS cases at the national level was extrapolated using emergency care utilization data. The GBS rate per 100,000 person-years was estimated in the reference and pandemic periods. The incidence of GBS was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37-0.89) per 100,000 person-years in the reference period and 0.87 (0.49-1.26) in the pandemic period. During the vaccination season, the pandemic period GBS incidence rate was not significantly higher than the reference period incidence rate (rate ratio: 1.52; 0.99-2.32), but difference was observed among persons aged 20-34 years. Rate of GBS increased after pH1N1 vaccination compared to the reference period (1.46, 1.26-1.68). The incidence of GBS increased slightly but not significantly during the pandemic period, although pH1N1 vaccination increased the GBS rate. Therefore, mass influenza vaccination programs should not be precluded on the basis of GBS.

492) Full length and protease domain activity of chikungunya virus nsP2 differ from other alphavirus nsP2 proteases in recognition of small peptide substrates
Autor: Saisawang Chonticha, Sillapee Pornpan, Sinsirimongkol Kwanhathai, Ubol Sukathida, Smith Duncan R, Ketterman Albert J
Assunto: Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Cysteine protease, Non-structural protein 2 (nsP2)
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Bioscience Reports, v. 35, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1573-4935
Resumo: Alphavirus nsP2 proteins are multifunctional - essential for viral replication. The protease role of nsP2 is critical for virus replication as only the virus protease activity is used for processing of the viral non-structural polypeptide. Chikungunya virus is an emerging disease problem that is becoming a world-wide health issue. We have generated purified recombinant chikungunya virus nsP2 proteins, both full length - a truncated protease domain from the C-terminus of the nsP2 protein. Enzyme characterization shows that the protease domain alone has different properties compared with the full length nsP2 protease. We also show chikungunya nsP2 protease possesses different substrate specificity to the canonical alphavirus nsP2 polyprotein cleavage specificity. Moreover, the chikungunya nsP2 also appears to differ from other alphavirus nsP2 in its distinctive ability to recognize small peptide substrates.

493) Ability of the Encephalitic Arbovirus Semliki Forest virus to cross the blood-brain barrier is determined by the charge of the E2 glycoprotein
Autor: Ferguson Mhairi C, Saul Sirle, Fragkoudis Rennos, Weisheit Sabine, Cox Jonathan, Patabendige Adjanie, Sherwood Karen, Watson Mick, Merits Andres, Fazakerley John K
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 7536-7549, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Semliki Forest virus (SFV) provides a well-characterized model system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis. Several studies have used virus derived from the molecular clone SFV4. SFV4 virus does not have the same phenotype as the closely related L10 or the prototype virus from which its molecular clone was derived. In mice, L10 generates a high-titer plasma viremia, is efficiently neuroinvasive, - produces a fatal panencephalitis, whereas low-dose SFV4 produces a low-titer viremia, rarely enters the brain, - generally is avirulent. To determine the genetic differences responsible, the consensus sequence of L10 was determined - compared to that of SFV4. Of the 12 nucleotide differences, six were nonsynonymous; these were engineered into a new molecular clone, termed SFV6. The derived virus, SFV6, generated a high-titer viremia - was efficiently neuroinvasive - virulent. The phenotypic difference mapped to a single amino acid residue at position 162 in the E2 envelope glycoprotein (lysine in SFV4, glutamic acid in SFV6). Analysis of the L10 virus showed it contained different plaque phenotypes which differed