Epidemiologia, imunologia e repercussões clínicas

1) Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: retrospective case series study
Autor: Cavalcanti, Danielle Di; Alves, Lucas V.; Furtado, Geraldo J.; Santos, Cleusa C.; Feitosa, Fabiana G.; Ribeiro, Maria C.; Menge, Paulo; Lira, Izabelle M.; Alves, João G.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cephalometry
Fonte: Plos One, v. 12, n. 4, 2017
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants. In 80 infants, the test was not performed because it was not available at that time. All infants had negative serology for HIV, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. A complete transthoracic two-dimensional, M-mode, continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler and color Doppler echocardiographic (PHILIPS HD11XE or HD15) examination was performed on all infants. 14/103 (13.5%) echocardiograms were compatible with congenital heart disease: 5 with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 8 had a hemodynamically insignificant small apical muscular ventricular septal defect and one infant with dyspnea had a large membranous ventricular septal defect. The echocardiograms considered normal included 45 infants with a persistent foramen ovale and 16 with a minimum patent ductus arteriosus. Preliminarily this study suggests that congenital Zika syndrome may be associated with an increase prevalence of congenital heart disease. However the types of defects noted were septal defects, a proportion of which would not be hemodynamically significant.

2) Specific biomarkers associated with neurological complications and congenital central nervous system abnormalities from Zika Virus-Infected patients in Brazil
Autor: Kam, Yiu-Wing; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Lum, Fok-Moon; Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Lee, Bernett; Judice, Carla C.; Teixeira, Daniel Augusto de Toledo; Andreata-Santos, Robert; Vinolo, Marco A.; Angerami, Rodrigo; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Freitas, Andre Ricardo Ribas; Amaral, Eliana; Passini Junior, Renato; Costa, Maria Laura; Guida, José Paulo; Arns, Clarice Weis; Ferreira, Luis Carlos S.; Rénia, Laurent; Proença-Modena, Jose Luiz; Costa, Fabio T. M.
Assunto: Viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 216, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2017
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked to different levels of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild rash and fever to severe neurological complications and congenital malformations. We investigated the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the immune mediators profile in 95 acute ZIKV-infected adult patients from Campinas, Brazil. These patients included 6 pregnant women who later delivered during the course of this study. Clinical observations were recorded during hospitalization. Levels of 45 immune mediators were quantified using multiplex microbead-based immunoassays. Whereas 11.6% of patients had neurological complications, 88.4% displayed mild disease of rash and fever. Several immune mediators were specifically higher in ZIKV-infected patients, and levels of interleukin 10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and hepatocyte growth factor differentiated between patients with or without neurological complications. Interestingly, higher levels of interleukin 22, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, TNF-?, and IP-10 were observed in ZIKV-infected pregnant women carrying fetuses with fetal growth-associated malformations. Notably, infants with congenital central nervous system deformities had significantly higher levels of interleukin 18 and IP-10 but lower levels of hepatocyte growth factor than those without such abnormalities born to ZIKV-infected mothers. This study identified several key markers for the control of ZIKV pathogenesis. This will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection in patients.

3) Structure of the immature Zika virus at 9 Å resolution
Autor: Prasad, Vidya Mangala; Miller, Andrew S.; Klose, Thomas; Sirohi, Devika; Buda, Geeta; Jiang, Wen; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.
Assunto: Electron microscopy; Virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; ZIKV - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; ZIKV - Epidemic
Fonte: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, v. 24, p. 184-186, 2017
ISSN: 1545-9993
Resumo: The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is characterized by severe pathogenicity in both children and adults. Sequence changes in ZIKV since its first isolation are apparent when pre-epidemic strains are compared with those causing the current epidemic. However, the residues that are responsible for ZIKV pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the immature ZIKV at 9-Å resolution. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. However, the immature ZIKV contains a partially ordered capsid protein shell that is less prominent in other immature flaviviruses. Furthermore, six amino acids near the interface between pr domains at the top of the spikes were found to be different between the pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV, possibly influencing the composition and structure of the resulting viruses.

4) Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

5) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

6) ZIKA-How fast does this virus mutate?
Autor: S Logan Ian
Assunto: Mutation rate; Phylogenetic tree; Polyprotein; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu = Zoological research, v. 37, n. 2, p. 110-115, 2016
ISSN: 2095-8137
Resumo: The World Health Organization has declared the present Zika virus epidemic to be a 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern'. The virus appears to have spread from Thailand to French Polynesia in 2013, and has since infected over a million people in the countries of South and Central America. In most cases the infection is mild and transient, but the virus does appear to be strongly neurotropic and the presumptive cause of both birth defects in fetuses and Guillain-Barré syndrome in some adults. In this paper, the techniques and utilities developed in the study of mitochondrial DNA were applied to the Zika virus. As a result, it is possible to show in a simple manner how a phylogenetic tree may be constructed and how the mutation rate of the virus can be measured. The study showed the mutation rate to vary between 12 and 25 bases a year, in a viral genome of 10272 bases. This rapid mutation rate will enable the geographic spread of the epidemic to be monitored easily and may also prove useful in assisting the identification of preventative measures that are working, and those that are not.

7) Drug Industry Starts Race to Develop Zika Vaccine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Noemie Bisserbe And Betsy
Assunto: Pharmaceutical industry, Zika Virus Epidemic, Viral vaccine manufacturing, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

8) Zika virus and autoimmunity: from mycrocephaly to Guillain-Barré syndrome, and beyond
Autor: Lucchese Guglielmo,Kanduc Darja
Assunto: Aicardi-Goutieres syndromes; Guillain-Barré-like syndromes; Zika virus infection; Autoimmunity; Brain calcification; Centriolar and centrosomal proteins; Crossreactivity; Microcephaly; Ocular anomalies; Peptide sharing
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: Autoimmunity Reviews, v. 15, n. 8, p. 801-808, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0183
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy ma be linked to fetal neurological complications that include brain damage and microcephaly. How the viral infection relates to fetal brain malformations is unknown. This study analyzes ZIKV polyprotein for peptide sharing with human proteins that when altered, associate with microcephaly and brain calcifications. Results highlight a vast viral versus human peptide commonality that, in particular, involves centriolar and centrosomal components canonically cataloged as microcephaly proteins, i.e., C2CD3, CASC5, CP131, GCP4, KIF2A, STIL, and TBG. Likewise, a search for ZIKV peptide occurrences in human proteins linked to Guillain-Barré-like syndromes also show a high, unexpected level of peptide sharing. Of note, further analyses using the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) resource show that many of the shared peptides are endowed with immunological potential. The data indicate that immune reactions following ZIKV infection might be a considerable source of crossreactions with brain-specific proteins and might contribute to the ZIKV-associated neuropathologic sequelae.

9) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi, Kinoshita Ryo, Mizumoto Kenji, Yasuda Yohei, Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number; Epidemic; Statistical estimation; Transmissibility; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific - Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Isl-, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 - the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Isl- epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed - probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue - chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue - chikungunya.

10) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

11) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

12) Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination or infection: a Norwegian population-based cohort study
Autor: Ghaderi Sara,Gunnes Nina,Bakken Inger Johanne,Magnus Per,Trogstad Lill,Håberg Siri Eldevik
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; Influenza; Norway; Pandemrix®; Registry; Vaccination
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: European Journal of Epidemiology, v. 31, n. 1, p. 67-72, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7284
Resumo: Vaccinations and infections are possible triggers of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, studies on GBS after vaccinations during the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic in 2009, show inconsistent results. Only few studies have addressed the role of influenza infection. We used information from national health data-bases with information on the total Norwegian population (N = 4,832,211). Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates and self-controlled case series was applied. The risk of being hospitalized with GBS during the pandemic period, within 42 days after an influenza diagnosis or pandemic vaccination was estimated. There were 490 GBS cases during 2009-2012 of which 410 cases occurred after October 1, 2009 of which 46 new cases occurred during the peak period of the influenza pandemic. An influenza diagnosis was registered for 2.47 % of the population and the vaccination coverage was 39.25 %. The incidence rate ratio of GBS during the pandemic peak relative to other periods was 1.46 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.98]. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of GBS within 42 days after a diagnosis of pandemic influenza was 4.89 (95 % CI 1.17-20.36). After pandemic vaccination the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95 % CI 0.51-2.43). Our results indicated that there was a significantly increased risk of GBS during the pandemic season and after pandemic influenza infection. However, vaccination did not increase the risk of GBS. The small number of GBS cases in this study warrants caution in the interpretation of the findings.

13) Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: A new emerging neurotropic virus
Autor: Carod-Artal F J
Assunto: Enfermedad por virus Zika; Epidemiología; Flavivirus; Guillain-Barré; Microcefalia; Virus Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista de Neurologia, v. 62, n. 7, p. 317-328, 2016
ISSN: 1576-6578
Resumo: The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 - since then it has been reported in 31 countries - territories in America. The epidemiological - clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa - Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting - last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions - Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta - amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly - in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, - serological tests (IgM ELISA - neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue - chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus - its long-term consequences in adults - newborn infants is still limited.

14) Impact of Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Disease: a Review of Immune Mechanisms.
Autor: Wong Priscilla H.; White Kevin M.
Assunto: Autoimmune; Immunomodulation; Inflammatory diseases; Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy; Pediatric diseases
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 303-314, 2016
ISSN: 1559-0267
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual. In immune thrombocytopenia, IVIG targets the underlying increased platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Although theoretically promising, IVIG shows no clear clinical benefit in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Limitations in research design combined with the unique neonatal immunologic environment offer explanations for this finding. Inflammation from aberrant immune activation underlies the myelinotoxic effects of Guillain-Barré syndrome. HIV-1 exerts a broad range of immunologic effects and was found to decrease serious bacterial infections in the pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era, although its practical relevance in the post-HAART era has waned. Clinical and experimental data support the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy. IVIG exerts anti-epileptic effects through targeting upregulated cytokine pathways and antibodies thought to contribute to epilepsy. Applications in six additional pediatric diseases including pediatric asthma, atopic dermatitis, cystic fibrosis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), autism, and transplantation will also be briefly reviewed. From autoimmunity to immunodeficiency, a dynamic immunologic basis underlies major pediatric diseases and highlights the broad potential of IVIG therapy.

15) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.
Autor: Adibi Jennifer J,Marques Ernesto T A,Cartus Abigail,Beigi Richard H
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1587–1590, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

16) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

17) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: Insights for mosquito vector control
Autor: Benelli Giovanni, Mehlhorn Heinz
Assunto: Arbovirus; Artemisinin; Biological control; Boosted SIT; Nanosynthesis; Sex pheromones; Sound traps; Sterile insect technique; Swarming behaviour; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 5, p. 1747-1754, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], - the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention - control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, - RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America - the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades - became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) - chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective - eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles - Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations - even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps - the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. lure - kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming - mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic - symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates."

18) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Repellent ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

19) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N,O'Connor Catherine,Kirkbride Hilary,Brooks Tim,Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

20) Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury.
Autor: Dalton Harry R; Kamar Nassim; van Eijk Jeroen J. J.; Mclean Brendan N; Cintas Pascal; Bendall Richard P.; Jacobs Bart C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Nature Reviews, v. 12, n. 2, 77-85, 2016
ISSN: 1759-4766
Resumo: Hepatitis E is hyperendemic in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, and is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2, which are spread via the faecal-oral route by contaminated water. Recent data show that HEV infection is also endemic in developed countries. In such geographical settings, hepatitis E is caused by HEV genotypes 3 and 4, and is mainly a porcine zoonosis. In a minority of cases, HEV causes acute and chronic hepatitis, but infection is commonly asymptomatic or unrecognized. HEV infection is associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations, including a range of neurological injuries. To date, 91 cases of HEV-associated neurological injury - most commonly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, and encephalitis/myelitis - have been reported. Here, we review the reported cases, discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms, and present our perspectives on future directions and research questions.

21) Chikungunya virus infection in patients on biotherapies
Autor: Brunier Lauren, Polomat Katleen, Deligny Christophe, Dehlinger Véronique, Numéric Patrick, JeanBaptiste Georges, Arfi Serge, de Bandt Michel
Assunto: Arthritis; Biotherapy; Chikungunya; Epidemic
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Joint, Bone, Spine, v. 83, n. 2, p. 245-246, 2016
ISSN: 1778-7254
Resumo:

22) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M; Brooks John T.; Stryker Jo Ellen; Kachur Rachel E.; Mead Paul; Pesik Nicki T.; Petersen Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 201665, n. 5, p. 120-121
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

23) Battling Zika in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 794-793, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article reports on the campaign initiated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to limit the Zika outbreak in Brazil by spraying larvicide in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 13, 2016.

24) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Rash maculopapular ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

25) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

26) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

27) Maintaining a safe blood suply in an era of emerging pathogens
Autor: Marks Peter W, Epstein Jay S, Borio Luciana
Assunto: Blood safety; Donor screening tests; Emerging pathogens; Pathogen-reduction; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 213, n. 11, p. 1676-1677, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue - chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly - can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood suply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral - sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood suply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

28) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; Travel medicine
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

29) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic.
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kisubi Catholic Mission, Microcephaly, Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato, Zika virus, Zika virus and travel, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, p. 1-6, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

30) Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Willison Hugh J.; Jacobs Bart C.; van Doorn Pieter A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Lancet, v. 388, n. 10045, p. 717-727, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100 000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barré syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies.

31) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M,Brooks John T,Stryker Jo Ellen,Kachur Rachel E,Mead Paul,Pesik Nicki T,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

32) Subacute toxicity assessment of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, in adult male rats
Autor: de Barros Aline Lima,Cavalheiro Gabriela Finoto,de Souza Alexsandra Vila Maior,Traesel Giseli Karenina,Anselmo-Franci Janete A,Kassuya Cândida Aparecida Leite,Cristina Arena Arielle
Assunto: Diflubenzuron; Insecticide; Low-dose; Rats; Subacute toxicity; Testis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Toxicology, v. 31, n. 4, p. 407-414, 2016
ISSN: 1522-7278
Resumo: Diflubenzuron (DFB), an insecticide and acaricide insect growth regulator, can be used in agriculture against insect predators and in public health programs, to control insects and vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti larvae. Due to the lack of toxicological assessments of this compound, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of subacute exposure to the DFB insecticide in adult male rats. Adult male rats were exposed (gavage) to 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DFB for 28 days. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the DFB-treated animals of the experimental groups. However, there was an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in the group that received 8 mg/kg/DFB/day and urea at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/DFB/day, without altering other biochemical or hematological parameters. The subacute exposure to the lowest dose of DFB caused significant decrease in testis weight, daily sperm production, and in number of sperm in the epididymis in relation to the control group. However, no alterations were observed in the sperm morphology, testicular, epididymis, liver and kidney histology, or testosterone levels. These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of DFB on male reproduction after the subacute exposure and special attention should be addressed to the effects of low doses of this pesticide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 407-414, 2016.

33) Zika virus infection and microcephaly.
Autor: Millichap J Gordon
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Brazil, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Pediatric Neurology Briefs, v. 30, n. 1 p. 8, 2016
ISSN: 1043-3155
Resumo: A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

34) The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review
Autor: Alhaeli Alaa,Bahkali Salwa,Ali Anna,Househ Mowafa S,El-Metwally Ashraf A
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Risk; Saudi Arabia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 9, n. 2, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1876-035X
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients.

35) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

36) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Chikungunya; Dengue virus; Brazil; Microcephaly
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Head circumference ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2; p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

37) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

38) Zika Trial Tentatively Approved By F.D.A.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pollack, Andrew
Assunto: Zika virus, Research, Field work (Research), Transgenic insects, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes - Genetics - Research, Insect genes, Dengue - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57169, p. B1-B2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval of a field trial research program involving genetically engineered mosquitoes (GEMs) in America in association with a global effort to stop the spread of the Zika virus as of 2016. It states that the GEMs, which contain a gene that kills their offspring, have been effective in suppressing the populations of mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus and dengue fever in Brazil and other nations.

39) ZIKAtracker: A mobile app for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin A.A., Banner D., Pamplona L., Alencar C., Rubino S., Heukelbach J.
Assunto: mobile application
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

40) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

41) Zika epidemic: countermeasures are starting
Titulo Alternativo: Zika-Epidemie: Gegenmaßnahmen laufen an
Autor: Von Christina, Hohmann-Jedd
Assunto: Epidemic; Human; Nonhuman; Short survey; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Pharmazeutische Zeitung, v. 161, n. 8, 2016.
ISSN: 0031-7136
Resumo:

42) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Jankosky Christopher; Cano Maria
Assunto: Post-licensure surveillance, Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4) were first available for use during 2013-14 influenza season for individuals aged ?6 months. IIV4 is designed to protect against four different flu viruses; two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after IIV4 and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) from 7/1/2013-5/31/2015. Medical records were requested for non-manufacturer reports classified as serious (i.e. death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability). The review included automated data analysis, clinical review of all serious reports, reports of special interest, and empirical Bayesian data mining. VAERS received 1,838 IIV4 reports; 512 (28%) in persons aged 6 months-17 years of which 42 (8.2%) were serious reports; 1,265 (69%) in persons aged >18 years of which 84 (6.6%) were serious reports; two in children <6 months and 59 in persons of unknown age. Injection site erythema (24%), fever (14%) and injection site swelling (17%) were the most frequent adverse events among persons aged 6 months-17 years, while injection site pain (16%), pain (15%) and pain in extremity (13%) were the most frequent among persons aged 18-64 years given the vaccine alone. Among non-death serious reports, injection site reactions, constitutional symptoms, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures, and anaphylaxis were the most frequently reported adverse events. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for incorrect vaccine administration with no associated adverse events. Adverse events following IIV4 reported to VAERS were similar to those following IIV3. In our review of VAERS reports, IIV4 had a similar safety profile to IIV3. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious. Our findings are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies of IIV4.

43) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

44) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

45) New Study Links Zika Virus to Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Betsy
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus, Public health, Immunology
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

46) Zika - a pandemic in progress?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mohamad Idris, Fauziah
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Countermeasures; Pandemic; Zika virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Alphavirus infection; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Dengue; Dengue virus; Epidemic; Guillain Barre syndrome; Human; Infection control; Infection risk; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Risk factor; Sexual transmission; Vector control; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, v. 23, n. 2, p. 70-72, 2016.
ISSN: 2180-4303
Resumo: The emerging threat of Zika virus outbreak with associated neurological abnormalities needs to be assessed in perspective in terms of its ability to cause a pandemic. This article attempts to throw some light on the issue.

47) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

48) Zika virus infection, the recent menace of the Aedes mosquito
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bajpai, Smrati; Nadkar, Milind Y.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, v. 64, p. 42-45, 2016.
ISSN: 0004-5772
Resumo: Mosquito-borne infections and viral outbreaks have bewildered physicians and population at large from time to time, there seems to be a constant cat and mouse race between the medical fraternity and these mosquito menaces. Zika virus and its vector Aedes aegyti are currently bothering the world population, this infection has affected pregnant women causing microcephaly in their new-borns and also has caused GBS-like manifestations in affected individuals. Currently the outbreak is concentrated in the countries of South American continent, but the omnipresence of its vector has made the world community cautious about the potential of its spread; thus the great emphasis is on prevention and vector control strategies to counter Zika virus attack. Consequently, Ministry of Health, Government of India has also taken cognizance of this and issued guidelines to tackle this problem.

49) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

50) Chronic chikungunya virus musculoskeletal disease: What are the underlying mechanisms?
Autor: McCarthy Mary K, Morrison Thomas E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Future Microbiology, v. 11, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1746-0921
Resumo:

51) Questions your patients may have about zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kmietowicz, Zosia
Assunto: Guadeloupe; Human; Leisure; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnancy; Priority journal; Sexual intercourse; Symptom; Travel; Vector control; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i649, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

52) WHO declares ?public health emergency? for microcephaly linked to Zika virus
Autor: Lappin R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emergency Medicine, v. 48, n.2, p.55-57,2016.
ISSN: 136654
Resumo: [No abstract available]

53) Zika virus infection: new threat in global health
Autor: Lee, Jacob
Assunto: French Polynesia; Outbreak; Transmission; States
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Korean Medical Science, v. 31, n. 3, p. 331-332, 2016
ISSN: 1011-8934
Resumo:

54) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango A., Abílio A.P.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo City; Mozambique; New Record
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites and Vectors, v. 9, n. 76,2016.
ISSN: 17563305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December,2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors. ©2016 Kampango and Abílio.

55) Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
Autor: Betancur Juan-Felipe, Navarro Erika Paola, Echeverry Alex, Suso Juan Pablo, Bravo Bonilla José Humberto, Daniel Cortés Armando, Cañas Dávila Carlos, Vélez Juan Diego, Tobón Gabriel J
Assunto: Chikungunya virus infection; Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome; Multiorgan failure; Systemic lupus erythematosus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 68, n. 4, p. 1044, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo:

56) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

57) Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China
Autor: Deng Yichu,Zeng Liping,Bao Wen,Xu Pinghua,Zhong Gongrong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing ji jiu yi xue, v. 28, n. 2, p. 106-109, 2016
ISSN: 2095-4352
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged lymph nodes were found. Bilateral conjunctival congestion was obvious, physiological reflex existed and pathological reflex was not found. (3) Auxiliary lab test and examination: no abnormal finding were revealed throughout examination and laboratory tests, including routine blood test, liver function, renal function, serum myocardial enzyme, electrolyte, blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin I (TnI), and procalcitonin (PCT), except slight prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 38.6 s) on February 6th; and slightly dense shadow in left lung in lung CT scan, considering inflammatory changes and slight emphysema (especially in the left lower lung) as well as bilateral renal calculus on February 8th. No significant abnormalities were found in electrocardiogram and B ultrasound test of liver, spleen, and pancreas. (4) Virus confirmation: Zika virus nucleic acid was positive reported by Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 7th and Chinese CDC on February 9th, respectively, though Dengue virus were negative reported by Ganzhou CDC on February 6th. Right after the first diagnosis, anyone who had been in close contact with the patient received medical monitoring. (5)Treatment process: on February 6th, symptomatic treatment was prescribed since admitted into the infectious isolation wards and daily intravenous drip of Xiyanping injection 250 mg was prescribed for antiviral therapy. On February 7th, the patient had no fever, with occasional chills, neck rash was disappeared, orbital pain relieved and bilateral conjunctival hyperemia range was paler and narrowed, and his condition improved. Ibuprofen was administered for defervesce 3 times a day when his temperature reached to 37.5?centigrade at 16:00. On February 8th, the patient had no fever, times of chills was significantly reduced, without myalgia and rash, orbital pain and conjunctival hyperemia further recovered. On February 9th, bilateral eyes slightly tingling, mild conjunctival congestion, no fever chills or other discomfort was found. The chloramphenicol eye drops was prescribed for relieving sting pain with conjunctival congestion twice a day as recombinant human interferon alpha eye drops was out of store. The patient was comfortable from February 11th to February 13th. Blood and urine test for Zika were reported negative by the Chinese CDC and Jiangxi Province CDC. Because all the discharge criteria were satisfied, the patient was discharged on February 14th. At present, there is no specific effective drug to prevent and treat Zika virus disease effectually. After receiving symptomatic treatment and antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection, the patient's symptoms were relieved. Zika virus nucleic acid in blood and urine was negative. The patient was discharged. Combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine maybe a good method to prevent and treat Zika virus disease.

58) Severe eye damage in infants with microcephaly is presumed to be due to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McCarthy, Michael
Assunto: Arthralgia; Awareness; Brazil; Chorioretinal atrophy; Chorioretinopathy; Congenital infection; Conjunctivitis; Disease association; Disease severity; Epidemic; Eye disease; Eye examination; Eye injury; Fever; Focal pigment mottling; Head circumference; Headache; Human; Infant; Iris coloboma; Lens subluxation; Microcephaly; Note; Optic disc cupping; Optic nerve hypoplasia; Priority journal; Rash; Retina macula lutea; Screening test; Virus; Virus infection; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i855, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

59) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of Rubia cordifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
Autor: Gandhi M R,Reegan A D,Ganesan P,Sivasankaran K,Paulraj M G,Balakrishna K,Ignacimuthu S,Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic filariasis, Mosquito control, Sustainable pest control, Vector control
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

60) Zika virus: A new global threat for 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection (etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

61) Zika Virus
Autor: Musso Didier, Gubler Duane J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology Reviews, v. 29, n. 3, p. 487-524, 2016
ISSN: 1098-6618
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus - the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 - from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, - ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific - the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific - can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue - chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 - 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, - the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans - domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus.

62) The emerging zika pandemic: enhancing preparedness
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lucey, Daniel R.; Gostin, Lawrence O.
Assunto: Insect repellent; Insecticide; Aedes; Africa; Bed net; Brain malformation; Brazil; Disease surveillance; Ebola hemorrhagic fever; El Salvador; Epidemic; Europe; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Guillain Barre syndrome; Health care organization; Health care personnel; High risk population; Human; Infection risk; Laboratory test; Medical information; Mexico; Microcephaly; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; National health service; Nonhuman; Pacific islands; Pandemic; Pesticide spraying; Philippines; Practice guideline; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Protective clothing; Public health service; Puerto Rico; Short survey; Southeast Asia; Travel; United States; Vector control; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016.
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

63) Causal or not: applying the Bradford Hill aspects of evidence to the association between Zika virus and microcephaly
Autor: Frank Christina,Faber Mirko,Stark Klaus
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: EMBO Molecular Medicine, v. 8, n. 4, p. 305-307, 2016
ISSN: 1757-4684
Resumo:

64) The impact of indoor residual spraying of deltamethrin on dengue vector populations in the Peruvian Amazon
Autor: Paredes-Esquivel Claudia,Lenhart Audrey,Del Río Ricardo,Leza M M,Estrugo M,Chalco Enrique,Casanova Wilma,Miranda Miguel Ángel
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; IRS; Indoor residual spraying; Mosquitoes; Vector-control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 154, p. 139-144, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Dengue is an important public health problem in the Amazon area of Peru, resulting in significant morbidity each year. As in other areas of the world, ultra-low volume (ULV) application of insecticides is the main strategy to reduce adult populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, despite growing evidence of its limitations as a single control method. This study investigated the efficacy of deltamethrin S.C. applied through indoor residual spraying (IRS) of dwellings in reducing A. aegypti populations. The residual effect of the insecticide was tested by monthly bioassays on the three most common indoor surfaces found in the Amazon area: painted wood, unpainted wood and brick. The results showed that in an area with moderate levels of A. aegypti infestation, IRS dramatically reduced all immature indices the first week after deltamethrin IRS application and the adult index from 18.5 to 3.1, four weeks after intervention (p<0.05). Even though housing conditions facilitated reinfestation with A. aegypti (100% of the houses have open roof eaves, 31.5% lack sewage systems, and 60.4% collected rain in open containers), indices remained low compared to baseline 16 weeks after insecticide application. Bioassays showed that deltamethrin S.C. caused mortalities >80% 8 weeks after application on all types of surfaces. The residual effect of the insecticide was greater on brick than on wooden walls (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that IRS can have both an immediate and sustained effect on reducing adult and immature A. aegypti populations and should be considered as an adult mosquito control strategy by dengue vector control programs.

65) Argentina Struggles to Control a Major Outbreak of Dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gilbert, Jonathan
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times. v. 165, n. 57146, p. A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the struggle of Argentina government to control Zika virus in which outbreak is said to keep growing until March or April 2016.

66) Transmission of zika virus through sexual contact with travelers to areas of ongoing transmission - Continental United States, 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L.; Russell, Kate; Hennessey, Morgan; Williams, Charnetta; Oster, Alexandra M.; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? Zika virus is spread primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, though recent reports have described two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. CDC released interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016. What is added by this report? This report provides information on six confirmed and probable cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from male travelers to female nontravelers. This suggests that sexual transmission of Zika virus might be more common than previously reported. What are the implications for public health practice? Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission who have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

67) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Autor: Roze, B.; Najioullah, F.; Ferge, J.; Apetse, K.; Brouste, Y.; Cesaire, R.; Fagour, C.; Fagour, L.; Hochedez, P.; Jeannin, S.; Joux, J.; Mehdaoui, H.; Valentino, R.; Signate, A.; Cabie, A.
Assunto: Dengue virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, p. 8-11, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

68) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N.; O'Connor Catherine; Kirkbride Hilary; Brooks Tim.; Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

69) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola, Habida, Gozzer, Ernesto, Jiatong Zhuo, Memish, Ziad A.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Special events, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Muslim pilgrims & pilgrimages, Mosquitoes, Diseases, Social aspects, Saudi Arabia, Mecca
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet , v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses how to be prepared against Zika virus while participating at several international events including 2016 Rio Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj. It states the need to use personal mosquito bite protection including insect repellents, protective clothing, and long-sleeved shirts. It mentions that health-care providers are encouraged to use travel health visits to emphasize personal protection against mosquito bites and sexual transmission.

70) SUN2 overexpression deforms nuclear shape and inhibits HIV
Autor: Donahue Daniel A, Amraoui Sonia, di Nunzio Francesca, Kieffer Camille, Porrot Françoise, Opp Silvana, Diaz-Griffero Felipe, Casartelli Nicoletta, Schwartz Olivier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4199-4214, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: In a previous screen of putative interferon-stimulated genes, SUN2 was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in an uncharacterized manner. SUN2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein belonging to the linker of nucleoskeleton - cytoskeleton complex. We have analyzed here the role of SUN2 in HIV infection. We report that in contrast to what was initially thought, SUN2 is not induced by type-I interferon, - that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection. However, SUN2 overexpression in cell lines - in primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells inhibits replication of HIV but not murine leukemia virus or chikungunya virus. We identified HIV-1 - HIV-2 strains that are unaffected by SUN2, suggesting that the effect is specific to particular viral components or cofactors. Intriguingly, SUN2 overexpression induces a multilobular flower-like" nuclear shape that does not impact cell viability, - is similar to cells isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia or with progeria. Nuclear shape changes - HIV inhibition both mapped to the nucleoplasmic domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. This block to HIV replication occurs between reverse transcription - nuclear entry, - passaging experiments selected for a single amino acid change in capsid (CA) that leads to resistance to overexpressed SUN2. Furthermore, using chemical inhibition or silencing of cyclophilin A (CypA), as well as CA mutant viruses, we implicated CypA in the SUN2-imposed block to HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 overexpression perturbs both nuclear shape - early events of HIV infection. Cells encode proteins that interfere with viral replication, a number of which have been identified in overexpression screens. SUN2 is a nuclear membrane protein that was shown to inhibit HIV infection in such a screen, but how it blocked HIV infection was not known. We show that SUN2 overexpression blocks infection of certain strains of HIV, before nuclear entry. Mutation of the viral capsid protein yielded SUN2-resistant HIV. Additionally, the inhibition of HIV infection by SUN2 involves Cyclophilin A, a protein that binds the HIV capsid - directs subsequent steps of infection. We also found that SUN2 overexpression substantially changes the shape of the cell's nucleus resulting in many "flower-like" nuclei. Both HIV inhibition - deformation of nuclear shape required the domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 interferes with HIV infection, - highlight novel links between nuclear shape - viral infection."

71) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

72) Zika virus and neurological disease-approaches to the unknown
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solomon T., Baylis M., Brown D.
Assunto: neurologic disease, virus, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

73) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Autor: Ginier Mylène, Neumayr Andreas, Günther Stephan, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Blum Johannes
Assunto: Flavivirus infection; Travel medicine; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence - rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical - diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril - afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation - cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy - foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women - women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low - seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America - Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission."

74) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

75) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

76) Chikungunya fever in Japan imported from the Caribbean Islands
Autor: Imai Kazuo, Nakayama Eri, Maeda Takuya, Mikita Kei, Kobayashi Yukiko, Mitarai Aoi, Honma Yasuko, Miyake Satoru, Kaku Koki, Miyahira Yasushi, Kawana Akihiko
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Caribbean; Japan; Chikungunya fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 69, n. 2, p. 151-153, 2016
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean isl-s presented with a high-grade fever - severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR - serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer - immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months - the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, - matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean isl-s. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis - have a history of travel to an endemic area.

77) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.
Autor: de Paula Freitas Bruno,de Oliveira Dias João Rafael,Prazeres Juliana,Sacramento Gielson Almeida,Ko Albert Icksang,Maia Maurício,Belfort Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ?32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

78) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

79) Is South Africa at risk for zika virus disease?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Van Vuren P.J., Weyer J., Kemp A., Dermaux-Msimang V., McCarthy K., Blumberg L., Paweska J.
Assunto: virus infection (epidemiology, etiology), zika virus disease (epidemiology, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: South African Medical Journal, v. 106, n. 3, p. 232-233, mar. 2016
ISSN: 0256-9574
Resumo:

80) Zika and a Woman’s Right to Choose.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diniz, Debora
Assunto: Zika virus, Pregnancy, Brazil. Ministry of Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57136, p. A25, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The author mentions of increased threat of Zika virus in Brazil since October 2015 and mentions that the Health Ministry of Brazil has urged women to avoid pregnancy until the epidemic is passed and also mentions that low-paid women and domestic workers are more prone to the Zika virus.

81) Zika virus.
Autor: Basarab Marina,Bowman Conor,Aarons Emma J,Cropley Ian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

82) Satyrization and satyrization-resistance in competitive displacements of invasive mosquito species
Autor: Bargielowski Irka Ewa,Lounibos Leon Philip
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Mating interference; Reproductive interference; Satyrization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Insect Science, v. 23, n. 2, p. 162-174, 2016
ISSN: 1744-7917
Resumo: Competitive displacements or reductions of resident populations of insects, often effected by a related species, may be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Satyrization is a form of mating interference in which males of one species mate with females of another species, significantly decreasing their fitness and not generating hybrids. Satyrization has been established to be the probable cause of competitive displacements of resident mosquitoes by invasive species, especially of Aedes aegypti by Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Mathematical models predict that even low levels of asymmetric mating interference are capable of producing competitive displacements or reductions. Couplings of virgin Ae. aegypti females with Ae. albopictus males effectively sterilize these females through the monogamizing actions of male accessory gland products, but the converse interspecific mating does not impact the future reproduction of Ae. albopictus females. Populations of Ae. aegypti exposed to satyrization quickly evolve resistance to interspecific mating, which is believed to ameliorate reproductive interference from, and promote co-existence with, Ae. albopictus. The evolution of satyrization resistance among Ae. aegypti in laboratory cages is accompanied by fitness costs, such as reduced fecundity and slower receptivity to conspecific males. Cage experiments and field observations indicate that Ae. albopictus males are capable of satyrizing females of other species of the Stegomyia subgenus, potentially leading to competitive displacements, and possible extinctions, especially of endemic species on islands. Examination of other examples of reproductive interference in insects reveals few parallels to the mechanism and outcomes of satyrization by Ae. albopictus. We conclude by posing the hypothesis that satyrization may favor the ecological success of Ae. albopictus, and suggest many lines for future research on this phenomenon.

83) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

84) The asian tiger hunts in Maputo city - the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kampango, Ayubo; Ablio, Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo city; Mozambique; New record ; Arbovirus; Article; Chikungunya virus; Disease carrier; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Invasive species; Mosquito bite; Nonhuman; Population abundance; Taxonomic identification; Urban area; Vector control; Virus transmission; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 76, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

85) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

86) Zika virus associated with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej; Korva, Misa; Tul, Nataa; Popovi, Mara; Poljak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Mraz, Jerica; Kolenc, Marko; Rus, Katarina Resman; Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver; Voduek, Vesna Fabjan; Vizjak, Alenka; Piem, Joe; Petrovec, Miroslav; Zupanc, Tatjana Avic
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reversetranscriptase- polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

87) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth.
Autor: Tang Hengli,Hammack Christy,Ogden Sarah C,Wen Zhexing,Qian Xuyu,Li Yujing,Yao Bing,Shin Jaehoon,Zhang Feiran,Lee Emily M,Christian Kimberly M,Didier Ruth A,Jin Peng,Song Hongjun,Ming Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

88) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

89) 14 New Reports of Sexual Transmission of Zika in U.S.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Transmisson
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57152, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the health authorities in the U.S. regarding the transmission of the Zika virus by sex.

90) A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria
Autor: Ayorinde Adenola F, Oyeyiga Ayorinde M, Nosegbe Nwakaego O, Folarin Onikepe A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Febrile; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 9, n. 1, p. 52-59, 2016
ISSN: 1876-035X
Resumo: Most febrile patients are often misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar symptoms, such as fever shared by malaria - certain arboviral infections. This study surveyed the incidence of malaria, chikungunya - dengue infections among a number of suspected febrile patients visiting Simawa Health Centre, Ogun State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were obtained from 60 febrile patients (age 3-70 years) visiting the centre between April - May 2014. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to detect the presence of chikungunya (CHK) antibodies (IgM), dengue (DEN) virus - antibodies (NS1, IgM - IgG) - malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum - Plasmodium vivax). Malarial confirmatory tests were by microscopy - nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the polymorphic region of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) gene. The complexity of P. falciparum infection in the community also determined by the use of nested PCR. These three mosquito-borne infections were observed in 63% (38) of the patients. The prevalence of CHK, DEN - malarial infections singularly were 11%, 0% - 63%, respectively, whereas malaria with either CHK or DEN infections were 24% (9) - 3% (1), respectively. No subjects were positive for CHK - DEN co-infection. Malarial microscopic confirmation was in 94% (32) of the malaria RDT-positive samples, 50% (17) were successfully analysed by nested PCR - the mean multiplicity of infection was 1.6 (1-3 clones). One patient sample harboured both P. falciparum - P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them.

91) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

92) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010
Autor: Laoprasopwattana K, Suntharasaj T, Petmanee P, Suddeaugrai O, Geater A
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Dengue viral infection; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 144, n. 2, p. 381-388, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection - maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thail-. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thail-, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG - dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% - the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes - congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK - DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV - DENV are endemic in southern Thail-; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

93) Zika virus: a new pandemic threat
Autor: Al-Qahtani Ahmed Ali, Nazir Nyla, Al-Anazi Mashael R, Rubino Salvatore, Al-Ahdal Mohammed N
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 3, p. 201-207, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family - is related to dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, yellow fever, - Japanese encephalitis viruses. ZIKV was first discovered in Ug-a in 1947. Different species of mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly A. aegypti - A. albopictus are the vectors responsible for ZIKV infection in humans. It is also reported that ZIKV is transmitted congenitally, sexually, - through blood donation. Until recently, ZIKV outbreaks were sporadic - self-limiting. The first large epidemic was reported from Yap Isl- in 2007 followed by an outbreak of Zika fever in French Polynesia in 2013. Brazil is the epicenter of the current ZIKV epidemic which is rapidly spreading across the Americas. ZIKV infection remained relatively less studied in view of its low case numbers, - low clinical impact relative to other arboviruses. However, all this is set to change with its rapid spread in the Western hemisphere - suspected complications particularly microcephaly in newborn babies with ZIKV infected mothers. ZIKV is expected to substantially add to both short-term - long-term economic burden of the effected countries. Due to the large number of people travelling across the borders - some reported cases of transmission of ZIKV via contaminated blood, screening - identification of asymptomatic infected individuals are important.

94) The neurotranscriptome of the Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Matthews Benjamin J,McBride Carolyn S,DeGennaro Matthew,Despo Orion,Vosshall Leslie B
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; mRNA-sequencing; De novo genome assembly; Host-seeking behavior; Neural genes; Chemosensory receptors; Ion channels; G protein-coupled receptors; Gonotrophic cycle; Neurogenetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 17, n. 1, p. 32, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: A complete genome sequence and the advent of genome editing open up non-traditional model organisms to mechanistic genetic studies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and has a large and complex genome, which has slowed annotation efforts. We used comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of adult gene expression to improve the genome annotation and to provide a detailed tissue-specific catalogue of neural gene expression at different adult behavioral states. We carried out deep RNA sequencing across all major peripheral male and female sensory tissues, the brain and (female) ovary. Furthermore, we examined gene expression across three important phases of the female reproductive cycle, a remarkable example of behavioral switching in which a female mosquito alternates between obtaining blood-meals from humans and laying eggs. Using genome-guided alignments and de novo transcriptome assembly, our re-annotation includes 572 new putative protein-coding genes and updates to 13.5 and 50.3 % of existing transcripts within coding sequences and untranslated regions, respectively. Using this updated annotation, we detail gene expression in each tissue, identifying large numbers of transcripts regulated by blood-feeding and sexually dimorphic transcripts that may provide clues to the biology of male- and female-specific behaviors, such as mating and blood-feeding, which are areas of intensive study for those interested in vector control. This neurotranscriptome forms a strong foundation for the study of genes in the mosquito nervous system and investigation of sensory-driven behaviors and their regulation. Furthermore, understanding the molecular genetic basis of mosquito chemosensory behavior has important implications for vector control.

95) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

96) Zika virus in the dock.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, null, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Molecular diagnosis, Cross reactions (Immunology), Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n.3, p. 265, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

97) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Sexual; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2. p. 93-97, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current p-emic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) - flaviviruses (dengue - Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti - A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype - temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan - Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis - not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual - via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain - persistent immune response. Two c-idate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR - ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, - plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR - virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA - plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion - fenitrothion) - pyrethroids (permethrin - deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive - biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

98) The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito
Autor: Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim,Vogel Christoph Franz Adam
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; IGRs; Insecticide resistance; Mosquito control; Octopamine receptor agonists; Synergistic ratio
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 155, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist's effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm(2)) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

99) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

100) A puzzling path from infection to Guillain-Barré syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang T.T.
Assunto: Guillain Barre syndrome
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science Translational Medicine, 2016, v. 8, n. 326, p. 326-328, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1946-6242 (electronic),1946-6234
Resumo:

101) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Autor: Calvet Guilherme, Aguiar Renato S, Melo Adriana S O, Sampaio Simone A, de Filippis Ivano, Fabri Allison, Araujo Eliane S M, de Sequeira Patricia C, de Mendonça Marcos C L, de Oliveira Louisi, Tschoeke Diogo A, Schrago Carlos G, Thompson Fabiano L, Brasil Patricia, Dos Santos Flavia B, Nogueira Rita M R, Tanuri Amilcar, de Filippis Ana M B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 6, p. 653-660, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors - several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect - sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' - 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, - rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA - RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR - viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction - investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains - from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, - parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, - that in both envelope - NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North - South America, southeast Asia, - the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus - other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus - cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

102) The American epidemic of zika, or medicine facing religion
Titulo Alternativo: L’épidémie américaine de Zika, ou la médecine face à la religion
Autor: Nau, Jean-Yves
Assunto: Religion; Short Survey; Virus infection; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Revue Medicale Suisse, v. 12, n. 504, p. 282-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1660-9379
Resumo:

103) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

104) Zika: hazing could halt spread.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Universities & colleges, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Times Higher Education, n. 2242, p. 17-18, 2016
ISSN: 493929
Resumo: The article reports that Brazilian universities have signed the Brazilian Education Pact against Zika virus, which was introduced by Brazil's education minister Aloízio Mercadante; and mentions that the minister has suggested students to use hazing rituals to raise awareness of the virus.

105) The impact of rainfall and temperature on the spatial progression of cases during the chikungunya re-emergence in Thailand in 2008-2009
Autor: Chadsuthi Sudarat, Iamsirithaworn Sopon, Triampo Wannapong, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emergence; Spatial; Thailand
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 125-133, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: In 2008, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Thail- after more than a decade of absence. Cases first appeared in the extreme southern region of the country - advanced northward approx. 300 km over the next 18 months. The spatial advance of CHIKV cases appeared to occur at two rates, initially progressing slowly - then increasing in speed. We hypothesize that climatic variation affected the transmission of CHIKV in the country. To determine the effect of climate on CHIKV transmission, we evaluated models where climate affects the transmission rate from mosquitoes to humans; extrinsic incubation period; fertility rate of mosquitoes; - the mortality rate of mosquito larvae. We compared these models to models that did not include climate effects. The inclusion of climate data greatly improved model fit with models assuming climate affected the fertility rate of mosquitoes providing the best fit to data. These results suggest that climatic variation contributed to the slower rate of incidence observed in March 2009. Overall, a gradient in transmission probability - mortality - fertility rates of mosquito is observed over the entire area with the most southern districts experiencing the most efficient transmission.

106) NIH hopes funding increases will continue.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Government aid to research, Zika Virus Epidemic, Medical research - Economic aspects, Budget, Endowment of research, Government aid, Economics, United States - Politics & government - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the move of the U.S Congress to approve the funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2016 budget. It states that the funding for several (NIH) initiatives includes $200 million for precision medicine, personalized treatments for targeted disease, and preventing antibiotic resistance. It mentions that the NIH supporters worry about the 2017 budget and the threat of zika virus.

107) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

108) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown C.
Assunto: epidemic (epidemiology, etiology), virus infection (epidemiology, etiology), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ, v. 188, n. 2, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329 (electronic),0820-3946
Resumo:

109) Brazil State Bans Pesticide After Zika Claim.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pesticides - Law & legislation, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

110) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

111) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of rubia cordifolia against culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Gandhi M R, Reegan A D, Ganesan P, Sivasankaran K, Paulraj M G, Balakrishna K, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay; Zika virus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Lymphatic filariasis; Mosquito control; Sustainable pest control; Vector control
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Larvicide ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, v. 45, n. 4, p. 441-448, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions - a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae - pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say - Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae - pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 - 10 ppm for fractions - 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 - 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed - the LC50 - LC90 values were estimated for larvae - pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus - A. aegypti. LC50 - LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 - 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.86 - 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, - 3.76 - 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.92 - 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal - pupicidal activities. LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 - 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus - 1.31 - 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 - 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 2.05 - 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis - compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide - pupicide.

112) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

113) Another emerging pathogen - Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Zika virus - još jedan novoiskrsli patogen
Autor: Lazi?, Srdjan
Assunto: Zika virus, Flaviviruses, Research, Pathogenic microorganisms, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, v. 73, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016
ISSN: 428450
Resumo:

114) Infection disease surveillance update.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zwizwai, Ruth
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Communicable diseases, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Public health, Vaccination
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 299, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

115) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

116) Traveler's Diarrhea
Autor: Giddings Stanley L,Stevens A Michal,Leung Daniel T
Assunto: Antibiotic prophylaxis; Diarrhea; Epidemiology; Probiotics; Risk factors; Travel
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: The Medical Clinics of North America, v. 100, n. 2, p. 317-330, 2016
ISSN: 1557-9859
Resumo: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return.

117) The Chikungunya virus: An emerging US pathogen
Autor: Nappe Thomas M, Chuhran Craig M, Johnson Steven A
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Mosquito-borne disease; Polyarthralgia
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: World Journal of Emergency Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 65-67, 2016
ISSN: 1920-8642
Resumo: The Chikungunya (CHIK) virus was recently reported by the CDC to have spread to the United States. We report an early documented case of CHIK from the state of Pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from Haiti in June of 2014. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, fatigue, polyarthralgias - a diffuse rash for two days. Four days before, he returned from a mission trip to Haiti - reported that four of his accompanying friends had also become ill. A CHIK antibody titer was obtained - it was found to be positive. During his hospital stay, he responded well to supportive care, including anti-inflammatories, intravenous hydration - anti-emetics. His condition improved within two days - he was ultimately discharged home. Manifestations of CHIK can be similar to Dengue fever, which is transmitted by the same species of mosquito, - occasionally as a co-infection. Clinicians should include Chikungunya virus in their differential diagnosis of patients who present with fever, polyarthralgia - rash with a recent history of travel to endemic areas, including those within the United States.

118) Feedback
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Quantum superposition, Zika Virus Epidemic, Antibiotics - Physiological effect
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3062, p. 64, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: Several letters to the editor are presented in response to articles in previous issues including quantum superposition in the February 13, 2016 issue, pesticides responsible for the microcephaly associated with Zika virus, and antibiotic resistance.

119) Maintaining a safe blood supply in an era of emerging pathogens.
Autor: Marks Peter W,Epstein Jay S,Borio Luciana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

120) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

121) Imported cases of Chikungunya in Barcelona in relation to the current American outbreak
Autor: Bocanegra Cristina, Antón Andrés, Sulleiro Elena, Pou Diana, Salvador Fernando, Roure Silvia, Gimferrer Laura, Espasa Mateu, Franco Leticia, Molina Israel, Valerio Lluís
Assunto: America; Barcelona; Chikungunya; Europe; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus (CKIKV) is currently present in America. Travel between America - Europe is particularly intense - one of the main vectors of CHIKV, Aedes albopictus, is well established in the Mediterranean basin. We describe a series of imported cases that could originate a European outbreak. We retrospectively studied cases of CHIKV originating in America - diagnosed in the last year in three Tropical Medicine Units of Barcelona of the International Health Program of the Catalan Health Institute (PROSICS). Clinical, microbiological - epidemiological data were analyzed. Forty-two CHIKV cases who had returned from 11 American countries were included. Fever was the most common symptom at onset (96.1%). Three months after symptom onset 50% continued with arthralgias, 35.3% fatigue - 11.8% arthritis. Three patients were viremic at the time of diagnosis by RT-PCR, - the remaining were diagnosed by serology (CHIKV IgM or IgG). Five (11.9%) patients had positive IgM for both dengue virus - CHIKV. The origin of the cases was diverse, the most frequent being initially the Dominican Republic, followed later by Venezuela - Colombia. Symptoms were not severe but persisted, accompanied by unremitting positive IgM. Diagnosis was mainly based on serology - RT-PCR, with the performance of the rapid immunochromatographic test being low. Phylogenetic studies showed that two viremic cases were caused by a strain of Asian lineage with a lower adaptability to Aedes albopictus. Co-infection with the dengue virus was common, but the clinical course was not affected by coinfection. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered to 71.4% - steroids to 21.4%. The number of imported cases of CHIKV in Spain is rising due to introduction of this virus in America, - this could lead to an autochthonous outbreak if Public Health measures are not taken.

122) Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: Tip of the iceberg?
Autor: Oliveira Melo A.S., Malinger G., Ximenes R., Szejnfeld P.O., Alves Sampaio S., Bispo De Filippis A.M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, v. 47, n. 1, p. 6-7,2016.
ISSN: 9607692
Resumo: [No abstract available]

123) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

124) Zika virus emergence and expansion: Lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 15-18, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Preexisting yellow fever antibody appeared to interfere with the antibody response to YF vaccine. Administration of YF vaccine did elicit antibodies capable of cross-reacting with West Nile, and less so with Langat, arbovirus antigens.

125) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

126) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi, Ouafae, Goorhuis, Abraham, Schinkel, Janke, Codrington, John, Vreden, Stephen Gerold S., Vermaat, Joost S., Stijnis, Cornelis, Grobusch, Martin Peter
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhage, Travel - Health aspects, Polymerase chain reaction - Diagnostic use, Intravenous immunoglobulins
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939-940, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the case of a Netherlands-based patient with Zika virus infection who presented with thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleeding. Topics discussed include complaints reported by the patient several days after traveling to Suriname, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and the management of thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulins.

127) Villanova Ranked no. 1 for First Time in AP Poll.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: College basketball, NCAA Basketball Tournament, Basketball teams, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

128) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Byass, Peter, Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Assunto: Microcephaly, Research, Zika virus infections, Public health research, Zika virus, Epidemiology - Research
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses sources of data which may contain important information about microcephaly which is being linked to Zika virus infection. Topics discussed include the World Health Organization's (WHO) call for increased research about microcephaly and its association with Zika virus, a study by the Paediatric Cardiology and Perinatology Network in Brazil about the incidence of microcephaly in Paraíba, and datasets from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC).

129) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

130) Zika virus and the current outbreak: an overview
Autor: Goeijenbier M,Slobbe L,van der Eijk A,de Mendonça Melo M,Koopmans M P G,Reusken C B E M
Assunto: Zika virus; Microcephaly; Flavivirus; Aedes; Outbreak; Americas
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Rash maculopapular ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: The Netherlands Journal of Medicine, v. 74, n. 3, p. 104-109, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9061
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to yellow fever virus and dengue virus, is currently causing a large outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV infection was considered a sporadic, relatively mild disease characterised by fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis and often arthralgia. However, current observational studies suggest that ZIKV may cause more severe neurological sequelae such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, and birth defects, mainly microcephaly, in babies of whom the mother was infected with ZIKV during pregnancy. This article provides a clinically focussed overview of ZIKV, with emphasis on the current outbreak, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools and caveats.

131) World Bank Calculates Zika’s Economic Cost in Latin America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lewis, Jeffrey T., Magalhaes, Luciana
Assunto: Consumption (Economics), Public health, Zika virus, Gross domestic product
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

132) Association of Oligoadenylate Synthetase Gene Cluster and DC-SIGN (CD209) Gene Polymorphisms with Clinical Symptoms in Chikungunya Virus Infection
Autor: Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Muruganandam Nagarajan, Surya Palani, Anwesh Maile, Alagarasu Kalichamy, Vijayachari Paluru
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: DNA and Cell Biology, v. 35, n. 1, p. 44-50, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7430
Resumo: Biology and pathogenesis of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are not clearly established. Host factors play an important role in determining the progression - severity of the disease. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of CD209 gene (rs735239, rs4804803, rs2287886) - OAS1 (rs1131454 - rs10774671), OAS2 (rs15895 - rs1732778), - OAS3 (rs2285932 - rs2072136) genes were investigated in 100 patients with CHIKV infection - 101 healthy controls to find out the association of these polymorphisms with CHIKV infection. To evaluate the association of OAS - CD209 gene polymorphisms with the presence or absence of disease symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. DNA was extracted - typed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results revealed that the allele - genotype frequencies of OAS1, OAS3, - OAS2 gene polymorphisms were not different between healthy controls - CHIKV patients. The frequency of CD209 gene G/G genotype of rs4804803 was significantly higher in CHIKV patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.046). The present study suggests that rs4804803 GG genotype of CD209 gene is associated with susceptibility to CHIKV infection. To conclude, the present preliminary study suggests that OAS gene cluster - CD209 gene polymorphisms influence the risk of developing clinical symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. Further follow-up studies with a large number of samples are needed to assess the role of these genes in association with post-sequela symptoms observed in CHIKV patients. A detailed research is required in these directions to underst- the biology behind CHIKV infection - disease severity.

133) Time for global action on Zika virus epidemic.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: British Medical Association ,v. 352, p. 1781, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

134) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

135) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.
Autor: Paixão Enny S,Barreto Florisneide,da Glória Teixeira Maria,da Conceição N Costa Maria,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 606-612, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge."

136) Letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives Transmitting a Supplemental Budget Request To Respond to the Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Obama, Barack
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 19466986
Resumo: A letter is presented from U.S. President Barack Obama to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, which focuses on the transmission of a supplemental budget in response to the Zika virus epidemic.

137) Zika and another threat on the epidemiological map of the world
Autor: Korzeniewski Krzysztof, Juszczak Dariusz, Zwoli?ska Ewa
Assunto: Zika virus; Clinical symptoms; Epidemiology; Prevention
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: International Maritime Health, v. 67, n. 1, p. 31-37, 2016
ISSN: 2081-3252
Resumo: Zika fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV) of the Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus. It is transmitted by day-time active Aedes mosquitoes, and potentially by sexual contacts, blood transfusion, and from mother to foetus (resulting in microcephaly in a child). ZIKV was first isolated from a macaque monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947. The first case of the Zika fever in a human was recorded in Nigeria in 1954. Until 2007 only 14 cases of the disease were confirmed worldwide. In 2007, there was an outbreak of the Zika fever in Micronesia (Yap Island) with an estimated 5,000 cases. Between 2013 and 2015 a further outbreak of the disease occurred in the Pacific islands: in French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Cook Islands, Easter Island, and Solomon Islands. In 2015, the Zika fever spread to Brazil and more than 20 other countries in the South and Central America. Until March 2016, an estimated 1.6 million autochthonous cases of Zika have been reported globally, with approximately 1.5 million cases recorded in Brazil. Typically, 80% of Zika infections are asymptomatic. The most common symptoms of the disease include fever, maculopapular rash, muscle and joint pain, conjunctivitis. Zika fever can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (it must be differentiated from dengue, chikungunya), ZIKV identification is also possible by the application of polymerase chain reaction in acutely ill patients and the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies to ZIKV. Until today, there is no effective antiviral treatment or an effective vaccine against Zika fever (in case of an infection only symptomatic treatment is applied). In August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Summer Olympic Games will take place, attracting thousands of athletes and spectators. The fight against the Zika fever and the race against time have gained momentum.

138) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

139) Obama May Meet Zika Peril Head On.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Harris, Gardiner
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Presidents - United States, Travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. A9-A11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that the danger of Zika virus would be met by the U.S. President Barack Obama on his visit to Cuba in 2016.

140) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

141) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

142) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

143) Zikavirus - gammalt virus får nytt liv i nytt ekosystem - Mikrocefali och Guillain-Barrés syndrom möjliga följder när bakgrundsimmunitet saknas hos befolkningen
Autor: Olsen Björn,Lundkvist Åke
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: La?kartidningen, v. 113, p. DX9X, 2016
ISSN: 1652-7518
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

144) Zika Prompts Pleas for DDT.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Terrell, Rebecca
Assunto: Zika virus infections, DDT (Insecticide), Joint pain, Microcephaly, Pollutants
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New American, v. 32, n. 5, p. 22-26, 2016
ISSN: 8856540
Resumo: The article reports that due to increment of infection by Zika virus globally , need of the insecticide DDT is also increased. Topics discussed include symptoms of the infection such as fever and joint pain; conditions in infants known as microcephaly which lead to poor brain development; lack of availability of medicine to prevent infection and role of DDT to prevent the infection even its persistent organic pollutant nature.

145) Two Japanese siblings affected with Chikungunya fever with different clinical courses: Imported infections from the Cook Islands
Autor: Kondo Makoto, Akachi Shigehiro, Ando Katsuhiko, Nomura Tatsuma, Yamanaka Keiichi, Mizutani Hitoshi
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Arthralgia; Imported infection; Tropical area
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Journal of Dermatology, v. 43, n. 6, p. 697-700, 2016
ISSN: 1346-8138
Resumo: Two Japanese siblings visited the Cook Isl-s on business - stayed for 2 months. The sister developed a high fever, arthralgia, erythema - leg edema on the day after returning to Japan. The brother also developed neck - joint pain on the day following the sister's onset. Subsequently, his erythematous lesions spread over his whole body. Chikungunya virus was detected from the sister's blood - urine by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in the brother's samples. Retrospectively, his history of Chikungunya fever was confirmed by the presence of the anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M - IgG antibodies using the specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. In Japan, no autochthonous case of Chikungunya fever was reported previously. We should give attention to the imported infectious diseases for epidemic prevention. This report warns about the danger of the imported infectious diseases, - also suggests that covering the topic of infectious disease in the world is critical to doctors as well as travelers.

146) Spatial spread of dengue in a non-endemic tropical city in northern Argentina
Autor: Gil José F,Palacios Maximiliano,Krolewiecki Alejandro J,Cortada Pedro,Flores Rosana,Jaime Cesar,Arias Luis,Villalpando Carlos,Alberti DÁmato Anahí M,Nasser Julio R,Aparicio Juan P
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Larval indexes; Non-endemic city; Spatial analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 24-31, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: After more than eighty years dengue reemerged in Argentina in 1997. Since then, the largest epidemic in terms of geographical extent, magnitude and mortality, was recorded in 2009. In this report we analyzed the DEN-1 epidemic spread in Orán, a mid-size city in a non-endemic tropical area in Northern Argentina, and its correlation with demographic and socioeconomic factors. Cases were diagnosed by ELISA between January and June 2009. We applied a space-time and spatial scan statistic under a Poisson model. Possible association between dengue incidence and socio-economic variables was studied with the Spearman correlation test. The epidemic started from an imported case from Bolivia and space-time analysis detected two clusters: one on February and other in April (in the south and the northeast of the city respectively) with risk ratios of 25.24 and 4.07 (p<0.01). Subsequent cases spread widely around the city without significant space-temporal clustering. Maximum values of the entomological indices were observed in January, at the beginning of the epidemic (B=21.96; LH=8.39). No statistically significant association between socioeconomic variables and dengue incidence was found but positive correlation between population size and the number of cases (p<0.05) was detected. Two mechanisms may explain the observed pattern of epidemic spread in this non-endemic tropical city: a) Short range dispersal of mosquitoes and people generates clusters of cases and b) long-distance (within the city) human movement contributes to a quasi-random distribution of cases.

147) Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus
Autor: Hidajat Rachmat, Nickols Brian, Forrester Naomi, Tretyakova Irina, Weaver Scott, Pushko Peter
Assunto: Alphavirus; CHIKV; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccine; Live attenuated vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virology, v. 490, p. 83-90, 2016
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a p-emic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared - compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 - E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 - E2-82 were 0.064% - 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% - 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety.

148) A meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of dengue virus-specific IgA antibody-based tests for detection of dengue infection
Autor: Alagarasu K, Walimbe A M, Jadhav S M, Deoshatwar A R
Assunto: Dengue fever; IgA; Dengue haemorrhagic fever; Immunology; Meta-analysis
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 4, p. 876-886, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based tests have been evaluated in different studies for their utility in diagnosing dengue infections. In most of the studies, the results were inconclusive because of a small sample size. Hence, a meta-analysis involving nine studies with 2096 samples was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of IgA-based tests in diagnosing dengue infections. The analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software. The results revealed that IgA-based tests had an overall sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, - positive - negative likelihood ratios of 73·9%, 95·2%, 66·7, 22·0 - 0·25, respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. The type of test, infection status - day of sample collection influenced the diagnostic accuracy. The IgA-based diagnostic tests showed a greater accuracy when the samples were collected 4 days after onset of symptoms - for secondary infections. The results suggested that IgA-based tests had a moderate level of accuracy - are diagnostic of the disease. However, negative results cannot be used alone for dengue diagnosis. More prospective studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of antigen-based tests with either IgA or IgM are needed - might be useful for suggesting the best strategy for dengue diagnosis.

149) Brazil's scientists scramble to solve the Zika puzzle
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, v. 94, n. 3, p. 165-166, 2016
ISSN: 1564-0604
Resumo: The World Health Organization has declared the recent leap in the number of microcephaly cases and their suspected association with Zika virus a public health emergency of international concern. Ana Bispo tells Andréia Azevedo Soares why Brazil should have some scientific answers in coming months.

150) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

151) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

152) The Antidote to Travel Anxiety: Information.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kugel, Seth
Assunto: Americans, Travel, Travelers - Attitudes, Accuracy of information, Travel - Research, Zika Virus Epidemic, Fear
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57156, p. 1-3
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: An essay is presented which discusses how Americans can stay safe while traveling. It suggests that an intake of accurate information about travel destinations and the associated risks can reduce fear among travelers. Particular attention is given to concerns over the Zika virus and its potential harm to pregnant women.

153) Zika virus: a new threat from mosquitoes.
Autor: Li Xiao-Feng,Han Jian-Feng,Shi Pei-Yong,Qin Cheng-Feng
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Science China, 2016
ISSN: 1869-1889
Resumo:

154) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed Zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy Brazil, 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenrio Gonalves Holanda; Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda Do; Henriques, Cludio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; De Frana, Giovanny Vincius Arajo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? An outbreak of Zika virus disease, caused by a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, occurred in Brazil in early 2015. An increase in the prevalence of infants born with microcephaly has been reported in Brazil since October 2015, in association with clusters of febrile rash illness in pregnant women. What is added by this report? The birth prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil increased sharply during 20152016. The largest increase occurred in the Northeast region, where Zika virus transmission was first reported in Brazil. This analysis of 574 cases of microcephaly, detected through a newly established ad hoc microcephaly surveillance system, identified temporal and geospatial evidence linking the occurrence of febrile rash illness consistent with Zika virus disease during the first trimester of pregnancy with the increased birth prevalence of microcephaly. The prevalence of microcephaly in 15 states with laboratoryconfirmed Zika virus transmission (2.8 cases per 10,000 live births) significantly exceeded that in four states without confirmed Zika virus transmission (0.6 per 10,000). What are the implications for public health practice? The suggested link between maternal exposure to Zika virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy and the increased birth prevalence of microcephaly provide additional evidence for congenital infection with Zika virus. Ongoing surveillance is needed to identify additional cases and to fully elucidate the clinical spectrum of illness. Pregnant women should protect themselves from mosquito bites by wearing protective clothing, applying insect repellents, and when indoors, ensuring that rooms are protected with screens or mosquito nets.

155) Zika virus - An overview.
Autor: Zanluca Camila,Dos Santos Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus, Flavivirus, Viral emergence, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

156) Zika virus infection among U.S. pregnant travelers - August 2015-February 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L.; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R.; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K.; Rabe, Ingrid B.; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A.; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A.; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A.; Petersen, Emily E.; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016.
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: What is already known about this topic? Because of the risk for Zika virus infection and its possible association with adverse pregnancy outcomes, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus. CDC also released guidelines for Zika virus testing for pregnant women with a history of travel while pregnant to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. What is added by this report? This report provides preliminary information on testing for Zika virus infection of U.S. pregnant women who had traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission. As of February 17, 2016, nine U.S. pregnant travelers with Zika virus infection had been identified. No Zika virusrelated hospitalizations or deaths were reported among pregnant women. Pregnancy outcomes included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (18 weeks and 34 weeks gestation) are continuing without known complications. What are the implications for public health practice? In this small case series, Zika virus infection during pregnancy was associated with a range of outcomes, including early pregnancy losses, congenital microcephaly, and apparently healthy infants. Additional information will be available in the future from a newly established CDC registry for U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants.

157) Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia
Autor: Riswari S F, Ma'roef C N, Djauhari H, Kosasih H, Perkasa A, Yudhaputri F A, Artika I M, Williams M, van der Ven A, Myint K S, Alisjahbana B, Ledermann J P, Powers A M, Jaya U A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Indonesia; Infection kinetics; Viremia profile
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 61-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in B-ung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells - tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, - CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified - studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset - extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics - thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks.

158) Monkey study reveals zika damage in developing brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Showing the closest link yet between Zika virus and fetal brain injury in an animal model that closely resembles humans, researchers today described brain abnormalities in the fetus of a macaque experimentally infected during the late stage of her pregnancy. In other developments, Thailand reported several more Zika cases, many of them linked to a cluster in Bangkok, as the number of infections in Singapore grew steadily. In Florida, health officials denied a newspaper report charging problems with Zika reporting, and Broward County began aerial spraying withan organic pesticide as a prevention step

159) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

160) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

161) Rate of Zika-Related Birth Defects in Brazil Uncertain.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lyons, John
Assunto: Zika virus, Human abnormalities, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Epidemics, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

162) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maurice, John
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Epidemics - Research, Research & development, Medical research
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article reports on the weapons of the World Health Organization (WHO) against mosquito-borne Zika virus. Topics discussed include the efforts of WHO to address Zika virus across the globe, the initiative to mitigate fake Zika tests, research and development for the epidemic, and the R&D Blueprint roadmap of WHO.

163) Punishing the Cure Makers Won’t End Cancer.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Melanoma, Patients, Tumors - Classification, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

164) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

165) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

166) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

167) Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvez E., Guillaumot L., Millet L., Marie J., Bossin H., Rama V., Faamoe A., Kilama S., Teurlai M., Mathieu-Daudé F., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, insect genetics
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region. Methodology/Principal Finding: We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (F(ST) = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems.

168) ZIKA virus circulates in new regions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Attar N.
Assunto: Flavivirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 14, n. 2, p. 62, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1740-1534 (electronic),1740-1526
Resumo:

169) The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East.
Autor: Tridane Abdessamad,El Khajah Abdelmajid,Ali Bassam R
Assunto: Congenital microcephaly, Middle East, Travel warning, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo:

170) Spectre of ebola haunts zika response
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Check Hayden, Erika
Assunto: Ebola hemorrhagic fever; Epidemic; Health; Human; Microcephaly; Nonhuman; Note; Priority journal; Public health problem; Virus infection; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

171) Chikungunya: epidemiology
Autor: Petersen Lyle R, Powers Ann M
Assunto: Chikungunya; Alphavirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: F1000Research, v. 5, 2016
ISSN: 2046-1402
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever - debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical - sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical - sub-tropical world -, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current underst-ing of the biological - sociological underpinnings of its emergence - its future global outlook.

172) Arboviruses and apoptosis: the role of cell death in determining vector competence
Autor: Clem Rollie J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 5, p. 1033-1036, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: A relatively small number of mosquito species transmit arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya - West Nile viruses to hundreds of millions of people each year, yet we still lack a thorough underst-ing of the molecular factors that determine vector competence. Apoptosis has been shown to be an important factor in determining the outcome of virus infection for many viruses. However, until recently, it was not clear whether apoptosis plays a role in determining the outcome of arbovirus infections in mosquitoes. Recent work has begun to shed light on the roles of apoptosis in this important process.

173) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus infections: Diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K, Cherpillod P, Kaiser L, Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya; Zika; Dengue; Diagnostic algorithm; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue - chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerl- - present a diagnostic algorithm.

174) Tropical ophthalmology
Autor: Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich M M
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Ebola infection; West Nile virus; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Der Ophthalmologe, v. 113, n. 1, p. 35-46, 2016
ISSN: 1433-0423
Resumo: A number of new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing - becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now exp-ing worldwide - causing significant morbidity - even mortality. "Globalization" - human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, - may lead to autochthonous transmission of infectious pathogens. Diagnosis of these diseases requires not only careful assessment of medical - travel history, but also the application of specific laboratory diagnostic tests. A broad spectrum of ocular involvement has been reported, with frequent posterior segment involvement. Emerging infections should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis - optic neuropathy in a patient living in or traveling back from an endemic area. Since these infections are often vector (insect) borne - effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis - initiation of supportive care. Here, we focus on Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Ebola fever, the West Nile virus - Rickettsioses, which frequently demonstrate ocular involvement."

175) Chikungunya: bending over the Americas and the rest of the world
Autor: Madariaga Miguel, Ticona Eduardo, Resurrecion Cristhian
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya; Epidemics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 1678-4391
Resumo: Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. A viral mutation has allowed Aedes albopictus to become the preferred vector extending the geographic spread of the condition. The virus causes an acute febrile illness occasionally followed by a chronic rheumatic condition causing severe impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with serology. No specific treatment is currently available. This article reviews the condition with emphasis on his dissemination in the Americas.

176) Brazil Health Researchers Say Zika Virus Is Active in Saliva, Urine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pregnancy complications, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Blood transfusion, Transmission, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal (Online), p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: The article reports that according to a study conducted by medical-research institute Oswaldo Cruz Foundation which reveals that Zika virus is active in saliva and urine. Topics discussed include precautions for pregnant women for Zika virus, genetic sequence of the virus, microcephaly where babies are born with small skulls and underdeveloped brains, transmission through blood transfusions, and mosquito as the transmission pathway of the disease.

177) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

178) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

179) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

180) Avoid Travel To Olympics If Pregnant, U.S. Warns
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57155, p. D2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the warning of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 26, 2016 regarding the need for pregnant women to avoid travel to the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil due to the risk of Zika virus infection.

181) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Autor: Roa Mónica
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

182) Zika? Partying Brazilians Offer Collective Shrug.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew
Assunto: Carnival, Brazilians, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Insect baits & repellents, Mosquitoes, Brazil, Brazil - Social life & customs, Attitudes, Social aspects, Salvador (Brazil) - Social life & customs
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A1-A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the celebration of the Carnival festival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Salvador, Brazil within the context of the Zika Virus Epidemic, including Brazilians' attitudes towards the epidemic. An overview of those participating in the Carnival's wearing of mosquito repellent to prevent Zika virus transmission is provided.

183) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

184) World Briefs
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Priests, Bishops, Installation (Clergy), Refugees, Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, Catholic Church - News briefs
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: National Catholic Reporter, v. 52, n. 9, p. 3-4, 2016
ISSN: 278939
Resumo: The article offers world news briefs related to the Catholic Church as of February 12, 2016. Topics include the refusal by priests for appointment as bishop, Catholic bishops in Germany and Austria urging their countries to continue accept refugees, and the recommendation by El Salvador government for two women to delay their pregnancy due to Zika virus.

185) Ultrasound screening for fetal microcephaly following Zika virus exposure.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016
ISSN: 1097-6868
Resumo:

186) Your Questions Answered the Zika Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dunlap, Tiare
Assunto: Women physicians, Zika virus, Pregnant women - Health, Interviews, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (U.S.) - Officials & employees
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: People, v. 85, n. 7, p. 69, 2016
ISSN: 937673
Resumo: An interview is presented with Denise Jamieson, a medical officer for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She discusses the Zika virus, covering its treatment, risk for pregnant women, and the likelihood of an outbreak in the U.S. Suggestions for virus prevention are also mentioned.

187) Low seroprevalence indicates vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to infection with Chikungunya virus
Autor: Adam Awadalkareem, Seidahmed Osama M E, Weber Christopher, Schnierle Barbara, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Reiche Sven, Jassoy Christian
Assunto: Chikungunya; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 4, p. 290-291, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern - central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

188) Zika virus: a little less speculation, a little more action.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Neurology, null, The Lancet Neurology
Assunto: Neurology - Research, Zika virus infections, Speculation, Publishers & publishing, Medical publishing
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Neurology, v. 15, n. 4, p. 343, 2016
ISSN: 14744422
Resumo:

189) Severe eye damage in infants with microcephaly is presumed to be due to Zika virus.
Autor: McCarthy Michael
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, p. i855, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

190) Cover.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Genome editing, Government policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Time International (Atlantic Edition), v. 187, n. 5, p. C1, 2016
ISSN: 9288430
Resumo: The cover page of the journal is presented which includes information on a conversation with U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, the associated between the mosquito-borne Zika virus and microcephaly in bewborn infants, and the approval of human embryos gene editing in Great Britain.

191) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

192) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: The need for novel mosquito control methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yakob L., Walker T.
Assunto: disease control, virus infection (epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Global Health, v. 4, n. 3, p. e148-e149, mar. 2016
ISSN: 2214-109X (electronic)
Resumo:

193) Viremia in north american mammals and birds after experimental infection with Chikungunya viruses
Autor: Bosco-Lauth Angela M, Nemeth Nicole M, Kohler Dennis J, Bowen Richard A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 3, p. 504-506, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range - evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian - 12 mammalian species representing both domestic - wild animals common to North America. Hamsters - inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV - were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals - a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife - that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats - wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics.

194) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against zika
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maurice, John
Assunto: Unclassified drug; Virus vaccine; Virus vector; Zika virus vaccine; Aedes aegypti; Antiviral therapy; Dengue; Diagnostic test; Disease carrier; Ebola hemorrhagic fever; Epidemic; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Human; Japanese encephalitis; National health organization; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; World Health Organization; Yellow fever; Zika test; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016.
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

195) Zika virus: A previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gatherer D., Kohl A.
Assunto: pandemic, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099 (electronic),0022-1317
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

196) Pregnancies Shadowed by Fears of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Beil, Laura, Weintraub, Karen
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57172, p. D3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the fears of pregnant women in the U.S. for the Zika virus, noting the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to receive blood tests weeks after traveling to an affected area.

197) Zika virus outbreak: 'a perfect storm'.
Autor: Ai Jing-Wen,Zhang Ying,Zhang Wenhong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo:

198) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

199) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

200) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

201) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

202) World Birth Defects Day — March 3, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Disability Awareness Day, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 190-191, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the celebration of the World Birth Defects Day on March 3, 2016 in response to the Zika virus infection in which infants are born with serious birth defects.

203) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

204) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

205) The Emerging Zika Virus Epidemic in the Americas: Research Priorities.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Stringer Elizabeth M,de Silva Aravinda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

206) Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana, Hills, Susan L., Williams, Charnetta, Galang, Romeo R., Iyengar, Preetha, Hennenfent, Andrew K., Rabe, Ingrid B., Panella, Amanda, Oduyebo, Titilope, Honein, Margaret A., Zaki, Sherif, Lindsey, Nicole, Lehman, Jennifer A., Kwit, Natalie, Bertolli, Jeanne, Ellington, Sascha, Igbinosa, Irogue, Minta, Anna A., Petersen, Emily E., Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Pregnant women - Travel, Pregnancy, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Miscarriage
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

207) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ryo,Mizumoto Kenji,Yasuda Yohei,Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number, Epidemic, Statistical estimation, Transmissibility, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

208) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

209) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

210) El Niño and climate change--contributing factors in the dispersal of Zika virus in the Americas?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Paz, Shlomit, Semenza, Jan C.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika virus, Medical climatology
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 745, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article on the contribution of climate change and El Niño in Zika virus dispersal in the Americas in the January 23, 2016 issue.

211) Pope Urges More Reliance on Individual Conscience.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rocca, Francis X.
Assunto: Conscience, Zika virus infections, Contraception - Law & legislation, Condoms
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

212) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

213) Preventing Zika Virus Infections in Pregnant Women: An Urgent Public Health Priority.
Autor: Bell Beth P,Boyle Coleen A,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 589-590, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo:

214) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno, Manoel, Sacramento, Gielson A., Khouri, Ricardo, do Rosário, Mateus S., Costa, Federico, Archanjo, Gracinda, Santos, Luciane A., Jr.Nery, Nivison, Vasilakis, Nikos, Ko, Albert I., de Almeida, Antonio R. P.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Hydrops fetalis, Microcephaly, Fetal growth retardation, Ultrasonic imaging, Case studies
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

215) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

216) Once a Scientific Curiosity, Zika First Emerged in Force on a Remote Pacific Island.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramzy, Austin
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika outbreak in Yap Island in the Western Pacific, the discovery of the Zika virus in Uganda, and the spread of the disease in people in countries including the Philippines, India, and Thailand.

217) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

218) Brazil struggles to cope with Zika epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennigan, Tom
Assunto: Insect repellent; Aedes aegypti; Brazil; Diagnostic test; Fever; Flavivirus; Flavivirus infection; Government; Human; Maternal care; Microcephaly; Nonhuman; Note; Pregnancy; Priority journal; Public health; Rash; Risk; Sewage; World Health Organization; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British medical journal, v. 352, n. I1226 , 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

219) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

220) Officials Ask For Funding To Study Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Steinhauer, Jennifer
Assunto: Zika virus, Research, Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57168, p. A21, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of director Thomas R. Frieden of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding the need for the country to fund a study to fight the outbreak of the Zika virus in the country.

221) Zika virus: an unfolding epidemic.
Autor: Todd Betsy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Nursing, v. 116, n. 4 p. 59-60, 2016
ISSN: 1538-7488
Resumo: What we know now about this emerging global threat.

222) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roa, Mónica
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Public health, Pregnancy, Government policy, Reproductive health, Sex education, Contraceptives, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 842-843, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the author's views on the move of health ministers from Latin American countries to recommend to women to postpone pregnancy in the face of the Zika virus outbreak. She thinks that the recommendation solely targets a specific issue rather than address general concerns over women reproductive health in the region. The author refers the women's health issues to barriers including poor quality sex education, poor access to contraceptives, high prevalence of rape, and culture.

223) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report.
Autor: Brasil Patrícia,Pereira Jose P,Raja Gabaglia Claudia,Damasceno Luana,Wakimoto Mayumi,Ribeiro Nogueira Rita M,Carvalho de Sequeira Patrícia,Machado Siqueira André,Abreu de Carvalho Liege M,Cotrim da Cunha Denise,Calvet Guilherme A,Neves Elizabeth S,Moreira Maria E,Rodrigues Baião Ana E,Nassar de Carvalho Paulo R,Janzen Carla,Valderramos Stephanie G,Cherry James D,Bispo de Filippis Ana M,Nielsen-Saines Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

224) Zika virus: management of infection and risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ahmad, Shazaad S.Y.; Amin, Tejal N.; Ustianowski, Andrew
Assunto: Adult; Aedes; Article; Brain ventricle dilatation; Case report; Chromosome aberration; Colombia; Congenital infection; Contraception; Contracture; Dengue; Disease transmission; Female; Fetus echography; Flaviviridae; Flaviviridae infection; General practitioner; Genetic disorder; Gestational age; Human; Malaria; Male; Maternal welfare; Metabolic disorder; Microcephaly; Midwife; Newborn death; Nonhuman; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Risk factor; Rubella; Stillbirth; Teratogenicity; Zika virus; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Medical Journal, v. 352, n. i1062, 2016.
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

225) Zika Virus and Global Implications for Reproductive Health Reforms.
Autor: Hodge James G,Corbett Alicia,Repka Ashley,Judd P J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, v. 1, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1938-744X
Resumo:

226) Acute uncomplicated febrile illness in children aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - aetiologies, antibiotic treatment and outcome
Autor: Elfving Kristina, Shakely Deler, Andersson Maria, Baltzell Kimberly, Ali Abdullah S, Bachelard Marc, Falk Kerstin I, Ljung Annika, Msellem Mwinyi I, Omar Rahila S, Parola Philippe, Xu Weiping, Petzold Max, Trollfors Birger, Björkman Anders, Lindh Magnus, Mårtensson Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 1, p. e0146054, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, - multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) - rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH - GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical - laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR - GE-qPCR detected ?1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) - 153/164 (93%) of patients - 158/166 (95%) - 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) - group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral - bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever - West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 - three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel - a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low.

227) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

228) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, Jose P; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Machado Siqueira, André; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Calvet, Guilherme A; Neves, Elizabeth S; Moreira, Maria E; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Janzen, Carla; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

229) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016.
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

230) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

231) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

232) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

233) Phylogenetic analysis of Chikungunya virus strains circulating in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lanciotti Robert S, Lambert Amy J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 4, p. 800-803, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere (WH) during an epidemic on the isl- of St. Martin. Subsequently, the virus has spread to 42 countries or territories in the Caribbean, Central, South, - North America. In this study, we have determined the full genomic sequences of 29 temporally - geographically diverse CHIKV strains from 16 countries of the WH. Phylogenetic analyses revealed minimal evolution among compared emergent CHIKV strains of the New World.

234) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

235) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

236) Monsanto fighting yet another battle against misinformation.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Laws, Forrest
Assunto: Common fallacies, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Southwest Farm Press, v. 43, n. 7, p. 4, 2016
ISSN: 1940945
Resumo: The author talks about the misinformation facing U.S. agriculture company Monsanto of March 2016 that its products have connection with the Zika virus or the outbreak of microcephaly that has affected families in Brazil.

237) Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control
Autor: Leftwich, Philip T.; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey
Assunto: Fitness; Genetic Modification; Release Of Insects Carrying A Dominant Lethal; Resistance; Selection; Sterile Insect Technique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Evolutionary Applications, v. 9, n. 1, p. 212-230, 2016
ISSN: 1752-4571
Resumo: The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

238) Corrections.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Uterus - Surgery
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57167, p. A2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: Corrections to several articles on topics including the relation of Zika virus and health defects in the March 6, 2016 issue, the first uterus transplant surgery in the U.S. in the March 8, 2016 issue, and the obituary for conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt in the March 7, 2016 issue.

239) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

240) Zika virus: Brazil's surge in small-headed babies questioned by report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Butler D.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 13-14, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

241) Whole-genome sequencing analysis from the Chikungunya virus Caribbean outbreak reveals novel evolutionary genomic elements
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Moratorio Gonzalo, Henningsson Rasmus, Chen Rubing, Matheus Séverine, Enfissi Antoine, Weissglas-Volkov Daphna, Isakov Ofer, Blanc Hervé, Mounce Bryan C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle, Shomron Noam, Weaver Scott, Fontes Magnus, Rousset Dominique, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004402, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus - member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to underst- how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak. We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants - diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe - Martinique, two isl-s in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak - identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR) structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells. Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to underst- the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

242) The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Johnson Brian J,Ritchie Scott A
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Gravid Aedes Trap; Sound bait; Surveillance; Wing frequency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 245-248, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations.

243) Resources and latest news about zika virus disease available from ECDC
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

244) The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin
Autor: Whiten Shavonn R,Peterson Robert K D
Assunto: Climate change; Diptera; Mosquito; Pesticide; Toxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 139-143, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06-0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures-16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C-for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

245) Surveillance of mosquito-borne infectious diseases in febrile travelers entering China via Shenzhen ports, China, 2013
Autor: Shi Lei, Fu Shihong, Wang Lihua, Li Xiaolong, Gu Dayong, Liu Chunxiao, Zhao Chunzhong, He Jian'an, Liang Guodong
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Febrile travelers; Mosquito-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. (2), p. 123-130, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: About 100 million passengers enter China via Shenzhen ports every year - such huge populations increase the risk of various infectious diseases, particularly mosquito-borne diseases, entering China. This paper reports the testing - monitoring of mosquito-borne diseases in febrile travelers through Shenzhen ports in 2013. The blood samples of 619 febrile cases were collected - the serum of each sample was used for the specific gene amplification - IgM antibody detection of five typical mosquito-borne pathogens: Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), - West Nile Virus (WNV). Additionally, malaria was diagnosed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In total, 34 cases were detected of DENV infection (serotype I to IV), 17 cases of JEV infection, 2 cases of CHIKV infection, - 3 cases of malaria infection. No virus genes or IgM antibodies of YFV or WNV were detected in the samples. DENV, JEV - CHIKV cases were mainly from Southeast Asia, while malaria cases from Africa. DENV, JEV - CHIKV were the primary pathogens imported via Shenzhen ports. International travelers with mosquito-borne infections would accelerate the spread of these diseases, thus reinforcing the need for surveillance of mosquito-borne infections at ports should become a high priority.

246) Brazil Public Told It Must Undertake Zika Battle.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew, Sreeharsha, Vinod, Perpetua, Sofia
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes, Diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. A4-A8, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that soldiers, sailors and other military personnel have told public regarding the campaign to combat the mosquitoes that are spreading Zika virus which surge in infants born with severe brain damage.

247) Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Paiva, Marcelo H. S.; Lovin, Diane D.; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A. V.; Severson, David W.; Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Chromosomes; Insecticides; Pest control; Disease transmission; Dengue; Control programs; Esterase; Carboxylesterase; Organophosphates; Gene mapping
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Genomics, v. 107, n. 1, p. 40-48, 2016.
ISSN: 0888-7543
Resumo: Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations.

248) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

249) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

250) Zika virus - an overview
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus; Flavivirus; Viral emergence; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 18, n. 5, p. 295-301, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

251) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

252) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

253) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg, Alencar Carlos Henrique, Kelvin Alyson Ann, De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber, Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Head circumference ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil - the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue -/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes - previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August - October. ZIKV was identified in blood - tissue samples of a newborn - in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly - ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti - implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection - microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical - epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics - expansion of the outbreak.

254) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

255) Beyond Ebola
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Currie, Janet; Grenfell, Bryan; Farrar, Jeremy
Assunto: Ebola virus, Public health, Zika virus, Liberia
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: On 14 January 2016, Liberia was declared Ebola-free. A new case was identified shortly after the announcement, but it is nevertheless clear that the West African epidemic has moved on to a more hopeful phase. What lessons can be drawn from the Ebola crisis to help the international community to prepare for and respond to the next global epidemic? This question is particularly pertinent given the recent declaration of the Zika virus as a public health emergency.

256) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Rash maculopapular ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

257) Contraceptive sales in the setting of the Zika virus epidemic
Autor: Bahamondes, Luis; Ali, Moazzam; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete
Assunto: Zika virus; Contraception; Long-acting contraceptive methods; Brazil; Unintended pregnancies
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Human Reproduction, v.32, n. 1, p. 88-93, 2016
ISSN: 1460-2350
Resumo: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders a health emergency on 1 February 2016. The Brazilian government also made recommendations for women who were planning to become pregnant and who reside in ZIKV-affected areas to reconsider or postpone pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil, tracking it from before and through the ZIKV outbreak. We obtained information from all pharmaceutical companies based in Brazil and from the manufacturers of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), including the copper-intrauterine device (IUD), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and implants, about contraceptives sales in the public and private sectors between September 2014 and August 2016. We analyzed the data for: (i) oral contraceptives, i.e. combined oral contraceptives (COC) and progestin-only pills (POP), and vaginal and transdermal contraceptives, (ii) injectable contraceptives, i.e. once-a-month and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, (iii) LARCs and (iv) emergency contraceptive (EC) pills. Monthly sales of COC, POP, patches and vaginal rings represent the major sales segment of the market, i.e. 12.7-13.8 million cycles/units per month (90%). The second largest group of sales was injectables, representing 0.8-1.5 million ampoules per month (9.5%). Following this, are LARC methods with sales of 37 000-41 000 devices per month (0.5%). It is important to note that although the peak months of sales were different for each group of contraceptives, there were no significant differences overall between the months of observation. The EC pill sales were between 1.0 million and 1.3 million of pills per month. Although the use of contraceptive methods was already high and no change was noted, the ZIKV outbreak may have changed the pregnancy intentions of Brazilian women. Consequently, the number of women planning pregnancy may be lower than that recorded. The contraceptive sales figures did not include condoms. Since condoms might not only prevent pregnancies, but also sexual transmission of ZIKV, this lack of information is a limitation. The results from this assessment showed that the sales of contraceptives presented little variation during the ZIKV outbreak in Brazil. Furthermore, it is possible that access to LARC methods was limited. Although we did not investigate the reason for low LARC uptake, we suspect that it is due to lack of availability of LARC in the public sector, the high cost of the methods and the incomplete insurance coverage on contraception for women. Projections estimate millions of additional cases of ZIKV transmission. Thus, a coordinated response is needed to ensure access to a wide range of contraceptive methods for women during the ZIKV outbreak. In conclusion, this assessment of contraceptive sales in Brazil identifies challenges in contraceptive access, especially for LARC methods, and represents an alternative source of data to help us understand the trends in demand for contraception in ZIKV-affected areas. This study received partial financial support from Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) award # 2015/20504-9 and from an anonymous donor. The funding sources did not play a role in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors declare no conflict of interest associated with this study.

258) Proof on Virus and Defects Is Expected to Take Months.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Infant diseases
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57148, p. A5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 19, 2016 that the public health officials are not expecting to have proof concerning the surge of Zika virus in Brazilian babies born with damaged brains and tiny heads.

259) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

260) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; Zika virus and travel; Microcephaly; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

261) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing Chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan Hussin A, Bahrani Hirbod, Abdulrahman Ammar Y, Mohamed Zulqarnain, Teoh Teow Chong, Othman Shatrah, Rashid Nurshamimi Nor, Rahman Noorsaadah A, Yusof Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Meclofenamic acid; Mefenamic acid; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral - anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) - Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 ?M for MEFE, 18 ?M for MECLO - 10 ?M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 ?M, - MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 ?M. Because MEFE is commercially available - its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver - spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro - in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

262) F.D.A. Issues Protocols to Screen Zika Virus From Blood Supply.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Louis, Catherine Saint
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57145, p. A16, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on protocols for screening Zika virus infection issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as of February 2016, and mentions that the guidelines intent to prevent the infection at blood banks.

263) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

264) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004530, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

265) Seroprevalence of asian lineage Chikungunya virus infection on Saint Martin Island, 7 months after the 2013 emergence
Autor: Gay Noellie, Rousset Dominique, Huc Patricia, Matheus Séverine, Ledrans Martine, Rosine Jacques, Cassadou Sylvie, Noël Harold
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 393-396, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: At the end of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Saint Martin Isl-, Caribbean. The Asian lineage was identified. Seven months after this introduction, the seroprevalence was 16.9% in the population of Saint Martin - 39.0% of infections remained asymptomatic. This moderate attack rate - the apparent limited size of the outbreak in Saint Martin could be explained by control measures involved to lower the exposure of the inhabitants. Other drivers such as climatic factors - population genetic factors should be explored. The substantial rate of asymptomatic infections recorded points to a potential source of infection that can both spread in new geographic areas - maintain an inconspicuous endemic circulation in the Americas.

266) The use of Aedes aegypti larvae attractants to enhance the effectiveness of larvicides
Autor: Gonzalez Paula V,Harburguer Laura,González-Audino Paola A,Masuh Héctor M
Assunto: Attractant; Insecticide; Larvae; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 6, p. 2185-2190, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is an important dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever vector. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes, and the application of larvicides inside containers that cannot be eliminated is still considered a priority in control programs. Larvicidal efficacy is influenced by several factors, including the formulation used, the water quality, and the susceptibility of larvae, among others. If an attractant can be incorporated into a slow-release larvicide formulation, it will be feasible to direct the larvae into the source of insecticide and thereby improving its efficacy. We studied the influence of 1-octen-3ol and 3-methylphenol on the rate of Ae. aegypti larvae mortality using the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), temephos, and spinosad. These chemicals were combined with the larvicides mixed with agar during the bioassays. Mortality was registered every 10 min, and a lethal time 50 (LT50) was calculated. The inclusion of the Ae. aegypti larvae attractants with the larvicides into a solid agar matrix improved their efficiency obtaining a strong and marked reduction in the LT50 compared with the use of larvicides alone.

267) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

268) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; travel medicine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

269) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J,Bandeira Antonio Carlos,Franco-Paredes Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, n. 1, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

270) Hospital Admissions, Transfers and Costs of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Autor: van Leeuwen Nikki; Lingsma Hester F.; Vanrolleghem Ann M.; Sturkenboom Miriam C. J. M.; van Doorn Pieter A.; Steyerberg Ewout W.; Jacobs Bart C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has a highly variable clinical course, leading to frequent transfers within and between hospitals and high associated costs. We defined the current admissions, transfers and costs in relation to disease severity of GBS. Dutch neurologists were requested to report patients diagnosed with GBS between November 2009 and November 2010. Information regarding clinical course and transfers was obtained via neurologists and general practitioners. 87 GBS patients were included with maximal GBS disability score of 1 or 2 (28%), 3 or 4 (53%), 5 (18%) and 6 (1%). Four mildly affected GBS patients were not hospital admitted. Of the 83 hospitalized patients 68 (82%) were initially admitted at a neurology department, 4 (5%) at an ICU, 4 (5%) at pediatrics, 4 (5%) at pediatrics neurology and 3 (4%) at Internal Medicine. Median hospital stay was 17 days (IQR 11-26 days, absolute range 1-133 days). Transfers between departments or hospitals occurred in 33 (40%) patients and 25 (30%) were transferred 2 times or more. From a cost-effectiveness perspective 21 (25%) of the admissions was suboptimal. Median costs for hospital admission of GBS patients were 15,060 Euro (IQR 11,226-23,683). Maximal GBS disability score was significantly correlated with total length of stay, number of transfers, ICU admission and costs. Hospital admissions for GBS patients are highly heterogeneous, with frequent transfers and higher costs for those with more severe disease. Future research should aim to develop prediction models to early identify the most cost-effective allocation in individual patients.

271) Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease
Autor: Li J D,Li D X
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing xue za Zhi, v. 37, n. 3, p. 329-334, 2016
ISSN: 0254-6450
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

272) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

273) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

274) Short-term suppression of Aedes aegypti using genetic control does not facilitate Aedes albopictus
Autor: Gorman Kevin,Young Josué,Pineda Lleysa,Márquez Ricardo,Sosa Nestor,Bernal Damaris,Torres Rolando,Soto Yamilitzel,Lacroix Renaud,Naish Neil,Kaiser Paul,Tepedino Karla,Philips Gwilym,Kosmann Cecilia,Cáceres Lorenzo
Assunto: OX513A; Panama; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mosquito; Transgenic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 72, n. 3, p. 618-628, 2016
ISSN: 1526-4998
Resumo: Under permit from the National Biosafety Commission for the use of genetically modified organisms, releases of a genetically engineered self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti (OX513A) were used to suppress urban pest Ae. aegypti in West Panama. Experimental goals were to assess the effects on a coexisting population of Ae. albopictus and examine operational parameters with relevance to environmental impact. Ae. albopictus populations were shown to be increasing year upon year at each of three study sites, potentially reflecting a broader-scale incursion into the area. Ae. albopictus abundance was unaffected by a sustained reduction in Ae. aegypti by up to 93% through repeated releases of OX513A. Males accounted for 99.99% of released OX513A, resulting in a sustained mating fraction of 75%. Mean mating competitiveness of OX513A was 0.14. The proportion of OX513A in the local environment decreased by 95% within 25 days of the final release. There was no evidence for species replacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus over the course of this study. No unintentional environmental impacts or elevated operational risks were observed. The potential for this emerging technology to mitigate against disease outbreaks before they become established is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

275) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

276) Transstadial Effects of Bti on Traits of Aedes aegypti and Infection with Dengue Virus
Autor: Alto Barry W,Lord Cynthia C
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004370
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Most mosquito control efforts are primarily focused on reducing the adult population size mediated by reductions in the larval population, which should lower risk of disease transmission. Although the aim of larviciding is to reduce larval abundance and thus recruitment of adults, nonlethal effects on adults are possible, including transstadial effects on phenotypes of adults such as survival and pathogen infection and transmission. In addition, the mortality induced by control efforts may act in conjunction with other sources of mosquito mortality in nature. The consequences of these effects and interactions may alter the potential of the population to transmit pathogens. We tested experimentally the combined effects of a larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, Bti) and competition during the larval stages on subsequent Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) traits, population performance, and susceptibility to dengue-1 virus infection. Ae. aegypti that survived exposure to Bti experienced accelerated development, were larger, and produced more eggs with increasing amounts of Bti, consistent with competitive release among surviving mosquitoes. Changing larval density had no significant interactive effect with Bti treatment on development and growth to adulthood. Larval density, but not Bti or treatment interaction, had a strong effect on survival of adult Ae. aegypti females. There were sharper declines in cumulative daily survival of adults from crowded than uncrowded larval conditions, suggesting that high competition conditions of larvae may be an impediment to transmission of dengue viruses. Rates of infection and dengue-1 virus disseminated infections were found to be 87±13% and 88±12%, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects on infection measurements. Our findings suggest that larvicide campaigns using Bti may reduce the number of emerged adults, but survivors will have a fitness advantage (growth, development, enhanced production of eggs) relative to conspecifics that are not under larvicide pressure. However, under most circumstances, these transstadial effects are unlikely to outweigh reductions in the adult population by Bti and altered risk of disease transmission.

277) Microcephaly in Brazil: How to interpret reported numbers?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Victora C.G., Schuler-Faccini L., Matijasevich A., Ribeiro E., Pessoa A., Barros F.C.
Assunto: head circumference, microcephaly (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 621-624, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

278) The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014
Autor: Mboera Leonard E G,Mweya Clement N,Rumisha Susan F,Tungu Patrick K,Stanley Grades,Makange Mariam R,Misinzo Gerald,De Nardo Pasquale,Vairo Francesco,Oriyo Ndekya M
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004313, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16). There was no significant difference in pooled infection rates between the districts. Dengue viruses in the tested mosquitoes clustered into serotype 2 cosmopolitan genotype. Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Dar es Salaam and breeds mainly in medium size plastic containers and tires. The Aedes house indices were high, indicating that the three districts were at high risk of dengue transmission. The 2014 dengue outbreak was caused by Dengue virus serotype 2. The high mosquito larval and pupal indices in the area require intensification of vector surveillance along with source reduction and health education.

279) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

280) Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs
Autor: Miesen Pascal, Ivens Alasdair, Buck Amy H, van Rij Ronald P
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004452, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.

281) Ailment Linked to Zika Epidemic Has Long Afflicted and Mystified.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saint Louis, Catherine
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57129, p. A1-A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the connection between the deformity microcephaly and an outbreak of the virus known as Zika in early 2015.

282) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Crotalaria verrucosa leaves against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what happens around? An analysis of dragonfly predatory behaviour after exposure at ultra-low doses
Autor: Murugan Kadarkarai, Sanoopa C P, Madhiyazhagan Pari, Dinesh Devakumar, Subramaniam Jayapal, Panneerselvam Chellasamy, Roni Mathath, Suresh Udaiyan, Nicoletti Marcello, Alarfaj Abdullah A, Munusamy Murugan A, Higuchi Akon, Kumar Suresh, Perumalsamy Haribalan, Ahn Young-Joon, Benelli Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brachydiplax sobrina; EDX; FTIR; SEM; Green synthesis; Nanobiotechnologies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 30, n. 7, p. 826-833, 2016
ISSN: 1478-6427
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease infecting 50-100 million people every year. Here, we biosynthesised mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa. The green synthesis of AgNP was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX and FTIR. C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNPs were toxic against A. aegypti larvae and pupae. LC50 of AgNP ranged from 3.496 ppm (I instar larvae) to 17.700 ppm (pupae). Furthermore, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of dragonfly nymphs, Brachydiplax sobrina, against II and III instar larvae of A. aegypti in an aquatic environment contaminated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. Under standard laboratory conditions, predation after 24 h was 87.5% (II) and 54.7% (III). In an AgNP-contaminated environment, predation was 91 and 75.5%, respectively. Overall, C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNP could be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval population of dengue vectors enhancing predation rates of dragonfly nymphs.

283) Will Zika Virus and Microcephaly Epidemics Emerge After Ebola in West Africa? The Need for Prospective Studies Now.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Health Security, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5108
Resumo:

284) Unique PFK regulatory property from some mosquito vectors of disease, and from Drosophila melanogaster
Autor: Nunes Rodrigo Dutra,Romeiro Nelilma Correia,De Carvalho Hugo Tremonte,Moreira Jean Ribeiro,Sola-Penna Mauro,Silva-Neto Mário Alberto C,Braz Glória Regina Cardoso
Assunto: Docking study; Initial reaction; Rate; Filariasis; Triose phosphate isomerase; Docking experiment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 107, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Arthropod-borne diseases are some of the most rapidly spreading diseases. Reducing the vector population is currently the only effective way to reduce case numbers. Central metabolic pathways are potential targets to control vector populations, but have not been well explored to this aim. The information available on energy metabolism, as a way to control lifespan and dispersion through flight of dipteran vectors, is inadequate. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was measured in the presence of both of its substrates, fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and ATP, as well as some allosteric effectors: Fructose- 2,6 - bisphosphate (F2, 6BP), citrate and AMP. Aedes aegypti phosphofructokinase sequence (AaPFK) was aligned with many other insects and also vertebrate sequences. A 3D AaPFK model was produced and docking experiments were performed with AMP and citrate. The kinetic parameters of AaPFK were determined for both substrates: F6P (V = 4.47 ± 0.15 ?mol of F1, 6BP/min, K0.5 = 1.48 ± 0.22 mM) and ATP (V = 4.73 ± 0.57 ?mol of F1, 6BP/min, K0.5 = 0.43 ± 0.10 mM). F2,6P was a powerful activator of AaPFK, even at low ATP concentrations. AaPFK inhibition by ATP was not enhanced by citrate, consistent with observations in other insects. After examining the sequence alignment of insect and non-insect PFKs, the hypothesis is that a modification of the citrate binding site is responsible for this unique behavior. AMP, a well-known positive effector of PFK, was not capable of reverting ATP inhibition. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex are dengue, malaria and filariasis vectors, respectively, and are shown to have this distinct characteristic in phosphofructokinase control. The alignment of several insect PFKs suggested a difference in the AMP binding site and a significant change in local charges, which introduces a highly negative charge in this part of the protein, making the binding of AMP unlikely. This hypothesis was supported by 3D modeling of PFK with AMP docking, which suggested that the AMP molecule binds in a reverse orientation due to the electrostatic environment. The present findings imply a potential new way to control PFK activity and are a unique feature of these Diptera. The present findings provide the first molecular explanation for citrate insensitivity in insect PFKs, as well as demonstrating for the first time AMP insensitivity in dipterans. It also identified a potential target for novel insecticides for the control of arthropod-borne diseases.

285) Zika virus infection.
Autor: MacFadden Derek R,Bogoch Isaac I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329
Resumo:

286) Spatial variation of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti presents unique vector control challenges
Autor: Deming Regan,Manrique-Saide Pablo,Medina Barreiro Anuar,Cardeña Edgar Ulises Koyoc,Che-Mendoza Azael,Jones Bryant,Liebman Kelly,Vizcaino Lucrecia,Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo,Lenhart Audrey
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Insecticide resistance; Kdr
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 67, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is a major public health problem in Mexico, where the use of chemical insecticides to control the principal dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, is widespread. Resistance to insecticides has been reported in multiple sites, and the frequency of kdr mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance has increased rapidly in recent years. In the present study, we characterized patterns of insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations in five small towns surrounding the city of Merida, Mexico. A cross-sectional, entomological survey was performed between June and August 2013 in 250 houses in each of the five towns. Indoor resting adult mosquitoes were collected in all houses and four ovitraps were placed in each study block. CDC bottle bioassays were conducted using F0-F2 individuals reared from the ovitraps and kdr allele (Ile1016 and Cys1534) frequencies were determined. High, but varying, levels of resistance to chorpyrifos-ethyl was detected in all study towns, complete susceptibility to bendiocarb in all except one town, and variations in resistance to deltamethrin between towns, ranging from 63-88 % mortality. Significant associations were detected between deltamethrin resistance and the presence of both kdr alleles. Phenotypic resistance was highly predictive of the presence of both alleles, however, not all mosquitoes containing a mutant allele were phenotypically resistant. An analysis of genotypic differentiation (exact G test) between the five towns based on the adult female Ae. aegypti collected from inside houses showed highly significant differences (p < 0.0001) between genotypes for both loci. When this was further analyzed to look for fine scale differences at the block level within towns, genotypic differentiation was significant for both loci in San Lorenzo (Ile1016, p = 0.018 and Cys1534, p = 0.007) and for Ile1016 in Acanceh (p = 0.013) and Conkal (p = 0.031). The results from this study suggest that 3 years after switching chemical groups, deltamethrin resistance and a high frequency of kdr alleles persisted in Ae. aegypti populations. The spatial variation that was detected in both resistance phenotypes and genotypes has practical implications, both for vector control operations as well as insecticide resistance management strategies.

287) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

288) Species Distribution Modelling of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-endemic regions of Pakistan
Autor: Fatima Syeda Hira,Atif Salman,Rasheed Syed Basit,Zaidi Farrah,Hussain Ejaz
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; MaxEnt; Pakistan; Paquistán; Vector ecology; Ecología de vectores; Écologie du vecteur
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, v. 21, n. 3, p. 427-436, 2016
ISSN: 1365-3156
Resumo: Statistical tools are effectively used to determine the distribution of mosquitoes and to make ecological inferences about the vector-borne disease dynamics. In this study, we utilised species distribution models to understand spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-prevalent regions of Pakistan, Lahore and Swat. Species distribution models can potentially indicate the probability of suitability of Ae. aegypti once introduced to new regions like Swat, where invasion of this species is a recent phenomenon. The distribution of Ae. aegypti was determined by applying the MaxEnt algorithm on a set of potential environmental factors and species sample records. The ecological dependency of species on each environmental variable was analysed using response curves. We quantified the statistical performance of the models based on accuracy assessment and spatial predictions. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti is widely distributed in Lahore. Human population density and urban infrastructure are primarily responsible for greater probability of mosquito occurrence in this region. In Swat, Ae. aegypti has clumped distribution, where urban patches provide refuge to the species in an otherwise hostile heterogeneous environment and road networks are assumed to have facilitated in passive-mediated dispersal of species. In Pakistan, Ae. aegypti is expanding its range northwards; this could be associated with rapid urbanisation, trade and travel. The main implication of this expansion is that more people are at risk of dengue fever in the northern highlands of Pakistan.

289) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

290) Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Autor: Gatherer Derek,Kohl Alain
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Arbovirus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

291) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

292) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango Ayubo, Abílio Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; New record; Dengue; Chikungunya; Maputo City; Mozambique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 76, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

293) Bello
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Medical care, Zika Virus Epidemic, Epidemics, Medical policy
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 418, p. 32, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article offers information on the health systems in Latin America. Topics discussed include the effect of mosquito-borne virus Zika to babies of infected mothers, need for Latin Americans of treatment for ailments such as cancer and diabetes, and suggestion of Daniel Cotlear, health specialist at the World Bank, Latin America, regarding the improvements of benefits packages for poor people.

294) Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using electronic health records-a systematic review of the application of statistical methods.
Autor: Leite Andreia; Andrews Nick J.; Thomas Sara L.;
Assunto: electronic health records, pharmacoepidemiology, safety, sequential tests, statistical process control, vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, v. 25, n. 3, p. 225-237, 2016
ISSN: 1099-1557
Resumo: Pre-licensure studies have limited ability to detect rare adverse events (AEs) to vaccines, requiring timely post-licensure studies. With the increasing availability of electronic health records (EHR) near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using these data has emerged as an option. We reviewed methods currently used to inform development of similar systems for countries considering their introduction. Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched, with additional searches of conference abstract books. Questionnaires were sent to organizations worldwide to ascertain unpublished studies. Eligible studies used EHR and regularly assessed pre-specified AE to vaccine(s). Key features of studies were compared descriptively. From 2779 studies, 31 were included from the USA (23), UK (6), and Taiwan and New Zealand (1 each). These were published/conducted between May 2005 and April 2015. Thirty-eight different vaccines were studied, focusing mainly on influenza (47.4%), especially 2009 H1N1 vaccines. Forty-six analytic approaches were used, reflecting frequency of EHR updates and the AE studied. Poisson-based maximized sequential probability ratio test was the most common (43.5%), followed by its binomial (23.9%) and conditional versions (10.9%). Thirty-seven of 49 analyses (75.5%) mentioned control for confounding, using an adjusted expected rate (51.4% of those adjusting), stratification (16.2%) or a combination of a self-controlled design and stratification (13.5%). Guillain-Barré syndrome (11.9%), meningitis/encephalitis/myelitis (11.9%) and seizures (10.8%) were studied most often. Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using EHR has developed over the past decade but is not yet widely used. As more countries have access to EHR, it will be important that appropriate methods are selected, considering the data available and AE of interest. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

295) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Zika virus, congenital abnormalities, travel medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

296) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A,Kellner D A,Brown J E,Gonzalez-Acosta C,Kamgang B,Lutwama J,Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

297) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A, Kellner D A, Brown J E, Gonzalez-Acosta C, Kamgang B, Lutwama J, Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue - Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population - does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to - after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

298) Características epidemiológicas da febre amarela no Brasil, 2000-2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro Leite Jardim; Tauil, Pedro Luiz
Assunto: Yellow fever; Descriptive epidemiology; Disease vectors; Brazil
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, v. 25, n. 1, p. 11-20, 2016
ISSN: 2237-9622
Resumo: This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of yellow fever in Brazil in the period 2000-2012. This is a descriptive ecological epidemiological study, using information from Ministry of Health databases. RESULTS: 326 cases of yellow fever were confirmed in Brazil during this period, with 156 deaths and an average case fatality rate of 47.8%; the young male adult age group was the most affected; in epizootic terms, 2,856 suspected cases of yellow fever in non-human primates were reported and 31.1% of these were confirmed by laboratory tests; during the study period the area in which sylvatic transmission of the disease occurs was found to have expanded to densely population regions, such as South, Southeast and Midwest Brazil. The risk of urban yellow fever transmission persists, as sylvatic incidence of the disease has expanded to regions with high Aedes aegypti infestation, this being the mosquito responsible for urban transmission of the disease

299) Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Bravo-Filho V., Góis A.L., Belfort R.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (epidemiology), macular degeneration, macular neuroretinal atrophy, microcephaly (epidemiology), Zika virus, Zika virus infection (epidemiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

300) Climate factors as important determinants of dengue incidence in Curacao
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Limper, M.; Thai, K. T. D.; Gerstenbluth, I.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Duits, A. J.; van Gorp, E. C. M.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Climate factors; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Zoonoses and Public Health, v. 63, n. 2, p. 129-137, 2016
ISSN: 1863-1959
Resumo: Macro- and microclimates may have variable impact on dengue incidence in different settings. We estimated the short-term impact and delayed effects of climate variables on dengue morbidity in Curacao. Monthly dengue incidence data from 1999 to 2009 were included to estimate the short-term influences of climate variables by employing wavelet analysis, generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity in relation to dengue incidence. Dengue incidence showed a significant irregular 4-year multi-annual cycle associated with climate variables. Based on GAM, temperature showed a U-shape, while humidity and rainfall exhibited a dome-shaped association, suggesting that deviation from mean temperature increases and deviation from mean humidity and rainfall decreases dengue incidence, respectively. Rainfall was associated with an immediate increase in dengue incidence of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2-8.1%) after a 10-mm increase, with a maximum increase of 6.5% (95% CI: 3.2-10.0%) after 1.5month lag. A 1 degrees C decrease of mean temperature was associated with a RR of 17.4% (95% CI: 11.2-27.0%); the effect was inversed for a 1 degrees C increase of mean temperature (RR= 0.457, 95% CI: 0.278-0.752). Climate variables are important determinants of dengue incidence and provide insight into its short-term effects. An increase in mean temperature was associated with lower dengue incidence, whereas lower temperatures were associated with higher dengue incidence.

301) Dynamics of Chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells
Autor: Hoornweg Tabitha E, van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Ayala Nuñez Nilda V, Albulescu Irina C, van Hemert Martijn J, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4745-562016, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia - the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell, as several studies suggest that it enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while some other studies show that CHIKV enters cells independently of clathrin. Here, we applied live-cell microscopy - monitored the cell entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain a detailed insight in the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 minutes post-addition to the cells. The vast majority of particles that fused first colocalized with clathrin. The time from initial colocalization with clathrin till the moment of membrane fusion was on average 1.7 minutes, highlighting the fast nature of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results also show that the virus spends a profound time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was predominantly observed from within Rab5-positive endosomes - often occurred within 40 seconds post-delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position E1-226 enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV cell entry occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. Since its re-emergence in 2004 chikungunya (CHIKV) has rapidly spread around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available against CHIKV. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell entry process of the virus. However, contradicting results were published with regard to the cell entry pathway used by CHIKV. Here, we applied a novel technology to visualize the entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells. Our results show that CHIKV cell entry is extremely rapid - occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Membrane fusion is seen from within acidic early endosomes. Furthermore, the membrane fusion capacity of CHIKV is strongly promoted by cholesterol in the target membrane. Taken together, this study provides an exquisite insight in the cell entry process of CHIKV.

302) Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Leal dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Mayaro Virus; Entomological Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 111, n. 1, p. 20-29, 2016
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171 Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiaba has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

303) NIH hopes funding increases will continue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Budgets, Presidents, Public health, Zika virus, Alzheimers disease, Cancer, Antibiotics, Medical research, FDA approval, Biomedical research, Brain research, Funding
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: The US Congress recently approved the largest single increase in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 12 years--a US$2 billion raise that was twice as much as President Barack Obama requested. But almost as soon as NIH supporters stopped cheering, they began to worry about next year's budget, and the challenge of a new public health threat, Zika virus.

304) Mild form of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Autor: Kim Se Yong; Choe Kang-Won; Park Sehhoon; Yoon Doran,Ock Chan-Young; Hong Seung Wook; Heo Jung Yeon
Assunto: Epstein-Barr virus infections, Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 2005-6648
Resumo:

305) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

306) Genes and odors underlying the recent evolution of mosquito preference for humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McBride, Carolyn S.
Assunto: L-Lactic Acid; Gambiae Diptera-Culicidae; Blood-Feeding Patterns; Yellow-Fever Mosquitos; Sensu-Stricto Diptera; Aedes-Aegypti L.; Anopheles-Gambiae; Malaria Mosquito; Carbon-Dioxide; Host Preferences
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Current Biology, v. 26, n. 1, p. R41-R46, 2016
ISSN: 0960-9822
Resumo: Mosquito species that specialize in biting humans are few but dangerous. They include the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, as well as Aedes aegypti, the cosmopolitan vector of dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes have evolved a remarkable innate preference for human odor that helps them find and bite us. Here I review what is known about this important Evolutionary adaptation, from its historical documentation to its chemical and molecular basis.

307) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

308) Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Azadirachta indica; Biological control; Biosafety; Botanical byproduct; Dengue fever; Mosquito-borne disease; Nanobiotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1015-1025, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

309) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue virus type 1
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo, Patriota João Veras, Lourdes de Souza Maria de, Felix Alvina Clara, Mamede Nubia, Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, p. e3201, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies - advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus - molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) - Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), - coinfection of DENV - ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV - 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 - the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, - CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine - differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current - future prevention strategies.

310) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno, Diego
Assunto: Chikungunya; Aedes albopictus; Argentina; Epidemiological modeling; Habitat availability - remote sensing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina.Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk.Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions.Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

311) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

312) Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elumalai, Devan; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Deepaa, Chandrasekar Vijayalakshmi; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Leucas aspera; Catechin; Larvicidal activity; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1203-1212, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin my serve as an alternative Biocontrol technique in the future. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of fractions and compounds from the whole-plant methanol extracts of Leucas aspera on the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging from 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10, and 20 ppm and isolated compounds. After 24 h exposure, larval mortality was assessed. Among the eight fractions, four from hexane extractions showed potent larvicidal activity against tested mosquito species at 20 ppm concentration. The isolated compound catechin showed pronounced larvicidal activity at very low concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of catechin were 3.05 and 8.25 ppm against Ae. aegypti, 3.44 and 8.89 ppm against An. stephensi, and 3.76 and 9.79 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The isolated compound was subjected to spectral analyses (GC-MS, FTIR, H-1 NMR, and C-13 NMR) to elucidate the structure and to compare with spectral data literature.

313) Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy — Brazil, 2015.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, Cortez-Escalante, Juan, Gonçalves Holanda De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório, Ikeda do Carmo, Greice Madeleine, Pessanha Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch, Coelho, Giovanini Evelim, Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto: Micorcephaly, Diagnosis, Disease prevalence, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Public health, Transmission, Risk factors, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article focuses on the prevalence of microcephaly among infants born in women affected by Zika virus transmission in their first trimester pregnancy in Brazil in 2015. Topics discussed include an overview of the outbreak of Zika virus disease, the registration of the identified congenital anomalies, and the implications for public health practice.

314) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible zika virus infection - United States, February 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E.; Nelson, Jennifer M.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M.; Minta, Anna A.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR-Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

315) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

316) Cloning and expressing trypsin modulating oostatic factor in chlorella desiccata to control mosquito larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chlorella desiccata; Genetic engineering; Trypsin modulating oostatic factor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 91, n. 1, p. 17-36, 2016
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 +/- 4 g +/- SEM and 17 +/- 3 g +/- SEM, respectively in 3 x 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh.

317) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor G.
Assunto: brain development, fetal brain, inflammation, placenta, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1600-0897 (electronic),1046-7408
Resumo:

318) Physiological and biochemical response of Aedes aegypti tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wu, Songqing; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Zhaoxia; Rebeca, Carballar-Lejarazu; Fu, Tao; Han, Chaoqiang; Shao, Ensi; Pan, Xiaohong; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Zou, Shuangquan; Zhang, Lingling; Guan, Xiong
Assunto: Bacillus thuringiensis; Aedes aegypti; Detoxifying enzymes; Mosquito tolerance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Biocontrol Science and Technology, v. 26, n. 2, p. 227-238, 2016
ISSN: 0958-3157
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) represents the only eco-friendly bio-degradable insecticide for mosquito-borne disease control. Our research aims to identify if mosquito detoxification enzymes play an important role in Bti tolerance mechanisms in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Several enzymes, such as amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analysed and level of activity determined in Ae. aegypti larvae after Bti treatment. Bti exposure significantly increased the level of amylase (183.2%) as well as the activity of cytochromes P450 (177.5%), and Na+/K+-ATPase (142.9%). On the other hand, there was a decrease of 8.6% and 11.4% in acetylcholinesterase and GST activity, and no significant effect in the total level of protease activity. We suggest that the variation in amylase, cytochromes P450, Na+/K+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase, protease and GST activity may be associated with the Bti insecticidal mechanism. This study provides the basis of detoxifying enzymes in Bti tolerance.

319) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Biological control; Genetics; Population genetics; Human diseases; DNA; Natural populations; Public health; Mitochondrial DNA; Immigration; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Haplotypes; Dengue; Population studies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016.
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

320) Zika virus spreads to new areas - region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantion, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

321) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

322) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2016
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

323) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

324) Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)- Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; da Silva Machado, Fernanda Lacerda; Samuels, Richard Ian; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flavia Borges; Silva, Jose Roberto
Assunto: Laurencia Dendroidea; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicide; Sesquiterpenes; (+)-Obtusol; (-)-Elatol; Oxidative Stress
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Marine Drugs, v. 14, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1660-3397
Resumo: Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 mu M CM-H(2)DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

325) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

326) Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Roni, Mathath; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Kumar, Suresh; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Anophelinae; Antioxidant; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanosynthesis; Nanotechnology; Smoke toxicity; Longevity; Fecundity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 997-1013, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 mu g/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 mu g/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 x LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 mu g/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 mu g/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 mu g/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing.

327) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

328) Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of the First Recognized Outbreak of Dengue Virus-Type 2 in Mozambique, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Massangaie, Marilia; Pinto, Gabriela; Padama, Fernando; Chambe, Geraldo; da Silva, Mariana; Mate, Inocencio; Chirindza, Celia; Ali, Sadia; Agostinho, Saozinha; Chilaule, Daniel; Weyer, Jacqueline; le Roux, Chantel; Abilio, Ana Paula; Baltazar, Cynthia; Doyle, Timothy J.; Cliff, Julie; Paweska, Janusz; Gudo, Eduardo Samo
Assunto: Fever; Transmission; Chikungunya; Tanzania; Malaria; Africa
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 413-416, 2016
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Since the first reported epidemic of dengue in Pemba, the capital of Cabo Delgado province, in 1984-1985, no further cases have been reported in Mozambique. In March 2014, the Provincial Health Directorate of Cabo Delgado reported a suspected dengue outbreak in Pemba, associated with a recent increase in the frequency of patients with nonmalarial febrile illness. An investigation conducted between March and June detected a total of 193 clinically suspected dengue patients in Pemba and Nampula, the capital of neighboring Nampula Province. Dengue virus-type 2 (DENV-2) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in sera from three patients, and 97 others were classified as probable cases based on the presence of DENV nonstructural protein 1 antigen or anti-DENY immunoglobulin M antibody. Entomological investigations demonstrated the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitos in both Pemba and Nampula cities.

329) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown, Carolyn
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Disease prevalence, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Mosquito nets, Public health, Asia
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n.2, p. E34, 2016
ISSN: 8203946
Resumo: The article reports on the prevalence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia and South America which can cause microcephaly in newborns. It highlights several symptoms of Zika virus including fever, muscle soreness and rash as well as microcephaly in newborns. It also cites the effort of the governments to encourage people to take basic mosquito protection such as insect repellent, clothing, screens on windows and mosquito nets.

330) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Escobar, Luis E.; Qiao, Huijie; Peterson, A. Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa and Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers and the potential geographic spread of this disease.Methods: We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally and cases imported from other countries, and forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries and at finer scales, in terms of ecological features.Results: By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil and more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor and uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term "surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort and reporting.Conclusions: Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive and predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools and data that can inform early-warning systems and public health intelligence.

331) Zika virus infection Among U.S. pregnant travelers - august 2015-february 2016.
Autor: Meaney-Delman Dana,Hills Susan L,Williams Charnetta,Galang Romeo R,Iyengar Preetha,Hennenfent Andrew K,Rabe Ingrid B,Panella Amanda,Oduyebo Titilope,Honein Margaret A,Zaki Sherif,Lindsey Nicole,Lehman Jennifer A,Kwit Natalie,Bertolli Jeanne,Ellington Sascha,Igbinosa Irogue,Minta Anna A,Petersen Emily E,Mead Paul,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

332) Neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection: Astrogliosis and innate immune activation
Autor: Inglis Fiona M, Lee Kim M, Chiu Kevin B, Purcell Olivia M, Didier Peter J, Russell-Lodrigue Kasi, Weaver Scott C, Roy Chad J, MacLean Andrew G
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya; Gliosis; Morphometry; Togavirus; Toll-like receptor
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 2, p. 140-148, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Chikungunya, that which bends up" in the Makonde dialect, is an emerging global health threat, with increasing incidence of neurological complications. Until 2013, Chikungunya infection had been largely restricted to East Africa - the Indian Ocean, with cases within the USA reported to be from foreign travel. However, in 2014, over 1 million suspected cases were reported in the Americas, - a recently infected human could serve as an unwitting reservoir for the virus resulting in an epidemic in the continental USA. Chikungunya infection is increasingly being associated with neurological sequelae. In this study, we sought to underst- the role of astrocytes in the neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection. Even after virus has been cleared form the circulation, astrocytes were activated with regard to TLR2 expression. In addition, white matter astrocytes were hypertrophic, with increased arbor volume in gray matter astrocytes. Combined, these would alter the number - distribution of synapses that each astrocyte would be capable of forming. These results provide the first evidence that Chikungunya infection induces morphometric - innate immune activation of astrocytes in vivo. Perturbed glia-neuron signaling could be a major driving factor in the development of Chikungunya-associated neuropathology."

333) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

334) Misguided strategy for mosquito control
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M, Vitule Jean R S, García-Berthou Emili, Pelicice Fernando M, Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

335) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

336) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

337) As Zika Concerns Grow, the Travel Industry Reacts.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vora, Shivani, Wirtz, Nic, Matos, Rafael, Lauria, Sol
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, v. 165, n. 57135, p. 3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article focuses on response from the U.S. tourism industry to the Zika virus epidemics by warning pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant to avoid travel to affected areas, and refunding flight tickets to women, and mentions views of travel agent Paul Irvine, on the same.

338) Development of a larvicidal nanoemulsion with Pterodon emarginatus vogel oil
Autor: Oliveira, M. F. M.; Duarte, Jonatas L.; Amado, Jesus R. R.; Cruz, Rodrigo A. S.; Rocha, Clarice F.; Souto, Raimundo N. P.; Ferreira, Ricardo M. A.; Santos, Karen; Conceicao, Edemilson C. da; Oliveira, A. R. de
Assunto: Human diseases; Pesticides; Larvae; Pest control; Hosts; Toxicity; Disease transmission; Public health; Oil; Acetylcholinesterase; Dengue; Vectors; Natural products; Developing countries; Emulsions; Lipophilic; Aedes aegypti; Fabaceae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Pterodon emarginatus Vogel is a Brazilian species that belongs to the family Fabaceae, popularly known as sucupira. Its oil has several biological activities, including potent larvicidal property against Aedes aegypti. This insect is the vector of dengue, a tropical disease that has been considered a critical health problem in developing countries, such as Brazil. Most of dengue control methods involve larvicidal agents suspended or diluted in water and making active lipophilic natural products available is therefore considered a technological challenge. In this context, nanoemulsions appear as viable alternatives to solve this major problem. The present study describes the development of a novel nanoemulsion with larvicidal activity against A. aegypti along with the required Hydrophile Lipophile Balance determination of this oil. It was suggested that the mechanism of action might involve reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and our results also suggest that the P. emarginatus nanoemulsion is not toxic for mammals. Thus, it contributes significantly to alternative integrative practices of dengue control, as well as to develop sucupira based nanoproducts for application in aqueous media.

339) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach J., Alencar C.H., Kelvin A.A., de Oliveira W.K., de Góes Cavalcanti L.P.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil’s Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil’s Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

340) Long-lasting immune protection and other epidemiological findings after chikungunya emergence in a cambodian rural community, April 2012
Autor: Galatas Beatriz, Ly Sowath, Duong Veasna, Baisley Kathy, Nguon Kunthy, Chan Siam, Huy Rekol, Ly Sovann, Sorn Sopheak, Som Leakhann, Buchy Philippe, Tarantola Arnaud
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004281, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The East/Central/South African genotype of Chikungunya virus with the E1-A226V mutation emerged in 2011 in Cambodia - spread in 2012. An outbreak of 190 cases was documented in Trapeang Roka, a rural village. We surveyed 425 village residents within 3-4 weeks after the outbreak, - determined the sensitivity - specificity of case definitions - factors associated with infection by CHIKV. Self-reported clinical presentation consisted mostly of fever, rash - arthralgia. The presence of all three clinical signs or symptoms was identified as the most sensitive (67%) - specific (84%) self-reported diagnostic clinical indicator compared to biological confirmation by MAC-ELISA or RT-PCR used as a reference. Having an indoor occupation was associated with lower odds of infection compared with people who remained at home (adjOR 0.32, 95%CI 0.12-0.82). In contrast with findings from outbreaks in other settings, persons aged above 40 years were less at risk of CHIKV infection, likely reflecting immune protection acquired when Chikungunya circulated in Cambodia before the Khmer Rouge regime in 1975. In view of the very particular history of Cambodia, our epidemiological data from Trapeang Roka are the first to support the persistence of CHIKV antibodies over a period of 40 years.

341) Virus in Brazil May Be Linked To a 2nd Illness.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Physicians - Attitudes, Infant diseases, Brain-damaged children, Chikungunya virus, Paralytics, Brazil - Social conditions - 1985
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57119, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses several Brazilian physicians and health officials who claim that the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which has been associated with brain damage in infants, may also be linked to hundreds of cases of the rare condition Guillain-Barré (GB) syndrome which can cause patients to become nearly completely paralyzed for weeks. According to the article, the Zika virus is spreading throughout Brazil and other nations in Latin America. The Chikungunya virus is assessed.

342) Interspecies transmission and Chikungunya virus emergence
Autor: Tsetsarkin Konstantin A, Chen Rubing, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 16, p. 143-150, 2016
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity - economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions -, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, - the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural - temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors - nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

343) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

344) Larval Temperature-Food Effects on Adult Mosquito Infection and Vertical Transmission of Dengue-1 Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buckner, Eva A.; Alto, Barry W.; Lounibos, L. Philip
Assunto: Larval Ecology; Infection; Transmission; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history and population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus life history and DENV-1 infection and vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny and DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature and food affected number of progeny and DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24 degrees C) yielded the most progeny and this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low and high food led to the highest (similar to 90%) and lowest (similar to 65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (similar to 75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature and food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission and a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have conSequences for dengue virus epidemiology.

345) The U.S. Is Botching the Zika Fight.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohrssen, John J., Miller, Henry I.
Assunto: Zika virus, Virus diseases - Transmission, Immunization
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

346) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

347) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Autor: Hills Susan L,Russell Kate,Hennessey Morgan,Williams Charnetta,Oster Alexandra M,Fischer Marc,Mead Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

348) Exploiting intimate relationships: controlling mosquito-transmitted disease with Wolbachia
Autor: Caragata, Eric P.; Dutra, Heverton L. C.; Moreira, Luciano A.
Assunto: Human diseases; Disease control; Malaria; Pest control; Pathogens; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Reproduction; Infection; Tides; Wolbachia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, p. 207-218, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Mosquito-transmitted diseases impose a growing burden on human health, and current control strategies have proven insufficient to stem the tide. The bacterium Wolbachia is a novel and promising form of control for mosquito-transmitted disease. It manipulates host biology, restricts infection with dengue and other pathogens, and alters host reproduction to promote rapid spread in the field. In this review, we examine how the intimate and diverse relationships formed between Wolbachia and their mosquito hosts can be exploited for disease control purposes. We consider these relationships in the context of recent developments, including successful field trials with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to combat dengue, and new Wolbachia infections in key malaria vectors, which have enhanced the disease control prospects of this unique bacterium.

349) W.H.O. Sounds a Global Alarm Over Zika Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Taverinise, Sabrina, Cumming-Bruce, Nick
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Public health - International cooperation, Emergencies, Forecasting, Human abnormalities, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Social aspects
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57126, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the World Health Organization's (W.H.O.'s) decision to issue a global warning regarding the Zika virus, and it mentions the prediction that as many as four million people could be infected with the Zika virus by the end of 2016. According to the article, the W.H.O. is contemplating whether to declare the Zika virus a public health emergency. Zika virus-related birth defects are examined, along with concern about the Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

350) Longitudinal analysis of natural killer cells in Dengue virus-infected patients in comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue virus-infected patients
Autor: Petitdemange Caroline, Wauquier Nadia, Devilliers Hervé, Yssel Hans, Mombo Illich, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghé Dieudonné, Debré Patrice, Leroy Eric, Vieillard Vincent
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004499, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America - Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development - outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering - principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV - DENV-2 infected patients. We observed that both activation - differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 - CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, - DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-? (IFN-?) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV - DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

351) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

352) Mosquito Experts in U.S. Call for Guerrilla War Against Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquito control, Public health - United States, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Zika Virus Epidemic, Aedes aegypti, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57141, p. A1-A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at mosquito control in the U.S. in the context of the spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which it says is spreading northward from Brazil, where it is has been associated with causing birth defects in the babies of pregnant women who become infected with it. It says spraying of pesticides is not very effective against the Aedes aegypti mosquito which carries the virus and discusses other mosquito control approaches.

353) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

354) Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase
Autor: Mazzalupo, Stacy; Isoe, Jun; Belloni, Virginia; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.
Assunto: Ammonia; Gene silencing; Protein expression; Uric acid; RNA interference
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: FASEB Journal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 111-120, 2016
ISSN: 0892-6638
Resumo: To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of female mosquitoes in their disposal of excess nitrogen, we investigated the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) in blood-fed Aedes aegypti. Transcript and protein levels from the 2 ALAT genes were analyzed in sucrose-and blood-fed A. aegypti tissues. ALAT1 and ALAT2 exhibit distinct expression patterns in tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle. Injection of female mosquitoes with either double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-ALAT1 or dsRNA ALAT2 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of ALAT1 or ALAT2 in fat body, thorax, and Malpighian tubules compared with dsRNA firefly luciferase-injected controlmosquitoes. The silencing of either A. aegypti ALAT1 or ALAT2 caused unexpected phenotypes such as a delay in blood digestion, a massive accumulation of uric acid in the midgut posterior region, and a significant decrease of nitrogen waste excretion during the first 48 h after blood feeding. Concurrently, the expression of genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase and ammonia transporter (Rhesus 50 glycoprotein) were significantly increased in tissues of both ALAT1- and ALAT2-deficient females. Moreover, perturbation of ALAT1 and ALAT2 in the female mosquitoes delayed oviposition and reduced egg production. These novel findings underscore the efficient mechanisms that blood-fed mosquitoes use to avoid ammonia toxicity and free radical damage.-Mazzalupo, S., Isoe, J., Belloni, V., Scaraffia, P. Y. Effective disposal of nitrogen waste in blood-fed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes requires alanine aminotransferase. FASEB J. 30, 111-120 (2016). www.fasebj.org

355) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

356) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

357) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

358) Medical Mystery With a Global Reach.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Romero, Simon, Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Microcephaly, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57135, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses increasing incidences of the birth defect microcephaly in Brazil caused by the Zika virus, and the declaration of a public health emergency concerning the Zika virus epidemic by the group the World Health Organization in early 2016.

359) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y.; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, n. , p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHUN drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKN on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

360) The world this week.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Caucus, Presidents - United States, Zika virus infections, Human abnormalities, Iowa, Election
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 8975, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article offers world news briefs. U.S. presidential candidate Ted Cruz has won the Republican caucuses in Iowa in February 2016 for the U.S. presidential election. World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the global emergency of mosquito-borne Zika virus due to the increased of birth defects in Brazil. Sumner Redstone has stepped down his position as the chairman of mass media company CBS.

361) Dengue fever among Israeli expatriates in Delhi, 2015: Implications for dengue incidence in Delhi, India
Autor: Neuberger Ami, Turgeman Avigail, Lustig Yaniv, Schwartz Eli
Assunto: Delhi; Dengue; India; Dengue fever; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We present the data of 13 dengue cases diagnosed between 1 August - 15 September 2015 among 240 Israeli expatriates residing in Delhi. Attack rates were similar between adults (6/128, 4.7%) - children (7/112, 6.3%). dengue virus (DENV-2) was identified in two - DENV-1 in one dengue-seropositive sample. Another febrile patient was diagnosed with chikungunya virus infection. The reported incidence of dengue fever among people living in Delhi was lower than 0.1% as of September 2015. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the incidence of dengue fever in Delhi is grossly underestimated.

362) How to contain the Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Micorcephaly, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 49-52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus and the effort to prevent it from spreading in the U.S. Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that is suspected to be linked with microcephaly. It explores the use of chemical strategies to avoid mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, such as treating water with larvicides to control mosquitoes before they mature. The spread of the Zika virus in Brazil is also discussed.

363) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

364) How Zika became a threat.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mackenzie, Debora
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Disease complications, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Fetus - Abnormalities, Brain abnormalities, Virus diseases - Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3058, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika pandemic in 2016. It states the Zika virus emerged in Brazil early in 2015 and is now present in 27 countries, including 12 nations in the Americas from December 2015 through January 2016. It mentions the virus had not been previously known to be widespread among humans or cause complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome or stunted brain development in fetuses. It reports the virus originated in Africa and initially spread into parts of South-East Asia.

365) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

366) Zika Fears Imperil Brazil’s Tourism Push.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Tourism, Public health, Virus diseases, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

367) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K,Cherpillod P,Kaiser L,Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya, Zika, dengue, diagnostic algorithm, outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

368) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

369) Simplified bryostatin analogues protect cells from Chikungunya virus-induced cell death
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Schrier Adam J, Loy Brian A, Verma Vishal A, DeChristopher Brian A, Near Katherine E, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products v. 79, n. 4, p. 675-679, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus showing a recent resurgence - rapid spread worldwide. While vaccines are under development, there are currently no therapies to treat this disease, except for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, which alleviate the devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. To identify novel inhibitors of the virus, analogues of the natural product bryostatin 1, a clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication, were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity - were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication reported to date. Bryostatin-based therapeutic efforts - even recent anti-CHIKV strategies have centered on modulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Intriguingly, while the C ring of bryostatin primarily drives interactions with PKC, A- - B-ring functionality in these analogues has a significant effect on the observed cell-protective activity. Significantly, bryostatin 1 itself, a potent pan-PKC modulator, is inactive in these assays. These new findings indicate that the observed anti-CHIKV activity is not solely mediated by PKC modulation, suggesting possible as yet unidentified targets for CHIKV therapeutic intervention. The high potency - low toxicity of these bryologs make them promising new leads for the development of a CHIKV treatment.

370) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

371) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

372) The Zika Hunters
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Braga, Liz
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 10, p. 12-16, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses how a team of Brazilian doctors raised awareness on the danger of Zika virus. It explores the work of doctor Kleber Luz, an infectious disease expert based in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil and his colleague Carlos Brito, a researcher at the Oscaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) in persuading the world to take action against the deadly infection. It mentions congenital microcephaly as a sign of Zika virus infection as confirmed by neuropediatrician Vanessa van der Linden.

373) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

374) In Zika Epidemic, a Warning on Climate Change.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gillis, Justin, Romero, Simon
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Dengue, Climatic changes, Pandemics, Urbanization, Population
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57149, p. 6-11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the association of the emergence of Zika epidemic as well as the related spread of a disease called dengue on global climate change. The consideration of climate change as a factor in a string of disease outbreaks afflicting both people and animals is outlined. According to experts, a main reason for the disease outbreaks was most likely the expansion of the number of people at risk, through urbanization, population growth and international travel.

375) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

376) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

377) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.
Autor: Hamel Rodolphe,Liégeois Florian,Wichit Sineewanlaya,Pompon Julien,Diop Fodé,Talignani Loïc,Thomas Frédéric,Desprès Philippe,Yssel Hans,Missé Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA, arbovirus, epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, vector
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

378) Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia
Autor: Choi, Youngjo; Tang, Choon Siang; McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Chan, Vibol; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra Romauld; Iddings, Steven; Huy, Rekol
Assunto: Weather; Dengue; Temperature; Rainfall; Cambodia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 16, n. 241, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Background: Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country.Methods: We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period.Results: Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom.Conclusions: The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control measures to be better targeted, timed and implemented.

379) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

380) Scientists Scramble To Develop Tools, Treatments For Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Halford, Bethany
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Aedes aegypti, Pests - Control - Equipment & supplies
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n, 8, p. 34-38, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article offers information regarding the challenges faced by scientists in developing treatment and tools to detect and prevent Zika virus. Topics discussed include report from the Pan American Health Organization on the spread of the disease in Brazil in 2016, insight from entomologist Joseph M. Conlon the problem in eliminating Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which bring the virus such as its size and resistance to spraying regimens, and the history of the disease.

381) Waging war on Zika mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson, Clare
Assunto: Viruses, Mosquitoes, Disease transmission, Epidemics, Global health, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3059, p. 8-9, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Zika is officially a global public health emergency. The declaration, by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday, means that it can now take the lead in coordinating the global response to a virus it has estimated could infect up to 4 million people in the Americas over the next year. Zika, which was first detected in the region in May, has now spread "explosively" to at least 25 countries. The emergency designation will help the WHO to ramp up research and organize international efforts to combat the Aedes mosquitoes that spread the disease. Here, Wilson discusses the tactics that countries could consider in the war on mosquitoes.

382) Data sharing.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNutt, Marcia
Assunto: Public health research, Zika virus, Information sharing, Action research in public health
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6277, p. 1007, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article offers information on data sharing in public health and discusses the work of the journal to allow best available research evidence in response to public health emergencies. It informs that the journal signatories will make freely available all the content related to Zika virus. It also mentions the organizations associated with the journal including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the U.S. and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India.

383) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

384) Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus
Autor: Palacios Ricardo,Poland Gregory A,Kalil Jorge
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo:

385) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

386) Soccer a Center of Fear on Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Longman, Jeré
Assunto: Soccer, Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Soccer matches, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Women soccer players, Travel, Brazil, Social aspects, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57134, p. D1-D6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses what the author refers to as the fear that is associated with the potential spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus as a result of the various soccer matches that are going to be played across Brazil as part of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games which are based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. According to the article, Olympic soccer events are scheduled to be held in six cities including Manaus, Brazil. Concerns about women soccer players traveling to Brazil are also examined.

387) Infección intrauterina por virus zika y microcefalia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cofré, Fernanda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Revista Chilena de Infectologia, v. 33, n. 1, p. 96, 2016.
ISSN: 0716-1018
Resumo:

388) Going Viral.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wolff, Alexander, Keith, Ted
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), International relations, Public health - International cooperation, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Brazil - Social conditions
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Sports Illustrated, v. 124, n. 6, p. 14-15, 2016
ISSN: 0038822X
Resumo: The article discusses the mosquito-borne Zika virus which is spreading through Brazil and other parts of the Americas less than six months before the start of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it mentions how the Zika virus will do more to bring the world together than the Olympic games. Public health emergencies and the birth defect microcephaly are examined, along with the association between the Zika virus and the autoimmune condition Guillain-Barré syndrome.

389) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

390) Dallas Reports A Case of Zika Spread by Sex.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission, Texas
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57131, p. A1-A17, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at a report from the county of Dallas, Texas, of a case in which the Zika virus was transmitted by sexual contact, which it notes is in contrast with the virus's usual transmission by mosquitoes. Topics include the advice issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for precautions people should take when visiting world regions where Zika is prevalent and an association between Zika infections in pregnant women and birth defects in their babies.

391) Partnerships, Not Parachutists, for Zika Research.
Autor: Heymann David L,Liu Joanne,Lillywhite Louis
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: When the director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders represent a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), she called for increased research into their cause, including the question of whether the Zika virus is the source of the problem.(1) The declaration provides an opportunity to step up the pace of research in order to find the answer to some important questions more quickly. It could not only facilitate the accumulation of knowledge about the relationship between the Zika virus and microcephaly, but also accelerate the study of . . .

392) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E., Nelson, Jennifer M., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Karwowski, Mateusz P., Mead, Paul, Villanueva, Julie, Renquist, Christina M., Minta, Anna A., Jamieson, Denise J., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A., Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Flaviviral diseases, Microcephaly, Infants - Health, Children - Health, Viral diseases in children, Viral diseases in pregnancy, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 65, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article discusses the interim guidelines issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016 for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection. Topics include routine care of infants born to mothers who resided in or traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy, evaluation and testing of infants and children with possible congenital Zika virus infection and the steps to prevent Zika virus infection.

393) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

394) El Salvador’s Advice on Zika: Don’t Have Babies.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ahmed, Azam, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Childbirth, Government policy, Pregnancy, Advice, Social aspects, EL Salvador - Politics & government - 21st century, EL Salvador - Social conditions - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57123, p. A1-A6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the El Salvadorian government's advice to women on refraining from having children and postponing pregnancy for two years to avoid the complications from Zika virus infections, within the context of the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America.

395) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

396) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

397) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2016
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

398) Delaying Pregnancy Until Zika Moves On.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr, Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnancy, Governmet policy, Pregnant women - Health, Public health, Brazil, Ecuador
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57137, p. D1-D6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that health officials in several countries with cases of the Zika virus have warned women to avoid pregnancy in an effort to avoid infection and prevent further development of the epidemic. Noted countries that have issued such warnings include Brazil, Ecuador, and Colombia. The article goes on to note that the World Health Organization has not endorsed the precaution.

399) Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region
Autor: Ngwe Tun M M, Inoue S, Thant K Z, Talemaitoga N, Aryati A, Dimaano E M, Matias R R, Buerano C C, Natividad F F, Abeyewickreme W, Thuy N T T, Mai L T Q, Hasebe F, Hayasaka D, Morita K
Assunto: Asia; Fiji; Ross River virus; Chikungunya virus; Seroepidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 11, p. 2268-2275, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes - the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005-2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia - Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia - Southeast Asia, - 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA - focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar - Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, - 6·1%, respectively; - in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines - Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% - 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries - should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.

400) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubin, Eric J., Greene, Michael F., Baden, Lindsey R.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Infants - Health, Pregnancy complications, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working . . .

401) Zika virus and microcephaly: is the correlation, causal or coincidental?
Autor: Liuzzi Giuseppina,Puro Vincenzo,Vairo Francesco,Nicastri Emanuele,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Di Caro Antonino,Piacentini Mauro,Zumla Alimuddin,Ippolito Giuseppe
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The New Microbiologica, v. 39, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1121-7138
Resumo:

402) Tears and Bewilderment At Center of Zika Crisis.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcepahly, Zika virus infections, Medical care, Public health, Transmission, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57127, p. A1-A8, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses an investigation by health officials of the mosquito-borne Zika virus epidemic in Brazil and other areas of the Western Hemisphere. Topics include the declaration of a health emergency by Brazil's Health Ministry due to the significant increase in babies born with microcephaly, researchers' belief that the virus was spread from Polynesia to Brazil during the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament, and challenges of Brazil's public health system.

403) Quarantine for Zika Virus? Where is the Science?
Autor: Koenig Kristi L.
Assunto: Ebola; Zika; Health policy; Isolation; Quarantine
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1938-744X
Resumo: In January 2016, the World Health Organization warned that Zika virus is spreading explosively" in the Americas and that up to 4 million infections could be present worldwide within a year. Soon thereafter, some politicians and authors publicly advocated for quarantine of travelers returning from regions where mosquitoes carrying Zika virus are prevalent. The public health tool of quarantine can be used to prevent the spread of infection by restricting the movement of persons who have been exposed to a deadly disease that can be transmitted from person to person before symptom onset. With 80% of Zika virus infections being asymptomatic, no rapid test being available to detect the virus, and primary transmission being via the bites of certain mosquitoes, application of quarantine in this setting is not scientifically sound or practically feasible. Rather, public health interventions should focus on preventing bites from infected mosquitoes, counseling pregnant women on the risks of fetal microcephaly and other birth defects, and identifying patients with signs and symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. As was seen in the Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014, non-evidence-based factors can influence policy decisions. Public health experts must ensure that policy makers are informed that quarantine is not a scientifically sound approach for the control of Zika virus. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;0:1-3)."

404) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

405) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

406) False Mercy.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alvaré, Helen
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Abortion - Moral & ethical aspects, Poor women, Abortion - Religious aspects - Catholic Church, Women, People with disabilities - Social conditions, Contraception - Social aspects, Social conditions, Colombia
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: America, v. 214, n. 8, p. 14, 2016
ISSN: 27049
Resumo: The article discusses the relation between the Zika virus and a Roman Catholic ethical view of abortion. Topics include arguments that tie abortion legalization to the social conditions of poor women, conditions facing poor women in Colombia, and the purported impacts of contraception as a preventive service on poor women. Supposed impacts of abortion on people with disabilities are noted.

407) Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a zika virus outbreak - United States, 2016.
Autor: Petersen Emily E,Staples J Erin,Meaney-Delman Dana,Fischer Marc,Ellington Sascha R,Callaghan William M,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 2, p. 30-33, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

408) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

409) How to contain the zika virus
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 29-30, 2016.
ISSN: 0009-2347
Resumo: For most people who catch it, the Zika virus isn't so bad. Symptoms include achy joints, a rash, headache, and a slight fever. After a few days, the symptoms are gone. But for pregnant women, Zika is a horror. The virus is the suspect behind an epidemic of more than 4,000 cases of children born in Brazil in the past year with abnormally small heads and brains, a rare condition known as microcephaly.

410) Offline: Brazil - The unexpected opportunity that Zika presents
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Horton R.
Assunto: epidemic, virus infection, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 633, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

411) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

412) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas -- Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan, Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Flaviviral diseases, Prevention, Mosquito control, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n.3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about transmission of Zika virus among several regions of the U.S. in January 2016, is presented. Topics include identification of disease as mosquito-borne flavivirus in Uganda in 1947, observation of infection among travelers of the U.S., prevention of the disease including restriction of mosquito breeding areas, and suspension of travel plans by pregnant woman to avoid transmission.

413) Zika virus association with microcephaly: the power for population statistics to identify public health emergencies.
Autor: Stratton Samuel J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, v. 31 , n. 2 , p. 119-120, 2016
ISSN: 1945-1938
Resumo:

414) Zika Afflicts an Already Weak Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bremmer, Ian
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Public health, Olympic Games - Management, Tourism, Political corruption, Gross domestic product, Brazil - Economic conditions - 1985, Social aspects, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Time, v. 187, n. 6-7, p. 14, 2016
ISSN: 0040781X
Resumo: The article discusses the potential social, economic, and political impacts that a Zika virus outbreak could have on the nation of Brazil, and it mentions the economic conditions in the country and the possibility that the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, which are scheduled to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, could be canceled. According to the article, the Zika virus threatens Brazil's public health and tourism revenue. Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) and political corruption are examined.

415) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

416) The race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen, Jon
Assunto: Vaccines - Research, Zika virus infections, Public health, Management, Pregnant women, Safety measures
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article focuses on the research for the development of a Zika vaccine. Topics mentioned include the complications of Zika virus such as microcephaly and neurological complications, the insights of virologist Thomas Monath on the development of Zika vaccine, and the importance of public health management. Also mentioned are the flavivirus vaccines development and the safety measures for pregnant women on the planned use of Zika vaccine.

417) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

418) Beyond Ebola.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Currie, Janet
Assunto: Public health - International cooperation, Emergency management, Pandemics, Prevention, Ebola virus disease - Transmission, Zika Virus Epidemic
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article discusses the creation of Center for Health Emergency Preparedness and Response within the World Health Organization (WHO) which help the international community to prepare for and respond to a global epidemic, citing the Ebola virus. It mentions the declaration of Zika virus as a public health emergency which is a disease caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.

419) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

420) Zika virus in the americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Autor: Fauci Anthony S, Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

421) Benefits of sharing
Autor: [No author name available]
Assunto: Brazil; Dna Sequence; Epidemic; Evidence Based Medicine; Factual Database; Genetics; Human; Information Dissemination; Microcephaly; Open Access Publishing; Pathogenicity; Statistics And Numerical Data; Time; Utilization; Virology; World Health Organization; Zika Virus; Zika Virus Infection; Brazil; Databases, Factual; Disease Outbreaks; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Information Dissemination; Microcephaly; Open Access Publishing; Sequence Analysis, Dna; Time Factors; World Health Organization; Zika Virus; Zika Virus Infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v.530, n. 7589, p. 129-,2016.
ISSN: 14764687
Resumo: [No abstract available]

422) The Potential Hidden Toll of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Infants, Mental health, Zika virus infections, Schizophrenia in children, Mother & infant, Autism in children, Children, Bipolar disorder in children, Viral diseases in children, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57151, p. D1-D5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the possibility that infants born to mothers who were infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy may suffer from various mental health issues later in life, and it mentions how the Zika virus resembles infectious agents that have been linked to the development of medical and mental conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In utero illnesses and viral infections are examined, along with the health of children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

423) Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Martines Roosecelis Brasil,Bhatnagar Julu,Keating M Kelly,Silva-Flannery Luciana,Muehlenbachs Atis,Gary Joy,Goldsmith Cynthia,Hale Gillian,Ritter Jana,Rollin Dominique,Shieh Wun-Ju,Luz Kleber G,Ramos Ana Maria de Oliveira,Davi Helaine Pompeia Freire,Kleber de Oliveria Wanderson,Lanciotti Robert,Lambert Amy,Zaki Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

424) Companies Confront Zika Virus And Safety.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Creswell, Julie, Segal, David
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Women employees, Health, Employees, Travel
Descritores: Zika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; EpidemicZika virus ; Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57143, p. B1-B2, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean region, focusing on the efforts of multinational corporations and other employers to protect employees from possible infection by the Zika virus, including employees in the affected areas and U.S.-based employees whose jobs involve travel. Companies cited include Delta Air Lines and paper products company Kimberly-Clark, and special concerns for women who are or may become pregnant are noted.

425) Publishers And Funders Back Sharing Of Zika Data.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Widener, Andrea
Assunto: Zika virus, Science publishing
Descritores: Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 7, p. 53, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article offers information on the initiatives taken by scientific publishers and funders including Science "Nature"

426) Biting Habits.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pennington, Hugh
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Public health, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: London Review of Books, v. 38, n. 4, p. 19-20, 2016
ISSN: 2609592
Resumo: The article focuses on increment in cases related to Zika virus infection as international concern. Topics include association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barre syndrome that include microcephaly infection, detection of Zika virus by pathologist George Dick and epidemiologist Alexander Haddow by observing mosquitoes biting habits, identification of Aedes albopictus as transmission vector in laboratory experiments and eradication of Zika virus in Brazil by prevention of mosquitoes breeding.

427) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

428) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher, Ortiz Kristina, Ansari Aftab, Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience - information has spread rapidly - wildly through the internet - other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Ug-a, hence its name, - is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny isl- of Yap located between the Philippines - Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial b- in Africa - Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania - then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage - microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, - within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected - for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue - Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests - vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides - preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

429) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland
Autor: Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko
Assunto: Zika virus; Dengue virus; False positive NS1 antigen; Traveller; Epidemic; Antibody; IGM
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, n. w14296 , 2016.
ISSN: 1424-7860
Resumo: We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceara state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG-antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture, an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG-antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

430) Vectorborne Infections, Mali
Autor: Safronetz David, Sacko Moussa, Sogoba Nafomon, Rosenke Kyle, Martellaro Cynthia, Traoré Sékou, Cissé Issa, Maiga Ousmane, Boisen Matt, Nelson Diana, Oottamasathien Darin, Millett Molly, Garry Robert F, Branco Luis M, Doumbia Seydou, Feldmann Heinz, Traoré Mamadou S
Assunto: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Leptospira; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Bunyavirus; Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Flavivirus; Hantavirus; Rodentborne viruses; Togavirus; Vector-borne infections; Viruses; Zoonotic diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 22, n. 2, p. 340-342, 2016
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

431) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Brazil is facing a disturbing spike in a severe birth defect called microcephaly. Babies are born with heads that are far too small, a sign that the brain failed to fully develop. Doctors there have reported nearly 3000 cases since July 2015--more than 20 times the usual rate. Scientists are scrambling to understand what is going on. The leading theory so far is that the condition is caused by a little known mosquito-borne virus called Zika that surfaced in Brazil in March and is quickly spreading through Latin America. The news has prompted the government to declare a public health emergency; some doctors are recommending women not get pregnant until more is known. Researchers are trying to develop better diagnostic tests for the virus so they can track whether mothers of affected babies were infected during their pregnancies, and other groups are hoping to use stem cell models of the developing human brain to understand how the virus might affect fetal growth. Meanwhile, the virus is advancing fast. It surfaced in Colombia, Suriname, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico in October and November; Puerto Rico reported its first cases in late December. Researchers warn that countries across the Americas should be prepared for a similar wave of birth defects in coming months.

432) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope, Petersen, Emily E., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Mead, Paul S., Meaney-Delman, Dana, Renquist, Christina M., Ellington, Sascha R., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Powers, Ann M., Villanueva, Julie, Galang, Romeo R., Dieke, Ada, Muñoz, Jorge L., Honein, Margaret A., Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Prenatal care, Medical care - United States, Serodiagnosis, Health boards, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and recommendation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for care providers to contact with health department for assistance with test interpretation.

433) Intrauterine zika virus infection and microcephaly: correlation of perinatal imaging and three-dimensional virtual physical models.
Autor: Werner Heron,Fazecas Tatiana,Guedes Bianca,Dos Santos Jorge Lopes,Daltro Pedro,Tonni Gabriele,Campbell Stuart,Araujo Júnior Edward
Assunto: 3D virtual physical model, Computed tomography, Intrauterine infection, Magnetic resonance imaging, Microcephaly, Ultrasound, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2016
ISSN: 1469-0705
Resumo:

434) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

435) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections among united states community service volunteers returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014
Autor: Millman Alexander J, Esposito Douglas H, Biggs Holly M, Decenteceo Michelle, Klevos Andrew, Hunsperger Elizabeth, Munoz-Jordan Jorge, Kosoy Olga I, McPherson Heidi, Sullivan Carmen, Voorhees Dayton, Baron David, Watkins Jim, Gaul Linda, Sotir Mark J, Brunette Gary, Fischer Marc, Sharp Tyler, Jentes Emily S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 6, p. 1336-1341, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue virus (DENV) infection - illnesses - evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, - mosquito exposures - avoidance behaviors - provided serum for CHIKV - DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection - two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, - 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, - 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (?95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily - < 5% stayed in housing with window/door screens. In sum, CHIKV infections were common among these volunteers during the 2014 chikungunya epidemic in the DR. Despite high levels of preparation, reported adherence to mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks - should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas.

436) The reemergence of Zika virus: A review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Autor: Shuaib Waqas, Stanazai Hashim, Abazid Ahmad G, Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil; Chikungunya; Dengue; Microcephaly; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, v. 129, n. 8, p. 879.e7-879.e12, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: That extreme care should be exercised in the selection of lower primates for purposes of studying exotic viral agents is clearly indicated by the data presented. Although no viremia was found in the animals tested, adherence to a rigid program of housing and protective screening is essential if a serious transmission hazard is to be minimized, particularly in areas of high arthropod activity.

437) Czechs Announce First Zika Virus Cases, Slovak Hospitalized.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Slovakia
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Transitions Online, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 12141615
Resumo: The article reports that a woman in Slovakia coming back from Latin America got hospitalized with Zika symptoms following the warning by the World Health Organization that Zika epidemic could spread more quickly than initiatives can control it.

438) Virus chequers.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Pregnant women - Health, Mosquito control, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Economist, v. 418, n. 8973, p. 72-73, 2016
ISSN: 130613
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus outbreak in the Americas in 2015-2016. It states in October 2015 physicians in Pernambuco saw a significant increase in infants born with microcephaly, with over 3,500 cases reported in the four months following. It mentions scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control announced that Zika can pass from the mother to the fetus. It reports that Zika can be transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and talks about mosquito eradication efforts.

439) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016.
Autor: Staples J Erin,Dziuban Eric J,Fischer Marc,Cragan Janet D,Rasmussen Sonja A,Cannon Michael J,Frey Meghan T,Renquist Christina M,Lanciotti Robert S,Muñoz Jorge L,Powers Ann M,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

440) The next steps on Zika
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: NULL
Assunto: congenital malformation, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687 (electronic),0028-0836
Resumo:

441) Larval temperature-food effects on adult mosquito infection and vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus
Autor: Buckner Eva A, Alto Barry W, Lounibos L Philip
Assunto: Dengue; Infection; Larval ecology; Transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history - population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) - Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya - dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, - dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus life history - DENV-1 infection - vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny - DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature - food affected number of progeny - DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny - this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low - high food led to the highest (?90%) - lowest (?65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (?75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature - food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission - a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology.

442) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly -- Brazil, 2015.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia, Ribeiro, Erlane M., Feitosa, Ian M. L., Horovitz, Dafne D. G., Cavalcanti, Denise P., Pessoa, André, Doriqui, Maria Juliana R., Neri, Joao Ivanildo, de Pina Neto, Joao Monteiro, Wanderley, Hector Y. C., Cernach, Mirlene, El-Husny, Antonette S., Pone, Marcos V. S., Serao, Cassio L. C., Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Nervous system - Diseases, Cerebral arterial diseases, Mosquito control, Brazil. Ministry of Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about relationship between Zika virus outbreak and microcephaly in Brazil. Topics include organization of task force by Brazil Ministry of Health, development of case definition for microcephaly-related Zika virus, occurrence of neurological abnormalities in infants at neuroimaging studies, increase in microcephaly combined with cerebral damage, and preventive measures such as mosquito control.

443) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

444) Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Casey, Nicholas, Abad, Susan
Assunto: ZIKA virus, DILEMMA, PREGNANCY complications, ZIKA Virus Epidemic, 2015-, AEDES aegypti, ABORTION -- Law & legislation, BARRIOS, Margarita Rosa
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, p. A4, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the terrible dilemma faced by pregnant women in Colombia in relation to the outbreak of Zika virus, an infection transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. Topics discussed include the Zika epidemic in Brazil, the consideration of Colombian women on abortion, and the legality of abortion in the country. Comments from Margarita Rosa Barrios, a Colombian pregnant who feel the symptoms of Zika virus disease, are included.

445) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Kleber de Oliveira Wanderson,Cortez-Escalante Juan,De Oliveira Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda,do Carmo Greice Madeleine Ikeda,Henriques Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,Araújo de França Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

446) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

447) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland.
Autor: Gyurech Danielle,Schilling Julian,Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas,Cassinotti Pascal,Kaeppeli Franz,Dobec Marinko
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, 2016
ISSN: 1424-3997
Resumo:

448) Zika declared international public health emergency in wake of spread.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Late, Michele
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Zika virus, Viral transmission, Public health, America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nation's Health, v. 46, n. 2, p. 12-13, 2016
ISSN: 280496
Resumo: The article reports on the declaration of mosquito-borne virus Zika as an international public health emergency amidst its transmission in the Americas. Topics discussed include an overview of Zika, its association with serious birth defects, the recommendations for action on the virus such as risk communication and vector control, and the education on Zika.

449) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

450) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anAedesmosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 - then rapidly spread throughout the tropical - subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus - chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

451) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

452) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

453) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study
Autor: Cauchemez Simon,Besnard Marianne,Bompard Priscillia,Dub Timothée,Guillemette-Artur Prisca,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique,Salje Henrik,Van Kerkhove Maria D,Abadie Véronique,Garel Catherine,Fontanet Arnaud,Mallet Henri-Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has coincided with increased reports of babies born with microcephaly. On Feb 1, 2016, WHO declared the suspected link between Zika virus and microcephaly to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This association, however, has not been precisely quantified. We retrospectively analysed data from a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, which was the largest documented outbreak before that in the Americas. We used serological and surveillance data to estimate the probability of infection with Zika virus for each week of the epidemic and searched medical records to identify all cases of microcephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were used to assess periods of risk in pregnancy when Zika virus might increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. The Zika virus outbreak began in October, 2013, and ended in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62-70) of the general population were infected. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the 4-month period March 1 to July 10, 2014. The timing of these cases was best explained by a period of risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the baseline prevalence of microcephaly was two cases (95% CI 0-8) per 10 000 neonates, and the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection was 95 cases (34-191) per 10 000 women infected in the first trimester. We could not rule out an increased risk of microcephaly from infection in other trimesters, but models that excluded the first trimester were not supported by the data. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and neonates whose mothers are infected with Zika virus. Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund, EU-PREDEMICS.

454) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno M., Sacramento G.A., Khouri R., do Rosário M.S., Costa F., Archanjo G., Santos L.A., Nery N., Vasilakis N., Ko A.I., de Almeida A.R.P.
Assunto: fetus death, fetus hydrops, hydranencephaly, stillbirth, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735 (electronic),1935-2727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18(th) gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32(nd) gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

455) Neurological expertise is essential for Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakir, Raad
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Neurology, Neurosciences, Medical publishing, Medical research
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Neurology, v. 15, n. 4, p. 353-354, 2016
ISSN: 14744422
Resumo:

456) Zika Reignites Battle in Brazil Over Abortion.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Romero, Simon
Assunto: Abortion - Law & legislation, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Abortion - Government policy, Social aspects, Brazil - Social conditions - 21st century
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57132, p. A1-A10, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the impact that the Zika Virus Epidemic has on the legality and government policy towards abortion in Brazil, including in regard to the government's policy towards abortion for fetuses with microcephaly.

457) Fighting the ‘Cockroach of Mosquitoes’.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Betsy McKay, Reed Johnson, Rogerio Jelmayer
Assunto: Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Mosquitoes
Descritores: Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

458) Quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters in reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification enabling bright, single-step, closed-tube, and multiplexed detection of RNA viruses
Autor: Ball Cameron S, Light Yooli K, Koh Chung-Yan, Wheeler Sarah S, Coffey Lark L, Meagher Robert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Analytical Chemistry, v. 88, n. 7, p. 3562-3568, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6882
Resumo: Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has frequently been proposed as an enabling technology for simplified diagnostic tests for RNA viruses. However, common detection techniques used for LAMP - RT-LAMP have drawbacks, including poor discrimination capability, inability to multiplex targets, high rates of false positives, - (in some cases) the requirement of opening reaction tubes postamplification. Here, we present a simple technique that allows closed-tube, target-specific detection, based on inclusion of a dye-labeled primer that is incorporated into a target-specific amplicon if the target is present. A short, complementary quencher hybridizes to unincorporated primer upon cooling down at the end of the reaction, thereby quenching fluorescence of any unincorporated primer. Our technique, which we term QUASR (for quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters, read quasar"), does not significantly reduce the amplification efficiency or sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Equipped with a simple LED excitation source - a colored plastic gel filter, the naked eye or a camera can easily discriminate between positive - negative QUASR reactions, which produce a difference in signal of approximately 10:1 without background subtraction. We demonstrate that QUASR detection is compatible with complex sample matrices such as human blood, using a novel LAMP primer set for bacteriophage MS2 (a model RNA virus particle). Furthermore, we demonstrate single-tube duplex detection of West Nile virus (WNV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA."

459) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects : Evidence points toward the fast-spreading Zika virus as the cause of microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel G.
Assunto: Brazil, congenital malformation, race, spike, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

460) Pro-abortionists and the Zika virus: never let a crisis, real or unproven, go to waste.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Andrusko, Dave
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Reproductive rights, Abortion - Law & legislation
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: National Right to Life News, p. 21-32, 2016
ISSN: 1647415
Resumo: The author discusses the opportunity for pro-abortionists to investigate the possible link between the Zika virus and an increase in reports of babies born with microcephaly. He mentions that abortion advocates are already ginning up the propaganda even in the absence of a clear connection between the Zika virus and microcephaly. He reflects on an article published in Washington Post" on the momentum gained by Latin America on the most restrictive abortion laws in the face of the Zika virus."

461) U.S. Watch.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Parasitic diseases, Epidemics, Medical emergencies, Zika virus infections, Florida, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

462) Conspiracy Theories About Zika Spread Through Brazil With the Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew, Perpetua, Sofia, Sreeharsha, Vinod, McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Rumor, Social media - Social aspects, Social aspects
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57145, p. A6, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the spreading of rumors regarding the Zika virus in Brazil, following an outbreak of the virus in the country, as of February 2016, and mentions that rumors and pseudoscience on social media has annoyed the health officials in the country.

463) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

464) The convergence of a virus, mosquitoes, and human travel in globalizing the zika epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Healt, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Ug-a. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute - the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, - eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti - other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific isl- of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa - Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the isl-'s population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year - afterwards, microcephaly - other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Isl-s - Easter Isl-. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil - elsewhere in South - Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, - other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US - elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus - Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders - Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors - increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, - Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

465) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

466) Officials Try to Ease Concerns Facing Rio.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz, Rebecca R.
Assunto: Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Zika Virus Epidemic, Sports facilities, Transportation, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57160, p. B11-B12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: Information on several topics discussed at the closed-door meetings of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) held at the Lausanne Palace Hote in Lausanne, Switzerland on March 2, 2016 is presented. Topics include the potential impact of the Zika virus to the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2016, venue logistics, and transportation projects. The event featured IOC officials including Carlos Arthur Nuzman, Mario Andrada, and Thomas Bach.

467) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

468) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

469) Applying to Zika the Forgotten Lessons of Ebola
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gottlieb, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Ebola virus disease, Pandemics, Olympic Games
Descritores: Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

470) Upfront
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Lead in water, Mental depression - Diagnosis, Zika Virus Epidemic, Flint (Mich.) - Environmental conditions
Descritores: Zika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - EpidemicZika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3058, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article presents science-related topics including lead-tainted water, screening for mental depression, and the spread of the Zika virus. It states after the city of Flint, Michigan switched to water from the Flint river, lead levels have significantly exceeded advised limits. It mentions the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended blanket screening for depression. It reports the World Health Organization warned the Zika virus will likely reach most countries in the Americas.

471) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

472) One Mother's Story my son has Microcephaly
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Free, Cathy, Minutaglio, Rose
Assunto: Microcephaly, Zika virus, Human abnormalities
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: People, v. 85, n. 9, p. 83-84, 2016
ISSN: 937673
Resumo: The article profiles Lisa Koltay, mother of 18-year-old Daryle Koltay who suffers from the birth defect microcephaly which she believes may have been caused by the Zika virus. Information is provided on Daryle Koltay's symptoms, which include juvenile diabetes, dizziness, and balance difficulties. Comments from Lisa Koltay are included in which she suggests that a fever and join pain she suffered following mosquito bites in Florida may have resulted in contracting the Zika virus.

473) Zika virus and microcephaly: Why is this situation a PHEIC?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heymann D.L., Hodgson A., Sall A.A., Freedman D.O., Staples J.E., Althabe F., Baruah K., Mahmud G., Kandun N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Bino S., Menon K.U.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 719-721, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

474) Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Simkiss, D.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Aedes aegypti, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, v. 62, n. 1, p. 1-2, 2016
ISSN: 1426338
Resumo:

475) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola H., Gozzer E., Zhuo J., Memish Z.A.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

476) ZIKATracker: A mobile App for reporting cases of ZIKV worldwide.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kelvin, Alyson A., Banner, David, Pamplona, Luciano, Alencar, Carlos, Rubino, Salvatore, Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika virus, Mobile apps, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 113-115, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: We have developed a mobile App called ZIKATracker (zikatracker.net) to voluntarily be used to report ZIKV cases on a public or private level. As the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection zones are rapidly expanding across South, Central, and North America, and reports have emerged linking ZIKV infection with developmental defects and neurological sequelae, reporting the movement and sequelae of ZIKV is essential. ZIKATracker is a multi-lingual App (English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese) freely available to anyone worldwide wishing to report a suspected or confirmed case of Zika virus and related symptoms. Knowledge gained from the use of this App will help direct the implementation of mosquito control measures in needed areas, bring aid to those affected by the Zika virus, and understand the movement and sequelae of ZIKV as it spreads through communities and across continents.

477) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

478) W.H.O. Declares an Emergency Over Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Emergencies, Epidemics, Human abnormalities - Etiology, Public health, Microcephaly, Brain-damaged children, Social aspects, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57130, p. A1-A11, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the World Health Organization's (W.H.O.'s) decision to declare the Zika virus and its potential link to birth defects as a global public health emergency as of 2016, and it mentions how a Zika virus outbreak is impacting several Latin American countries including Brazil, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. The medical abnormality microcephaly is addressed, along with brain damage in infants and research regarding the Zika virus.

479) Comparison of Mosquito magnet and Biogents sentinel traps for operational surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species
Autor: Rochlin Ilia, Kawalkowski Margaret, Ninivaggi Dominick V
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes japonicus; Chikungunya; Dengue; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 454-459, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health - quality of life by their persistent - severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps - lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a st-ard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, - sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, - pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure - R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), - Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

480) Plane Speaking.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: O'Connell, Gerard
Assunto: Press conferences, Catholics, Political correctness, Zika Virus Epidemic, Faith
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: America, v. 214, n. 9, p. 22, 2016
ISSN: 27049
Resumo: The article talks about why Pope Francis' should continue holding candid press conferences. Despite suggestions that the pope abandon the practice, he continues to hold media interviews for what the naysayers fail to recognize is that he is reaching a global audience far beyond the Catholic faithfuls, that he is dong it in a totally free, credible way with not a care for political correctness, and that he comes across as a humble, normal person.

481) Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium
Autor: Scully C, Samaranayake L P
Assunto: Chikungunya; Ebola; HIV; HPV; Dengue; Herpes; Infections; Mouth; Oral; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Oral Diseases, v. 22, n. 3, p. 171-179, 2016
ISSN: 1601-0825
Resumo: Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial - transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) - sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses - human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, - the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - - the appearance of some other dangerous - sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, - reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America - Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care.

482) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

483) Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014
Autor: Rossini G, Gaibani P, Vocale C, Finarelli A C, Landini M P
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Italy; Epidemiology; Phylogeny
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 9, p. 1912-1916, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV - its establishment in the Caribbean - in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) - Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean - Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation - clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance - early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe - North America.

484) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

485) Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Mosquito-borne diseases; Yellow fever; CO1; DNA barcoding; PhyloGenetics; Ancestral lineage; Purifying selection; Molecular Ecology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1149-1160, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban Areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their Molecular Ecology and Evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes Sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to Molecular Ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

486) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

487) Evaluation of commercially available Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin M detection assays
Autor: Johnson Barbara W, Goodman Christin H, Holloway Kimberly, de Salazar P Martinez, Valadere Anne M, Drebot Mike
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 182-192, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, - the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ? 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC - CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% - 98% concordance with CDC - CARPHA results, respectively, - had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA initially had high performance at CDC - CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM - additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased - reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results - limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests - three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits.

488) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor, Gil
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Rubella, Fetal development, Autism spectrum disorders
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, 2016
ISSN: 10467408
Resumo: The author discusses a study conducted by researchers in Brazil on link between Zika infection of pregnant women and microcephaly developmental abnormality of the brain cortex. He mentions the risk of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. He also mentions that the risk of fetal developmental problems such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be increased due to Maternal immune activation (MIA) as a result of microbial infections.

489) Does the mosquito have more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated? And The mosquito cocktail hypothesis
Autor: Ward M, Ward A, Johansson O
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical Hypotheses, v. 86, p. 85-91, 2016
ISSN: 1532-2777
Resumo: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recognises five viruses, one bacterium - three parasites as having a causal relationship to cancer, - one virus, HIV, that by suppressing the immune system assists in the development of cancer. In addition numerous researchers have claimed links between cancer - other viruses - bacteria, many of which have been isolated from tumours. Excluding the non-causal HIV, 33 infectious agents linked with cancer have been identified in the literature, 27 of which have one thing in common: they are all present in mosquitoes. There are over 3000 species of mosquito - very few have been fully analysed, so the six remaining infectious agents may be present in some unexamined species. This hypothesis proposes that more cancers than are presently appreciated may arise from the long-term outcome of a mosquito bite, which by releasing a complex cocktail of up to 60 infectious agents directly into the blood stream, often results in contemporaneous immuno-suppression - a multiplicity of co-infections. These co-infections may act synergistically in whole, or in part, - in complex ways. Whether - if so which type of cancer ensues will depend on the constituent ingredients in the cocktail, determined by multiple factors such as the mosquito's drinking - feeding patterns, number of previous blood-meals - the variety of intermediate hosts from which these meals are taken. Only a few mosquito species carry malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya - the other recognised serious human ailments. This hypothesis suggests that the number of species carrying the cancer cocktail will be few in number but collectively have a worldwide presence.

490) Infected with Dogma: How South America's Response to the Zika Virus Fails Women.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miller, Merrill
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Humanist, v. 76, n. 2, p. 9-11, 2016
ISSN: 187399
Resumo: The article highlights Zika virus, an infection caused by a bite from a mosquito carrying the virus, which has been spreading in countries including Africa, Caribbean and South America. Zika virus is noted to cause a mild fever and rash, and is noted to be associated with serious birth defects in newborns in South America. The increase of Brazilian infants born with microcephaly birth defect is also mentioned.

491) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Ballesteros Gabriela, Gresh Lionel, Mohamed-Hadley Alisha, Tellez Yolanda, Sahoo Malaya K, Abeynayake Janaki, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Molecular diagnostics; Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop - evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection - differentiation of DENV - CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, - the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype - CHIKV, - the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, - it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs - streamlining molecular workflow.

492) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

493) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Autor: Aubry Maite, Richard Vaea, Green Jennifer, Broult Julien, Musso Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen - ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, - dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers - RNA loads were measured in plasma before - after amotosalen - UVA photochemical treatment. The mean ZIKV titers - RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL - 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells - did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

494) A race to explain Brazil's spike in birth defects.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vogel, Gretchen
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Human abnormalities, Mecial care, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnacy complications, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6269, p. 110-111, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article discusses the impact that the Zika virus has on development of the birth defect microcephaly in newborn infants in Brazil, including the fetal medicine specialist Manoel Sarno's diagnoses of microcephaly and the Zika virus outbreak. The risks that the Zika virus poses to pregnant women are discussed.

495) Diagnostic potential of monoclonal antibodies against the capsid protein of Chikungunya virus for detection of recent infection
Autor: Damle R G, Jayaram N, Kulkarni S M, Nigade K, Khutwad K, Gosavi S, Parashar D
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 6, p. 1611-1622, 2016
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is self-limiting. However, neurological - hemorrhagic complications have been seen in recent outbreaks. The clinical manifestations of this disease are similar to those of dengue virus infection, indicating the need for differential diagnosis in areas such as India, which are endemic for both viruses. The aim of the present study was to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - assess their use in MAb-based IgM capture ELISA (MAC ELISA). The ELISA detects CHIKV-specific IgM antibodies, a marker of recent infection, in a patient's serum. One IgG1 - two IgM isotype hybrids were obtained. All of the subclones derived from the IgG1 hybrid recognized the C protein of CHIKV. The anti-C MAb ClVE4/D9 was the most promising as a detector antibody in MAC ELISA (C-MAb ELISA) yielding higher positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios. When compared with the CHIKV MAC ELISA kit developed by the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune (NIV MAC ELISA), the sensitivity of the test was 87.01 % with 100 % specificity. The positive - negative predictive values (PPV - NPV) were 100 % - 94.47 %, respectively. In precision testing, st-ard deviation (SD) - coefficient of variation (% CV) values of the C-MAb ELISA were within acceptable limits. The C-MAb ELISA detected anti-CHIKV IgM in serum of patients up to five months after the onset of infection, indicating that anti-C MAbs have strong potential for use in MAC ELISA to detect recent CHIKV infection.

496) Dengue and chikungunya seroprevalence in Gabonese infants prior to major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010: A sero-epidemiological study
Autor: Gabor Julian Justin, Schwarz Norbert Georg, Esen Meral, Kremsner Peter Gottfried, Grobusch Martin Peter
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; ELISA; Infants; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 26-31, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Apart from outbreak reports, little is known about the endemicity of dengue - chikungunya virus in African countries. We investigated serum samples collected in Gabon before major outbreaks in 2007 - 2010 in order to identify pre-outbreak-circulation of both viruses. Serum samples from Gabonese infants (162) were analyzed at 3, 9, 15 - 30 months of age by commercial ELISA for dengue - chikungunya IgG-antibodies. If samples were positive medical records of participants were analyzed for symptoms concordant with dengue - chikungunya infections during the time period of assumed seroconversion. IgG-antibodies against dengue were found in 12.3%, - IgG-antibodies against chikungunya in 0.6% of infants tested. Using the four measuring time points, we estimated corresponding incidences of 51/1.000 person-years - 2.5/1.000 person-years, respectively. Symptoms in positive-tested infants were mostly non-specific. Seropositivity suggests that both viruses circulated before the well-noticed outbreaks. Clinical diagnosis of dengue - chikungunya is difficult especially in infants, underscoring the need for accurate - reliable diagnostic tests as well as awareness of medical personnel. NCT00167843.

497) Development of a TaqMan array card for acute-febrile-illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including Ebola virus
Autor: Liu Jie, Ochieng Caroline, Wiersma Steve, Ströher Ute, Towner Jonathan S, Whitmer Shannon, Nichol Stuart T, Moore Christopher C, Kersh Gilbert J, Kato Cecilia, Sexton Christopher, Petersen Jeannine, Massung Robert, Hercik Christine, Crump John A, Kibiki Gibson, Maro Athanasia, Mujaga Buliga, Gratz Jean, Jacob Shevin T, Banura Patrick, Scheld W Michael, Juma Bonventure, Onyango Clayton O, Montgomery Joel M, Houpt Eric, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity - mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, - many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results - can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan - Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, - yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, - Yersinia pestis), - 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., - Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 - bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction - amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, - specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, - the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity - a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

498) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Autor: Wikan Nitwara, Suputtamongkol Yupin, Yoksan Sutee, Smith Duncan R, Auewarakul Prasert
Assunto: Emerging infectious diseases; Serosurvey; Thailand; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-. To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis - Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-, although as yet the relationship between transmission - possible cases of Zika fever in Thail- requires further investigation.

499) Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: African-Green Monkey; Aedes-Aegypti; Monoclonal-Antibodies; Phenotypic Characterization; Evolutionary Genetics; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Emergence; Transmission; Strains; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian Evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from approximate to 120 years to approximate to 315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted.

500) Comparative analysis of viral RNA signatures on different RIG-I-like receptors
Autor: Sanchez David Raul Y, Combredet Chantal, Sismeiro Odile, Dillies Marie-Agnès, Jagla Bernd, Coppée Jean-Yves, Mura Marie, Guerbois Galla Mathilde, Despres Philippe, Tangy Frédéric, Komarova Anastassia V
Assunto: Human; Immunology; Infectious disease; Microbiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: eLife, v. 5, p. e11275, 2016
ISSN: 2050-084X
Resumo: The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) play a major role in sensing RNA virus infection to initiate - modulate antiviral immunity. They interact with particular viral RNAs, most of them being still unknown. To decipher the viral RNA signature on RLRs during viral infection, we tagged RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5, LGP2) - applied tagged protein affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of associated RNA molecules. Two viruses with negative- - positive-sense RNA genome were used: measles (MV) - chikungunya (CHIKV). NGS analysis revealed that distinct regions of MV genome were specifically recognized by distinct RLRs: RIG-I recognized defective interfering genomes, whereas MDA5 - LGP2 specifically bound MV nucleoprotein-coding region. During CHIKV infection, RIG-I associated specifically to the 3' untranslated region of viral genome. This study provides the first comparative view of the viral RNA lig-s for RIG-I, MDA5 - LGP2 in the presence of infection.

501) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Autor: Escobar Luis E, Qiao Huijie, Peterson A Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa - Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers - the potential geographic spread of this disease. We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally - cases imported from other countries, - forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries - at finer scales, in terms of ecological features. By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil - more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor - uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort - reporting. Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive - predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools - data that can inform early-warning systems - public health intelligence."

502) Establishment of a novel primary human skeletal myoblast cellular model for Chikungunya virus infection and pathogenesis
Autor: Hussain Khairunnisa' Mohamed, Lee Regina Ching Hua, Ng Mary Mah-Lee, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 21406, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus known to cause chronic myalgia - arthralgia - is now considered endemic in countries across Asia - Africa. The tissue tropism of CHIKV infection in humans remains, however, ill-defined. Due to the fact that myositis is commonly observed in most patients infected with CHIKV, we sought to develop a clinically relevant cellular model to better underst- the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection. In this study, primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were established as a novel human primary cell line that is highly permissive to CHIKV infection, with maximal amounts of infectious virions observed at 16 hours post infection. Genome-wide microarray profiling analyses were subsequently performed to identify - map genes that are differentially expressed upon CHIKV infection. Infection of HSMM cells with CHIKV resulted in altered expressions of host genes involved in skeletal- - muscular-associated disorders, innate immune responses, cellular growth - death, host metabolism - virus replication. Together, this study has shown the establishment of a clinically relevant primary human cell model that paves the way for the further analysis of host factors - their involvement in the various stages of CHIKV replication cycle - viral pathogenesis.

503) How Important is Vertical Transmission of Dengue Viruses by Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Grunnill, Martin; Boots, Michael
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Aedes Albopictus; Arbovirus; Dengue; Persistence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 1-19, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes was discovered at the end of the late 1970s and has been suggested to be a means by which these viruses persist. However, it is unclear how widespread it is in nature, and its importance in the epidemiology of this disease is still debated. Here, we review the literature on vertical transmission and discuss its role in dengue's epidemiology and control. We conclude that given the number of studies that failed to find evidence of vertical transmission, as well as mathematical models and its mechanistic basis, it is unlikely that vertical transmission is important for the epidemiological persistence of dengue viruses. A combination of asymptomatic infection in humans and movement of people are likely to be more important determinants of dengue's persistence. We argue, however, that there may be some need for further research into the prevalence of dengue viruses in desiccated, as well as diapausing, eggs and the role of horizontal transmission through larval cannibalism.

504) Genomic approaches for understanding dengue: insights from the virus, vector, and host
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Quantitative Trait Loci; Blood Mononuclear-Cells; Naturally Infected Mosquitos; Gene Transcript Abundance; Life-Shortening Wolbachia; Engineered Male Mosquitos; Placebo-Controlled Trial; West-Nile-Virus; Hemorrhagic-Fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Biology, v. 17, n. 38, 2016
ISSN: 1465-6906
Resumo: The incidence and geographic range of dengue have increased dramatically in recent decades. Climate change, rapid urbanization and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes between population centers. At the same time, significant advances in Genomics approaches have provided insights into host-pathogen interactions, Immunogenetics, and viral Evolution in both humans and mosquitoes. Here, we review these advances and the innovative treatment and control strategies that they are inspiring.

505) Identification and genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India
Autor: Nyari N, Mann H S, Sharma S, Pandey S N, Dhole T N
Assunto: Aedes vector; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Emerging; Enveloped glycoprotein (E1); Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling - preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified - tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti - A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; - 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) - 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains - reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future.

506) Hydrothermal synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: mosquitocidal potential and anticancer activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kavithaa, Krishnamoorthy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Ponraj, Thondhi; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Apoptosis; Antibacterial activity; Chemotherapy; Cytotoxicity; DAPI; MCF-7 cells; TiO2; Western blot
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1085-1096, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for transmission of serious diseases worldwide. Mosquito control is being enhanced in many Areas, but there are significant challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of alternative, cost-effective, and eco-friendly products. To deal with these crucial issues, recent emphasis has been placed on plant materials with mosquitocidal properties. Furthermore, cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Nanotechnology is a promising field of research and is expected to give major innovation impulses in a variety of industrial sectors. In this study, we synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDX). The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial cells (HBL-100). After 24-h incubation, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 60 and 80 mu g/mL on MCF-7 and normal HBL-100 cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments conducted against the primary dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti, LC50 values of nanoparticles were 4.02 ppm (larva I), 4.962 ppm (larva II), 5.671 ppm (larva III), 6.485 ppm (larva IV), and 7.527 ppm (pupa). Overall, our results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may be considered as a safe tool to build newer and safer mosquitocides and chemotherapeutic agents with little systemic toxicity.

507) Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Paiva, Marcelo H. S.; Lovin, Diane D.; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A. V.; Severson, David W.; Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Insecticide Resistance; Organophosphate Resistance; QTL; Aedes Aegypti; Carboxylesterases
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genomics, v. 107, n. 1, p. 40-48, 2016
ISSN: 0888-7543
Resumo: Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F-1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F-2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

508) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Calvet Guilherme A, Filippis Ana Maria B, Mendonça Marcos Cesar L, Sequeira Patricia C, Siqueira Andre M, Veloso Valdilea G, Nogueira Rita M, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brazil; HIV; ZIKV; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya - ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis - the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection - endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms - recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

509) Effects of an in-frame deletion of the 6k gene locus from the genome of Ross River virus
Autor: Taylor Adam, Melton Julian V, Herrero Lara J, Thaa Bastian, Karo-Astover Liis, Gage Peter W, Nelson Michelle A, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Lidbury Brett A, Ewart Gary D, McInerney Gerald M, Merits Andres, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4150-4159, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The alphaviral 6k region encodes the two structural proteins 6K protein -, due to a ribosomal frameshift event, TF protein. Here, we characterized the role of the 6k proteins in the arthritogenic alphavirus Ross River virus (RRV) in infected cells - in mice, using a novel 6k in-frame deletion mutant. Comprehensive microscopic analysis revealed that the 6k proteins were predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of RRV-infected cells. RRV virions that lack the 6k proteins were more vulnerable to changes in pH - corresponding virus had increased sensitivity to higher temperature. While the 6k deletion did not reduce RRV particle production in BHK-21 cells, it affected virion release from the host cell. Subsequent in vivo studies demonstrated that RRV-(?6K) caused a milder disease than wild-type virus, with reduced viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation of mice with RRV-(?6K) resulted in reduced viral load - accelerated viral elimination upon secondary infection with WT-RRV or another alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Our results show that the 6k proteins may contribute to alphaviral disease manifestations - suggest that manipulating the 6k gene may be a potential strategy to facilitate viral vaccine development. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) cause epidemics of debilitating rheumatic disease in endemic areas - can emerge in new regions worldwide. RRV is of considerable medical significance in Australia, where it is the leading cause of arboviral disease. The mechanisms by which alphaviruses persist - cause disease in the host are ill-defined. This paper describes the phenotypic properties of an RRV 6k-deletion mutant. The absence of the 6k gene reduced virion release from infected cells - also reduced the severity of disease - viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation with the mutant virus protected mice against viraemia not only upon exposure to RRV, but also upon challenge with CHIKV. These findings could lead to the development of safer - more immunogenic alphavirus vectors for vaccine delivery.

510) External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Jacobsen Sonja, Patel Pranav, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Teichmann Anette, Zeller Herve, Niedrig Matthias
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Diagnosis; EQA; Molecular; Proficiency test; Quality control; Serology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 76, p. 55-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 - the recent outbreak in the Caribbean isl-s with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular - serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular - 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity - specificity of molecular - serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 - 60 data sets were returned for IgG - IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable - 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable - the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable - 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity - specificity for the molecular - serology diagnostic required for the quick - reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance.

511) Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses
Autor: Varghese Finny S, Kaukinen Pasi, Gläsker Sabine, Bespalov Maxim, Hanski Leena, Wennerberg Krister, Kümmerer Beate M, Ahola Tero
Assunto: Alphavirus; Antiviral screening; Chikungunya virus; RNA replication; Yellow fever virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 126, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type - reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 ?M) - ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 ?M) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 ?M) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner - had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses - Semliki Forest virus - Sindbis virus. Abamectin - ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic - antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle.

512) Correction for Okabayashi et al., detection of Chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test
Autor: Okabayashi Tamaki, Sasaki Tadahiro, Masrinoul Promsin, Chantawat Nantarat, Yoksan Sutee, Nitatpattana Narong, Chusri Sarunyou, Morales Vargas Ronald E, Grandadam Marc, Brey Paul T, Soegijanto Soegeng, Mulyantno Kris Cahyo, Churrotin Siti, Kotaki Tomohiro, Faye Oumar, Faye Ousmane, Sow Abdourahmane, Sall Amadou Alpha, Puiprom Orapim, Chaichana Panjaporn, Kurosu Takeshi, Kato Seiji, Kosaka Mieko, Ramasoota Pongrama, Ikuta Kazuyoshi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1173-1174, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo:

513) Chikungunya virus sequences across the first epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015
Autor: Wang Chunling, Saborio Saira, Gresh Lionel, Eswarappa Meghana, Wu Diane, Fire Andrew, Parameswaran Poornima, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 400-403, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 - Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported - 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 - April 2015. One full-length - two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported - 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases - three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date.

514) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus-induced cell death by salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues provides additional evidence for a PKC-independent pathway
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Near Katherine E, Nakagawa Yu, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 79, n. 4, p. 680-684, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been spreading rapidly, with over one million confirmed or suspected cases in the Americas since late 2013. Infection with CHIKV causes devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. Currently, there is no therapy to treat this disease, - the only medications focus on relief of symptoms. Recently, protein kinase C (PKC) modulators have been reported to inhibit CHIKV-induced cell death in cell assays. The salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues described here are structurally simplified PKC modulators that are more synthetically accessible than the natural product bryostatin 1, a PKC modulator - clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication. Evaluation of the anti-CHIKV activity of these salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues in cell culture indicates that they are among the most potent cell-protective agents reported to date. Given that they are more accessible - significantly more active than the parent natural product, they represent new therapeutic leads for controlling CHIKV infection. Significantly, these analogues also provide evidence for the involvement of a PKC-independent pathway. This adds a fundamentally distinct aspect to the importance or involvement of PKC modulation in inhibition of chikungunya virus replication, a topic of recent - growing interest.

515) Clinical attack rate of chikungunya in a cohort of nicaraguan children
Autor: Balmaseda Angel, Gordon Aubree, Gresh Lionel, Ojeda Sergio, Saborio Saira, Tellez Yolanda, Sanchez Nery, Kuan Guillermina, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 397-399, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ? 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever).

516) Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies
Autor: Deeba Farah, Islam Asimul, Kazim Syed Naqui, Naqvi Irshad Hussain, Broor Shobha, Ahmed Anwar, Parveen Shama
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Disease dissemination; Host-pathogen interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Disease, v. 74, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 2049-632X
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea - joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation - molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells - organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load - cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine c-idates have been tested on humans - animal models during clinical - preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology - recent advances in the development of drugs - vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection.

517) Disability with persistent pain following an epidemic of Chikungunya in rural South India
Autor: Rahim Asma A, Thekkekara Romy Jose, Bina Thomas, Paul Binoy J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Journal of Rheumatology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 440-444, 2016
ISSN: 0315-162X
Resumo: We investigated the effects of chronic rheumatic - musculoskeletal symptoms on the functional status of people affected by the chikungunya (CKG) epidemic in the Calicut District, Kerala, South India in 2009. A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted 18 months after the CKG epidemic to assess functional status of individuals with post-epidemic persistent pain. All respondents over age 15 years with persistent pain fitting the epidemiological case definition were included. Participants' functional status was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Factors affecting severity of HAQ-DI were analyzed by ordinal regression. Of 3869 subjects interviewed, 1195 (34.3%) had a positive history of CHIKV virus infection (epidemiological or confirmed); 36.28% (624/1720) of CKG-affected individuals had persistent pain 18 months post epidemic. Mean age of those affected was 48.22 ± 15.6 years; 23.2% had no disability, while 16.2% had moderate to severe disability on the HAQ-DI. Significant factors affecting severity of disability on HAQ-DI included previous rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (OR 2.27), joint - soft-tissue involvement (OR 3.74), only joint involvement (OR 2.14), female sex (OR 1.44), diet (OR 4.73), - history of joint swelling (OR 1.72). Persistence of pain noted in post-CKG disease resulted in significantly deteriorated functional status of those affected.

518) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

519) Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro
Autor: von Rhein Christine, Weidner Tatjana, Henß Lisa, Martin Judith, Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Boswellic acid; Chikungunya virus; Curcumin; Traditional medicine; Vesicular stomatitis virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 125, p. 51-57, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe - the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles - viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

520) Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe, Martínez Norma E, Cruz-Nolasco Maximina, Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano, López-Damián Leonardo, Ibarra-López Jesús, Martini-Jaimes Andres, Bibiano-Marín Wilbert, Tornez-Benitez Citlalli, Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo M, Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mexico; Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero. Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez - Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR. We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 - 4), CHIKV - their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV - DENV 3 - 4 suggesting vertical transmission. Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV - DENV - provided a trigger for timely - focalized vector control actions.

521) Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wang, S.; Beerntsen, B. T.
Assunto: Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins; RNA Interference; Bacterial Challenge; Survival; Antimicrobial Peptides; Toll And Immunodeficiency
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Molecular Biology, v. 24, n. 3, p. 293-310, 2015
ISSN: 0962-1075
Resumo: Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP Sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial Peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.coli and M.luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.aegypti.

522) Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil.
Autor: Campos Gubio S,Bandeira Antonio C,Sardi Silvia I
Assunto: Bahia, Brazil, Zika virus, detection, diagnosis, maculopapular rash, outbreak, reverse transcription PCR, viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1885-1886, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

523) From Lab to Field: The Influence of Urban Landscapes on the Invasive Potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Barbosa dos Santos, Lilha Maria; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Lopes Silva, Jessica Barreto; Maciel Villela, Daniel Antunes; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Assunto: Rio-De-Janeiro; Life-Shortening Wolbachia; Daily Survival Rates; Cytoplasmic Incompatibility; Dengue;Populations; Infection; Dispersal; Dynamics; Establishment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a Biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two Areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release Areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population.Conclusions/SignificanceThrough analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the wMel strain of Wolbachia possesses the characteristics required to spread effectively in different urban socio-demographic environments in Rio de Janeiro, including those where mosquito releases from the Eliminate Dengue Program will take place.

524) Efficacy of two common methods of application of residual insecticide for controlling the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in urban areas
Autor: Marini Lorenzo, Baseggio Alberto, Drago Andrea, Martini Simone, Manella Paolo, Romi Roberto, Mazzon Luca
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0134831, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: After its first introduction in the 1980's the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), has spread throughout Southern Europe. Ae. albopictus is considered an epidemiologically important vector for the transmission of many viral pathogens such as the yellow fever virus, dengue fever - Chikungunya fever, as well as several filarial nematodes such as Dirofilaria immitis or D. repens. It is therefore crucial to develop measures to reduce the risks of disease transmission by controlling the vector populations. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two application techniques (mist vs. stretcher sprayer) - two insecticides (Etox based on the nonester pyrethroid Etofenprox vs. Microsin based on the pyrethroid type II Cypermetrin) in controlling adult tiger mosquito populations in highly populated areas. To test the effect of the two treatments pre- - post-treatment human l-ing rate counts were conducted for two years. After one day from the treatment we observed a 100% population decrease in mosquito abundance with both application methods - both insecticides. However, seven - 14 days after the application the stretcher sprayer showed larger population reductions than the mist sprayer. No effect of insecticide type after one day - 14 days was found, while Etox caused slightly higher population reduction than Microsin after seven days. Emergency measures to locally reduce the vector populations should adopt adulticide treatments using stretcher sprayers. However, more research is still needed to evaluate the potential negative effects of adulticide applications on non-target organisms.

525) Localization and role of inward rectifier K+ channels in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Piermarini, Peter M.; Dunemann, Sonja M.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Calkins, Travis L.; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Beyenbach, Klaus W.
Assunto: Potassium channels; Pharmacology; Small molecules; Immunolocalization; Electrophysiology; Transepithelial fluid secretion
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 67, p. 59-73, 2015
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti express three inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channel subunits: AeKir1, AeKir2B and AeKir3. Here we 1) elucidate the cellular and membrane localization of these three channels in the Malpighian tubules, and 2) characterize the effects of small molecule inhibitors of AeKir1 and AeKir2B channels (VU compounds) on the transepithelial secretion of fluid and electrolytes and the electrophysiology of isolated Malpighian tubules. Using subunit-specific antibodies, we found that AeKir1 and AeKir2B localize exclusively to the basolateral membranes of stellate cells and principal cells, respectively; AeKir3 localizes within intracellular compartments of both principal and stellate cells. In isolated tubules bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. the peritubular application of VU590 (10 mu M), a selective inhibitor of AeKir1, inhibited transepithelial fluid secretion 120 min later. The inhibition brings rates of transepithelial KCI and fluid secretion to 54% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. VU590 had no effect on the basolateral membrane voltage (VIA) of principal cells, but it significantly reduced the cell input conductance (gin) to values 63% of the control within similar to 90 min. In contrast, the peritubular application of VU625 (10 mu M), an inhibitor of both AeKir1 and AeKir2B, started to inhibit transepithelial fluid secretion as early as 60 min later. At 120 min after treatment, VU625 was more efficacious than VU590, inhibiting transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to similar to 35% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. Moreover, VU625 caused the V-bl and g(in) of principal cells to respectively drop to values 62% and 56% of the control values within only similar to 30 min. Comparing the effects of VU590 with those of VU625 allowed us to estimate that AeKir1 and AeKir2B respectively contribute to 46% and 20% of the transepithelial K+ secretion when the tubules are bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K+. Thus, we uncover an important role of AeKir1 and stellate cells in transepithelial K+ transport under conditions of peritubular K+ challenge. The physiological role of AeKir3 in intracellular membranes of both stellate and principal cells remains to be determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

526) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

527) Tree holes as larval habitats for Aedes aegypti in urban, suburban and forest habitats in a dengue affected area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mangudo, C.; Aparicio, J. P.; Gleiser, R. M.
Assunto: Culicidae; Landscape; Phytotelmata; Population ecology; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 679-684, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of dengue and urban yellow fever in the world, is highly adapted to the human environment. Artificial containers are the most common larval habitat for the species, but it may develop in tree holes and other phytotelmata. This study assessed whether tree holes in San Ramon de la Nueva Oran, a city located in subtropical montane moist forest where dengue outbreaks occur, are relevant as larval habitat for Ae. aegypti and if the species may be found in natural areas far from human habitations. Water holding tree holes were sampled during 3 years once a month along the rainy season using a siphon bottle, in urban and suburban sites within the city and in adjacent forested areas. Larvae and pupae were collected and the presence and volume of water in each tree hole were recorded. Finding Ae. aegypti in forested areas was an isolated event; however, the species was frequently collected from tree holes throughout the city and along the sampling period. Moreover, larvae were collected in considerably high numbers, stressing the importance of taking into account these natural cavities as potential reinfestation foci within dengue control framework.

528) Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: A mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis
Autor: Miner Jonathan J, Aw Yeang Han Xian, Fox Julie M, Taffner Samantha, Malkova Olga N, Oh Stephen T, Kim Alfred H J, Diamond Michael S, Lenschow Deborah J, Yokoyama Wayne M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Clinical examination ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 67, n. 5, p. 1214-1220, 2015
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 - to the US in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months or years, but little is known about the rheumatologic - immunologic features of CHIKV-related arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. Patient history was obtained - physical examination - laboratory tests were performed. All patients with CHIKV-related arthritis had detectable levels of anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, - patients with untreated, active RA. Among 10 CHIKV-infected individuals, 8 developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis that met the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA - CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated - effector CD4+ - CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection - patients with RA develop very similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical - immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis.

529) Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vaux, Alexander G. C.; Medlock, Jolyon M.
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; United Kingdom; Invasive species; Mosquito; Culicidae; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 351, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

530) Chikungunya: bmerging threat to the United States
Autor: Stamm Lola V
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Dermatology, v. 151, n. 3, p. 257-258, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6084
Resumo:

531) First evidence of dengue virus infection in wild caught mosquitoes during an outbreak in Assam, Northeast India
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dutta, Prafulla; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Chetry, Sumi; Dev, Vas; Sarmah, Chandra Kanta; Mahanta, Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Ae. Albopictus; Dengue; NS1-ELISA; RT-PCR; TOT
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 4, p. 293-298, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Dengue is one of the major public health problems worldwide, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation have led to an increase in vector population in Northeastern states of India. In 2013, Guwahati, the capital city of Assam, India experienced an outbreak of dengue. This study was undertaken with an objective to determine infection rates of dengue viruses (DENV) in both the established vectors present in this region.Methods: During the outbreak (2013), adults and larvae of both the vector species were collected from different container habitats found in case reporting Areas and container index was also recorded. The mosquitoes were first pooled, homogenised and processed for NS1-ELISA. This was followed by RT-PCR of the mosquito pools.Results: Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found breeding in containers with container index in the range of 29.41 to 80%. Six pools of Ae. aegypti were found to be positive for NS1 antigen. RT-PCR assay revealed positivity in only the NS1-ELISA positive pools, exhibiting circulation of serotype DENV-2. Minimum infection rate of female and male Ae. aegypti was recorded as 10.87 and 11.03 respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: This is the maiden report of detection of DENV in wild caught Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Northeastern Region of India. The study also demonstrates the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in this part of country. This information is useful in respect of both entomological as well as epidemiological point of view for taking appropriate vector control measures.

532) Infectious causes of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003-2005
Autor: Olsen Sonja J, Campbell Angela P, Supawat Krongkaew, Liamsuwan Sahas, Chotpitayasunondh Tawee, Laptikulthum Somsak, Viriyavejakul Akravudh, Tantirittisak Tasanee, Tunlayadechanont Supoch, Visudtibhan Anannit, Vasiknanonte Punnee, Janjindamai Supachai, Boonluksiri Pairoj, Rajborirug Kiatsak, Watanaveeradej Veerachai, Khetsuriani Nino, Dowell Scott F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 280-289, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Acute encephalitis is a severe neurologic syndrome. Determining etiology from among ?100 possible agents is difficult. To identify infectious etiologies of encephalitis in Thail-, we conducted surveillance in 7 hospitals during July 2003-August 2005 - selected patients with acute onset of brain dysfunction with fever or hypothermia - with abnormalities seen on neuroimages or electroencephalograms or with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Blood - cerebrospinal fluid were tested for >30 pathogens. Among 149 case-patients, median age was 12 (range 0-83) years, 84 (56%) were male, - 15 (10%) died. Etiology was confirmed or probable for 54 (36%) - possible or unknown for 95 (64%). Among confirmed or probable etiologies, the leading pathogens were Japanese encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, - Orientia tsutsugamushi. No samples were positive for chikungunya, Nipah, or West Nile viruses; Bartonella henselae; or malaria parasites. Although a broad range of infectious agents was identified, the etiology of most cases remains unknown.

533) Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Norris, Edmund J.; Gross, Aaron D.; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Plant essential oil; Synthetic pyrethroid; Terpene
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 993-1002, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti andAnopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies,Ae. aegypti andAn. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD50 and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. ForAe. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was similar to 1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. ForAn. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was similar to 685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils.

534) Molecular characterisation of Chikungunya virus infections in trinidad and comparison of clinical and laboratory features with dengue and other acute febrile cases
Autor: Sahadeo Nikita, Mohammed Hamish, Allicock Orchid M, Auguste Albert J, Widen Steven G, Badal Kimberly, Pulchan Krishna, Foster Jerome E, Weaver Scott C, Carrington Christine V F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, p. e0004199, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad - Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised - compared dengue virus (DENV) - CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) - CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, - performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with - without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson's ?2 - student's t-tests, - adjusted odds ratios (aORs) - 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs - symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV - DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's ?2 - Fisher's exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV - 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype - were most closely related to a British Virgin Isl-s strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28-16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever--aOR: 0.56 [0.40-0.78]) - had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71-0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF - other AUFIs including DF, which can be used to triage patients for appropriate care in the clinical setting.

535) Protein-protein interactions between A-aegypti midgut and dengue virus 2: two-hybrid screens using the midgut cDNA library
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tham, Hong-Wai; Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Chew, Miaw-Fang; Ahmad, Hamdan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed
Assunto: Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Yeast two hybrid; cDNA library; Protein protein interaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Infection In Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 12, p. 1338-1349, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Introduction: Dengue virus (DENV) is principally transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. To date, mosquito population control remains the key strategy for reducing the continuing spread of DENV. The focus on the development of new vector control strategies through an understanding of the mosquito-virus relationship is essential, especially targeting the midgut, which is the first mosquito organ exposed to DENV infection.Methodology: A cDNA library derived from female adult A. aegypti mosquito midgut cells was established using the switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART), in combination with a highly potent recombination machinery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were performed against DENV-2 proteins (E, prM, M, and NS1). Mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) and double immunofluorescence assays (IFA) were conducted to validate the authenticity of the three selected interactions.Results: The cDNA library was of good quality based on its transformation efficiency, cell density, titer, and the percentage of insert size. A total of 36 midgut proteins interacting with DENV-2 proteins were identified, some involved in nucleic acid transcription, oxidoreductase activity, peptidase activity, and ion binding. Positive outcomes were obtained from the three selected interactions validated using M2H and double IFA assays.Conclusions: The identified proteins have different biological activities that may aid in the virus replication pathway. Therefore, the midgut cDNA library is a valuable tool for identifying DENV-2 interacting proteins. The positive outcomes of the three selected proteins validated supported the quality of the cDNA library and the robustness of the Y2H mechanisms.

536) Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005)
Autor: Wasonga Caroline, Inoue Shingo, Rumberia Cecilia, Michuki George, Kimotho James, Ongus Juliette R, Sang Rosemary, Musila Lillian
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Comoros Island; Genetic variation; Variants
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 51, n. 3, p. 323-328, 2015
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Isl-, showed distinct - reproducible large (L2) - small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain - plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines - their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment - phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants - S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) - 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 - S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution - a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity - dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain - its variants clustered closely together with each other - with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to underst- the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence - viral transmission in mosquito - mammalian hosts.

537) Web platform using digital image processing and geographic information system tools: a Brazilian case study on dengue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brasil, Lourdes M.; Gomes, Marilia M. F.; Miosso, Cristiano J.; da Silva, Marlete M.; Amvame-Nze, Georges D.
Assunto: Dengue; Ovitraps; Image processing; Geographic information system
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Biomedical Engineering Online, v. 14, 2015
ISSN: 1475-925X
Resumo: Dengue fever is endemic in Asia, the Americas, the East of the Mediterranean and the Western Pacific. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the diseases of greatest impact on health, affecting millions of people each year worldwide. A fast detection of increases in populations of the transmitting vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is essential to avoid dengue outbreaks. Unfortunately, in several countries, such as Brazil, the current methods for detecting populations changes and disseminating this information are too slow to allow efficient allocation of resources to fight outbreaks. To reduce the delay in providing the information regarding A. aegypti population changes, we propose, develop, and evaluate a system for counting the eggs found in special traps and to provide the collected data using a web structure with geographical location resources.Methods: One of the most useful tools for the detection and surveillance of arthropods is the ovitrap, a special trap built to collect the mosquito eggs. This allows for an egg counting process, which is still usually performed manually, in countries such as Brazil. We implement and evaluate a novel system for automatically counting the eggs found in the ovitraps' cardboards. The system we propose is based on digital image processing (DIP) techniques, as well as a Web based Semi-Automatic Counting System (SCSA-WEB). All data collected are geographically referenced in a geographic information system (GIS) and made available on a Web platform. The work was developed in Gama's administrative region, in Brasilia/Brazil, with the aid of the Environmental Surveillance Directory (DIVAL-Gama) and Brasilia's Board of Health (SSDF), in partnership with the University of Brasilia (UnB). The system was built based on a field survey carried out during three months and provided by health professionals. These professionals provided 84 cardboards from 84 ovitraps, sized 15 x 5 cm. In developing the system, we conducted the following steps:i. Obtain images from the eggs on an ovitrap's cardboards, with a microscope.ii. Apply a proposed image-processing-based semi-automatic counting system. The system we developed uses the Java programming language and the Java Server Faces technology. This is a framework suite for web applications development. This approach will allow a simple migration to any Operating System platform and future applications on mobile devices.iii. Collect and store all data into a Database (DB) and then georeference them in a GIS. The Database Management System used to develop the DB is based on PostgreSQL. The GIS will assist in the visualization and spatial analysis of digital maps, allowing the location of Dengue outbreaks in the region of study. This will also facilitate the planning, analysis, and evaluation of temporal and spatial epidemiology, as required by the Brazilian Health Care Control Center.iv. Deploy the SCSA-WEB, DB and GIS on a single Web platform.Results: The statistical results obtained by DIP were satisfactory when compared with the SCSA-WEB's semi-automated eggs count. The results also indicate that the time spent in manual counting has being considerably reduced when using our fully automated DIP algorithm and semi-automated SCSA-WEB. The developed georeferencing Web platform proves to be of great support for future visualization with statistical and trace analysis of the disease.Conclusions: The analyses suggest the efficiency of our algorithm for automatic eggs counting, in terms of expediting the work of the laboratory technician, reducing considerably its time and error counting rates. We believe that this kind of integrated platform and tools can simplify the decision making process of the Brazilian Health Care Control Center.

538) The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India
Autor: Rodríguez-Barraquer Isabel, Solomon Sunil S, Kuganantham Periaswamy, Srikrishnan Aylur Kailasom, Vasudevan Canjeevaram K, Iqbal Syed H, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Solomon Suniti, Mehta Shruti H, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, p. e0003906, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue - chikungunya are rapidly exp-ing viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, - a high suitability for transmission. We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty r-omly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample - to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic - daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue - chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) - IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection - basic reproductive number) - to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue - 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, - 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue - suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue - chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual - household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia - the Americas. These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue - chikungunya in Chennai - underscore the need for enhanced surveillance - control methods.

539) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concenntrated-supernatants was 8.50 log(10) TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

540) Infectious risks of traveling abroad
Autor: Chen Lin H, Blair Barbra M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Microbiology Spectrum, v. 3, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 2165-0497
Resumo: A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, - systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, - advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, - strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, - chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood - body fluids; - other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses - testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong - confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

541) Copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) as agents of biological control of Aedes mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiapas, Mexico
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Torres Estrada, Jose Luis; Guadalupe Vazquez-Martinez, Maria
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Biological control; Copepods; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Hidrobiológica, v. 25, n. 1, p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 0188-8897
Resumo: We identified species of copepods in natural mosquito breeding sites in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico and compared their predatory ability on first instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Four sampling sites were selected: two in the coastal area and two in the bottom of the mountain. Copepods were cultured in the laboratory and identified. The species found were: Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (Hu, 1943), M. longisetus (Thiebaud, 1912), M. brasilianus (Kiefer, 1933), Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine, 1820), Eucyclops leptacanthus (Kiefer, 1956), and E. torresphilipi (Suarez-Morales, 2004). With the exception of E. leptacanthus, all collected species of copepods were successfully cultured in the laboratory. The predation potential was experimentally evaluated using a copepod female adult and 20 first-instar mosquito larvae. The copepod species showed varying percentages of predation, M. pehpeiensis being the one with the greatest predation potential (80% of A. aegypti and 67% A. albopictus per day). Eucyclops torresphilipi showed no differences with respect to the control, so it can be considered as a non-predatory species. Predation tests show that the copepods present in natural mosquito breeding sites have the potential to be used as agents of biological control of mosquito larvae and are a good alternative to be considered in integrated vector management strategies of dengue fever in the region of Soconusco, State of Chiapas, Mexico.

542) Infectious disease surveillance update.
Autor: Zwizwai Ruth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 12, p. 1385, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

543) Cold Season Mortality Under Natural Conditions and Subsequent Hatching Response of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Eggs in a Subtropical City of Argentina
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Orlando Gimenez, Javier; Fischer, Sylvia; Zalazar, Laura; Stein, Marina
Assunto: Dengue vector; Survival; Egg; Chaco; Argentina
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 879-885, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: In temperate and subtropical regions, populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) survive unfavorable winter conditions in the egg stage. Knowing their survival rates can be of great interest for the health authorities in charge of control activities. In this study, we analyzed the mortality of Ae. aegypti eggs exposed to the cold season as well as their hatching patterns under laboratory conditions in the city of Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina. The mortality rate was 48.6%. No statistically significant differences were observed in the mortality of eggs exposed at different sites. Hatching response differed significantly among the successive postexposure immersions, with the highest proportion of hatched eggs during the first immersion. These results show that the mortality rate of Ae. aegypti eggs exposed to the cold season in a subtropical city of Argentina was higher than those from temperate climate region. The additional mortality of eggs in our study might be related to fungal development (an unexpected event), which was not observed in research in temperate climate. The hatching pattern observed in this study ensures a rapid increase of the population at the beginning of the favorable breeding season, but it also maintains a batch with delayed hatching eggs, posing a risk for the community.

544) Evaluation of simultaneous transmission of Chikungunya virus and Dengue virus type 2 in infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Nuckols J T, Huang Y-J S, Higgs S, Miller A L, Pyles R B, Spratt H M, Horne K M, Vanlandingham D L
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 447-451, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution - shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) - Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 × 10(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV - 3.2 × 10(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders - evaluated for dissemination - transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV - DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

545) Potential Effects of Climate Change on Ecological Interaction Outcomes Between Two Disease-Vector Mosquitoes: A Mesocosm Experimental Study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leonel, B. F.; Koroiva, R.; Hamada, N.; Ferreira-Keppler, R. L.; Roque, F. O.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus; Global warming; Interspecific competition; Intraspecific competition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 866-872, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The objective of this study was to experimentally assess the effects of different climate change scenarios on the outcomes of interactions between Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The experimental design maintained a constant density of specimens while the proportion of the species in different experimental climate change scenarios varied. Our results indicate that survival of the two species was not affected, but larval development and pupation times decreased under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and high air temperature. In climate change scenarios with both species together, the survival of Ae. aegypti increased and its larval development time decreased with increasing density of Cx. quinquefasciatus. This may be attributed to the effects of intraspecific competition being more significant than interspecific competition in Ae. aegypti. Our study also reveals that climatic changes may affect the patterns of interactions between Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. Alterations in climatic conditions changed the response of context-dependent competition, indicating the importance of studies on how ecological interactions will be affected by projected future climatic change.

546) Stumbling towards a diagnosis
Autor: Wakerley B R,Wilder-Smith E P,Yuki N
Assunto: Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 3, p. 236-239, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo:

547) Costly inheritance and the persistence of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.
Assunto: Life table model; Global distribution; Albopictus diptera; Control strategies; Lucilia -Cuprina; Sodium - Channel; Vector control; Fitness costs; Dengue; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti-the main vector for dengue-we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process.

548) Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014
Autor: Delisle E, Rousseau C, Broche B, Leparc-Goffart I, L'Ambert G, Cochet A, Prat C, Foulongne V, Ferre J B, Catelinois O, Flusin O, Tchernonog E, Moussion I E, Wieg-t A, Septfons A, Mendy A,Moyano M B,Laporte L,Maurel J,Jourdain F,Reynes J,Paty M C,Golliot F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 17, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed - 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations - the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area - around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya - dengue surveillance system in mainl- France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Isl-s. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

549) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

550) New approaches to Chikungunya virus vaccine development
Autor: Garcia Alexis, Diego Lema, Judith Barroso
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccines; Immune response; Vaccines; Virus particles; Viral vectors
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery, v. 9, n. 1, p. 31-37, 2015
ISSN: 1872-213X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human pathogen that affects millions of individuals each year by causing non-specific flu-like symptoms, with a characteristic rash accompanied by joint pain that may last for a long time after the resolution of the infection. Despite intense research efforts, no approved vaccine or antiviral therapy is yet available. This review is based on articles retrieved by PubMed - clinical trials since 1980 to present. Virus complexity, protective - non-protective immune responses against the virus, - the most important a new patented approaches for Chikungunya vaccine development are discussed.

551) Association among house infestation index, dengue incidence, and sociodemographic indicators: surveillance using geographic information system
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vargas, Waldemir Paixao; Kawa, Helia; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Soares, Valdenir Bandeira; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; de Almeida, Andrea Sobral
Assunto: Dengue; Infestation index; Geographic Information Systems; Epidemiological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 15, n. 756, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: We identified dengue transmission areas by using the Geographic Information Systems located at local surveillance units of the Itaboraf municipality in state of Rio de Janeiro. We considered the association among the house infestation index, the disease incidence, and sociodemographic indicators during a prominent dengue outbreak in 2007 and 2008.Methods: In this ecological study, the Local Surveillance Units (UVLs) of the municipality were used as spatial pattern units. For the house analysis, we used the period of higher vector density that occurred previous to the larger magnitude epidemic range of dengue cases. The average dengue incidence rates calculated in this epidemic range were smoothed using the Bayesian method. The associations among the House Infestation Index (HI), the Bayesian rate of the average dengue incidence, and the sociodemographic indicators were evaluated using a Pearson's correlation coefficient. The areas that were at a higher risk of dengue occurrence were detected using a kernel density estimation with the kernel quartic function.Results: The dengue transmission pattern in Itaboraf showed that the increase in the vector density preceded the increase in incidence. The HI was positively correlated to the Bayesian dengue incidence rate (r = 0.641; p = 0.01). The higher risk areas were those that were close to the main highways. In the Kernel density estimation analysis, we observed that the regions that were at a higher risk of dengue were those that were located in the UVLs and had the highest population densities; these locations were typically located along major highways. Four nuclei were identified as epicenters of high risk.Conclusions: The spatial analysis units used in this research, i.e., UVLs, served as a methodological resource for examining the compatibility of different information sources concerning the disease, the vector indices, and the municipal sociodemographic aspects and were arranged in distinct cartographic bases. Dengue is a multi-scale geographic phenomenon, and using the UVLs as analysis units made it possible to differentiate the dengue occurrence throughout the municipality. The methodological approach used in this research helped improve the Itaboraf municipality monitoring activities and the local territorial monitoring in other municipalities that are affected by this public health issue.

552) Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine
Autor: Saisawang Chonticha, Saitornuang Sawanan, Sillapee Pornpan, Ubol Sukathida, Smith Duncan R, Ketterman Albert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 17125, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional - is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease - show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine - serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases - would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target.

553) Partnering to Address Science Issues on a Global Scale
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mulder, Phil
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Entomologist, v. 61, n. 2, p. 67-68, 2015
ISSN: 1046-2821
Resumo:

554) Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak
Autor: Boisen Matthew L, Schieffelin John S, Goba Augustine, Oottamasathien Darin, Jones Abigail B, Shaffer Jeffrey G, Hastie Kathryn M, Hartnett Jessica N, Momoh Mambu, Fullah Mohammed, Gabiki Michael, Safa Sidiki, Zandonatti Michelle, Fusco Marnie, Bornholdt Zach, Abelson Dafna, Gire Stephen K, Andersen Kristian G, Tariyal Ridhi, Stremlau Mathew, Cross Robert W, Geisbert Joan B, Pitts Kelly R, Geisbert Thomas W, Kulakoski Peter, Wilson Russell B, Henderson Lee, Sabeti Pardis C, Grant Donald S, Garry Robert F, Saphire Erica O, Branco Luis M, Khan Sheik Humarr
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 1, p. 19-31, 2015
ISSN: 1557-8976
Resumo: Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services - clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), - therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM - IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, - typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, - a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 - 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest - most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

555) Assessment of the impact of potential tetracycline exposure on the phenotype of Aedes aegypti OX513A: implications for field use
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Curtis, Zoe; Matzen, Kelly; Oviedo, Marco Neira; Nimmo, Derric; Gray, Pamela; Winskill, Peter; Locatelli, Marco A. F.; Jardim, Wilson F.; Warner, Simon; Alphey, Luke; Beech, Camilla
Assunto: Solid - Phase extraction; Tandem mass - Spectrometry; Waste water; Septic tanks; Hong kong; Antibiotics; Dengue; Sulfonamide; Ph; Oxytetracycline
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever, a viral disease which has an estimated incidence of 390 million infections annually. Conventional vector control methods have been unable to curb the transmission of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of vector control using a tetracycline repressible self-limiting strain of Ae. aegypti OX513A which has achieved > 90% suppression of wild populations.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe investigated the impact of tetracycline and its analogues on the phenotype of OX513A from the perspective of possible routes and levels of environmental exposure. We determined the minimum concentration of tetracycline and its analogues that will allow an increased survivorship and found these to be greater than the maximum concentration of tetracyclines found in known Ae. aegypti breeding sites and their surrounding areas. Furthermore, we determined that OX513A parents fed tetracycline are unable to pre-load their progeny with sufficient antidote to increase their survivorship. Finally, we studied the changes in concentration of tetracycline in the mass production rearing water of OX513A and the developing insect.Conclusion/SignificanceTogether, these studies demonstrate that potential routes of exposure of OX513A individuals to tetracycline and its analogues in the environment are not expected to increase the survivorship of OX513A.

556) Infectious Chikungunya virus in the saliva of mice, monkeys and humans
Autor: Gardner Joy, Rudd Penny A, Prow Natalie A, Belarbi Essia, Roques Pierre, Larcher Thibaut, Gresh Lionel, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Schroder Wayne A, Suhrbier Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 10, p. e0139481, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed - bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 - 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon ?/? responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, - subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal - oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, - analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA - infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA - infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities.

557) Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Overcash, Justin M.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Gene editing; TALEN; CRISPR; DNA repair
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Chromosome Research, v. 23, n. 1, p. 31-42, 2015
ISSN: 0967-3849
Resumo: Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes.

558) Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity
Autor: Long Feng, Fong Rachel H, Austin Stephen K, Chen Zhenguo, Klose Thomas, Fokine Andrei, Liu Yue, Porta Jason, Sapparapu Gopal, Akahata Wataru, Doranz Benjamin J, Crowe James E, Diamond Michael S, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto: Chikungunya virus-antibody complexes; Cryo-electron microscopy structure; Neutralizing mechanism; Viral fusion inhibition
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 45, p. 13898-13903, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute - chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine - human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 - 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A - B domains, as well as to the B domain's ?-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints of these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. This finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A - B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein - therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral - host membranes.

559) Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Torres, Rosalinda C.; Garbo, Alicia G.; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anacardium occidentale; Dengue vector; Larvicidal bioassay; Polarity-based fractionation; Thin-layer chromatography
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3699-3702, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95 % EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

560) Impact of human mobility on the emergence of dengue epidemics in Pakistan
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wesolowski, Amy; Qureshi, Taimur; Boni, Maciej F.; Sundsoy, Pal Roe; Johansson, Michael A.; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Engo-Monsen, Kenth; Buckee, Caroline O.
Assunto: Dengue; Human Mobility; Pakistan; Mobile Phones; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, v. 112, n. 38, p. 11887-11892, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: The recent emergence of dengue viruses into new susceptible human populations throughout Asia and the Middle East, driven in part by human travel on both local and global scales, represents a significant global health risk, particularly in Areas with changing climatic suitability for the mosquito vector. In Pakistan, dengue has been endemic for decades in the southern port city of Karachi, but large epidemics in the northeast have emerged only since 2011. Pakistan is therefore representative of many countries on the verge of countrywide endemic dengue transmission, where prevention, surveillance, and preparedness are key priorities in previously dengue-free regions. We analyze spatially explicit dengue case data from a large outbreak in Pakistan in 2013 and compare the dynamics of the epidemic to an epidemiological model of dengue virus transmission based on climate and mobility data from similar to 40 million mobile phone subscribers. We find that mobile phone-based mobility estimates predict the geographic spread and timing of epidemics in both recently epidemic and emerging locations. We combine transmission suitability maps with estimates of seasonal dengue virus importation to generate fine-scale dynamic risk maps with direct application to dengue containment and epidemic preparedness.

561) Candidate biomarkers for mosquito age-grading identified by label-free quantitative analysis of protein expression in Aedes albopictus females
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Iovinella, I.; Caputo, B.; Michelucci, E.; Dani, F. R.; della Torre, A.
Assunto: Longevity; Proteomics; Hexamerin; Glutathione-S transferase; Pyruvate carboxylase; Insect cuticle protein
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 128, p. 272-279, 2015
ISSN: 1874-3919
Resumo: We applied a "shotgun" approach based on nanoliquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry associated to label free quantification (LFQ) to identify proteins varying with age, independently from the physiological state, in Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species which in the last decades invaded temperate regions in North America and Europe, creating concerns for associated high nuisance and risk of arbovirus transmission. The combined "shotgun" and LFQ approach was shown to be highly suitable to simultaneously compare several biological samples, as needed in a study aimed to analyze different age-groups and physiological states of adult mosquito females. The results obtained represent the first wide-scale analysis of protein expression in Ae. albopictus females: >1000 and 665 proteins were identified from few micrograms of crude protein extracts of mosquito heads and thoraxes, respectively. Six of these proteins were shown to significantly vary from 2- to 16-day-old females, independently from their physiological state (i.e. virgin, mated, host-seeking, blood-fed, and gravid).Biological significance: Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue and other arboviroses, are a persistent cause of global mortality and morbidity, affecting hundreds of thousands of people. Billions of people living in tropical areas are at risk of being bitten every day by an infective mosquito female and the spread of tropical species such as Aedes albopictus to temperate areas is creating alarm in the northern hemisphere. Mosquito longevity is a critical factor affecting mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles and the mosquito capacity to transmit pathogens. However, large scale analyses of the age structure of mosquito field populations is hampered by the lack of optimal age-grading approaches. Our findings open new perspectives for the development of reliable, simple and cheap protein-based assays to age-grade Ae. albopictus females and, most likely, other mosquito species of higher medical relevance, such as the main dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and the major Afrotropical malaria vectors. These assays would greatly contribute to epidemiological studies aimed at defining the actual vectorial capacity of a given mosquito species. Moreover, they would be very valuable in assessing the effectiveness of mosquito control interventions based on the relative ratio between young and old individuals before and after the intervention. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

562) Variation in the temporal and place effects on the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) in Jeddah Province
Autor: Mahyoub, Jazem A 
Assunto: Dengue fever; Variation in the Temporal;Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, v. 12, n. 1, p. 45-50, 2015.
ISSN: 0973-1245
Resumo: Black-Hole light traps were operated during January 2013 until June 2014, in an attempt to pin point the variations based on place and time of the Dengue Fever Mosquito Vector (DFMV) population density. This was carried out in order to determine the relationship between its density and the prevailing conditions of temperature and relative humidity, as related to the actual positive cases of dengue fever infection. The study showed a continued presence of the mosquito vector throughout the year, with significant differences in the population density and the time of the vector recovery. The results also showed a negative correlation between population density and temperature, whereas a positive correlation with the relative humidity. Our results showed two seasonal prominent activity peaks during February and November, during the year 2013 with a projected indication that a high peak might occur in 2014.The population density showed variation, according to the locations where Um-Alsalm locality indicated significant recovery of dengue fever vectors. Khozam locality displayed the least recovery throughout the year. The highest dengue fever (DF) infection was recorded in Aziziyah, Old Airport and the University localities, followed by Khozam and Al-Balad localities. However, other localities are currently under investigation proved to have no reported cases of dengue fever (DF) infection throughout the year.

563) Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pani; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F.; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Bio-fabrication; Green-synthesis; Nanobiotechnology; Pest control; Seaweed
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 121, p. 31-38, 2015
ISSN: 0147-6513
Resumo: Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65 nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23 ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23 ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

564) Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas
Autor: Prince Harry E, Seaton Brent L, Matud Jose L, Batterman Hollis J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 291-297, 2015
ISSN: 1556-679X
Resumo: Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody -/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers - RNA detection - to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification - CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, - 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers - RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered - 238 deidentified - tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) - 16% with IgG titers of ?1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, - (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

565) Polyenylcyclopropane carboxylic esters with high insecticidal activity
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ferroni, Claudia; Bassetti, Lucio; Borzatta, Valerio; Capparella, Elisa; Gobbi, Carlotta; Guerrini, Alberto; Varchi, Greta
Assunto: Ethyl chrysanthemate; Insecticidal activity; Resistance; Pyrethroids; Blattella germanica
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 71, n. 5, p. 728-736, 2015
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of naturally occurring pyrethrum. These molecules are widely used in agriculture for ant, fly and mosquito control and for lawn and garden care. Pyrethroids are the optically active esters of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid, also known as chrysanthemic acid. However, their intense use has resulted in the development of resistance in many insect species. Herein, specific structural modifications of the pyrethroid scaffold and their effect on insecticidal activity, especially on resistant pests strains, are reported.RESULTSThe exposure to (1R)-trans-(E/Z)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl-3-(buta-1,3-dienyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate and its diastereomers produced 100% mortality in yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) and houseflies (Musca domestica). Moreover, this compound provided complete knockdown within 15min of exposure against cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and maintained an excellent knockdown activity at 10 days after treatment.CONCLUSIONNovel pyrethroid derivatives obtained from 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are described. These derivatives display high insecticidal activity, a wide spectrum of action and no toxicity towards mammalians. The proposed synthetic procedures are highly efficient and inexpensive, and therefore suitable for industrial scale-up. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

566) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Sivakumar Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial - labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical - subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, - methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica - root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, - Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, - 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, - the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica - root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus - E. indica plants.

567) Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericomis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Copepods; Lemongrass; Nanotechnology; Mesocyclops aspericornis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, p. 129-138, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC50 of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC50 of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larval) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

568) Chikungunya infection: self-reported rheumatic morbidity and impaired quality of life persist 6 years later
Autor: Marimoutou C, Ferraro J, Javelle E, Deparis X, Simon F
Assunto: Chikungunya; Cohort study; Health care consumption post-chikungunya rheumatic disorders; Quality of life
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 7, p. 688-693, 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691
Resumo: This study presents the 6-year follow-up of French gendarmes exposed to the chikungunya (CHIK) infection in 2006 on Reunion Isl-. The aim was to see to what extent the subjective health differences observed in 2008 (30 months after infection) between CHIK infected (CHIK+) - noninfected (CHIK-) gendarmes still persisted in 2012, - to investigate a possible return to a pre-CHIK health status for CHIK+ subjects. Gendarmes were contacted by mail in 2012 - asked to complete a self-questionnaire asking for morbidity, health care - medicines consumption since the last follow-up in 2008. Quality of life (QoL) after 6 years was evaluated using the SF-36 scale. In comparison with CHIK- subjects (n = 171), CHIK+ (n = 81) presented with higher rheumatic but also nonspecific morbidity such as headaches - fatigue associated with a large psychological impact, frequent depressive moods - social disabilities, leading to a significant impairment of the QoL - higher health care consumption. When restricted to CHIK+ subjects, comparing the data with that of 2008 showed persistent but decreasing self-reported rheumatic morbidity, - an increase over time of chronic discomfort (headache, fatigue) - depressive moods, resulting in no overall improvement in QoL. Despite possible cohort attrition bias, the comparability of CHIK+/CHIK- subjects allows the assumption of a long-term impact of CHIK infection with less chance of returning to a previous health status. Although these results may be specific to the 2006 virus strain, we recommend that public health strategies in the epidemic-prone countries include a response to the consequences of chronic post-CHIK disorders.

569) First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bolivar State and epidemiological implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Estrada, Yarys; Guzman, Hernan; Caura, Simon; Sanchez, Victor; Arias, Lourdes
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Vector; Mosquito Magnet (R); Venezuela
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental, v. 55, n. 1, p. 110-112, 2015
ISSN: 1690-4648
Resumo: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse is reported for the first time from Bolivar Sate. Adult females were caught using human landing catches and Mosquito Magnet (R) traps while larvae were collected from artificial and natural contai