Estratégias de bloqueio da transmissão e controle do mosquito

1) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

2) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

3) Viral load and cytokine response profile does not support antibody-dependent enhancement in dengue-primed Zika Virus-infected patients
Autor: Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Silva, Rafael Alves da; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Rahal, Paula; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Kalil, Jorge; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda
Assunto: ZIKV; DENV; ADE; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - qRTPCR ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases; v. 65, n. 8, p. 1260-1265, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: The pathogenesis of severe dengue disease involves immune components as biomarkers. The mechanism by which some dengue virus (DENV)-infected individuals progress to severe disease is poorly understood. Most studies on the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease focus on the process of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) as a primary risk factor. With the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in DENV-endemic areas, many people infected by ZIKV were likely exposed to DENV. The influence of such exposure on Zika disease outcomes remains unknown. We investigated whether patients previously exposed to DENV exhibited higher viremia when exposed to a subsequent, heterologous dengue or Zika infection than those patients not previously exposed to dengue. We measured viral loads and cytokine profile during patients' acute infections. Neither dengue nor Zika viremia was higher in patients with prior DENV infection, although the power to detect such a difference was only adequate in the ZIKV analysis. Of the 10 cytokines measured, only 1 significant difference was detected: Levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were lower in dengue-infected patients who had experienced a previous dengue infection than patients infected with dengue for the first time. However, power to detect differences between groups was low. In Zika-infected patients, levels of IL-1? showed a significant, positive correlation with viral load. No signs of ADE were observed in vivo in patients with acute ZIKV infection who had prior exposure to DENV.

4) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

5) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

6) Repellent and mosquitocidal effects of leaf extracts of Clausena anisata against the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Mukandiwa Lillian,Eloff Jacobus Nicolaas,Naidoo Vinny
Assunto: Botanical repellents; Vector control; Yellow fever mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 23, n. 11, p. 11257-11266, 2016
ISSN: 1614-7499
Resumo: Mosquitoes are rapidly developing resistance to insecticides that millions of people relied on to protect themselves from the diseases they carry, thereby creating a need to develop new insecticides. Clausena anisata is used traditionally as an insect repellent by various communities in Africa and Asia. For this study, the repellency and adulticidal activities of leaf extracts and compounds isolated from this plant species were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In the topical application assays, using total bites as an indicator, repellency was dose dependent, with the acetone crude extract (15 %) having 93 % repellence and the hexane fraction (7.5 %) 67 % repellence after 3 h. Fractionation resulted in a loss of total repellence. As mosquito-net treating agents, the acetone and hexane extracts of C. anisata, both at 15 %, had average repellences of 46.89 ± 2.95 and 50.13 ± 2.02 %, respectively, 3 h after exposure. The C. anisata acetone extract and its hexane fraction caused mosquito knockdown and eventually death when nebulised into the testing chamber, with an EC50 of 78.9 mg/ml (7.89 %) and 71.6 mg/ml (7.16 %) in the first 15 min after spraying. C. anisata leaf extracts have potential to be included in protection products against mosquitoes due to the repellent and cidal compounds contained therein.

7) Interspecies transmission and Chikungunya virus emergence
Autor: Tsetsarkin Konstantin A, Chen Rubing, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 16, p. 143-150, 2016
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity - economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions -, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, - the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural - temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors - nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

8) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; Zika virus and travel; Microcephaly; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

9) Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sumitha, K. V.; Thoppil, John E.
Assunto: Ocimum gratissimum; Aedes albopictus; GC/MS; Essential oil; Larvicidal
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 673-680, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30 %), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82 %), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23 %) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53 %). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90=82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus.

10) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

11) Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elumalai, Devan; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Deepaa, Chandrasekar Vijayalakshmi; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Leucas aspera; Catechin; Larvicidal activity; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1203-1212, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin my serve as an alternative Biocontrol technique in the future. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of fractions and compounds from the whole-plant methanol extracts of Leucas aspera on the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging from 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10, and 20 ppm and isolated compounds. After 24 h exposure, larval mortality was assessed. Among the eight fractions, four from hexane extractions showed potent larvicidal activity against tested mosquito species at 20 ppm concentration. The isolated compound catechin showed pronounced larvicidal activity at very low concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of catechin were 3.05 and 8.25 ppm against Ae. aegypti, 3.44 and 8.89 ppm against An. stephensi, and 3.76 and 9.79 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The isolated compound was subjected to spectral analyses (GC-MS, FTIR, H-1 NMR, and C-13 NMR) to elucidate the structure and to compare with spectral data literature.

12) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Rash maculopapular ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

13) Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: El -Sheikh, Tarek M. Y.; Al-Fifi, Zarrag I. A.; Alabboud, Mohamed A.
Assunto: Ethanolic extract; Acetone extract; Petroleum ether extract; Toxicity; Repellent; Tribulus terrestris; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, v. 20, n. 1, p. 13-19, 2016
ISSN: 1319-6103
Resumo: Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed by acetone extract with LC50 173.2 ppm and finally ethanolic extract with LC50 376.4 ppm. Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was 57.1% and 100% at concentrations 400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract. The most effective plant extract that evoked 100% repellency or biting deterrence was petroleum ether extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm(2) compared with 100% repellency for commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEFT) at the same dose. Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. aegypti. (C) 2012 King Saud University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; Travel medicine
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

15) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

16) Zika? Partying Brazilians Offer Collective Shrug.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jacobs, Andrew
Assunto: Carnival, Brazilians, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Insect baits & repellents, Mosquitoes, Brazil, Brazil - Social life & customs, Attitudes, Social aspects, Salvador (Brazil) - Social life & customs
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57139, p. A1-A12, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the celebration of the Carnival festival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Salvador, Brazil within the context of the Zika Virus Epidemic, including Brazilians' attitudes towards the epidemic. An overview of those participating in the Carnival's wearing of mosquito repellent to prevent Zika virus transmission is provided.

17) Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant Culex pipiens pallens by RNA-seq
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Yuan; Wang, Weijie; Hong, Shanchao; Lei, Zhentao; Fang, Fujin; Guo, Qin; Hu, Shengli; Tian, Mengmeng; Liu, Bingqian; Zhang, Donghui; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Pyrethroids; RNA-seq; CYP6AA9; RNAi; Communicated by Q. Xia.
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, v. 291, n. 1, p. 309-321, 2016
ISSN: 1617-4615
Resumo: The widespread and improper use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin, has resulted in the evolution of resistance in many mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, it is possible to massively screen pyrethroid resistance-associated gene. In this study, we used Illumina-Solexa transcriptome sequencing to identify genes that are expressed differently in deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens as a critical knowledge base for further studies. A total of 4,961,197,620 base pairs and 55,124,418 reads were sequenced, mapped to the Culex quinquefasciatus genome and assembled into 17,679 known genes. We recorded 1826 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among them, 1078 genes were up-regulated and 748 genes were down-regulated in the deltamethrin-resistant strain compared to -susceptible strain. These DEGs contained cytochrome P450 s, cuticle proteins, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, lipases, serine proteases, heat shock proteins, esterases and others. Among the 1826 DEGs, we found that the transcriptional levels of CYP6AA9 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Moreover, the expression levels of the CYP6AA9 were significantly higher in the resistant strains than the susceptible strains in three different field populations. We further confirmed the association between the CYP6AA9 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by RNA interfering (RNAi). Altogether, we explored massive potential pyrethroid resistance-associated genes and demonstrated that CYP6AA9 participated in the pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes.

18) Zika virus emergence and expansion: Lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 15-18, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Preexisting yellow fever antibody appeared to interfere with the antibody response to YF vaccine. Administration of YF vaccine did elicit antibodies capable of cross-reacting with West Nile, and less so with Langat, arbovirus antigens.

19) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A, Kellner D A, Brown J E, Gonzalez-Acosta C, Kamgang B, Lutwama J, Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue - Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population - does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to - after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

20) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

21) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

22) The use of Aedes aegypti larvae attractants to enhance the effectiveness of larvicides
Autor: Gonzalez Paula V,Harburguer Laura,González-Audino Paola A,Masuh Héctor M
Assunto: Attractant; Insecticide; Larvae; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 6, p. 2185-2190, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is an important dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever vector. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes, and the application of larvicides inside containers that cannot be eliminated is still considered a priority in control programs. Larvicidal efficacy is influenced by several factors, including the formulation used, the water quality, and the susceptibility of larvae, among others. If an attractant can be incorporated into a slow-release larvicide formulation, it will be feasible to direct the larvae into the source of insecticide and thereby improving its efficacy. We studied the influence of 1-octen-3ol and 3-methylphenol on the rate of Ae. aegypti larvae mortality using the larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), temephos, and spinosad. These chemicals were combined with the larvicides mixed with agar during the bioassays. Mortality was registered every 10 min, and a lethal time 50 (LT50) was calculated. The inclusion of the Ae. aegypti larvae attractants with the larvicides into a solid agar matrix improved their efficiency obtaining a strong and marked reduction in the LT50 compared with the use of larvicides alone.

23) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach J., Alencar C.H., Kelvin A.A., de Oliveira W.K., de Góes Cavalcanti L.P.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680 (electronic),2036-6590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil’s Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil’s Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

24) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

25) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

26) Transstadial Effects of Bti on Traits of Aedes aegypti and Infection with Dengue Virus
Autor: Alto Barry W,Lord Cynthia C
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004370
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Most mosquito control efforts are primarily focused on reducing the adult population size mediated by reductions in the larval population, which should lower risk of disease transmission. Although the aim of larviciding is to reduce larval abundance and thus recruitment of adults, nonlethal effects on adults are possible, including transstadial effects on phenotypes of adults such as survival and pathogen infection and transmission. In addition, the mortality induced by control efforts may act in conjunction with other sources of mosquito mortality in nature. The consequences of these effects and interactions may alter the potential of the population to transmit pathogens. We tested experimentally the combined effects of a larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, Bti) and competition during the larval stages on subsequent Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) traits, population performance, and susceptibility to dengue-1 virus infection. Ae. aegypti that survived exposure to Bti experienced accelerated development, were larger, and produced more eggs with increasing amounts of Bti, consistent with competitive release among surviving mosquitoes. Changing larval density had no significant interactive effect with Bti treatment on development and growth to adulthood. Larval density, but not Bti or treatment interaction, had a strong effect on survival of adult Ae. aegypti females. There were sharper declines in cumulative daily survival of adults from crowded than uncrowded larval conditions, suggesting that high competition conditions of larvae may be an impediment to transmission of dengue viruses. Rates of infection and dengue-1 virus disseminated infections were found to be 87±13% and 88±12%, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects on infection measurements. Our findings suggest that larvicide campaigns using Bti may reduce the number of emerged adults, but survivors will have a fitness advantage (growth, development, enhanced production of eggs) relative to conspecifics that are not under larvicide pressure. However, under most circumstances, these transstadial effects are unlikely to outweigh reductions in the adult population by Bti and altered risk of disease transmission.

27) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

28) SUN2 overexpression deforms nuclear shape and inhibits HIV
Autor: Donahue Daniel A, Amraoui Sonia, di Nunzio Francesca, Kieffer Camille, Porrot Françoise, Opp Silvana, Diaz-Griffero Felipe, Casartelli Nicoletta, Schwartz Olivier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4199-4214, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: In a previous screen of putative interferon-stimulated genes, SUN2 was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in an uncharacterized manner. SUN2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein belonging to the linker of nucleoskeleton - cytoskeleton complex. We have analyzed here the role of SUN2 in HIV infection. We report that in contrast to what was initially thought, SUN2 is not induced by type-I interferon, - that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection. However, SUN2 overexpression in cell lines - in primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells inhibits replication of HIV but not murine leukemia virus or chikungunya virus. We identified HIV-1 - HIV-2 strains that are unaffected by SUN2, suggesting that the effect is specific to particular viral components or cofactors. Intriguingly, SUN2 overexpression induces a multilobular flower-like" nuclear shape that does not impact cell viability, - is similar to cells isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia or with progeria. Nuclear shape changes - HIV inhibition both mapped to the nucleoplasmic domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. This block to HIV replication occurs between reverse transcription - nuclear entry, - passaging experiments selected for a single amino acid change in capsid (CA) that leads to resistance to overexpressed SUN2. Furthermore, using chemical inhibition or silencing of cyclophilin A (CypA), as well as CA mutant viruses, we implicated CypA in the SUN2-imposed block to HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 overexpression perturbs both nuclear shape - early events of HIV infection. Cells encode proteins that interfere with viral replication, a number of which have been identified in overexpression screens. SUN2 is a nuclear membrane protein that was shown to inhibit HIV infection in such a screen, but how it blocked HIV infection was not known. We show that SUN2 overexpression blocks infection of certain strains of HIV, before nuclear entry. Mutation of the viral capsid protein yielded SUN2-resistant HIV. Additionally, the inhibition of HIV infection by SUN2 involves Cyclophilin A, a protein that binds the HIV capsid - directs subsequent steps of infection. We also found that SUN2 overexpression substantially changes the shape of the cell's nucleus resulting in many "flower-like" nuclei. Both HIV inhibition - deformation of nuclear shape required the domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 interferes with HIV infection, - highlight novel links between nuclear shape - viral infection."

29) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

30) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; travel medicine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

31) Zikavirus - gammalt virus får nytt liv i nytt ekosystem - Mikrocefali och Guillain-Barrés syndrom möjliga följder när bakgrundsimmunitet saknas hos befolkningen
Autor: Olsen Björn,Lundkvist Åke
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: La?kartidningen, v. 113, p. DX9X, 2016
ISSN: 1652-7518
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

32) Zika Virus as a Cause of Neurologic Disorders
Autor: Broutet Nathalie,Krauer Fabienne,Riesen Maurane,Khalakdina Asheena,Almiron Maria,Aldighieri Sylvain,Espinal Marcos,Low Nicola,Dye Christopher
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 16, p. 1506-1509, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus's geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the western Pacific, but also in Africa and southeast Asia. Zika virus infections acquired by travelers visiting those countries have been discovered at sites worldwide. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vectors, though other mosquito species may contribute to transmission. The virus was found to be neurotropic in animals in experiments conducted in . . .

33) Increase in reported prevalence of microcephaly in infants born to women living in areas with confirmed zika virus transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Kleber de Oliveira Wanderson,Cortez-Escalante Juan,De Oliveira Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda,do Carmo Greice Madeleine Ikeda,Henriques Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,Araújo de França Giovanny Vinícius
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 9, p. 242-247, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

34) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

35) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

36) Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

37) Drug Industry Starts Race to Develop Zika Vaccine.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Noemie Bisserbe And Betsy
Assunto: Pharmaceutical industry, Zika Virus Epidemic, Viral vaccine manufacturing, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

38) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M; Brooks John T.; Stryker Jo Ellen; Kachur Rachel E.; Mead Paul; Pesik Nicki T.; Petersen Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 201665, n. 5, p. 120-121
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

39) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of Rubia cordifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).
Autor: Gandhi M R,Reegan A D,Ganesan P,Sivasankaran K,Paulraj M G,Balakrishna K,Ignacimuthu S,Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Lymphatic filariasis, Mosquito control, Sustainable pest control, Vector control
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

40) The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014
Autor: Mboera Leonard E G,Mweya Clement N,Rumisha Susan F,Tungu Patrick K,Stanley Grades,Makange Mariam R,Misinzo Gerald,De Nardo Pasquale,Vairo Francesco,Oriyo Ndekya M
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004313, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16). There was no significant difference in pooled infection rates between the districts. Dengue viruses in the tested mosquitoes clustered into serotype 2 cosmopolitan genotype. Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Dar es Salaam and breeds mainly in medium size plastic containers and tires. The Aedes house indices were high, indicating that the three districts were at high risk of dengue transmission. The 2014 dengue outbreak was caused by Dengue virus serotype 2. The high mosquito larval and pupal indices in the area require intensification of vector surveillance along with source reduction and health education.

41) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

42) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004530, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

43) The impact of rainfall and temperature on the spatial progression of cases during the chikungunya re-emergence in Thailand in 2008-2009
Autor: Chadsuthi Sudarat, Iamsirithaworn Sopon, Triampo Wannapong, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emergence; Spatial; Thailand
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 125-133, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: In 2008, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Thail- after more than a decade of absence. Cases first appeared in the extreme southern region of the country - advanced northward approx. 300 km over the next 18 months. The spatial advance of CHIKV cases appeared to occur at two rates, initially progressing slowly - then increasing in speed. We hypothesize that climatic variation affected the transmission of CHIKV in the country. To determine the effect of climate on CHIKV transmission, we evaluated models where climate affects the transmission rate from mosquitoes to humans; extrinsic incubation period; fertility rate of mosquitoes; - the mortality rate of mosquito larvae. We compared these models to models that did not include climate effects. The inclusion of climate data greatly improved model fit with models assuming climate affected the fertility rate of mosquitoes providing the best fit to data. These results suggest that climatic variation contributed to the slower rate of incidence observed in March 2009. Overall, a gradient in transmission probability - mortality - fertility rates of mosquito is observed over the entire area with the most southern districts experiencing the most efficient transmission.

44) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Repellent ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

45) The role of TSPAN9 in alphavirus entry and early endosomes
Autor: Stiles Katie M, Kielian Margaret
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4289-4297, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that infect cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - low pH-triggered fusion in the early endosome. Using an siRNA screen in human cells, we previously identified TSPAN9 as a host factor that promotes infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis (SINV), Semliki Forest (SFV), - Chikungunya (CHIKV). Depletion of TSPAN9 specifically decreases SFV membrane fusion in endosomes. TSPAN9 is a member of the tetraspanin family of multi-pass membrane proteins, but its cellular function is currently unknown. Here we used U-2 OS cells stably overexpressing TSPAN9 to show that TSPAN9 is localized at the plasma membrane - in early - late endosomes. Internalized SFV particles co-localized with TSPAN9 in vesicles early during infection. Depletion of TSPAN9 led to a reduction in the amount of the late endosomal proteins LAMP1 - CD63 - an increase in LAMP2. However, TSPAN9 depletion did not alter the delivery of SFV to early endosomes, or change their pH or protease activity. Comparative studies showed that TSPAN9 depletion strongly inhibited infection by several viruses that fuse in early endosomes (SFV, SINV, CHIKV, VSV) while viruses that fuse in the late endosome (rVSV-Lassa, rVSV-Junin), including an SFV point mutant with a lower pH threshold for fusion (SFV E2 T12I), were relatively resistant. Our data suggest that TSPAN9 modulates the early endosome compartment to make it more permissive for membrane fusion of early-penetrating viruses. Alphaviruses are spread by mosquitos - can cause serious human diseases such as arthritis - encephalitis. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection are responsible for millions of cases of acute illness - long-term complications. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for these important human pathogens. Alphaviruses infect host cells by utilizing the endocytic machinery of the cell - fusing their membrane with that of the endosome. Although the mechanism of virus-membrane fusion is well studied, we still know relatively little about the host cell proteins that are involved in alphavirus entry. Here we characterized the role of the host membrane protein TSPAN9 in alphavirus infection. TSPAN9 was localized to early endosomes containing internalized alphavirus, - depletion of TSPAN9 inhibited virus fusion with the early endosome membrane. In contrast, infection of viruses that enter through the late endosome was relatively resistant to TSPAN9 depletion, suggesting an important role for TSPAN9 in the early endosome.

46) Sustained efficacy of the novel topical repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes and ticks
Autor: Bissinger B W,Kennedy M K,Carroll S P
Assunto: Amblyomma americanum; DEET; Stegomyia aegypti; Geraniol
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 1, p. 107-111, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: Mosquitoes and ticks are blood-feeding pests of humans and animals that can vector many important aetiological agents of disease. Previous research demonstrated that TT-4302 (Guardian(®) Wilderness) containing 5% geraniol applied to human subjects gave 5-6 h of repellency against mosquitoes (depending on species) and was repellent to ticks in vitro. This study was conducted to obtain an independent third-party evaluation of TT-4302 against Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and to test the efficacy of the product in the field against ticks. TT-4302 provided an average of 6.5 h of repellency of ? 95% [Weibull mean protection time: 7.4 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.8-11.3 h] for St. aegypti, whereas a 15% DEET formulation provided 4.7 h of repellency (Weibull mean protection time: 5.2 h, 95% CI 3.7-6.9 h). In tick field trials, the efficacy of TT-4302 did not differ significantly from that of a 25% DEET formulation against Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae). TT-4302 was 81.3% repellent at 2.5 h after application, whereas DEET was 77.2% repellent at the same time-point. Results at 3.5 h after application were 71.4% for TT-4302 and 72.9% for DEET.

47) Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease
Autor: Li J D,Li D X
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing xue za Zhi, v. 37, n. 3, p. 329-334, 2016
ISSN: 0254-6450
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

48) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A,Kellner D A,Brown J E,Gonzalez-Acosta C,Kamgang B,Lutwama J,Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

49) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

50) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016,
Autor: Olson Christine K.; Iwamoto Martha; Perkins Kiran M.; Polen Kara N. D.; Hageman Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman Dana; Igbinosa Irogue I.; Khan Sumaiya.; Honein Margaret A.; Bell Michael; Rasmussen Sonja A.; Jamieson Denise J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

51) Zika virus outbreak: an overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Saxena S.K., Elahi A., Gadugu S., Prasad A.K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: VirusDisease, p. 1-5, feb. 2016
ISSN: 2347-3517 (electronic),2347-3584
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly transmitted by mosquito bite specifically Aedes species and disease symptoms include fever, joint pain, muscle pain, rash, conjunctivitis, and headache. The reservoir of ZIKV is still not known. Protection at personal level by avoiding mosquito bite would help to reduce the incidence of the disease. Control of ZIKV infection by vaccination or antiviral drug either from modern, complementary and alternative medicines may be considered to be one of the most effective strategies in the long run. Large scale immunization of susceptible human population is highly required to prevent this deadly disease. Attempts should be made as soon as possible to develop effective vaccines or antiviral to prevent ZIKV infection. This article provides a current overview of the experimental therapeutics and treatment options based on modern, complementary and alternative medicines.

52) Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination or infection: a Norwegian population-based cohort study
Autor: Ghaderi Sara,Gunnes Nina,Bakken Inger Johanne,Magnus Per,Trogstad Lill,Håberg Siri Eldevik
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; Influenza; Norway; Pandemrix®; Registry; Vaccination
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: European Journal of Epidemiology, v. 31, n. 1, p. 67-72, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7284
Resumo: Vaccinations and infections are possible triggers of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, studies on GBS after vaccinations during the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic in 2009, show inconsistent results. Only few studies have addressed the role of influenza infection. We used information from national health data-bases with information on the total Norwegian population (N = 4,832,211). Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates and self-controlled case series was applied. The risk of being hospitalized with GBS during the pandemic period, within 42 days after an influenza diagnosis or pandemic vaccination was estimated. There were 490 GBS cases during 2009-2012 of which 410 cases occurred after October 1, 2009 of which 46 new cases occurred during the peak period of the influenza pandemic. An influenza diagnosis was registered for 2.47 % of the population and the vaccination coverage was 39.25 %. The incidence rate ratio of GBS during the pandemic peak relative to other periods was 1.46 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.98]. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of GBS within 42 days after a diagnosis of pandemic influenza was 4.89 (95 % CI 1.17-20.36). After pandemic vaccination the adjusted HR was 1.11 (95 % CI 0.51-2.43). Our results indicated that there was a significantly increased risk of GBS during the pandemic season and after pandemic influenza infection. However, vaccination did not increase the risk of GBS. The small number of GBS cases in this study warrants caution in the interpretation of the findings.

53) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

54) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango Ayubo, Abílio Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; New record; Dengue; Chikungunya; Maputo City; Mozambique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 76, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

55) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

56) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Rash maculopapular ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

57) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

58) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Chikungunya; Dengue virus; Brazil; Microcephaly
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Head circumference ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2; p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

59) Re-evaluating the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted Ross River virus infection
Autor: Seed C R, Hoad V C, Faddy H M, Kiely P, Keller A J, Pink J
Assunto: Ross River virus; Blood safety; Residual risk estimation; Transfusion-transmissible infection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 110, n. 4, p. 317-323, 2016
ISSN: 1423-0410
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV) is an enveloped, RNA alphavirus in the same antigenic group as chikungunya virus. Australia records an annual average of 5000 laboratory-confirmed RRV infections. While RRV is currently geographically restricted to the Western Pacific, the capacity of arboviruses for rapid expansion is well established. The first case of RRV transfusion-transmission was recently described prompting a comprehensive risk assessment. To estimate the RRV residual risk, we applied laboratory-confirmed RRV notifications to two published models. This modelling generated point estimates for the risk of viraemia in the donor population, the risk of collecting a viraemic donation - the predicted number of infected components. The EUFRAT model estimated the risk of infection in donors as one in 95 039 (one in 311 328 to one in 32 399) to one in 14 943 (one in 48 593 to one in 5094). The point estimate for collecting a RRV viraemic donation varied from one in 166 486 (one in 659 078 to one in 49 158) (annualized national risk) to one in 26 117 (one in 103 628 to one in 7729) (area of high transmission). The modelling predicted 8-11 RRV-infected labile blood components issued in Australia during a 1-year period. Considering the uncertainty in the modelled estimates, the unknown rate of RRV donor viraemia - the low severity of any recipient RRV infection, additional risk management for RRV in Australia will initially be restricted to strengthening the messaging to donors regarding prompt reporting of any postdonation illnesses.

60) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

61) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers.
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

62) Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using electronic health records-a systematic review of the application of statistical methods.
Autor: Leite Andreia; Andrews Nick J.; Thomas Sara L.;
Assunto: electronic health records, pharmacoepidemiology, safety, sequential tests, statistical process control, vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, v. 25, n. 3, p. 225-237, 2016
ISSN: 1099-1557
Resumo: Pre-licensure studies have limited ability to detect rare adverse events (AEs) to vaccines, requiring timely post-licensure studies. With the increasing availability of electronic health records (EHR) near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using these data has emerged as an option. We reviewed methods currently used to inform development of similar systems for countries considering their introduction. Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched, with additional searches of conference abstract books. Questionnaires were sent to organizations worldwide to ascertain unpublished studies. Eligible studies used EHR and regularly assessed pre-specified AE to vaccine(s). Key features of studies were compared descriptively. From 2779 studies, 31 were included from the USA (23), UK (6), and Taiwan and New Zealand (1 each). These were published/conducted between May 2005 and April 2015. Thirty-eight different vaccines were studied, focusing mainly on influenza (47.4%), especially 2009 H1N1 vaccines. Forty-six analytic approaches were used, reflecting frequency of EHR updates and the AE studied. Poisson-based maximized sequential probability ratio test was the most common (43.5%), followed by its binomial (23.9%) and conditional versions (10.9%). Thirty-seven of 49 analyses (75.5%) mentioned control for confounding, using an adjusted expected rate (51.4% of those adjusting), stratification (16.2%) or a combination of a self-controlled design and stratification (13.5%). Guillain-Barré syndrome (11.9%), meningitis/encephalitis/myelitis (11.9%) and seizures (10.8%) were studied most often. Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using EHR has developed over the past decade but is not yet widely used. As more countries have access to EHR, it will be important that appropriate methods are selected, considering the data available and AE of interest. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

63) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

64) Zika Test Is Near but Vaccine Is Not, Officials Say.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sewell Chan, McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Zika virus, Vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57141, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports that the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the scientists are working on the development of a test for the Zika virus that is a mosquito transmitted infection and mentions that the development of vaccine for Zika virus is going to take time.

65) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

66) Status of vaccine research and development for Campylobacter jejuni
Autor: Riddle Mark S,Guerry Patricia
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni; Enteric vaccine development; Impact assessment; Travelers' diarrhea
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 34, n. 26, p. 2903-2906, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine.

67) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

68) Detection of persistent Chikungunya virus RNA but not infectious virus in experimental vertical transmission in Aedes aegypti from Malaysia
Autor: Wong Hui Vern, Vythilingam Indra, Sulaiman Wan Yusof Wan, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres, Chan Yoke Fun, Sam I-Ching
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 1, p. 182-186, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs - adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs - 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs - progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism - significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.

69) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

70) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

71) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

72) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Jankosky Christopher; Cano Maria
Assunto: Post-licensure surveillance, Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4) were first available for use during 2013-14 influenza season for individuals aged ?6 months. IIV4 is designed to protect against four different flu viruses; two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after IIV4 and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) from 7/1/2013-5/31/2015. Medical records were requested for non-manufacturer reports classified as serious (i.e. death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability). The review included automated data analysis, clinical review of all serious reports, reports of special interest, and empirical Bayesian data mining. VAERS received 1,838 IIV4 reports; 512 (28%) in persons aged 6 months-17 years of which 42 (8.2%) were serious reports; 1,265 (69%) in persons aged >18 years of which 84 (6.6%) were serious reports; two in children <6 months and 59 in persons of unknown age. Injection site erythema (24%), fever (14%) and injection site swelling (17%) were the most frequent adverse events among persons aged 6 months-17 years, while injection site pain (16%), pain (15%) and pain in extremity (13%) were the most frequent among persons aged 18-64 years given the vaccine alone. Among non-death serious reports, injection site reactions, constitutional symptoms, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures, and anaphylaxis were the most frequently reported adverse events. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for incorrect vaccine administration with no associated adverse events. Adverse events following IIV4 reported to VAERS were similar to those following IIV3. In our review of VAERS reports, IIV4 had a similar safety profile to IIV3. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious. Our findings are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies of IIV4.

73) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

74) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

75) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ryo,Mizumoto Kenji,Yasuda Yohei,Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number, Epidemic, Statistical estimation, Transmissibility, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

76) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

77) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

78) Genomic approaches for understanding dengue: insights from the virus, vector, and host
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Mosquito Aedes-Aegypti; Quantitative Trait Loci; Blood Mononuclear-Cells; Naturally Infected Mosquitos; Gene Transcript Abundance; Life-Shortening Wolbachia; Engineered Male Mosquitos; Placebo-Controlled Trial; West-Nile-Virus; Hemorrhagic-Fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Genome Biology, v. 17, n. 38, 2016
ISSN: 1465-6906
Resumo: The incidence and geographic range of dengue have increased dramatically in recent decades. Climate change, rapid urbanization and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes between population centers. At the same time, significant advances in Genomics approaches have provided insights into host-pathogen interactions, Immunogenetics, and viral Evolution in both humans and mosquitoes. Here, we review these advances and the innovative treatment and control strategies that they are inspiring.

79) Zika virus infection Among U.S. pregnant travelers - august 2015-february 2016.
Autor: Meaney-Delman Dana,Hills Susan L,Williams Charnetta,Galang Romeo R,Iyengar Preetha,Hennenfent Andrew K,Rabe Ingrid B,Panella Amanda,Oduyebo Titilope,Honein Margaret A,Zaki Sherif,Lindsey Nicole,Lehman Jennifer A,Kwit Natalie,Bertolli Jeanne,Ellington Sascha,Igbinosa Irogue,Minta Anna A,Petersen Emily E,Mead Paul,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

80) Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro
Autor: von Rhein Christine, Weidner Tatjana, Henß Lisa, Martin Judith, Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Boswellic acid; Chikungunya virus; Curcumin; Traditional medicine; Vesicular stomatitis virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 125, p. 51-57, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe - the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles - viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

81) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Zika virus, congenital abnormalities, travel medicine
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

82) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

83) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Autor: Hills Susan L,Russell Kate,Hennessey Morgan,Williams Charnetta,Oster Alexandra M,Fischer Marc,Mead Paul
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

84) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

85) NIH hopes funding increases will continue
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jaffe, Susan
Assunto: Budgets, Presidents, Public health, Zika virus, Alzheimers disease, Cancer, Antibiotics, Medical research, FDA approval, Biomedical research, Brain research, Funding
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 636-637, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: The US Congress recently approved the largest single increase in funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 12 years--a US$2 billion raise that was twice as much as President Barack Obama requested. But almost as soon as NIH supporters stopped cheering, they began to worry about next year's budget, and the challenge of a new public health threat, Zika virus.

86) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

87) Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia
Autor: Riswari S F, Ma'roef C N, Djauhari H, Kosasih H, Perkasa A, Yudhaputri F A, Artika I M, Williams M, van der Ven A, Myint K S, Alisjahbana B, Ledermann J P, Powers A M, Jaya U A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Indonesia; Infection kinetics; Viremia profile
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 61-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in B-ung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells - tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, - CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified - studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset - extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics - thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks.

88) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

89) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

90) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

91) Waging war on Zika mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wilson, Clare
Assunto: Viruses, Mosquitoes, Disease transmission, Epidemics, Global health, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3059, p. 8-9, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Zika is officially a global public health emergency. The declaration, by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Monday, means that it can now take the lead in coordinating the global response to a virus it has estimated could infect up to 4 million people in the Americas over the next year. Zika, which was first detected in the region in May, has now spread "explosively" to at least 25 countries. The emergency designation will help the WHO to ramp up research and organize international efforts to combat the Aedes mosquitoes that spread the disease. Here, Wilson discusses the tactics that countries could consider in the war on mosquitoes.

92) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

93) Brazil State Bans Pesticide After Zika Claim.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Johnson, Reed, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus, Pesticides - Law & legislation, Human abnormalities, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

94) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

95) The Epidemic of Zika Virus-Related Microcephaly in Brazil: Detection, Control, Etiology, and Future Scenarios.
Autor: Teixeira Maria G,da Conceição N Costa Maria,de Oliveira Wanderson K,Nunes Marilia Lavocat,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 601-605, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: We describe the epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil, its detection and attempts to control it, the suspected causal link with Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and possible scenarios for the future. In October 2015, in Pernambuco, Brazil, an increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly was reported. Mothers of the affected newborns reported rashes during pregnancy and no exposure to other potentially teratogenic agents. Women delivering in October would have been in the first trimester of pregnancy during the peak of a Zika epidemic in March. By the end of 2015, 4180 cases of suspected microcephaly had been reported. Zika spread to other American countries and, in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the Zika epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. This unprecedented situation underscores the urgent need to establish the evidence of congenital infection risk by gestational week and accrue knowledge. There is an urgent call for a Zika vaccine, better diagnostic tests, effective treatment, and improved mosquito-control methods.

96) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Autor: Wikan Nitwara, Suputtamongkol Yupin, Yoksan Sutee, Smith Duncan R, Auewarakul Prasert
Assunto: Emerging infectious diseases; Serosurvey; Thailand; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-. To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis - Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-, although as yet the relationship between transmission - possible cases of Zika fever in Thail- requires further investigation.

97) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oduyebo Titilope,Petersen Emily E,Rasmussen Sonja A,Mead Paul S,Meaney-Delman Dana,Renquist Christina M,Ellington Sascha R,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Powers Ann M,Villanueva Julie,Galang Romeo R,Dieke Ada,Muñoz Jorge L,Honein Margaret A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

98) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

99) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

100) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

101) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

102) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Autor: Aubry Maite, Richard Vaea, Green Jennifer, Broult Julien, Musso Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen - ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, - dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers - RNA loads were measured in plasma before - after amotosalen - UVA photochemical treatment. The mean ZIKV titers - RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL - 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells - did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

103) Zika poses sex risk
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Viruses , Body fluids , Sexual behavior
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 7, 2016.
ISSN: 0262-4079
Resumo: Last week, it was reported that Zika virus can survive in semen for two months, posing potential risks of sexual transmission long after any symptoms, such as a week-long rash, have vanished. Zika is already known to have been transmitted via sex from men to women.

104) Identification and genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India
Autor: Nyari N, Mann H S, Sharma S, Pandey S N, Dhole T N
Assunto: Aedes vector; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Emerging; Enveloped glycoprotein (E1); Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling - preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified - tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti - A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; - 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) - 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains - reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future.

105) UK is safe from Zika virus and is helping towards a vaccine, MPs hear.
Autor: O'Dowd Adrian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, p. i692, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

106) Comparison of Mosquito magnet and Biogents sentinel traps for operational surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species
Autor: Rochlin Ilia, Kawalkowski Margaret, Ninivaggi Dominick V
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes japonicus; Chikungunya; Dengue; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 454-459, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health - quality of life by their persistent - severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps - lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a st-ard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, - sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, - pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure - R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), - Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

107) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

108) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

109) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

110) Effects of an in-frame deletion of the 6k gene locus from the genome of Ross River virus
Autor: Taylor Adam, Melton Julian V, Herrero Lara J, Thaa Bastian, Karo-Astover Liis, Gage Peter W, Nelson Michelle A, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Lidbury Brett A, Ewart Gary D, McInerney Gerald M, Merits Andres, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4150-4159, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The alphaviral 6k region encodes the two structural proteins 6K protein -, due to a ribosomal frameshift event, TF protein. Here, we characterized the role of the 6k proteins in the arthritogenic alphavirus Ross River virus (RRV) in infected cells - in mice, using a novel 6k in-frame deletion mutant. Comprehensive microscopic analysis revealed that the 6k proteins were predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of RRV-infected cells. RRV virions that lack the 6k proteins were more vulnerable to changes in pH - corresponding virus had increased sensitivity to higher temperature. While the 6k deletion did not reduce RRV particle production in BHK-21 cells, it affected virion release from the host cell. Subsequent in vivo studies demonstrated that RRV-(?6K) caused a milder disease than wild-type virus, with reduced viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation of mice with RRV-(?6K) resulted in reduced viral load - accelerated viral elimination upon secondary infection with WT-RRV or another alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Our results show that the 6k proteins may contribute to alphaviral disease manifestations - suggest that manipulating the 6k gene may be a potential strategy to facilitate viral vaccine development. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) cause epidemics of debilitating rheumatic disease in endemic areas - can emerge in new regions worldwide. RRV is of considerable medical significance in Australia, where it is the leading cause of arboviral disease. The mechanisms by which alphaviruses persist - cause disease in the host are ill-defined. This paper describes the phenotypic properties of an RRV 6k-deletion mutant. The absence of the 6k gene reduced virion release from infected cells - also reduced the severity of disease - viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation with the mutant virus protected mice against viraemia not only upon exposure to RRV, but also upon challenge with CHIKV. These findings could lead to the development of safer - more immunogenic alphavirus vectors for vaccine delivery.

111) Zika Virus and Pregnancy: What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman D., Rasmussen S.A., Staples J.E., Oduyebo T., Ellington S.R., Petersen E.E., Fischer M., Jamieson D.J.
Assunto: health care personnel, pregnancy, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Obstetrics and Gynecology, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-233X (electronic),0029-7844
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) species of mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization confirmed the first local transmission of Zika virus in the Americas in Brazil. The virus has spread rapidly to other countries in the Americas; as of January 29, 2016, local transmission has been detected in at least 22 countries or territories, including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Zika virus can infect pregnant women in all three trimesters. Although pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to or more severely affected by Zika virus infection, maternal–fetal transmission has been documented. Several pieces of evidence suggest that maternal Zika virus infection is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, most notably microcephaly. Because of the number of countries and territories with local Zika virus transmission, it is likely that obstetric health care providers will care for pregnant women who live in or have traveled to an area of local Zika virus transmission. We review information on Zika virus, its clinical presentation, modes of transmission, laboratory testing, effects during pregnancy, and methods of prevention to assist obstetric health care providers in caring for pregnant women considering travel or with a history of travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

112) Correction for Okabayashi et al., detection of Chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test
Autor: Okabayashi Tamaki, Sasaki Tadahiro, Masrinoul Promsin, Chantawat Nantarat, Yoksan Sutee, Nitatpattana Narong, Chusri Sarunyou, Morales Vargas Ronald E, Grandadam Marc, Brey Paul T, Soegijanto Soegeng, Mulyantno Kris Cahyo, Churrotin Siti, Kotaki Tomohiro, Faye Oumar, Faye Ousmane, Sow Abdourahmane, Sall Amadou Alpha, Puiprom Orapim, Chaichana Panjaporn, Kurosu Takeshi, Kato Seiji, Kosaka Mieko, Ramasoota Pongrama, Ikuta Kazuyoshi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1173-1174, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo:

113) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

114) Acute uncomplicated febrile illness in children aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - aetiologies, antibiotic treatment and outcome
Autor: Elfving Kristina, Shakely Deler, Andersson Maria, Baltzell Kimberly, Ali Abdullah S, Bachelard Marc, Falk Kerstin I, Ljung Annika, Msellem Mwinyi I, Omar Rahila S, Parola Philippe, Xu Weiping, Petzold Max, Trollfors Birger, Björkman Anders, Lindh Magnus, Mårtensson Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 1, p. e0146054, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, - multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) - rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH - GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical - laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR - GE-qPCR detected ?1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) - 153/164 (93%) of patients - 158/166 (95%) - 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) - group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral - bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever - West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 - three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel - a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low.

115) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of rubia cordifolia against culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Gandhi M R, Reegan A D, Ganesan P, Sivasankaran K, Paulraj M G, Balakrishna K, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay; Zika virus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Lymphatic filariasis; Mosquito control; Sustainable pest control; Vector control
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Larvicide ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, v. 45, n. 4, p. 441-448, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions - a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae - pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say - Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae - pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 - 10 ppm for fractions - 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 - 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed - the LC50 - LC90 values were estimated for larvae - pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus - A. aegypti. LC50 - LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 - 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.86 - 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, - 3.76 - 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.92 - 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal - pupicidal activities. LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 - 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus - 1.31 - 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 - 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 2.05 - 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis - compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide - pupicide.

116) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

117) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

118) Hydrothermal synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: mosquitocidal potential and anticancer activity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kavithaa, Krishnamoorthy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Ponraj, Thondhi; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Apoptosis; Antibacterial activity; Chemotherapy; Cytotoxicity; DAPI; MCF-7 cells; TiO2; Western blot
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 3, p. 1085-1096, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for transmission of serious diseases worldwide. Mosquito control is being enhanced in many Areas, but there are significant challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of alternative, cost-effective, and eco-friendly products. To deal with these crucial issues, recent emphasis has been placed on plant materials with mosquitocidal properties. Furthermore, cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Nanotechnology is a promising field of research and is expected to give major innovation impulses in a variety of industrial sectors. In this study, we synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles were subjected to different analysis including UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectrometric (EDX). The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal breast epithelial cells (HBL-100). After 24-h incubation, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were found to be 60 and 80 mu g/mL on MCF-7 and normal HBL-100 cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evidenced by Acridine Orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments conducted against the primary dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti, LC50 values of nanoparticles were 4.02 ppm (larva I), 4.962 ppm (larva II), 5.671 ppm (larva III), 6.485 ppm (larva IV), and 7.527 ppm (pupa). Overall, our results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may be considered as a safe tool to build newer and safer mosquitocides and chemotherapeutic agents with little systemic toxicity.

119) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

120) Alphavirus capsid proteins self-assemble into core-like particles in insect cells: A promising platform for nanoparticle vaccine development
Autor: Hikke Mia C, Geertsema Corinne, Wu Vincen, Metz Stefan W, van Lent Jan W, Vlak Just M, Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto: Alphavirus; Baculovirus expression; Core-like particle; Protein carrier; Subunit vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Biotechnology Journal, v. 11, n. 2, p. 266-273, 2016
ISSN: 1860-7314
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes arthritic diseases in humans, whereas the aquatic salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is associated with high mortality in aquaculture of salmon - trout. Using modern biotechnological approaches, promising vaccine c-idates based upon highly immunogenic, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) have been developed. However, the eVLP structure (core, lipid membrane, surface glycoproteins) is more complex than that of non-enveloped, protein-only VLPs, which are structurally - morphologically 'simple'. In order to develop an alternative to alphavirus eVLPs, in this paper we engineered recombinant baculovirus vectors to produce high levels of alphavirus core-like particles (CLPs) in insect cells by expression of the CHIKV - SAV capsid proteins. The CLPs localize in dense nuclear bodies within the infected cell nucleus - are purified through a rapid - scalable protocol involving cell lysis, sonication - low-speed centrifugation steps. Furthermore, an immunogenic epitope from the alphavirus E2 glycoprotein can be successfully fused to the N-terminus of the capsid protein without disrupting the CLP self-assembling properties. We propose that immunogenic epitope-tagged alphavirus CLPs produced in insect cells present a simple - perhaps more stable alternative to alphavirus eVLPs.

121) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

122) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benelli G., Mehlhorn H.
Assunto: dengue, malaria, mosquito, vector control, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, p. 1-8, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955 (electronic),0932-0113
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu’s example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. “lure and kill” approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming and mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates.

123) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

124) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010
Autor: Laoprasopwattana K, Suntharasaj T, Petmanee P, Suddeaugrai O, Geater A
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Dengue viral infection; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 144, n. 2, p. 381-388, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection - maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thail-. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thail-, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG - dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% - the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes - congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK - DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV - DENV are endemic in southern Thail-; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

125) Rapid and long-term immunity elicited by DNA encoded antibody prophylaxis and DNA vaccination against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Muthumani Karuppiah, Block Peter, Flingai Seleeke, Muruganantham Nagarajan, Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Tingey Colleen, Wise Megan, Reuschel Emma L, Chung Christopher, Muthumani Abirami, Sarangan Gopalsamy, Srikanth Padma, Khan Amir S, Vijayachari Paluru, Sardesai Niranjan Y, Kim J Joseph, Ugen Kenneth E, Weiner David B
Assunto: DNA plasmid; Chikungunya virus; dMAb; Monoclonal antibody; Passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 214, n. 3, p. 369-378, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Vaccination - passive antibody therapies are critical for controlling infectious diseases. Passive antibody administration has limitations including the necessity for purification - the delivery of multiple injections required for efficacy. Vaccination is associated with a lag phase before generation of immunity. Novel approaches reported here utilize the benefits of both methods for the rapid generation of effective immunity. An antibody-based prophylaxis/therapy entailing the electroporation-mediated delivery of synthetic plasmids, encoding biologically active anti-Chikungunya virus envelope mAb (designated dMAb), was designed - evaluated for anti-viral efficacy as well as for the ability to overcome shortcomings inherent with conventional active vaccination by a novel passive immune-based strategy. One intramuscular injection of the CHIKV-dMAb produced antibodies in vivo more rapidly than active vaccination with a CHIKV-DNA vaccine. This dMAb neutralized diverse CHIKV clinical isolates - protected mice from viral challenge. Combinations of both afford rapid as well as long-lived protection. We report that a DNA based dMAb strategy induces rapid protection against an emerging viral infection, which can be combined with DNA vaccination providing a uniquely both short term - long-term protection against this emerging infectious disease. These studies have implications for pathogen treatment - control strategies.

126) Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martinez-Garcia, P. J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.
Assunto: RNA-Seq; Cryptococcus; Phytophthora; Juglans regia; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: AMB EXPRESS, v. 6, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 2191-0855
Resumo: Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of similar to 400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

127) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

128) Clinical attack rate of chikungunya in a cohort of nicaraguan children
Autor: Balmaseda Angel, Gordon Aubree, Gresh Lionel, Ojeda Sergio, Saborio Saira, Tellez Yolanda, Sanchez Nery, Kuan Guillermina, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 397-399, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ? 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever).

129) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection
Autor: Biacchesi Stéphane, Jouvion Grégory, Mérour Emilie, Boukadiri Abdelhak, Desdouits Marion, Ozden Simona, Huerre Michel, Ceccaldi Pierre-Emmanuel, Brémont Michel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Veterinary Research, v. 47, n. 1, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1297-9716
Resumo: Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis - atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV - its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, - the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo - ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, - the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed - virus replication - persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

130) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

131) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

132) Zika virus infection: the resurgence of a neglected disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kambale, Tushar ; Iqbal,  Banyameen , Salve, Sonali ; Mushtaq, Iqra
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 283, 2016
ISSN: 0975-2870 (impreso); 2278-7119 (eletrônico)
Resumo:

133) Interim guidelines for pregnant women during a zika virus outbreak - United States, 2016.
Autor: Petersen Emily E,Staples J Erin,Meaney-Delman Dana,Fischer Marc,Ellington Sascha R,Callaghan William M,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 2, p. 30-33, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

134) Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses
Autor: Varghese Finny S, Kaukinen Pasi, Gläsker Sabine, Bespalov Maxim, Hanski Leena, Wennerberg Krister, Kümmerer Beate M, Ahola Tero
Assunto: Alphavirus; Antiviral screening; Chikungunya virus; RNA replication; Yellow fever virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 126, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type - reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 ?M) - ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 ?M) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 ?M) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner - had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses - Semliki Forest virus - Sindbis virus. Abamectin - ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic - antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle.

135) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

136) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J. ;  Bandeira, Antonio Carlos;  Franco-Paredes, Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

137) Battling Zika in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 794-793, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article reports on the campaign initiated by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to limit the Zika outbreak in Brazil by spraying larvicide in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on February 13, 2016.

138) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Autor: Escobar Luis E, Qiao Huijie, Peterson A Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa - Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers - the potential geographic spread of this disease. We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally - cases imported from other countries, - forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries - at finer scales, in terms of ecological features. By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil - more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor - uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort - reporting. Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive - predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools - data that can inform early-warning systems - public health intelligence."

139) Practice pointer zika virus: management of infection and risk
Autor: Ahmad, Shazaad S. Y.; Amin, Tejal N.; Ustianowski, Andrew
Assunto: Sexual transmission; Interim guidelines; United-States
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: BMJ-British Medical Journal, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

140) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Autor: Pastula Daniel M, Smith Daniel E, Beckham J David, Tyler Kenneth L
Assunto: Arboviral disease; Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Jamestown Canyon virus; North America; Powassan virus; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 257-260, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or s-flies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families - genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, - Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts - pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, - perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

141) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M,Brooks John T,Stryker Jo Ellen,Kachur Rachel E,Mead Paul,Pesik Nicki T,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

142) Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)- Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; da Silva Machado, Fernanda Lacerda; Samuels, Richard Ian; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flavia Borges; Silva, Jose Roberto
Assunto: Laurencia Dendroidea; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicide; Sesquiterpenes; (+)-Obtusol; (-)-Elatol; Oxidative Stress
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Marine Drugs, v. 14, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1660-3397
Resumo: Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 mu M CM-H(2)DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

143) Notes from the Field: Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Martines Roosecelis Brasil,Bhatnagar Julu,Keating M Kelly,Silva-Flannery Luciana,Muehlenbachs Atis,Gary Joy,Goldsmith Cynthia,Hale Gillian,Ritter Jana,Rollin Dominique,Shieh Wun-Ju,Luz Kleber G,Ramos Ana Maria de Oliveira,Davi Helaine Pompeia Freire,Kleber de Oliveria Wanderson,Lanciotti Robert,Lambert Amy,Zaki Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is related to dengue virus and transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, with humans acting as the principal amplifying host during outbreaks. Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in May 2015 (1). By February 9, 2016, local transmission of infection had been reported in 26 countries or territories in the Americas.* Infection is usually asymptomatic, and, when symptoms are present, typically results in mild and self-limited illness with symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. However, a surge in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in regions of Brazil with a high prevalence of suspected Zika virus disease cases. More than 4,700 suspected cases of microcephaly were reported from mid-2015 through January 2016, although additional investigations might eventually result in a revised lower number (2). In response, the Brazil Ministry of Health established a task force to further investigate possible connections between the virus and brain anomalies in infants (3).

144) Improving the effectiveness of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Auysawasdi, Nutthanun; Chuntranuluck, Sawitri; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Keeratinijakal, Vichien
Assunto: Essential oil; Repellent; Protection time; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles dirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 1, p. 99-106, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Repellency of essential oil extracted from Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus globulus, and Citrus aurantium at various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 %) with and without 5 % vanillin was evaluated against female mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The comparisons were made with a commercial chemical repellent (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) 25 % w/w; KOR YOR 15) by arm in cage method. It was found that the essential oils with 5 % vanillin gave the longest lasting period against two mosquitoes as follows: Curcuma longa gave 150 min for Ae. aegypti, 480 min for An. dirus; Eucalyptus globulus gave 144 min for Ae. aegypti, 390 min for An. dirus; and Citrus aurantium gave 120 min for Ae. aegypti, 360 min for An. dirus. The 25 % Curcuma longa essential oil exhibited the best efficiency as equal as a commercial repellent (480 min against An. dirus). Vanillin can extend the period of time in protection against the two mosquitoes. This study indicates the potential uses of the essential oils (Curcuma longa, Eucalyptus globulus, and Citrus aurantium) with vanillin as natural mosquito repellents.

145) Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations
Autor: Yeap, H. L.; Rasic, G.; Endersby-Harshman, N. M.; Lee, S. F.; Arguni, E.; Le Nguyen, H.; Hoffmann, A. A.
Assunto: Biological control; Genetics; Population genetics; Human diseases; DNA; Natural populations; Public health; Mitochondrial DNA; Immigration; Cytoplasmic incompatibility; Endosymbionts; Haplotypes; Dengue; Population studies
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Heredity, v. 116, n. 3, p. 265-276, 2016.
ISSN: 0018-067X
Resumo: Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

146) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Calvet Guilherme A, Filippis Ana Maria B, Mendonça Marcos Cesar L, Sequeira Patricia C, Siqueira Andre M, Veloso Valdilea G, Nogueira Rita M, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brazil; HIV; ZIKV; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya - ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis - the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection - endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms - recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

147) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016.
Autor: Staples J Erin,Dziuban Eric J,Fischer Marc,Cragan Janet D,Rasmussen Sonja A,Cannon Michael J,Frey Meghan T,Renquist Christina M,Lanciotti Robert S,Muñoz Jorge L,Powers Ann M,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States who are caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy. These guidelines include recommendations for the testing and management of these infants. Guidance is subject to change as more information becomes available; the latest information, including answers to commonly asked questions, can be found online (http://www.cdc.gov/zika). Pediatric health care providers should work closely with obstetric providers to identify infants whose mothers were potentially infected with Zika virus during pregnancy (based on travel to or residence in an area with Zika virus transmission [http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices]), and review fetal ultrasounds and maternal testing for Zika virus infection (see Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak*) (1). Zika virus testing is recommended for 1) infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications born to women who traveled to or resided in an area with Zika virus transmission while pregnant; or 2) infants born to mothers with positive or inconclusive test results for Zika virus infection. For infants with laboratory evidence of a possible congenital Zika virus infection, additional clinical evaluation and follow-up is recommended. Health care providers should contact their state or territorial health department to facilitate testing. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition.

148) External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Jacobsen Sonja, Patel Pranav, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Teichmann Anette, Zeller Herve, Niedrig Matthias
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Diagnosis; EQA; Molecular; Proficiency test; Quality control; Serology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 76, p. 55-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 - the recent outbreak in the Caribbean isl-s with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular - serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular - 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity - specificity of molecular - serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 - 60 data sets were returned for IgG - IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable - 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable - the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable - 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity - specificity for the molecular - serology diagnostic required for the quick - reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance.

149) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

150) Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies
Autor: Deeba Farah, Islam Asimul, Kazim Syed Naqui, Naqvi Irshad Hussain, Broor Shobha, Ahmed Anwar, Parveen Shama
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Disease dissemination; Host-pathogen interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Disease, v. 74, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 2049-632X
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea - joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation - molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells - organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load - cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine c-idates have been tested on humans - animal models during clinical - preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology - recent advances in the development of drugs - vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection.

151) Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally.
Autor: Zumla Alimuddin,Goodfellow Ian,Kasolo Francis,Ntoumi Francine,Buchy Philippe,Bates Matthew,Azhar Esam I,Cotten Matthew,Petersen Eskild
Assunto: Emerging pathogens, Zika virus, diagnostics, laboratory, public health, surveillance
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 92-94, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo:

152) Chikungunya: out of the tropical forests and heading our way ?
Autor: Rowland-Jones Sarah L
Assunto: Aedes mosquito; Alpha virus; Arthritis; Immunopathology; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 85-86, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo:

153) Microcephaly in Brazil: How to interpret reported numbers?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Victora C.G., Schuler-Faccini L., Matijasevich A., Ribeiro E., Pessoa A., Barros F.C.
Assunto: head circumference, microcephaly (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 621-624, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

154) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

155) Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Filariasis; Malaria; Eco-friendly larvicides; Mosquito vectors; Plant-borne mosquitocides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Research in Veterinary Science, v. 104, n. , p. 77-82, 2016
ISSN: 0034-5288
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO as analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 8035 and 84.93 mu g/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50 = 21.15 and 4327 mu g/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50 = 24.06 and 47.73 mu g/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 26.08 and 52.19 mu g/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 27.95 and 54.87 mu g/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

156) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

157) Larval temperature-food effects on adult mosquito infection and vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus
Autor: Buckner Eva A, Alto Barry W, Lounibos L Philip
Assunto: Dengue; Infection; Larval ecology; Transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history - population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) - Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya - dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, - dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus life history - DENV-1 infection - vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny - DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature - food affected number of progeny - DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny - this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low - high food led to the highest (?90%) - lowest (?65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (?75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature - food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission - a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology.

158) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

159) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

160) Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study
Autor: Prabhu Prashanth
Assunto: Anxiety; Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder; Chikungunya; Depression; Tinnitus; Tullio's phenomenon
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, v. 273, n. 1, p. 257-261, 2016
ISSN: 1434-4726
Resumo: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in underst-ing speech, tinnitus - vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus - it was persistent causing significant h-icap to him based on self report tinnitus h-icap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety - stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression - anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells - may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon - absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD - vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies.

161) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

162) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

163) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the western hemisphere.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

164) Tropical ophthalmology
Autor: Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich M M
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Ebola infection; West Nile virus; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Der Ophthalmologe, v. 113, n. 1, p. 35-46, 2016
ISSN: 1433-0423
Resumo: A number of new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing - becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now exp-ing worldwide - causing significant morbidity - even mortality. "Globalization" - human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, - may lead to autochthonous transmission of infectious pathogens. Diagnosis of these diseases requires not only careful assessment of medical - travel history, but also the application of specific laboratory diagnostic tests. A broad spectrum of ocular involvement has been reported, with frequent posterior segment involvement. Emerging infections should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis - optic neuropathy in a patient living in or traveling back from an endemic area. Since these infections are often vector (insect) borne - effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis - initiation of supportive care. Here, we focus on Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Ebola fever, the West Nile virus - Rickettsioses, which frequently demonstrate ocular involvement."

165) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

166) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

167) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections among united states community service volunteers returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014
Autor: Millman Alexander J, Esposito Douglas H, Biggs Holly M, Decenteceo Michelle, Klevos Andrew, Hunsperger Elizabeth, Munoz-Jordan Jorge, Kosoy Olga I, McPherson Heidi, Sullivan Carmen, Voorhees Dayton, Baron David, Watkins Jim, Gaul Linda, Sotir Mark J, Brunette Gary, Fischer Marc, Sharp Tyler, Jentes Emily S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 6, p. 1336-1341, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue virus (DENV) infection - illnesses - evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, - mosquito exposures - avoidance behaviors - provided serum for CHIKV - DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection - two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, - 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, - 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (?95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily - < 5% stayed in housing with window/door screens. In sum, CHIKV infections were common among these volunteers during the 2014 chikungunya epidemic in the DR. Despite high levels of preparation, reported adherence to mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks - should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas.

168) Zika Virus: Emergence and Emergency
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Higgs S.
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 2, p. 75-76, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759 (electronic),1530-3667
Resumo:

169) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

170) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernández, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika virus; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 percent nt and 100 percent aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

171) History, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.
Autor: Paixão Enny S,Barreto Florisneide,da Glória Teixeira Maria,da Conceição N Costa Maria,Rodrigues Laura C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 606-612, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo: To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was strongly suspected." However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge."

172) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango A., Abílio A.P.
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Maputo City; Mozambique; New Record
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites and Vectors, v. 9, n. 76,2016.
ISSN: 17563305
Resumo: Background: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Findings: Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December,2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. Conclusion: This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors. ©2016 Kampango and Abílio.

173) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

174) Zika poses sex risk.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Zika virus, Sexual intercourse, Diseases - Risk factors
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual
Fonte: New Scientist, v. 229, n. 3061, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2624079
Resumo: The article reports on the posed threat of the Zika virus through sexual transmission which survive for two months in semen and the reports by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the lack of evidence that the virus persists in the female genitals.

175) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus.
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro Thais,Vega-Rua Anubis,Vazeille Marie,Yebakima André,Girod Romain,Goindin Daniella,Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle,Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo,Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

176) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: The need for novel mosquito control methods
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yakob L., Walker T.
Assunto: disease control, virus infection (epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Global Health, v. 4, n. 3, p. e148-e149, mar. 2016
ISSN: 2214-109X (electronic)
Resumo:

177) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

178) Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe, Martínez Norma E, Cruz-Nolasco Maximina, Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano, López-Damián Leonardo, Ibarra-López Jesús, Martini-Jaimes Andres, Bibiano-Marín Wilbert, Tornez-Benitez Citlalli, Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo M, Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mexico; Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero. Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez - Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR. We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 - 4), CHIKV - their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV - DENV 3 - 4 suggesting vertical transmission. Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV - DENV - provided a trigger for timely - focalized vector control actions.

179) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

180) Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brown, Carolyn
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Disease prevalence, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Mosquito nets, Public health, Asia
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n.2, p. E34, 2016
ISSN: 8203946
Resumo: The article reports on the prevalence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia and South America which can cause microcephaly in newborns. It highlights several symptoms of Zika virus including fever, muscle soreness and rash as well as microcephaly in newborns. It also cites the effort of the governments to encourage people to take basic mosquito protection such as insect repellent, clothing, screens on windows and mosquito nets.

181) Simplified bryostatin analogues protect cells from Chikungunya virus-induced cell death
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Schrier Adam J, Loy Brian A, Verma Vishal A, DeChristopher Brian A, Near Katherine E, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products v. 79, n. 4, p. 675-679, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus showing a recent resurgence - rapid spread worldwide. While vaccines are under development, there are currently no therapies to treat this disease, except for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, which alleviate the devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. To identify novel inhibitors of the virus, analogues of the natural product bryostatin 1, a clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication, were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity - were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication reported to date. Bryostatin-based therapeutic efforts - even recent anti-CHIKV strategies have centered on modulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Intriguingly, while the C ring of bryostatin primarily drives interactions with PKC, A- - B-ring functionality in these analogues has a significant effect on the observed cell-protective activity. Significantly, bryostatin 1 itself, a potent pan-PKC modulator, is inactive in these assays. These new findings indicate that the observed anti-CHIKV activity is not solely mediated by PKC modulation, suggesting possible as yet unidentified targets for CHIKV therapeutic intervention. The high potency - low toxicity of these bryologs make them promising new leads for the development of a CHIKV treatment.

182) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

183) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic.
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Kisubi Catholic Mission, Microcephaly, Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato, Zika virus, Zika virus and travel, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, p. 1-6, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

184) The convergence of a virus, mosquitoes, and human travel in globalizing the zika epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Healt, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Ug-a. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute - the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, - eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti - other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific isl- of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa - Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the isl-'s population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year - afterwards, microcephaly - other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Isl-s - Easter Isl-. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil - elsewhere in South - Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, - other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US - elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus - Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders - Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors - increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, - Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

185) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

186) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

187) Punishing the Cure Makers Won’t End Cancer.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Melanoma, Patients, Tumors - Classification, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

188) Eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Anopheles subpictus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Culicidae; GC-MS; Mosquito-borne diseases; Plant-borne larvicides
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 807-815, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12 %), alpha-pinene (19.38 %) and beta-caryophyllene (18.42 %). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 mu g/ml and 90 % lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 mu g/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50=25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 mu g/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50=28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 mu g/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 mu g/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

189) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

190) 14 New Reports of Sexual Transmission of Zika in U.S.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Transmisson
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57152, p. A3, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article reports on the statement of the health authorities in the U.S. regarding the transmission of the Zika virus by sex.

191) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

192) Another emerging pathogen - Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo: Zika virus - još jedan novoiskrsli patogen
Autor: Lazi?, Srdjan
Assunto: Zika virus, Flaviviruses, Research, Pathogenic microorganisms, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia, v. 73, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016
ISSN: 428450
Resumo:

193) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

194) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Sexual; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2. p. 93-97, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current p-emic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) - flaviviruses (dengue - Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti - A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype - temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan - Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis - not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual - via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain - persistent immune response. Two c-idate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR - ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, - plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR - virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA - plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion - fenitrothion) - pyrethroids (permethrin - deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive - biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

195) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

196) OFF! Clip-on Repellent Device With Metofluthrin Tested on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Mortality at Different Time Intervals and Distances
Autor: Bibbs, Christopher S.; Xue, Rui-De
Assunto: OFF! Clip-on; Mosquito; Mortality; Repellent; Metofluthrin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 480-483, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The OFF! Clip-on mosquito-repellent device was tested outdoors against Aedes aegypti (L.). A single treatment device was used against batches of caged adult, nonblood fed Ae. aegypti at multiple locations 0.3m from treatment center. Another set of cages was stationed 0.6m from treatment. A final set of cages was placed 0.9m away. Trials ran for durations of 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. Initial knockdown and mortality after 24 h was recorded. The devices had effective knockdown and mortality. This was not sustained at distances greater than 0.3m from the device.

197) Zika virus as a cause of neurologic disorders.
Autor: Broutet Nathalie,Krauer Fabienne,Riesen Maurane,Khalakdina Asheena,Almiron Maria,Aldighieri Sylvain,Espinal Marcos,Low Nicola,Dye Christopher
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus's geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the western Pacific, but also in Africa and southeast Asia. Zika virus infections acquired by travelers visiting those countries have been discovered at sites worldwide. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vectors, though other mosquito species may contribute to transmission. The virus was found to be neurotropic in animals in experiments conducted in . . .

198) Versatile trans-replication systems for Chikungunya virus allow functional analysis and tagging of every replicase protein
Autor: Utt Age, Quirin Tania, Saul Sirle, Hellström Kirsi, Ahola Tero, Merits Andres
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 3, p. e0151616, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, - the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-str- RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression - RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein - template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase - encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates - synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein - nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs - a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional - maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA - wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability - represents an efficient, sensitive - reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process.

199) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

200) Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)
Autor: Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y.; Costa Junior, Livio M.; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze
Assunto: Repellent; Essential oil; Lone star tick; Amblyomma americanum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Experimental and Applied Acarology, v. 68, n. 2, p. 241-249, 2016
ISSN: 0168-8162
Resumo: DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50 % of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC(50)s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.

201) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

202) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi, Kinoshita Ryo, Mizumoto Kenji, Yasuda Yohei, Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number; Epidemic; Statistical estimation; Transmissibility; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific - Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Isl-, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 - the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Isl- epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed - probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue - chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue - chikungunya.

203) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

204) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

205) Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.
Autor: Adibi Jennifer J,Marques Ernesto T A,Cartus Abigail,Beigi Richard H
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1587–1590, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

206) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola, Habida, Gozzer, Ernesto, Jiatong Zhuo, Memish, Ziad A.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Special events, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Muslim pilgrims & pilgrimages, Mosquitoes, Diseases, Social aspects, Saudi Arabia, Mecca
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet , v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses how to be prepared against Zika virus while participating at several international events including 2016 Rio Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj. It states the need to use personal mosquito bite protection including insect repellents, protective clothing, and long-sleeved shirts. It mentions that health-care providers are encouraged to use travel health visits to emphasize personal protection against mosquito bites and sexual transmission.

207) Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus
Autor: Hidajat Rachmat, Nickols Brian, Forrester Naomi, Tretyakova Irina, Weaver Scott, Pushko Peter
Assunto: Alphavirus; CHIKV; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccine; Live attenuated vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virology, v. 490, p. 83-90, 2016
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a p-emic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared - compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 - E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 - E2-82 were 0.064% - 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% - 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety.

208) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

209) The race for a Zika vaccine is on
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen J.
Assunto: virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203 (electronic),0036-8075
Resumo:

210) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

211) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

212) Evaluation of the Activity of the Essential Oil from an Ornamental Flower against Aedes aegypti: Electrophysiology, Molecular Dynamics and Behavioral Assays
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Silva, Rayane C. S.; Iulek, Jorge; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Dengue fever has spread worldwide and affects millions of people every year in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Europe and America. Since there is no effective vaccine against the dengue virus, prevention of disease transmission depends entirely on regulating the vector (Aedes aegypti) or interrupting human-vector contact. The aim of this study was to assess the oviposition deterrent activity of essential oils of three cultivars of torch ginger (Etlingera elatior, Zingiberaceae) against the dengue mosquito. Analysis of the oils by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 43 constituents, of which a-pinene, dodecanal and n-dodecanol were the major components in all cultivars. Solutions containing 100 ppm of the oils exhibited oviposition deterrent activities against gravid Ae. aegypti females. GC analysis with electroantennographic detection indicated that the oil constituents n-decanol, 2-undecanone, undecanal, dodecanal, trans-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, alpha-humulene, n-dodecanol, isodaucene and dodecanoic acid were able to trigger antennal depolarization in Ae. aegypti females. Bioassays confirmed that solutions containing 50 ppm of n-dodecanol or dodecanal exhibited oviposition deterrent activities, while a solution containing the alcohol and aldehyde in admixture at concentrations representative of the oil presented an activity similar to that of the 100 ppm oil solution. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations verified that the interaction energies of the long-chain oil components and Ae. aegypti odorant binding protein 1 were quite favorable, indicating that the protein is a possible oviposition deterrent receptor in the antenna of Ae. aegypti.

213) A crucial time for public health preparedness: Zika virus and the 2016 Olympics, Umrah, and Hajj
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Elachola H., Gozzer E., Zhuo J., Memish Z.A.
Assunto: virus, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10019, p. 630-632, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

214) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

215) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

216) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

217) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

218) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heukelbach, Jorg, Alencar, Carlos Henrique, Kelvin, Alyson Ann, de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber, de Gaes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Epidemics, Flaviviruses, Flaviviral diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Brazil
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 20366590
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

219) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

220) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

221) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

222) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

223) A Comprehensive entomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Natural vertical transmission ; Aedes - Albopictus d¡ptera ; Virus transmission ; Aegypti d¡ptera ; Culicidae ; Mosquitos ; Vector
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.ResultsThe 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of <15 (40%) followed by 15-45 (35%) and >45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

224) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

225) Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus
Autor: Palacios Ricardo,Poland Gregory A,Kalil Jorge
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo:

226) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

227) How to contain the Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Reisch, Marc S.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Zika virus, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Micorcephaly, Virus diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Larvicide ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 9, p. 49-52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article focuses on the Zika virus and the effort to prevent it from spreading in the U.S. Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that is suspected to be linked with microcephaly. It explores the use of chemical strategies to avoid mosquitoes carrying Zika virus, such as treating water with larvicides to control mosquitoes before they mature. The spread of the Zika virus in Brazil is also discussed.

228) Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S. L.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R.; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Arbovirus; Eco-friendly larvicide; Japanese encephalitis; Malaria; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanotechnology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 2, p. 723-733, 2016
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Xray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 mu g/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 mu g/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

229) Dynamics of Chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells
Autor: Hoornweg Tabitha E, van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Ayala Nuñez Nilda V, Albulescu Irina C, van Hemert Martijn J, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4745-562016, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia - the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell, as several studies suggest that it enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while some other studies show that CHIKV enters cells independently of clathrin. Here, we applied live-cell microscopy - monitored the cell entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain a detailed insight in the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 minutes post-addition to the cells. The vast majority of particles that fused first colocalized with clathrin. The time from initial colocalization with clathrin till the moment of membrane fusion was on average 1.7 minutes, highlighting the fast nature of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results also show that the virus spends a profound time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was predominantly observed from within Rab5-positive endosomes - often occurred within 40 seconds post-delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position E1-226 enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV cell entry occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. Since its re-emergence in 2004 chikungunya (CHIKV) has rapidly spread around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available against CHIKV. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell entry process of the virus. However, contradicting results were published with regard to the cell entry pathway used by CHIKV. Here, we applied a novel technology to visualize the entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells. Our results show that CHIKV cell entry is extremely rapid - occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Membrane fusion is seen from within acidic early endosomes. Furthermore, the membrane fusion capacity of CHIKV is strongly promoted by cholesterol in the target membrane. Taken together, this study provides an exquisite insight in the cell entry process of CHIKV.

230) Dallas Reports A Case of Zika Spread by Sex.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G., Tavernise, Sabrina
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexually transmitted diseases, Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission, Texas
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57131, p. A1-A17, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article looks at a report from the county of Dallas, Texas, of a case in which the Zika virus was transmitted by sexual contact, which it notes is in contrast with the virus's usual transmission by mosquitoes. Topics include the advice issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for precautions people should take when visiting world regions where Zika is prevalent and an association between Zika infections in pregnant women and birth defects in their babies.

231) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J,Bandeira Antonio Carlos,Franco-Paredes Carlos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, v. 15, n. 1, p. 13, 2016
ISSN: 1476-0711
Resumo:

232) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue virus type 1
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo, Patriota João Veras, Lourdes de Souza Maria de, Felix Alvina Clara, Mamede Nubia, Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, p. e3201, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies - advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus - molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) - Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), - coinfection of DENV - ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV - 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 - the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, - CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine - differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current - future prevention strategies.

233) Salivary transmission of the Chikungunya arbovirus
Autor: Rolph Michael S, Zaid Ali, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immunodeficiency; Saliva; Virus transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Trends in Microbiology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 86-87, 2016
ISSN: 1878-4380
Resumo: The emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a re-think of how preventative solutions should be approached since recent studies support the notion of salivary transmission. With the threat of significant health - economic burden, new control strategies aimed at limiting salivary transmission are needed to avoid further outbreaks.

234) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

235) Zika virus in the americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Autor: Fauci Anthony S, Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

236) Obama requests $1.8 billion to fight Zika virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Erickson, Britt E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Virus diseases - Vaccination, Virus diseases - Diagnosis, Mosquito control
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Chemical & Engineering News, v. 94, n. 7, p. 52, 2016
ISSN: 92347
Resumo: The article discusses the urge from Obama Administration towards Congress reagrding emergency funding to fight against Zika virus. Topics discussed include use of emergency funds in the development of vaccines, diagnostics, testing and mosquito control to prevent from Zika virus, views of Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid regarding the same, and transmission of virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the U.S.

237) Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: A new emerging neurotropic virus
Autor: Carod-Artal F J
Assunto: Enfermedad por virus Zika; Epidemiología; Flavivirus; Guillain-Barré; Microcefalia; Virus Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista de Neurologia, v. 62, n. 7, p. 317-328, 2016
ISSN: 1576-6578
Resumo: The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 - since then it has been reported in 31 countries - territories in America. The epidemiological - clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa - Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting - last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions - Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta - amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly - in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, - serological tests (IgM ELISA - neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue - chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus - its long-term consequences in adults - newborn infants is still limited.

238) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: Insights for mosquito vector control
Autor: Benelli Giovanni, Mehlhorn Heinz
Assunto: Arbovirus; Artemisinin; Biological control; Boosted SIT; Nanosynthesis; Sex pheromones; Sound traps; Sterile insect technique; Swarming behaviour; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 5, p. 1747-1754, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], - the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention - control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, - RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America - the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades - became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) - chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective - eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles - Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations - even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps - the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. lure - kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming - mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic - symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates."

239) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Autor: Ginier Mylène, Neumayr Andreas, Günther Stephan, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Blum Johannes
Assunto: Flavivirus infection; Travel medicine; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence - rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical - diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril - afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation - cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy - foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women - women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low - seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America - Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission."

240) The race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cohen, Jon
Assunto: Vaccines - Research, Zika virus infections, Public health, Management, Pregnant women, Safety measures
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 368075
Resumo: The article focuses on the research for the development of a Zika vaccine. Topics mentioned include the complications of Zika virus such as microcephaly and neurological complications, the insights of virologist Thomas Monath on the development of Zika vaccine, and the importance of public health management. Also mentioned are the flavivirus vaccines development and the safety measures for pregnant women on the planned use of Zika vaccine.

241) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg, Alencar Carlos Henrique, Kelvin Alyson Ann, De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber, Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Head circumference ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil - the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue -/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes - previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August - October. ZIKV was identified in blood - tissue samples of a newborn - in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly - ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti - implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection - microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical - epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics - expansion of the outbreak.

242) Viremia in north american mammals and birds after experimental infection with Chikungunya viruses
Autor: Bosco-Lauth Angela M, Nemeth Nicole M, Kohler Dennis J, Bowen Richard A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 3, p. 504-506, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range - evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian - 12 mammalian species representing both domestic - wild animals common to North America. Hamsters - inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV - were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals - a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife - that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats - wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics.

243) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher, Ortiz Kristina, Ansari Aftab, Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience - information has spread rapidly - wildly through the internet - other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Ug-a, hence its name, - is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny isl- of Yap located between the Philippines - Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial b- in Africa - Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania - then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage - microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, - within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected - for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue - Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests - vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides - preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

244) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh Udaiyan,Murugan Kadarkarai,Benelli Giovanni,Nicoletti Marcello,Barnard Donald R,Panneerselvam Chellasamy,Kumar Palanisamy Mahesh,Subramaniam Jayapal,Dinesh Devakumar,Chandramohan Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10â??Ã-â??LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC50 and LC90 of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

245) Chikungunya risk for Brazil
Autor: Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva, Oliveira Consuelo Silva, Vasconcelos Pedro Fernando da Costa
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Alphavirus Infections; Epidemiology; Disease Outbreaks; Risk Factors; Epidemiological Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Revista de Sau?de Pu?blica, v. 49, p. 58, 2015
ISSN: 1518-8787
Resumo: This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal - establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 -, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa - Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, - it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, - experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to underst- the dynamics of infection - the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus - serious injuries observed in different organs - joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

246) Sex Determination. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hall Andrew Brantley,Basu Sanjay,Jiang Xiaofang,Qi Yumin,Timoshevskiy Vladimir A,Biedler James K,Sharakhova Maria V,Elahi Rubayet,Anderson Michelle A E,Chen Xiao-Guang,Sharakhov Igor V,Adelman Zach N,Tu Zhijian
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 348, n. 6240, p. 1268-1270, 2015
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

247) Larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized using Morinda citrifolia root extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and its other effect on non-target fish
Autor: Suman, Thodhal Yoganandham; Ravindranath, Radhika Rajasree Santha; Elumalai, Devan; Kaleena, Patheri Kuny;Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Perumal, Pachiappan; Aranganathan, Lakshminarayanan; Chitrarasu, Paneer Selvam
Assunto: Infrared spectroscopy; Fourier transforms; Pesticides; Diffraction; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Roots; Vectors; Habitat; Spectroscopy; Alcoholics; Titanium dioxide; Ionizing radiation; Nanoparticles; Culex quinquefasciatus; Poecilia reticulata; Aedes aegypti; Morinda citrifolia; Anopheles stephensi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. 3, p. 224-230, 2015.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: To assess the larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO sub(2)NP sub(S)) synthesized from the root aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The M. citrifolia broth solution was prepared by taking 8 g of the powdered root of M. citrifolia in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask along with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled for 5 min. About 20 mL of M. citrifolia root extract was added into the 80 mL of an aqueous solution of 5 mmol/L TiO(OH) sub(2) for the reduction under continuous stirring for 4 h at 50 degree C. Synthesized TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Toxicity studies were carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) synthesized by M. citrifolia root extract showed band at 3 426 cm super(-1), 1 637 cm super(-1) and 714 cm super(-1). The 3 426 cm super(-1) showed O-H stretching due to alcoholic group; 1 637 cm super(-1) showed N-H bend due to alcoholic group. In particular, the 1 637 cm super(-1) indicated the presence of H bend bond for 1 degree for proteins. A peak was observed around 714 cm super(-1) due to Ti-O-O bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the spherical nature of the nanoparticles with a size of 20.46-39.20 nm. The biosynthesized TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) showed maximum activity against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the aqueous extract of M. citrifolia. Toxicity studies revealed no toxicity towards Poecilia reticulata at LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) doses of TiO sub(2)NP sub(S). Conclusions: TiO sub(2)NP sub(S) could be used along with Poecilia reticulata in integrated vector control.

248) Pathophysiology and diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome - challenges and needs.
Autor: Dash Sambit; Pai Aparna R.; Kamath Ullas; Rao Pragna
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni, anti-ganglioside antibodies, autoimmunity, electrodiagnosis, molecular mimicry
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biochemistry ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular methods ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: The International Journal of Neuroscience, v. 125, n. 4, p. 235-240, 2015
ISSN: 1563-5279
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune polyneuropathy which presents with acute onset and rapid progression of flaccid, hyporeflexi quadriparesis. Both sensory and autonomic nerve involvement is seen. GBS has various subtypes that vary in their pathophysiology. The pathogenesis involves an immune response triggered by a preceding event which may be an infection, immunisation or surgical procedure. Clinical diagnosis has been largely the primary diagnosing criterion for GBS along with electrodiagnosis, which has several pitfalls and is supported by ancillary testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and Nerve Conduction Studies. Measurement of anti-ganglioside antibodies is also an effective tool in its diagnosis. Further understanding of pathophysiology and better diagnostic methods are required for better management of GBS.

249) Essential oil composition and biological/pharmacological properties of Salmea scandens (L.) DC
Autor: Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Pacheco-Hernandez, Yesenia; Rubio-Rosas, Efrain; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Mosso-Gonzalez, Clemente; Ramon-Canul, Lorena G.; Cruz-Duran, Ramiro
Assunto: Salmea scandens; Proximate analysis; Essential oil; Anti-lipase; Antimicrobial; Larvicide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Food Control, v. 57, p. 177-184, 2015
ISSN: 0956-7135
Resumo: Salmea scandens (L.) DC is an indigenous edible plant whose stem bark is traditionally used as food by people of Oaxaca, Mexico. Proximate analysis of the edible stem bark revealed abundant amounts of fiber (43.67%) and protein (9.27%). GC and GC-MS analyses demonstrated that the essential oil from leaves contained high levels of germacrene D (47.1%) and elemol (15.3%), whereas that of the stem bark contained the alkylamides N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers (39.7%). Levels of these compounds in the essential oil from both organs were in similar concentrations in all seasons except winter. The HPLC purified N-Isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamide isomers produced a noncompetitive inhibition on porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic assays with these compounds revealed a modification on V-max (0.0431-0.0533 mM min(-1)) whereas the K-m value (0.880-0.881 mM) was not significantly changed. Essential oil from the stem bark showed a high anti-microbial activity against some phytopathogenic microorganisms. The MIC's in mu g mL(-1) for Pseudomonas syringae pathovars were tabaci 56.1, tomato 91.2 and phaseolitica 196.4, for Clavibacter michiganensis 35.8 and Erwinia carotovora 48.1. The fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans had MIC's in mu g mL(-1) of 3.3 and 2.4 respectively. Same essential oil was highly effective against larvae from Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 0.3 mu g mL(-l)) and Anopheles albimanis (LC50 = 2.5 mu g mL(-1)). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

250) Wolbachia Reduces the Transmission Potential of Dengue-Infected Aedes aegypti
Autor: Ye Yixin H,Carrasco Alison M,Frentiu Francesca D,Chenoweth Stephen F,Beebe Nigel W,van den Hurk Andrew F,Simmons Cameron P,O'Neill Scott L,McGraw Elizabeth A
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003894, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENV) are the causative agents of dengue, the world's most prevalent arthropod-borne disease with around 40% of the world's population at risk of infection annually. Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is being developed as a biocontrol strategy against dengue because it limits replication of the virus in the mosquito. The Wolbachia strain wMel, which has been introduced into the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, has been shown to invade and spread to near fixation in field releases. Standard measures of Wolbachia's efficacy for blocking virus replication focus on the detection and quantification of virus in mosquito tissues. Examining the saliva provides a more accurate measure of transmission potential and can reveal the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), that is, the time it takes virus to arrive in the saliva following the consumption of DENV viremic blood. EIP is a key determinant of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENVs, as the earlier the virus appears in the saliva the more opportunities the mosquito will have to infect humans on subsequent bites. We used a non-destructive assay to repeatedly quantify DENV in saliva from wMel-infected and Wolbachia-free wild-type control mosquitoes following the consumption of a DENV-infected blood meal. We show that wMel lengthens the EIP, reduces the frequency at which the virus is expectorated and decreases the dengue copy number in mosquito saliva as compared to wild-type mosquitoes. These observations can at least be partially explained by an overall reduction in saliva produced by wMel mosquitoes. More generally, we found that the concentration of DENV in a blood meal is a determinant of the length of EIP, saliva virus titer and mosquito survival. The saliva-based traits reported here offer more disease-relevant measures of Wolbachia's effects on the vector and the virus. The lengthening of EIP highlights another means, in addition to the reduction of infection frequencies and DENV titers in mosquitoes, by which Wolbachia should operate to reduce DENV transmission in the field.

251) Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: Spatio-temporal risk maps
Autor: Carbajo Aníbal E, Vezzani Darío
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector-borne diseases; Alphavirus; South America
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Memo?rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 2, p. 259-262, 2015
ISSN: 1678-8060
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 - recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil - Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding - for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, exp-ing south until January - retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country - around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year - in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context - the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

252) Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes
Autor: Muthukumaran Udaiyan,Govindarajan Marimuthu,Rajeswary Mohan,Hoti S L
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Gmelina asiatica; Leaf extract; Larvicidal activity; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 5, p. 1817-1827, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LCâ,?â,?)â??=â??22.44 μg/mL; LCâ,?â,? 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LCâ,?â,?â??=â??25.77 μg/mL; LCâ,?â,? 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LCâ,?â,?â??=â??27.83 μg/mL; LCâ,?â,? 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

253) Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Aytac, Zeki; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Baser, K. Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Echinophora lamondiana; Biting deterrent; Repellent; Larvicide; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 1, p. 93-100, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The essential oils from the flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana B. Yildiz et Z. Bahcecioglu were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41, 37, and 44 compounds were identified, which accounted for 98.0, 99.1, and 97.0% of flower, leaf, and stem essential oils, respectively. The monoterpenic hydrocarbons were found to be high in all samples of the essential oils. The major components of essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of Echinophora lamondiana were delta-3-carene (61.9, 75.0, and 65.9%, respectively), alpha-phellandrene (20.3, 14.1, and 12.8%, respectively), and terpinolene (2.7, 3.3, and 2.9%, respectively). Flower and leaf essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm(2) N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (+)-delta-3-carene, (R)-(-)-alpha-phellandrene, and water-distilled essential oils were significantly less repellent than DEET. Among essential oils, leaf oil was the least toxic of the oils, with an LC50 value of 138.3 ppm, whereas flower essential oil killed only 32% larvae, and no mortality of stem oil at highest tested dosages against Ae aegypti was observed. Terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene showed higher toxicity than delta-3-carene in both the species. In contrast to Ae. aegypti, all the essential oils showed toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus, and toxicity was higher in leaf oil than the other two oils. These results could be useful in finding new, safe, and more effective natural biopesticides and biting deterrent or repellents against Ae. aegypti.

254) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - I - egg quantification
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin,Zhang Dong-Jing,Damiens David D,Yamada Hanano,Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Egg quantification; Mass rearing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 42, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Quantification of eggs prior to rearing the immature stages of mosquitoes is an essential step in establishing a standardized mass rearing system. To develop a simple and accurate method of egg quantification for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the relationship between egg number and weight, as well as egg number and volume, were studied. Known quantities of eggs (1,000, 3,000, 6,000, 12,000, 15,000, 18,000, 21,000 and 27,000) were counted and subsequently their weight and volume were measured. Best-fit curves and regression equations were used to describe relationships between Aedes egg number and both weight and volume. Eighteen thousand Ae. aegypti eggs weighed 159.8 mg and had a volume of 277.4 ?l, compared to measurements of 131.5 mg and 230.3 ?l for Ae. albopictus. The eggs of Ae. aegypti were thus larger and heavier than those of Ae. albopictus. The use of weight and volume to quantify egg number was validated by counting volumes and weights of eggs expected to correspond to 3,000 and 18,000 eggs of each species; significant correlations were found in all cases except in the case of 3,000 Ae. albopictus eggs measured by volume. Methods for egg quantification were validated and shown to be a consistent and practical means to achieve uniform distribution of Aedes larvae between rearing trays, important for optimal mass rearing of the immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes.

255) Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 372, n. 13, p. 1231-1239, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

256) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G,Sinka Marianne E,Duda Kirsten A,Mylne Adrian,Shearer Freya M,Brady Oliver J,Messina Jane P,Barker Christopher M,Moore Chester G,Carvalho Roberta G,Coelho Giovanini E,Van Bortel Wim,Hendrickx Guy,Schaffner Francis,Wint G R William,Elyazar Iqbal R F,Teng Hwa-Jen,Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

257) Essential oils of green and red Perilla frutescens as potential sources of compounds for mosquito management
Autor: Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ali, Abbas; Ali, Zulfiqar; Blythe, Eugene K.; Khan, Ikhlas A.
Assunto: Perilla frutescens; Aedes aegypti; Perilla aldehyde; Perilla alcohol; Perillic acid; Methyl perillate; Limonene; Caryophyllene oxide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Industrial Crops and Products, v. 65, p. 36-44, 2015
ISSN: 0926-6690
Resumo: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti producing high rates of human morbidity and mortality. In order to find new and effective compounds against A. aegypti with low mammalian and less environmental toxic products, green and red Purilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (perilla) essential oils were investigated for their deterrent and larvicidal activity. Green perilla oil showed more promising deterrent and larvicidal activity than red perilla oil. Therefore, we focused on the principle compound in green perilla oil and, in addition, perilla alcohol and perillic acid were included for the activity relationship on the allylic methyl groups on carbon 7. Chemical composition of green and red perilla essential oils was compared using gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In biting deterrent bioassays, biting deterrence index (BDI) values for compounds methyl perillate (0.73), perillic acid (0.71), perilla alcohol (0.69), perilla aldehyde (0.62), caryophyllene oxide (0.60), and limonene (0.52) indicated good biting deterrent activity but the activity was significantly lower (proportion not biting (PNB) value 0.84) than the positive control N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) at 25 nmol/cm(2). In larval bioassays, methyl perillate was the most toxic compound with LC50 of 16.0 ppm. Methyl perillate was the most active compound against A. aegypti larvae and this compound may offer a new biodegradable mosquito control agent. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

258) Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs
Autor: Fankhauser Becky,Dumont Pascal,Hunter James S,McCall John W,Kaufmann Christian,Mathis Alexander,Young David R,Carroll Scott P,McCall Scott,Chester S Theodore,Soll Mark D
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Culex pipiens; Permethrin; Fipronil; Dog; Repellency; Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 64, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act/Frontect) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated controls. Each dog was exposed to mosquitoes on Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 (and also on Day 35 in the A. aegypti study). After a 1-h exposure period, all mosquitoes were counted and categorized as live or dead and fed or non-fed. Live mosquitoes were kept in an insectary and observed for mortality counts 4, 24 and 48 h post-exposure (PE) for Aedes spp. and 24 and 48 h PE for C. pipiens. Repellency and insecticidal efficacies were defined as the percent reduction in the number of fed and live mosquitoes, respectively, in the treated group as compared to the untreated control group. Repellency against A. albopictus was â?¥93.4% through Day 21 and 86.9% on Day 28. It was â?¥91.0% through Day 35 against A. aegypti and â?¥90.4% through Day 28 against C. pipiens. Insecticidal efficacy against A. albopictus was â?¥97.1% at 24 h PE from Day 7 to Day 28. It was â?¥98.0% for the first 3 weeks and still 75.7% on Day 35 against A. aegypti at 24 h PE. For C. pipiens, insecticidal efficacy ranged from 93.8% (Day 7) to 30.9% (Day 28) at 48 h PE. A single topical administration of the combination of fipronil and permethrin provides repellency against mosquitoes on dogs for at least 4 weeks. The product may therefore significantly reduce the potential for the transmission of vector-borne pathogens through the inhibition of mosquito feeding, as well as the discomfort associated with mosquito bites. Moreover, mosquito mortality was induced by contact with the treated dogs, which could aid in the control of mosquitoes, and hence the control of mosquito-borne diseases, in the local vicinity of treated dogs.

259) The potential for the establishment of new arbovirus transmission cycles in Europe
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Arbovirus; Europe
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 9, p. 543-544, 2015
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses are an increasing health threat to humans, - potentially other vertebrates, in areas where they have not previously existed or from which they had been eradicated. Chikungunya virus emergence exemplifies how multiple factors can act synergistically resulting in rapid, large-scale redistribution - establishment. Despite our increased capacity to collect - analyze large amounts of data, we still lack epidemiological models to facilitate accurate predictions of when - where new diseases may occur. Models focusing on climate changes may have long-term value; however, there is an urgent need for mathematical modeling of viral epidemiology to enable forecasting immediate or near-term threats.

260) Severe Autoimmune Adverse Events Post Herpes Zoster Vaccine: A Case-Control Study of Adverse Events in a National Database
Autor: Lai Yi Chun,Yew Yik Weng
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology : JDD, v. 14, n. 7, p. 681-684, 2015
ISSN: 1545-9616
Resumo: Zoster vaccine is recommended to reduce the incidence of herpes zoster and its complication of postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. However, there have been reports of autoimmune side effects post vaccination. We therefore aim to investigate the possible relationship of severe autoimmune adverse events (arthritis, vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis) post zoster vaccination with a matched case-control study of reported events in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Our study showed no significantly increased risks of severe autoimmune adverse events, except arthritis and alopecia, after vaccination. Compared to the unexposed, patients with zoster vaccination had 2.2 and 2.7 times the odds of developing arthritis and alopecia, respectively (P<0.001 and P=0.015, respectively). However, almost none of these events was life threatening. Zoster vaccine is, therefore, relatively safe and unlikely to exacerbate or induce autoimmune diseases. Given its benefits and safety but low coverage, dermatologists and primary care physicians should encourage zoster vaccine use in elderly patients, including selected patients with autoimmune diseases.

261) Viral exanthems
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L, Saunderson Rebecca B, Kok Jen, Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto: Exanthem; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome; Rash; Viral infection; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems - suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, - the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration - rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe - the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries - secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean - Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming - spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence - spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution - morphology, geographic location - potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting - treatment is supportive.

262) The safety of human papilloma virus-blockers and the risk of triggering autoimmune diseases
Autor: Baker Britain,Eça Guimarães Luísa,Tomljenovic Lucija,Agmon-Levin Nancy,Shoenfeld Yehuda
Assunto: Adjuvant; Aluminum; Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants; Autoimmunity; Guillain Barré syndrome; Human papilloma virus; Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome; Premature ovarian failure; Vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, v. 14, n. 9, p. 1387-1394, 2015
ISSN: 1744-764X
Resumo: With the safety of human papilloma virus vaccine (HPVv) being questioned, this article aims to assess the risks and benefits of the commercially available HPVv. Within the last decade, two vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) have been put on the market to prevent infection with the most oncogenic HPV subtypes. Both vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants that are meant to cause a hyper stimulated immune response to prevent HPV infection. The purpose of this paper is to consider the safety of these two vaccines based on the data from the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and case reports. The current HPVv are both effective and generally safe. However, it should be noted that autoimmune side effects have been reported in several studies. Further research should be done to understand the relationship between HPVv and autoimmunity.

263) Optimization of pyrethroid and repellent on fabrics against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) using a microencapsulation technique
Autor: Yao, T. -T.; Wang, L. -K.; Cheng, J. -L.; Hu, Y. -Z.; Zhao, J. -H.; Zhu, G. -N.
Assunto: Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus); DEET; Deltamethrin; Finishing; Optimized mixing ratio; Synergistic interaction; Washing durability
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 37-43, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: A new approach employing a combination of pyrethroid and repellent is proposed to improve the protective efficacy of conventional pyrethroid-treated fabrics against mosquito vectors. In this context, the insecticidal and repellent efficacies of commonly used pyrethroids and repellents were evaluated by cone tests and arm-in-cage tests against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae). At concentrations of LD50 (estimated for pyrethroid) or ED50 (estimated for repellent), respectively, the knock-down effects of the pyrethroids or repellents were further compared. The results obtained indicated that deltamethrin and DEET were relatively more effective and thus these were selected for further study. Synergistic interaction was observed between deltamethrin and DEET at the ratios of 5:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (but not 1:5). An optimal mixing ratio of 7:5 was then microencapsulated and adhered to fabrics using a fixing agent. Fabrics impregnated by microencapsulated mixtures gained extended washing durability compared with those treated with a conventional dipping method. Results indicated that this approach represents a promising method for the future impregnation of bednet, curtain and combat uniform materials.

264) Myelin ultrastructure of sciatic nerve in rat experimental autoimmune neuritis model and its correlation with associated protein expression.
Autor: Yuan Xiao-Jing; Wei Yu-Jun; Ao Qiang,Gong Kai; Wang Jian-Yong; Sun Qiang-San; Zhang Ling; Zheng Zun-Cheng; Chen Lin
Assunto: Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), immunofluorescence histopathology, myelin ultrastructure, protein marker, sciatic nerve
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission
Fonte: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, v. 8, n. 7, p. 7849-7858, 2015
ISSN: 1936-2625
Resumo: To explore the relationship of peripheral nerve ultrastructure and its associated protein expression in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). EAN was established in Lewis rats using an emulsified mixture of P0 peptide 180-199, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Rats immunized with saline solution were used as a control group. Sciatic nerve ultrastructure and immunofluorescence histopathology were measured at the neuromuscular severity peak on day 18 post-induction. Cell-specific protein markers were used for immunofluorescence histopathology staining to characterize sciatic nerve cells: CD3 (T cell), Iba-1 (microglia), S100 (myelin), and neurofilament 200 (axon). The results showed that swelling of the myelin lamellae, vesicular disorganization, separation of the myelin lamellae, and an attenuation or disappearance of the axon were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the EAN group. CD3 and Iba-1 increased significantly in the structures characterized by separation or swelling of the myelin lamellae, and increased slightly in the structures characterized by vesicular of the myelin lamellae, S100 decreased in the structures characterized by vesicular disorganization or separation of the myelin lamellae. And neurofilament 200 decreased in the structures characterized by separation of the myelin lamellae. Furthermore, we found that Iba1 were positive in the myelin sheath, and overlapped with S100, which significantly indicated that Schwann cells played as macrophage-like cells during the disease progression of ENA. Our findings may be a significant suplement for the knowledge of EAN model, and may offer a novel sight on the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

265) Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae
Autor: Pavela, Roman
Assunto: Synergisms; Antagonisms; Botanical insecticides; Monoterpenes; Larvicides; Essential oils
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 10, p. 3835-3853, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L-1, respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L-1, respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L-1, their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L-1, respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and alpha-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, alpha-pinene and menthone, beta-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, alpha-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2 % mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio > 2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we can choose two pairs that caused mortality higher than 90 % in concentrations lower than 20 mg L-1: limonene and trans-anethole (with the mixing ratio 1:1), and carvone and carvacrol (with the mixing ratio 1:2-3). The information gained can thus be used in the development of new botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) and particularly in the creation of formulations.

266) Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae
Autor: Procópio Thamara Figueiredo,Fernandes Kenner Morais,Pontual Emmanuel Viana,Ximenes Rafael Matos,de Oliveira Aline Rafaella Cardoso,Souza Carolina de Santana,Melo Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque,Navarro Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz,Paiva Patrícia Maria Guedes,Martins Gustavo Ferreira,Napoleão Thiago Henrique
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5, p. e0126612, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution should be used when employing this extract as a larvicidal agent.

267) Evaluating Liquid and Granular Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Broadcast Applications for Controlling Vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses in Artificial Containers and Tree Holes
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T.; Richardson, Alec G.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Larval mosquito control; Backpack sprayer; Ground applications; Stihl SR 450
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 663-671, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation.

268) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal Meghnath,Gautam Ishan,Joshi Hari Datt,O'Hara Robert B,Ahrens Bodo,Kuch Ulrich
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003545, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

269) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica-a most effective method for mosquito control
Autor: Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, Lourduraj John; Praba, V. Lakshmi; Mani, C.; Praveen, M.
Assunto: Pest control; Hosts; Toxicity tests; Mortality causes; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Absorption; Malaria; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Azadirachta indica;
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 4, p. 2956-2963, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit major communicable diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so on. Vector control is important in epidemic disease situations as there is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for non-targeted organisms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), and their effects on mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were assessed. The synthesised AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 442 plus or minus 1.5 nm with an average size of 41-60 nm. The XRD data showed six well-defined diffraction peaks, corresponding to a relative intensity of the crystal structure of metallic silver 36.42, 100.00, 53.70, 14.20, 16.05, and 6.79, respectively. The FT-IR data showed strong prominent peaks in different ranges, reflecting its complex nature. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs synthesized from the neem leaves under investigation (0.07-25 mg/l) for 24 h; this revealed larvicidal activity of AgNPs with LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values of 0.006 and 0.04 mg/l for A. aegypti, respectively. Further, the LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values were also identified as 0.047 and 0.23 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The result obtained from this study presents biosynthesized silver nanoparticle from A. indica as the biolarvicidal agent with the most potential for mosquito control.

270) Sterol Carrier Protein 2, a Critical Host Factor for Dengue Virus Infection, Alters the Cholesterol Distribution in Mosquito Aag2 Cells
Autor: Fu Qiang,Inankur Bahar,Yin John,Striker Rob,Lan Que
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Cholesterol; Dengue; SCP-2; Host factor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 1124-1134, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Host factors that enable dengue virus (DENV) to propagate in the mosquito host cells are unclear. It is known that cellular cholesterol plays an important role in the life cycle of DENV in human host cells but unknown if the lipid requirements differ for mosquito versus mammalian. In mosquito Aedes aegypti, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2) is critical for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we identified SCP-2 as a critical host factor for DENV production in mosquito Aag2 cells. Treatment with a small molecule commonly referred to as SCPI-1, (N-(4-{[4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino}phenyl)acetamide hydrobromide, a known inhibitor of SCP-2, or knockdown of SCP-2 dramatically repressed the virus production in mosquito but not mammalian cells. We showed that the intracellular cholesterol distribution in mosquito cells was altered by SCP-2 inhibitor treatment, suggesting that SCP-2-mediated cholesterol trafficking pathway is important for DENV viral production. A comparison of the effect of SCP-2 on mosquito and human cells suggests that SCPI-1 treatment decreases cholesterol in both cell lines, but this decrease in cholesterol only leads to a decline in viral titer in mosquito host cells, perhaps, owing to a more drastic effect on perinuclear cholesterol storages in mosquito cells that was absent in human cells. SCP-2 had no inhibitory effect on another enveloped RNA virus grown in mosquito cells, suggesting that SCP-2 does not have a generalized anti-cellular or antiviral effect. Our cell culture results imply that SCP-2 may play a limiting role in mosquito-dengue vector competence.

271) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin Daniella, Delannay Christelle, Ramdini Cédric, Gustave Joël, Fouque Florence
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0135489, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue - chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal - will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females - thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle - parity status. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe - breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures (± 1.5°C) of 24°C, 27°C - 30°C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept - fed individually - records of blood-feeding, egg-laying - survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity - to study the mean expectation of life - the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates - according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27°C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates - again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27°C - 30°C. Parity rates can be determined for field collected females - could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti - Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

272) Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan
Autor: Chen Tien-Huang,Jian Shu-Wan,Wang Chih-Yuan,Lin Cheo,Wang Pei-Feng,Su Chien-Ling,Teng Hwa-Jen,Shu Pei-Yun,Wu Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus; Taiwan; Mosquito infection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 114, n. 6, p. 546-552, 2015
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain and mosquito species and strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype and that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk.

273) Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains
Autor: Uragayala, Sreehari; Verma, Vaishali; Natarajan, Elamathi; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Kamaraju, Raghavendra
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Imidacloprid - Resistance; Thiacloprid; Thiamethoxam
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 142, p. 64-70, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. In this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Laboratory-reared mosquito species were used. Insecticide susceptibility tests were done using standard WHO procedures and using diagnostic dosages of insecticide test papers and larvicides. Adulticidal efficacy of candidate insecticides was assessed using topical application method and larval bioassays were conducted using standard WHO procedure.Results: The results of topical application on 3-5 day old female mosquitoes indicated that resistant strain of An. stephensi registered lower LC50 values than the susceptible strain. Among the three insecticides tested, thiacloprid was found more effective than the other two insecticides. Culex quinquefasciatus registered lowest LC50 for imidacloprid than the other two mosquito species tested. In larval bioassays, the LC50 values registered for imidacloprid were in the order of Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR) < Ae. aegypti. In case of thiacloprid, the order of efficacy (LC50) was Cx. quinquefasciatus < An. stephensi (SS) < An. stephensi (RR), whereas in case of thiamethoxam, the larvicidal efficacy was in the order of An. stephensi (RR) < An. stephensi (SS) < Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present study indicated that insecticide resistant strains of mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes should be explored

274) Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli
Autor: Phongsisay Vongsavanh,Hara Hiromitsu,Fujimoto Shuji
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni; Inflammation; Toll-like receptors
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 64, n. 1, p. 195-203, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-?B activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

275) Evaluation of a push-pull approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) using a novel dispensing system for spatial repellents in the laboratory and in a semi-field environment (vol 10, e0129878, 2015)
Autor: Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo:

276) Surveillance of adverse events following vaccination in the French armed forces, 2011-2012
Autor: Mayet A,Duron S,Meynard J-B,Koeck J-L,Deparis X,Migliani R
Assunto: Armed forces; Vaccine; Vaccine adverse event
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Public Health, v. 129, n. 6, p. 763-768, 2015
ISSN: 1476-5616
Resumo: French military personnel are subject to a compulsory vaccination schedule. The aim of this study was to present the results of surveillance of vaccine adverse events (VAEs) reported from 2011 to 2012 in the French armed forces. VAEs were surveyed among all French armed forces from 2011 to 2012 by the epidemiological departments of the military health service. For each case, a notification form providing patient and clinical information was provided. Case definitions were derived from the French drug safety guidelines. Three types of VAE were considered: non-serious, serious and unexpected. Incidence rates were calculated by relating VAEs to the number of vaccine doses delivered. In total, 161 VAE cases were reported. The overall VAE reporting rate was 24.6 VAEs per 100,000 doses, and the serious VAE rate was 1.3 per 100,000 doses (nine cases). The serious VAEs included two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, one case of optic neuritis, one case of a meningeal-like syndrome, one case of rheumatoid purpura, one case of acute asthma and three cases of fainting. The highest rates of VAE were observed with the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) (482.3 per 100,000 doses), inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-poliovirus with acellular pertussis vaccine (dTap-IPV) (106.1 per 100,000 doses) and meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) (39.3 per 100,000 doses). The global rates of VAE observed in 2011 and 2012 confirm the increase that has been observed since 2009 in the French armed forces, which could reflect improved practitioner awareness about VAEs and the use of certain vaccines added to the vaccination schedule recently (dTap-IPV in 2008 and MenACWY-CRM in 2010). VAEs appear to be relatively rare, particularly serious VAEs, which indicates acceptable tolerance of vaccines.

277) Molecular characterisation of Chikungunya virus infections in trinidad and comparison of clinical and laboratory features with dengue and other acute febrile cases
Autor: Sahadeo Nikita, Mohammed Hamish, Allicock Orchid M, Auguste Albert J, Widen Steven G, Badal Kimberly, Pulchan Krishna, Foster Jerome E, Weaver Scott C, Carrington Christine V F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, p. e0004199, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad - Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised - compared dengue virus (DENV) - CHIKV infections in 158 patients presenting with suspected dengue fever (DF) - CHIKF at a major hospital in T&T, - performed phylogenetic analyses on CHIKV genomic sequences recovered from 8 individuals. The characteristics of patients with - without PCR-confirmed CHIKV were compared using Pearson's ?2 - student's t-tests, - adjusted odds ratios (aORs) - 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using logistic regression. We then compared signs - symptoms of people with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV - DENV infections using the Mann-Whitney U, Pearson's ?2 - Fisher's exact tests. Among the 158 persons there were 8 (6%) RT-qPCR-confirmed DENV - 30 (22%) RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV infections. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CHIKV strains belonged to the Asian genotype - were most closely related to a British Virgin Isl-s strain isolated at the beginning of the 2013/14 outbreak in the Americas. Compared to persons who were RT-qPCR-negative for CHIKV, RT-qPCR-positive individuals were significantly more likely to have joint pain (aOR: 4.52 [95% CI: 1.28-16.00]), less likely to be interviewed at a later stage of illness (days post onset of fever--aOR: 0.56 [0.40-0.78]) - had a lower white blood cell count (aOR: 0.83 [0.71-0.96]). Among the 38 patients with RT-qPCR-confirmed CHIKV or DENV, there were no significant differences in symptomatic presentation. However when individuals with serological evidence of recent DENV or CHIKV infection were included in the analyses, there were key differences in clinical presentation between CHIKF - other AUFIs including DF, which can be used to triage patients for appropriate care in the clinical setting.

278) Vector competence of the Aedes aegypti population from Santiago Island, Cape Verde, to different serotypes of dengue virus
Autor: da Moura Aires Januário Fernandes,de Melo Santos Maria Alice Varjal,Oliveira Claudia Maria Fontes,Guedes Duschinka Ribeiro Duarte,de Carvalho-Leandro Danilo,da Cruz Brito Maria Lidia,Rocha Hélio Daniel Ribeiro,Gómez Lara Ferrero,Ayres Constância Flávia Junqueira
Assunto: Dengue; RT-PCR; Vector; NS1 antigen; Cape Verde
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 1, p. 114, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), whose main vectors are the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti is the only DENV vector in Cape Verde, an African country that suffered its first outbreak of dengue in 2009. However, little is known about the variation in the level of vector competence of this mosquito population to the different DENV serotypes. This study aimed to evaluate the vector competence of A. aegypti from the island of Santiago, Cape Verde, to four DENV serotypes and to detect DENV vertical transmission. Mosquitoes were fed on blood containing DENV serotypes and were dissected at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to detect the virus in the midgut, head and salivary glands (SG) using RT-PCR. Additionally, the number of copies of viral RNA present in the SG was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, eggs were collected in the field and adult mosquitoes obtained were analyzed by RT-PCR and the platelia dengue NS1 antigen kit to detect transovarial transmission. High rates of SG infection were observed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 whereas for DENV-1, viral RNA was only detected in the midgut and head. DENV-4 did not spread to the head or SG, maintaining the infection only in the midgut. The number of viral RNA copies in the SG did not vary significantly between DENV-2 and DENV-3 or among the different periods of incubation and the various titers of DENV tested. With respect to DENV surveillance in mosquitoes obtained from the eggs collected in the field, no samples were positive. Although no DENV positive samples were collected from the field in 2014, it is important to highlight that the A. aegypti population from Santiago Islands exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to DENV serotypes. This population showed a high vector competence for DENV-2 and DENV-3 strains and a low susceptibility to DENV-1 and DENV-4. Viral RNA copies in the SG remained constant for at least 21 dpi, which may enhance the vector capacity of A. aegypti and suggests the presence of a mechanism modulating virus replication in the SG.

279) Utilization of an eilat virus-based chimera for serological detection of chikungunya infection
Autor: Erasmus Jesse H, Needham James, Raychaudhuri Syamal, Diamond Michael S, Beasley David W C, Morkowski Stan, Salje Henrik, Fernandez Salas Ildefonso, Kim Dal Young, Frolov Ilya, Nasar Farooq, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 10, p. e0004119, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In December of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, was introduced to the isl- of Saint Martin in the Caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the Americas. As of January 2015, local - imported CHIKV has been reported in 50 American countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. CHIKV causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. Furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, sensitive, - affordable diagnostic assay limits surveillance - control efforts. To address this issue, we utilized an insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), to develop a diagnostic antigen that does not require biosafety containment facilities to produce. We demonstrated that EILV/CHIKV replicates to high titers in insect cells - can be applied directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays without inactivation, resulting in highly sensitive detection of recent - past CHIKV infection, - outperforming traditional antigen preparations.

280) The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus
Autor: Sathantriphop Sunaiyana,Achee Nicole L,Sanguanpong Unchalee,Chareonviriyaphap Theeraphap
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles minimus; Contact irritant; Spatial repellent; Toxic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology : Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 318-326, 2015
ISSN: 1948-7134
Resumo: The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes.

281) Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.
Assunto: Adulticidal activity; Botanical extracts; Eco-friendly; Smoke toxicity; Cipadessa baccifera; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 1, p. 167-173, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6 +/- 1.8, 78.2 +/- 0.5, and 77 +/- 1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

282) Pathogenesis of immune-mediated neuropathies.
Autor: Dalakas Marinos C.
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Immunotherapy, Neuropathy, Ranvier
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, v. 1852, n. 4, p. 658-666, 2015
ISSN: 0006-3002
Resumo: Autoimmune neuropathies occur when immunologic tolerance to myelin or axonal antigens is lost. Even though the triggering factors and the underling immunopathology have not been fully elucidated in all neuropathy subsets, immunological studies on the patients' nerves, transfer experiments with the patients' serum or intraneural injections, and molecular fingerprinting on circulating autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells, indicate that cellular and humoral factors, either independently or in concert with each other, play a fundamental role in their cause. The review is focused on the main subtypes of autoimmune neuropathies, mainly the Guillain-Barré syndrome(s), the Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), the Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN), and the IgM anti-MAG-antibody mediated neuropathy. It addresses the factors associated with breaking tolerance, examines the T cell activation process including co-stimulatory molecules and key cytokines, and discusses the role of antibodies against peripheral nerve glycolipids or glycoproteins. Special attention is given to the newly identified proteins in the nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions as potential antigenic targets that could best explain conduction failure and rapid recovery. New biological agents against T cells, cytokines, B cells, transmigration and transduction molecules involved in their immunopathologic network, are discussed as future therapeutic options in difficult cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

283) Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns
Autor: Santiago, Viviene S.; Grace Alvero, Rita; Villasenor, Irene M.
Assunto: Larvicidal; Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Piper nigrum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine
Fonte: Natural Product Research, v. 29, n. 5, p. 441-443, 2015
ISSN: 1478-6419
Resumo: Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 +/- 0.1304ppm (mean +/- Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 +/- 0.0491ppm and 3.7078ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

284) Tracking Dengue Virus Intra-host Genetic Diversity during Human-to-Mosquito Transmission
Autor: Sim Shuzhen, Aw Pauline P K, Wilm Andreas, Teoh Garrett, Hue Kien Duong Thi, Nguyen Nguyet Minh, Nagarajan Niranjan, Simmons Cameron P, Hibberd Martin L
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. e0004052, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity.

285) Identification, molecular cloning, and analysis of full-length hepatitis C virus transmitted/founder genotypes 1, 3, and 4
Autor: Stoddard Mark B, Li Hui, Wang Shuyi, Saeed Mohsan, Andrus Linda, Ding Wenge, Jiang Xinpei, Learn Gerald H, von Schaewen Markus, Wen Jessica, Goepfert Paul A, Hahn Beatrice H, Ploss Alexander, Rice Charles M, Shaw George M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: mBio, v. 6, n. 2, p. e02518, 2015
ISSN: 2150-7511
Resumo: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by persistent replication of a complex mixture of viruses termed a quasispecies." Transmission is generally associated with a stringent population bottleneck characterized by infection by limited numbers of "transmitted/founder" (T/F) viruses. Characterization of T/F genomes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been integral to studies of transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we describe the identification of complete T/F genomes of HCV by single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA from acutely infected subjects. A total of 2,739 single-genome-derived amplicons comprising 10,966,507 bp from 18 acute-phase - 11 chronically infected subjects were analyzed. Acute-phase sequences diversified essentially r-omly, except for the poly(U/UC) tract, which was subject to polymerase slippage. Fourteen acute-phase subjects were productively infected by more than one genetically distinct virus, permitting assessment of recombination between replicating genomes. No evidence of recombination was found among 1,589 sequences analyzed. Envelope sequences of T/F genomes lacked transmission signatures that could distinguish them from chronic infection viruses. Among chronically infected subjects, higher nucleotide substitution rates were observed in the poly(U/UC) tract than in envelope hypervariable region 1. Fourteen full-length molecular clones with variable poly(U/UC) sequences corresponding to seven genotype 1a, 1b, 3a, - 4a T/F viruses were generated. Like most unadapted HCV clones, T/F genomes did not replicate efficiently in Huh 7.5 cells, indicating that additional cellular factors or viral adaptations are necessary for in vitro replication. Full-length T/F HCV genomes - their progeny provide unique insights into virus transmission, virus evolution, - virus-host interactions associated with immunopathogenesis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2% to 3% of the world's population - exhibits extraordinary genetic diversity. This diversity is mirrored by HIV-1, where characterization of transmitted/founder (T/F) genomes has been instrumental in studies of virus transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we show that despite major differences in genome organization, replication strategy, - natural history, HCV (like HIV-1) diversifies essentially r-omly early in infection, - as a consequence, sequences of actual T/F viruses can be identified. This allowed us to capture by molecular cloning the full-length HCV genomes that are responsible for infecting the first hepatocytes - eliciting the initial immune responses, weeks before these events could be directly analyzed in human subjects. These findings represent an enabling experimental strategy, not only for HCV - HIV-1 research, but also for other RNA viruses of medical importance, including West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, Venezuelan encephalitis, - Ebola viruses."

286) Surveillance of Aedes albopictus Skuse breeding preference in selected dengue outbreak localities, peninsular Malaysia
Autor: Rozilawati H,Tanaselvi K,Nazni W A,Mohd Masri S,Zairi J,Adanan C R,Lee H L
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Biomedicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 49-64, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Entomological surveillance was conducted in order to determine the abundance and to evaluate any changes of biological vectors or ecology, especially in the dengue outbreak areas. The abundance and breeding preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were conducted in selected dengue outbreak localities in three states of peninsular Malaysia namely Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Penang Island using ovitraps and larval survey method. It was determined that Ae. albopictus was predominant in most of the localities and found to breed more outdoor than indoor. A wide range of breeding foci were recorded in this study. It was also determined that ovitrap method was more effective to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes when the larval survey was at low rate of infestation. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in dengue outbreak localities emphasis that the vector control programme should also target this species together with the primary dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

287) Updates on chikungunya epidemiology, clinical disease, and diagnostics
Autor: Sam I-Ching, Kümmerer Beate M, Chan Yoke-Fun, Roques Pierre, Drosten Christian, AbuBakar Sazaly
Assunto: Arthralgia; Chikungunya; Epidemiology; Genotype; Molecular diagnostics; Serologic tests; Signs and symptoms
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 223-230, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes-borne alphavirus, historically found in Africa - Asia, where it caused sporadic outbreaks. In 2004, CHIKV reemerged in East Africa - spread globally to cause epidemics, including, for the first time, autochthonous transmission in Europe, the Middle East, - Oceania. The epidemic strains were of the East/Central/South African genotype. Strains of the Asian genotype of CHIKV continued to cause outbreaks in Asia - spread to Oceania -, in 2013, to the Americas. Acute disease, mainly comprising fever, rash, - arthralgia, was previously regarded as self-limiting; however, there is growing evidence of severe but rare manifestations, such as neurological disease. Furthermore, CHIKV appears to cause a significant burden of long-term morbidity due to persistent arthralgia. Diagnostic assays have advanced greatly in recent years, although there remains a need for simple, accurate, - affordable tests for the developing countries where CHIKV is most prevalent. This review focuses on recent important work on the epidemiology, clinical disease - diagnostics of CHIKV.

288) siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Mysore Keshava,Sun Longhua,Tomchaney Michael,Sullivan Gwyneth,Adams Haley,Piscoya Andres S,Severson David W,Syed Zainulabeuddin,Duman-Scheel Molly
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, p. e0004213, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation.

289) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors
Autor: Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil
Assunto: Arachis hypogaea; Green synthesis; AgNPs; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Light microscopic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 22, p. 17769-17779, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

290) Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes
Autor: Carvalho Danilo O,McKemey Andrew R,Garziera Luiza,Lacroix Renaud,Donnelly Christl A,Alphey Luke,Malavasi Aldo,Capurro Margareth L
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, p. e0003864, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011-0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission.

291) The impact of wolbachia on virus infection in mosquitoes
Autor: Johnson Karyn N
Assunto: Drosophila; Wolbachia; Antiviral effects; Antiviral protection; Arbovirus; Insect virus; Mosquito; Symbiosis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 11, p. 5705-5717, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile - chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity - mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection - transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species - the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally - artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

292) Post-Licensure Surveillance of Trivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children Aged 2-18 Years, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, United States, July 2005-June 2012.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Cano Maria,; Vellozzi Claudia; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Broder Karen
Assunto: live-attenuated influenza, postmarketing surveillance, vaccine, vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, v. 4, n. 3, p. 205-213, 2015
ISSN: 2048-7207
Resumo: The first trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) was licensed in 2003 for use in healthy persons 5-49 years of age. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration expanded its indication to healthy children 2-4 years of age. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after LAIV3 from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2012 in children aged 2-18 years. Medical records were requested for nonmanufacturer reports coded as serious (ie, death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, disability). We characterized electronic data and clinically reviewed all serious reports and reports of special interest. Empirical Bayesian data mining was used to identify new or unexpected adverse events (AEs). During the study period, VAERS received 2619 US LAIV3 reports for children aged 2-18 years; 197 (7.5%) reports were serious, including 5 deaths. The 2 most frequent nonfatal serious reports involved neurological and respiratory systems, with 56 (29.2%) and 43 (22.4%) reports, respectively. The most frequent neurological diagnoses were seizures and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and the most frequent respiratory conditions were pneumonia and asthma or reactive airway disease. Data mining showed increased proportions for reports of medication errors, most commonly vaccine administration errors not associated with an AE. In this VAERS analysis of reports following LAIV3, we found no new or unexpected AEs patterns. Reports of LAIV3 administration to persons, for whom it is not recommended, including children with a history of asthma or reactive airway disease or wheezing, indicate that ongoing monitoring and education in vaccine indications are needed.

293) The usual suspects: Comparison of the relative roles of potential urban Chikungunya virus vectors in australia
Autor: Jansen Cassie C, Williams Craig R, van den Hurk Andrew F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0134975, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The global re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) over the last decade presents a serious public health risk to Australia. An increasing number of imported cases further underline the potential for local transmission to occur if local mosquitoes bite an infected traveller. Laboratory experiments have identified a number of competent Australian mosquito species, including the primary vectors of CHIKV abroad, Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, - local endemic species Aedes vigilax - Aedes notoscriptus. The implication of these additional endemic species as potential vectors has generated much uncertainty amongst public health professionals regarding their actual role in CHIKV transmission in the field. Using data estimated from or documented in the literature, we parameterise a simple vectorial capacity model to evaluate the relative roles of Australian mosquito species in potential CHIKV transmission. The model takes into account a number of key biological - ecological variables which influence the role of a species in field transmission, including population density, human feeding rates, mosquito survival rates - vector competence. We confirm the relative importance of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus in sustaining potential CHIKV transmission in Australia. Even at maximum estimated densities - human feeding rates, Ae. vigilax - Ae. notoscriptus are likely to play a relatively minor role in CHIKV transmission, when compared with either Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. This relatively straightforward analysis has application for any region where mosquito species have been incriminated in vector competence experiments, but where their actual role in CHIKV transmission has not been established.

294) The Potential Use of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Biocontrol Strategies for Japanese Encephalitis
Autor: Jeffries Claire L,Walker Thomas
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003576, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE) in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. Annual JE incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. It is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which JEV is endemic. The virus exists in an enzootic transmission cycle, with mosquitoes transmitting JEV between birds as reservoir hosts and pigs as amplifying hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs as a result of spillover events from the main transmission cycle. The reservoir avian hosts include cattle egrets, pond herons, and other species of water birds belonging to the family Ardeidae. Irrigated rice fields provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes and attract migratory birds, maintaining the transmission of JEV. Although multiple vaccines have been developed for JEV, they are expensive and require multiple doses to maintain efficacy and immunity. As humans are a dead-end" host for the virus, vaccination of the human population is unlikely to result in eradication. Therefore, vector control of the principal mosquito vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, represents a more promising strategy for reducing transmission. Current vector control strategies include intermittent irrigation of rice fields and space spraying of insecticides during outbreaks. However, Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus is subject to heavy exposure to pesticides in rice fields, and as a result, insecticide resistance has developed. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito lines. The successful establishment of Wolbachia in wild Aedes aegypti populations has recently been demonstrated, and open releases in dengue-endemic countries are ongoing. This review outlines the current control methods for JEV in addition to highlighting the potential use of Wolbachia-based biocontrol strategies to impact transmission. JEV and dengue virus are both members of the Flavivirus genus, and the successful establishment of Drosophila Wolbachia strains in Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus, as the principal vector of JEV, is predicted to significantly impact JEV transmission."

295) The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, von Rhein Christine, Kümmerer Beate M, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; EGCG; Green tea
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 113, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions, including Europe - the United States of America - might cause new, large outbreaks there. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has, among other beneficial properties, antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined if EGCG has antiviral activity against CHIKV. EGCG inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro, blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV attachment to target cells. Thus EGCG might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs.

296) Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: comparison of house index with four alternative traps
Autor: Codeço Claudia T,Lima Arthur W S,Araújo Simone C,Lima José Bento P,Maciel-de-Freitas Rafael,Honório Nildimar A,Galardo Allan K R,Braga Ima A,Coelho Giovanini E,Valle Denise
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, p. e0003475, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km(2) areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use.

297) Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi
Autor: Jayaraman, M.; Senthilkumar, A.; Venkatesalu, V.
Assunto: Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Aromatic plants; Larvicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1511-1518, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50=194.22 and LC90=458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=173.04 and LC90=442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=167.28 and LC90=433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 =94.12 and LC90 =249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50=80.58 and LC90=200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50=76.24 and LC90=194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata>methanol extract of P. amboinicus>acetone extract of F. limonia>methanol extract of T. erecta>methanol extract of B. mollis> and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

298) Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia
Autor: Olano Víctor Alberto,Matiz María Inés,Lenhart Audrey,Cabezas Laura,Vargas Sandra Lucía,Jaramillo Juan Felipe,Sarmiento Diana,Alexander Neal,Stenström Thor Axel,Overgaard Hans J
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue; Malaria; Mosquitoes; Primary schools
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 212-222, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases."

299) Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse
Autor: Loke, S. R.; Sing, K. W.; Teoh, G. N.; Lee, H. L.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Medicine, v. 32, n. 1, p. 76-83, 2015
ISSN: 0127-5720
Resumo: Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m(3). Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

300) River boats contribute to the regional spread of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon
Autor: Guagliardo Sarah Anne,Morrison Amy C,Barboza Jose Luis,Requena Edwin,Astete Helvio,Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo,Kitron Uriel
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003648, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The dramatic range expansion of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is associated with various anthropogenic transport activities, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving this geographic expansion. We longitudinally characterized infestation of different vehicle types (cars, boats, etc.) to estimate the frequency and intensity of mosquito introductions into novel locations (propagule pressure). Exhaustive adult and immature Ae. aegypti collections were performed on six different vehicle types at five ports and two bus/ taxi departure points in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru during 2013. Aquatic vehicles included 32 large and 33 medium-sized barges, 53 water taxis, and 41 speed boats. Terrestrial vehicles sampled included 40 buses and 30 taxis traveling on the only highway in the region. Ae. aegypti adult infestation rates and immature indices were analyzed by vehicle type, location within vehicles, and sampling date. Large barges (71.9% infested) and medium barges (39.4% infested) accounted for most of the infestations. Notably, buses had an overall infestation rate of 12.5%. On large barges, the greatest number of Ae. aegypti adults were found in October, whereas most immatures were found in February followed by October. The vast majority of larvae (85.9%) and pupae (76.7%) collected in large barges were produced in puddles formed in cargo holds. Because larges barges provide suitable mosquito habitats (due to dark, damp cargo storage spaces and ample oviposition sites), we conclude that they likely serve as significant contributors to mosquitoes' propagule pressure across long distances throughout the Peruvian Amazon. This information can help anticipate vector population mixing and future range expansions of dengue and other viruses transmitted by Ae. aegypti.

301) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and II and Egg storage and hatching
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin, Zhang Dong-Jing, Damiens David D, Lees Rosemary Susan, Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Bacterial broth; Boiled water; Hatch rate; Egg storage; Mass rearing; Mosquito production; Aedes; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 348, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient - sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media - effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. The effect on hatch rate of storage duration - three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water - a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA - Post hoc Tukey tests, - the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), - water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage - storage duration on hatch rate. Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, - pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80% was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti - 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85% hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time - the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost - operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

302) Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia
Autor: Jaimes-Dueñez Jeiczon,Arboleda Sair,Triana-Chávez Omar,Gómez-Palacio Andrés
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003553, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West African conspecific, and a second that may have been recently introduced and is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever and the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

303) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

304) The Usual Suspects: Comparison of the Relative Roles of Potential Urban Chikungunya Virus Vectors in Australia
Autor: Jansen Cassie C,Williams Craig R,van den Hurk Andrew F
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0134975, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The global re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) over the last decade presents a serious public health risk to Australia. An increasing number of imported cases further underline the potential for local transmission to occur if local mosquitoes bite an infected traveller. Laboratory experiments have identified a number of competent Australian mosquito species, including the primary vectors of CHIKV abroad, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and local endemic species Aedes vigilax and Aedes notoscriptus. The implication of these additional endemic species as potential vectors has generated much uncertainty amongst public health professionals regarding their actual role in CHIKV transmission in the field. Using data estimated from or documented in the literature, we parameterise a simple vectorial capacity model to evaluate the relative roles of Australian mosquito species in potential CHIKV transmission. The model takes into account a number of key biological and ecological variables which influence the role of a species in field transmission, including population density, human feeding rates, mosquito survival rates and vector competence. We confirm the relative importance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in sustaining potential CHIKV transmission in Australia. Even at maximum estimated densities and human feeding rates, Ae. vigilax and Ae. notoscriptus are likely to play a relatively minor role in CHIKV transmission, when compared with either Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. This relatively straightforward analysis has application for any region where mosquito species have been incriminated in vector competence experiments, but where their actual role in CHIKV transmission has not been established.

305) Mosquitocidal and oviposition repellent activities of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

306) Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy Jennifer C, Sinkins Steven P
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

307) Larvicidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) hexane leaf extract isolated fractions against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: S., Arivoli; R., Raveen; T., Samuel
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 18, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Mosquitoes are significant public health pests and act as a vector of several diseases viz., malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever and chikungunya, which are transmitted by the three genera of mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. Mosquito control strategies have depended primarily on the use of synthetic chemical insecticides but resulted in rebounding vectorial capacity, environmental and human health concerns. Plants may be a source of alternative agents to replace the synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the isolated fractions of Murraya koenigii hexane leaf extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions viz., A, B, C, D, E and F were obtained from the residue of hexane extract by column chromatography. Standard WHO protocol with minor modifications was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity was evaluated against the isolated fractions at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm. Larval mortality was observed 24 hours post exposure. Amongst the isolated fractions tested, fraction 'D' showed 100.0, 97.6 and 99.2% mortality against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi at 100 ppm, respectively and LC50 values were 35.06, 27.20 and 42.51 ppm respectively. Further investigations are needed to explore the larvicidal activity of the isolated fraction 'D' of hexane leaf extract of this plant and also the active principle(s) responsible for larvicidal activity.

308) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - II - Egg storage and hatching
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin,Zhang Dong-Jing,Damiens David D,Lees Rosemary Susan,Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Bacterial broth; Boiled water; Hatch rate; Egg storage; Mass rearing; Mosquito production; Aedes; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 348, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient and sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media and effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. The effect on hatch rate of storage duration and three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water and a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey tests, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), and water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage and storage duration on hatch rate. Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, and pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80% was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti and 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85% hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time and the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost and operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

309) Schools as potential risk sites for vector-borne disease transmission: mosquito vectors in rural schools in two municipalities in Colombia
Autor: Olano, Victor Alberto; Matiz, Maria Ines; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucia; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenstrom, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J.
Assunto: Aedes; Dengue; Mosquitoes; Malaria; Primary schools
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 212-222, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus,andLimatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as ''others'' (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

310) Volatile semiochemical-conditioned attraction of the male yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to human hosts
Autor: da Silva Paixão Kelly,de Castro Pereira Iuri,Lopes Alves Bottini Lucilene,Eduardo Eiras Álvaro
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Human attraction; Kairomone; Males
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology : Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 1948-7134
Resumo: We investigated the olfactory responses of male mosquitoes to kairomones of vertebrate hosts in a dual-port olfactometer. The behavioral responses of unmated and mated male and female mosquitoes from one to ten days old to human odors were compared to the odors of different human hosts. To evaluate the relationship between the age of male mosquitoes and their responses, we performed experiments with males at different ages. Unmated Ae. aegypti males, one to two days old, did not fly upwind to human odor, whereas between three and ten days old they exhibited increased flight activity. The results showed that unmated and mated females were attracted by human odor, but those mated were more attracted by human odor than when unmated. Mated males were, in general, attracted by human odor, while the unmated males were not attracted but showed increased flight activity in the presence of human odor, suggesting swarming behavior. Further studies should be carried out in order to determine the role of human odors on male Ae. aegypti behavior.

311) Modification of the suna trap for improved survival and quality of mosquitoes in support of epidemiological studies
Autor: Verhulst, Niels O; Bakker, Julian W; Hiscox, Alexandra
Assunto: Landing statistics; Adaptations; Magnets; Disease control; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Light traps; Vector-borne diseases; Odor; Trapping; Aedes aegypti; Culex pipiens; Anopheles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 223-232, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Monitoring adult mosquito populations provides information that is critical for assessing risk of vector-borne disease transmission. The recently developed Suna trap was found to be a very effective trap when baited with an attractive odor blend. A modification of this trap was tested to improve its function as a tool for monitoring mosquito populations, including Anopheles coluzzii (An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular form M), Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens. The modified Suna trap (Suna-M) was altered by changing the position of the catch bag and the inclusion of a holding chamber in attempts to increase trapping efficacy and enhance the survival of mosquitoes. Each adaptation was tested in a dual-choice setup in a climate-controlled room against the original Suna trap and against 4 standard monitoring methods: the BG-sentinel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap, Mosquito Magnet X trap, and human landing catch. The performance of the Suna-M trap equaled the performance of the original Suna trap and could therefore be used for monitoring purposes.

312) The consequences of co-infections for parasite transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Duncan Alison B,Agnew Philip,Noel Valérie,Michalakis Yannis
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Edhazardia aedis; Vavraia culicis; Co-infection; Horizontal transmission; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: The Journal of Animal Ecology, v. 84, n. 2, p. 498-508, 2015
ISSN: 1365-2656
Resumo: Co-infections may modify parasite transmission opportunities directly as a consequence of interactions in the within-host environment, but also indirectly through changes in host life history. Furthermore, host and parasite traits are sensitive to the abiotic environment with variable consequences for parasite transmission in co-infections. We investigate how co-infection of the mosquito Aedes aegypti with two microsporidian parasites (Vavraia culicis and Edhazardia aedis) at two levels of larval food availability affects parasite transmission directly, and indirectly through effects on host traits. In a laboratory infection experiment, we compared how co-infection, at low and high larval food availability, affected the probability of infection, within-host growth and the transmission potential of each parasite, compared to single infections. Horizontal transmission was deemed possible for both parasites when infected hosts died harbouring horizontally transmitting spores. Vertical transmission was judged possible for E. aedis when infected females emerged as adults. We also compared the total input number of spores used to seed infections with output number, in single and co-infections for each parasite. The effects of co-infection on parasite fitness were complex, especially for V. culicis. In low larval food conditions, co-infection increased the chances of mosquitoes dying as larvae or pupae, thus increasing opportunities for V. culicis' horizontal transmission. However, co-infection reduced larval longevity and hence time available for V. culicis spore production. Overall, there was a negative net effect of co-infection on V. culicis, whereby the number of spores produced was less than the number used to seed infection. Co-infections also negatively affected horizontal transmission of the more virulent parasite, E. aedis, through reduced longevity of pre-adult hosts. However, its potential transmission suffered less relative to V. culicis. Our results show that co-infection can negatively affect parasite transmission opportunities, both directly as well as indirectly via effects on host life history. We also find that transmission is contingent on the combined effect of the abiotic environment.

313) 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats
Autor: Yoshida, Toshiaki
Assunto: Biomonitoring;ÿMetabolism;ÿMosquito repellent;ÿToxicokinetics;ÿUrine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Biomarkers, v. 20, n. 1, p. 71-76, 2015
ISSN: 1354-750X
Resumo: A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure

314) Surveillance for dengue and dengue-associated neurologic syndromes in the United States
Autor: Waterman Stephen H,Margolis Harold S,Sejvar James J
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 996-998, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Autochthonous dengue virus transmission has occurred in the continental United States with increased frequency during the last decade; the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, has expanded its geographic distribution in the southern United States. Dengue, a potentially fatal arboviral disease, is underreported, and US clinicians encountering patients with acute febrile illness consistent with dengue are likely to not be fully familiar with dengue diagnosis and management. Recently, investigators suggested that an outbreak of dengue likely occurred in Houston during 2003 based on retrospective laboratory testing of hospitalized cases with encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Although certain aspects of the Houston testing results and argument for local transmission are doubtful, the report highlights the importance of prospective surveillance for dengue in Aedes-infested areas of the United States, the need for clinical training on dengue and its severe manifestations, and the need for laboratory testing in domestic patients presenting with febrile neurologic illness in these regions to include dengue.

315) High rates of o'nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya
Autor: LaBeaud A Desiree, Banda Tamara, Brichard Julie, Muchiri Eric M, Mungai Peter L, Mutuku Francis M, Borland Erin, Gildengorin Ginny, Pfeil Sarah, Teng Crystal Y, Long Kristin, Heise Mark, Powers Ann M, Kitron Uriel, King Charles H
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, p. e0003436, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) are mosquito-borne alphaviruses endemic in East Africa that cause acute febrile illness - arthritis. The objectives of this study were to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV - ONNV in coastal Kenya - link it to demographics - other risk factors. Demographic - exposure questionnaires were administered to 1,848 participants recruited from two village clusters (Milalani-Nganja - Vuga) in 2009. Sera were tested for alphavirus exposure using st-ardized CHIKV IgG ELISA protocols - confirmed with plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Logistic regression models were used to determine the variables associated with seropositivity. Weighted K test for global clustering of houses with alphavirus positive participants was performed for distance ranges of 50-1,000 meters, - G* statistic - kernel density mapping were used to identify locations of higher seroprevalence. 486 (26%) participants were seropositive by IgG ELISA. Of 443 PRNT confirmed positives, 25 samples (6%) were CHIKV+, 250 samples (56%) were ONNV+, - 168 samples (38%) had high titers for both. Age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR 1.01 per year, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.01); however, younger adults were more likely to be seropositive than older adults. Males were less likely to be seropositive (p<0.05; OR 0.79, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.97). Adults who owned a bicycle (p<0.05; OR 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.85) or motor vehicle (p<0.05; OR 4.64, 95% C.I. 1.19-18.05) were more likely to be seropositive. Spatial analysis demonstrated hotspots of transmission within each village - clustering among local households in Milalani-Nganja, peaking at the 200-500m range. Alphavirus exposure, particularly ONNV exposure, is common in coastal Kenya with ongoing interepidemic transmission of both ONNV - CHIKV. Women - adults were more likely to be seropositive. Household location may be a defining factor for the ecology of alphaviral transmission in this region.

316) Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system
Autor: Pellegrinelli Laura,Primache Valeria,Fiore Lucia,Amato Concetta,Fiore Stefano,Bubba Laura,Pariani Elena,Amendola Antonella,Barbi Maria,Binda Sandro
Assunto: Acute Flaccid Paralysis; Enterovirus; Polio Eradication Initiative; Poliovirus; Surveillance
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, v. 11, n. 1, p. 277-281, 2015
ISSN: 2164-554X
Resumo: An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

317) Two novel bioassays to assess the effects of pyrethroid-treated netting on knockdown-susceptible versus resistant strains of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Denham, Steven; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Meaghan; Beaty, Barry J.; Black, William C.; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Biting inhibition; Insecticide-treated netting; Knockdown resistance; Mortality
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 1, p. 52-62, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We describe 2 new mosquito bioassays for use with insecticide-treated netting or other textiles. The 1st is a cylinder bioassay in which a mosquito is forced to contact treated material regardless of where it lands within the bioassay construct. The 2nd is a repellency/irritancy and biting-inhibition bioassay (RIBB) in which human arms and breath are used as attractants. Mosquitoes have the choice to pass through holes cut in untreated or treated netting to move from a center release chamber into side chambers to reach arms and potentially bite. Trials were conducted with pyrethroid-susceptible (New Orleans), moderately resistant (Hunucma), and highly resistant (Vergel) strains of Aedes aegypti. Tests with netting treated with different pyrethroids demonstrated the utility of the cylinder bioassay to quantify knockdown and mortality following exposure to treated netting, and of the RIBB to quantify spatial repellency/contact irritancy of the treated netting and biting inhibition after females land on and then pass through holes in the treated netting. Both tested brands of pyrethroid-treated mosquitocidal netting (DuraNet registered and NetProtect registered ) were effective against New Orleans but ineffective against Vergel strains. Mortality in the cylinder bioassay was 100% for New Orleans for all tested brands of treated netting, but only 10-14% for Vergel. Rates of passage through treated netting to reach a human arm in the RIBB were 10-15% for New Orleans versus 24-37% for Vergel. The reduction in biting after passage through treated netting, compared with untreated netting in the same trial replicates, was 12-39% for New Orleans versus less than or equal to 9% for Vergel.

318) The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
Autor: Liebman Kelly,Swamidoss Isabel,Vizcaino Lucrecia,Lenhart Audrey,Dowell Floyd,Wirtz Robert
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 1070-1075, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (� 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or � 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

319) (E)-Caryophyllene and alpha-Humulene: Aedes aegypti Oviposition Deterrents Elucidated by Gas Chromatography-Electrophysiological Assay of Commiphora leptophloeos Leaf Oil
Autor: Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Bezerra da Silva, Patricia Cristina; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Marcia Vanusa; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique
Assunto: Chemical composition; Insecticide resistance; Acaricidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Pyrethroid resistance; Diptera culicidae; Medicinal plants; Aromatic plants; Vector control; Oleogum resin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with a-phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and beta-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and a-humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

320) Adverse vaccination reaction does not automatically count as an occupational injury
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, v. 157, n. 15, p. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1438-3276
Resumo:

321) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal Meghnath, Gautam Ishan, Joshi Hari Datt, O'Hara Robert B, Ahrens Bodo, Kuch Ulrich
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003545, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, - the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, - climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathm-u valley - were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station - container type were significant predictors of the occurrence - co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, - relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors abundance. We conclude that chikungunya - dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal - that this may be attributed to the environmental - climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue - chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people - tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

322) Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Hawken Steven,Kwong Jeffrey C,Deeks Shelley L,Crowcroft Natasha S,McGeer Allison J,Ducharme Robin,Campitelli Michael A,Coyle Doug,Wilson Kumanan
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 224-231, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was -0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval -1.22% to 0.28) and -0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, -3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients.

323) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino, Eunice A.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Pirk, Christian; Mbogo, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Attractant; Electrophysiology; Mosquito; Traps
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, n. 253, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Effective surveillance and estimation of the biting fraction of Aedes aegypti is critical for accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks and inter-epidemic periods of dengue and chikungunya fever. Here, we describe the development and use of synthetic human odor baits for improved sampling of adult Ae. aegypti, in two dengue and chikungunya fevers endemic areas in Kenya; Kilifi and Busia counties. We collected volatiles from the feet and trunks of two female and two male volunteers aged between 25 and 45 years. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis to screen for antennally-active components from the volatiles and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the EAD-active components. Using randomized replicated designs, we compared the efficacies of Biogents (BG) sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus either single or blends of the identified compounds against the BG sentinel trap baited with carbon dioxide plus the BG commercial lure in trapping Ae. aegypti. The daily mosquito counts in the different traps were subjected to negative binomial regression following the generalized linear models procedures. A total of ten major EAD-active components identified by GC/MS as mainly aldehydes and carboxylic acids, were consistently isolated from the human feet and trunk volatiles from at least two volunteers. Field assays with synthetic chemicals of the shared EAD-active components identified from the feet and trunk gave varying results. Ae. aegypti were more attracted to carbon dioxide baited BG sentinel traps combined with blends of aldehydes than to similar traps combined with blends of carboxylic acids. When we assessed the efficacy of hexanoic acid detected in odors of the BG commercial lure and volunteers plus carbon dioxide, trap captures of Ae. aegypti doubled over the trap baited with the commercial BG lure. However, dispensing aldehydes and carboxylic acids together in blends, reduced trap captures of Ae. aegypti by similar to 45%-50%.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for roles of carboxylic acids and aldehydes in Ae. aegypti host attraction and also show that of the carboxylic acids, hexanoic acid is a more effective lure for the vector than the BG commercial lure

324) Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus
Autor: Grigoraki Linda,Lagnel Jacques,Kioulos Ilias,Kampouraki Anastasia,Morou Evangelia,Labbé Pierrick,Weill Mylene,Vontas John
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003771, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated. Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE), but not target site resistance (altered AChE), with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain); these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance. The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic resources that were produced will be useful to the community, to study relevant aspects of Ae. albopictus biology.

325) An environmentally safe larvicide against Aedes aegypti based on in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems containing an essential oil
Autor: Ferreira, S. G.; Conceicao, Vs; Gouveia, N. S.; Santos, G. S.; Santos, R. L. C.; Lira, A. A. M.; Cavalcanti, S. C. H.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Nunes, R. S.
Assunto: Liquid crystal; Microemulsion; In situ gelling; Citrus sinensis; Dengue; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, v. 456, p. 190-196, 2015
ISSN: 0021-9797
Resumo: Liquid crystalline precursors, which are in situ gelling nanostructured surfactant systems, can undergo phase transition in aqueous solution and become more structured aggregates, controlling release of larvicides and acting as biotechnology alternatives for dengue control. Such systems can contain bioactive substances as Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) which exhibits biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. The formulations were composed by fixed concentration of CSEO stabilized by Polyoxypropylene (5) Polyoxyethylene (20) Cetyl Ether (PPG-5 CETETH-20): oleic acid (OA) 2:1, increasing water content. The phase diagram was established and systems structure was evaluated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. Median lethal concentration was determined against Ae. aegypti larvae. The phase diagram exhibited four regions: liquid crystal (LC), emulsion, microemulsion (ME) and phase separation. The PLM and SAXS distinguished microemulsions, lamellar and hexagonal LC structures. Flow and oscillatory tests showed that increasing water content increases elasticity from Newtonian to non-newtonian behavior confirming the in situ gelation behavior. The larvicidal activity of formulations indicates that these nanostructured systems improved the oil solubility in aqueous medium and in addition are potential environmental larvicide against Ae. aegypti larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

326) Remarkable repellency of Ligusticum sinense (Umbelliferae), a herbal alternative against laboratory populations of Anopheles minimus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Sanghong Rukpong,Junkum Anuluck,Chaithong Udom,Jitpakdi Atchariya,Riyong Doungrat,Tuetun Benjawan,Champakaew Daruna,Intirach Jitrawadee,Muangmoon Roongtawan,Chansang Arpaporn,Pitasawat Benjawan
Assunto: Ligusticum sinense; Repellents; Mosquitoes; Anopheles minimus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 14, p. 307, 2015
ISSN: 1475-2875
Resumo: For personal protection against mosquito bites, user-friendly natural repellents, particularly from plant origin, are considered as a potential alternative to applications currently based on synthetics such as DEET, the standard chemical repellent. This study was carried out in Thailand to evaluate the repellency of Ligusticum sinense hexane extract (LHE) against laboratory Anopheles minimus and Aedes aegypti, the primary vectors of malaria and dengue fever, respectively. Repellent testing of 25% LHE against the two target mosquitoes; An. minimus and Ae. aegypti, was performed and compared to the standard repellent, DEET, with the assistance of six human volunteers of either sex under laboratory conditions. The physical and biological stability of LHE also was determined after keeping it in conditions that varied in temperature and storage time. Finally, LHE was analysed chemically using the qualitative GC/MS technique in order to demonstrate a profile of chemical constituents. Ethanol preparations of LHE, with and without 5% vanillin, demonstrated a remarkably effective performance when compared to DEET in repelling both An. minimus and Ae. aegypti. While 25% LHE alone provided median complete-protection times against An. minimus and Ae. aegypti of 11.5 (9.0-14.0) hours and 6.5 (5.5-9.5) hours, respectively, the addition of 5% vanillin increased those times to 12.5 (9.0-16.0) hours and 11.0 (7.0-13.5) hours, respectively. Correspondingly, vanillin added to 25% DEET also extended the protection times from 11.5 (10.5-15.0) hours to 14.25 (11.0-18.0) hours and 8.0 (5.0-9.5) hours to 8.75 (7.5-11.0) hours against An. minimus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. No local skin reaction such as rash, swelling or irritation was observed during the study period. Although LHE samples kept at ambient temperature (21-35°C), and 45°C for 1, 2 and 3 months, demonstrated similar physical characteristics, such as similar viscosity and a pleasant odour, to those that were fresh and stored at 4°C, their colour changed from light- to dark-brown. Interestingly, repellency against Ae. aegypti of stored LHE was presented for a period of at least 3 months, with insignificantly varied efficacy. Chemical analysis revealed that the main components of LHE were 3-N-butylphthalide (31.46%), 2, 5-dimethylpyridine (21.94%) and linoleic acid (16.41%), constituting 69.81% of all the extract composition. LHE with proven repellent efficacy, no side effects on the skin, and a rather stable state when kept in varied conditions is considered to be a potential candidate for developing a new natural alternative to DEET, or an additional weapon for integrated vector control when used together with other chemicals/measures.

327) Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti)
Autor: Ruktanonchai, N. W.; Lounibos, L. P.; Smith, D. L.; Allan, S. A.
Assunto: Aedes Aegypti; Stegomyia Aegypti; Behavioural Plasticity; Mosquito Behaviour; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 255-262, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

328) Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Problem Statement and Prospects
Autor: Piradov M A,Suponeva N A
Assunto: Neuroimmunology; Autoimmune diseases of the nervous system; Multiple sclerosis; Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Vestnik Rossii?skoi? Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk / Rossii?skaia Akademiia Meditsinskikh Nauk, v. 70, n. 2, p. 183-187, 2015
ISSN: 0869-6047
Resumo: This review highlights the achievements in the field of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system over the last 15 years. It became possible to deepen the understanding of medical and social significance of these diseases, form the concept of nosologic unit heterogeneity, describe new and atypical forms ofdemyelinating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, autoimmune diseases of the neuromuscular synapse. Also, it is important to mention, that the new antigens were identified, the diagnostic panel of autoantibodies was developed and put into practice. Furthermore, the dinical practice guidelinesfor the diagnosis and management of patients were developed, the new drugs were tested and included in these guidelines. The scientists of the biggest Russian neurological centre, Research Centre of Neurology (Moscow), developed a for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis, studied pathomorphosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome, specified the components of its pathogenesis, improved the programs of pathogenetic therapy, which led to the decrease in mortality from 30 to 3%, helped to decrease the A VL period by 2 times, hasten the recovery of independent walking by 2.5 times. Nowadays different biomarkers of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system are studied and modern technologies in neurorehabilitation are applied.

329) An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal
Autor: Huang, T-H.; Tien, N-Y.; Luo, Y-P.
Assunto: Stegomyia aegypti; DEET; In vitro bioassay; Plant compound; Quantitative evaluation; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 29, n. 3, p. 238-244, 2015
ISSN: 0269-283X
Resumo: To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe invitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St.aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD50 (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 mu g/cm(2), respectively.

330) Autoantibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Uchibori Ayumi,Chiba Atsuro
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu? no shinpo, v. 67, n. 11, p. 1347-1357, 2015
ISSN: 1881-6096
Resumo: Serum antibodies against glycolipids, mainly gangliosides, are detected in about 60% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants. Anti-glycolipid antibodies play a crucial role in the pathogenic mechanisms of GBS. The antibody titer is the highest in the acute phase and decreases gradually. Molecular mimicries occur between the glycolipids and surface molecules on the infectious agents. Clinical subtypes of GBS are related to the antigenic specificities of the antibodies. The distribution of gangliosides in peripheral nervous tissues could explain the different clinical manifestations. The anti-GQ1b antibody is detected in 80-90% of patients with Fisher syndrome characterized by ophthalmoplegia. GQ1b is localized in the paranodes of the human cranial nerves innervating the extraocular muscles. This is consistent with the clinical association between the anti-GQ1b antibody and ophthalmoplegia. The anti-GM1 antibody is associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy, whereas the anti-GD1b antibody is detected in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy. GBS animal models sensitized by gangliosides, such as GM1 or GD1b, develop monophasic peripheral neuropathies. In the animal models, disruption of molecule clusters and deposition of complement products were observed in the nodal and paranodal regions. Clinical and experimental data suggest complement-mediated pathogenic mechanisms triggered by anti-glycolipid antibodies in GBS.

331) Extract of Bowdichia virgilioides and maackiain as larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Bezerra-Silva, Patricia C.; Santos, Jefferson C.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Dutra, Kamilla A.; Santana, Andrea L. B. D.; Maranhao, Claudia A.; Nascimento, Marcia S.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Bieber, Lothar W.
Assunto: Hardwood; Maackiain; Medicarpin; Bowdichia virgilioides; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, n. , p. 160-164, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: The larvicidal activities of extracts of three hardwood species (Hymenaea stigonorcapa, Anadenanthera colubrina and Bowdichia virgilioides) against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were evaluated using WHO guidelines. Extracts of H. stignocarpa and A. colubrina showed weak activity. The highest larvicidal effect was obtained with the cyclohexane extract of the heartwood of B. virgilioides, which caused 100% mortality at concentrations at 50 and 100 mu g/mL. Fraction toluene/EtOAc (8:2) from this extract showed larvicidal activity (LC50 = 34.90 +/- 1.27 mu g/mL). A mixture of two compounds identified as medicarpin and maackiain exhibited a very good larvicidal activity (sub-fraction 2, LC50 = 17.5 +/- 1.87 mu g/mL) and maackiain showed to be a strong larvicidal compound (LC50 = 21.95 +/- 1.34 mu g/mL). This result can be of value in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds from other hardwood plant extracts and presents the first report of B. virgilioides being used to control a mosquito vector. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

332) Spatial Models for Prediction and Early Warning of Aedes aegypti Proliferation from Data on Climate Change and Variability in Cuba
Autor: Ortiz Paulo L,Rivero Alina,Linares Yzenia,Pérez Alina,Vázquez Juan R
Assunto: Climate variability; Spatial analysis; Prediction; Autoregressive models; Aedes aegypti; Vector-borne disease; Surveillance; Cuba
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: MEDICC Review, v. 17, n. 2, p. 20-28, 2015
ISSN: 1527-3172
Resumo: Climate variability, the primary expression of climate change, is one of the most important environmental problems affecting human health, particularly vector-borne diseases. Despite research efforts worldwide, there are few studies addressing the use of information on climate variability for prevention and early warning of vector-borne infectious diseases. Show the utility of climate information for vector surveillance by developing spatial models using an entomological indicator and information on predicted climate variability in Cuba to provide early warning of danger of increased risk of dengue transmission. An ecological study was carried out using retrospective and prospective analyses of time series combined with spatial statistics. Several entomological and climatic indicators were considered using complex Bultó indices -1 and -2. Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient specified for a matrix of neighbors with a radius of 20 km, was used to identify the spatial structure. Spatial structure simulation was based on simultaneous autoregressive and conditional autoregressive models; agreement between predicted and observed values for number of Aedes aegypti foci was determined by the concordance index Di and skill factor Bi. Spatial and temporal distributions of populations of Aedes aegypti were obtained. Models for describing, simulating and predicting spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti populations associated with climate variability patterns were put forward. The ranges of climate variability affecting Aedes aegypti populations were identified. Forecast maps were generated for the municipal level. Using the Bultó indices of climate variability, it is possible to construct spatial models for predicting increased Aedes aegypti populations in Cuba. At 20 x 20 km resolution, the models are able to provide warning of potential changes in vector populations in rainy and dry seasons and by month, thus demonstrating the usefulness of climate information for epidemiological surveillance.

333) Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia
Autor: Jaimes-Dueñez Jeiczon, Arboleda Sair, Triana-Chávez Omar, Gómez-Palacio Andrés
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003553, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya - yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure - the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic l-scapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure - phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced - analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 - 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha - Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium - high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time - a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello - in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time - space in these cities. Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread - related to a West African conspecific, - a second that may have been recently introduced - is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever - the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

334) The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Costanzo K S,Schelble S,Jerz K,Keenan M
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Photoperiod; Vectorial capacity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology : Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 1, p. 164-171, 2015
ISSN: 1948-7134
Resumo: Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths.

335) Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector
Autor: Santhosh, S. B.; Yuvarajan, R.; Natarajan, D.
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Annona muricata; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 8, p. 3087-3096, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 mu g mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 mu g mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 mu g mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 mu g mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 mu g mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was confirmed between the temperatures 20 to 70 A degrees C. The result suggests that green synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata has the potential to be used as a low-cost and eco-friendly approach for the control of selected mosquitoes.

336) Vaccination and Induction of Autoimmune Diseases
Autor: Toussirot Éric,Bereau Matthieu
Assunto: Vaccination; Autoimmune diseases; Adjuvants
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets, v. 14, n. 2, p. 94-98, 2015
ISSN: 2212-4055
Resumo: Vaccines have been suspected of playing a role in inducing autoimmune disease (AID) for a long time. However, apart from certain specific vaccine strains and complications (such as the swine flu vaccine and Guillain- Barré syndrome in 1976, thrombocytopenia and the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine), this role has not been established. In spite of this, many isolated cases or series of cases of arthritis, vasculitis, and central or peripheral nervous system symptoms following vaccination have been reported. These cases tend to be very infrequent and usually only the short-term outcomes are described. This paper will examine the arguments for and against the relationship between vaccines and AID, bearing in mind that no association between the two has been clearly identified up to now. The role of adjuvants in vaccines has been described by other teams and in a more general syndrome (Autoimmune/Autoinflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants). Thus, cases of AID triggered by vaccines are highly rare and raise questions about the interaction between vaccines and/or their adjuvants and the genetic context of autoimmune disease. These observations should therefore not undermine the benefits of vaccination.

337) Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae) with proven repellent properties against Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue fever vector in Thailand
Autor: Champakaew, D.; Junkum, A.; Chaithong, U.; Jitpakdi, A.; Riyong, D.; Sanghong, R.; Intirach, J.; Muangmoon, R.; Chansang, A.; Tuetun, B.; Pitasawat, B.
Assunto: Repellent; Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; Angelica sinensis; DEET; Phthalides; Phthalates
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 6, p. 2187-2198, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Botanical resources with great diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants are a rich and reliable source for finding insect repellents of plant origin, which are widely popular among today's consumers. Although some herbal-based repellents have been proven comparable to or even better than synthetics, commercially available natural repellents generally tend to be expensive, with short-lived effectiveness. This critical flaw leads to ongoing research for new and effective repellents, which provide longer protection against vector and nuisance-biting insects, while remaining safe, user friendly, and reasonably priced. This study aimed to evaluate the repellent activity of plant-derived products against the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, by following the human bait technique of World Health Organization guidelines. Preliminary laboratory screening tests for repellency of 33 plant species clearly demonstrated Angelica sinensis as the most effective repellent from each kind of extracted product, with its essential oil and ethanolic extract having median complete protection times of 7.0 h (6.0-7.5) and 2.5 h (2.0-2.5), respectively. Due to its low yield (0.02 %), pungent smell, and little cause of irritation, A. sinensis essential oil did not qualify as a candidate for further repellent assessment. However, subsequent extractions of A. sinensis with different organic solvents of increasing polarity provided four extractants with varying degrees of repellency against A. aegypti. The hexane extract of A. sinensis provided excellent repellency, with a median complete protection time of 7.5 h (6.5-8.5), which was longer than that of ethanol (2.5, 2.0-2.5 h), acetone (1.75, 0.5-2.5 h), and methanol extracts (0.5, 0-1.0 h). By being the most effective product, A. sinensis hexane extract gave significant protection comparable to that of its essential oil and the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET: 6.25, 5.0-6.5 h). Qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the presence of phthalides and phthalates, including 3-N-butylphthalide, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and di-iso-octyl phthalate, as the principal constituents in A. sinensis products. The success of A. sinensis products, particularly that of hexane extract, has proved their potential as bioactive candidates in the next step for developing and producing alternative natural repellents with commercial aspirations.

338) Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps
Autor: Carbajo Aníbal E,Vezzani Darío
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector-borne diseases; Alphavirus; South america
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 2, p. 259-262, 2015
ISSN: 1678-8060
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

339) Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Assunto: Silver nanoparticles; Chomelia asiatica; Larvicidal activity; Anopheles stephensi; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 3, p. 989-999, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.

340) Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Autor: Beppu Minako,Sawai Setsu,Misawa Sonoko,Sogawa Kazuyuki,Mori Masahiro,Ishige Takayuki,Satoh Mamoru,Nomura Fumio,Kuwabara Satoshi
Assunto: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; Cytokine; HGF; IL-1?; MIP-1?; MIP-1?; TNF-?
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening
Fonte: Journal of Neuroimmunology, v. 279, p. 7-10, 2015
ISSN: 1872-8421
Resumo: To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-?, HGF, MIP-1? and IL-1? levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.

341) Mosquito Repellent Activity of Delonix Elata (Fabaceae) Leaf and Seed Extracts Against the Primary Dengue Vector Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S. L.; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni; Amsath, A.
Assunto: Arbovirus; Delonix elata; Leaf; Seed; Repellent activity; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: International Journal of Pure And Applied Zoology, v. 3, n. 4, p. 312-317, 2015
ISSN: 2320-9577
Resumo: Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in tropical and subtropical areas. As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. In the present study the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata) leaf and seed against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). One hundred three day old starved female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were kept on a net cage (45 cmx30 cmx45 cm). The repellency was determined against Ae. aegypti mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm(2) under the laboratory conditions. Ae. aegypti were tested during the day time from 07.00 to 17.00 h. In this study, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extracts. The highest concentrations of 5.0 mg/cm(2) provided over 180 and 150 min protection, respectively. Overall, the crude methanol extract of D. elata showed an excellent potential to develop newer and safer control tools the dengue vector mosquito Ae. aegypti.

342) The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases
Autor: Abd-Ella Aly,Stankiewicz Maria,Mikulska Karolina,Nowak Wieslaw,Pennetier Cédric,Goulu Mathilde,Fruchart-Gaillard Carole,Licznar Patricia,Apaire-Marchais Véronique,List Olivier,Corbel Vincent,Servent Denis,Lapied Bruno
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5, p. e0126406, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes.

343) Seroprevalence of infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya viruses in Kenya, 2007
Autor: Ochieng Caroline, Ahenda Petronella, Vittor Amy Y, Nyoka Raymond, Gikunju Stella, Wachira Cyrus, Waiboci Lilian, Umuro Mamo, Kim Andrea A, Nderitu Leonard, Juma Bonventure, Montgomery Joel M, Breiman Robert F, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0132645, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, - risk factors for transmission in Kenya - East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step s-wich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV - CHIKV (4.5% - 0.97%, respectively). For DENV - RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P?.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV - RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age - seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV - RVFV where both males - females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya - transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

344) S argassum muticum-synthesized silver nanoparticles: an effective control tool against mosquito vectors and bacterial pathogens
Autor: Madhiyazhagan Pari,Murugan Kadarkarai,Kumar Arjunan Naresh,Nataraj Thiyagarajan,Dinesh Devakumar,Panneerselvam Chellasamy,Subramaniam Jayapal,Mahesh Kumar Palanisamy,Suresh Udaiyan,Roni Mathath,Nicoletti Marcello,Alarfaj Abdullah A,Higuchi Akon,Munusamy Murugan A,Benelli Giovanni
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Bacillus subtilis; Culex quinquefasciatus; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Mosquitocidal activity; Ovideterrence; Salmonella typhi
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Ovicida
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4305-4317, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using the aqueous extract of the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The production of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometry. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and mean size was 43-79 nm. Toxicity of AgNP was assessed against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. In laboratory, AgNP were highly toxic against larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species. Maximum efficacy was observed against A. stephensi larvae, with LC50 ranging from 16.156 ppm (larva I) to 28.881 ppm (pupa). In the field, a single treatment with AgNP (10 × LC50) in water storage reservoirs was effective against the three mosquito vectors, allowing complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 30 ppm of AgNP. Ovideterrence assays highlighted that 10 ppm of AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus (OAI = -0.61, -0.63, and -0.58, respectively). Antibacterial properties of AgNP were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. AgNP tested at 50 ppm evoked growth inhibition zones larger than 5 mm in all tested bacteria. Overall, the chance to use S. muticum-synthesized AgNP for control of mosquito vectors seems promising since they are effective at low doses and may constitute an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. This is the first report about ovicidal activity of metal nanoparticles against mosquito vectors.

345) Effect of chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi larvae
Autor: Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Chloroxylon swietenia bark extract
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 11, p. 4219-4223, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 mu g/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts.

346) Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Chen Wan-Chin,Huang Wan-Ting,Huang Shih-Tse,Lo Yi-Chun,Wei Sung-Hsi,Kuo Hung-Wei,Chan Pei-Chun,Hung Min-Nan,Liu Yu-Lun,Mu Jung-Jung,Yang Jyh-Yuan,Liu Ding-Ping,Chou Jih-Haw,Chuang Jen-Hsiang,Chang Feng-Yee
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RT-PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan.

347) Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015
ISSN: 1420-3049
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

348) The larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana against L4 larvae of Aedes aegypti is mediated by internal necrosis and inhibition of nitric oxide production
Autor: Nunes Fabiola C,Leite Jacqueline A,Oliveira Louise H G,Sousa Patrícia A P S,Menezes Márcio C,Moraes João P S,Mascarenhas Sandra R,Braga Valdir A
Assunto: Sisal; Mosquito; Nitric oxide; Insecticide; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 543-549, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Dengue is a viral disease that affects about 50 million people per year around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana crude extract in order to develop a new insecticide against Aedes aegypti. In larvicidal activity assays, fourth-stage Ae. aegypti larvae were exposed to different concentrations of A. sisalana crude extract for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h for determining the LC50. Next, we explored its cytotoxic activity by flow cytometry. Furthermore, histological alterations were confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the nitric oxide (NO) production by hemocytes was checked after different periods of exposure to A. sisalana crude extract. The LC50 was 4.5 ± 0.07 mg/mL. In addition, flow cytometry revealed an increase of cellular necrosis (21 and 16.5 % after 12 and 24 h, respectively) in larvae that were exposed to A. sisalana crude extract. The histological analysis revealed cell lysis and destruction of the peritrophic membrane. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the concentration of NO in the hemolymph from larvae exposed to A. sisalana crude extract after 3, 6, and 24 h (5.3 ± 4.3 vs. 22.7 ± 5.2 ?M, 4.3 ± 5.5 vs. 25.4 ± 6.6 ?M, and 6 ± 1.7 vs. 37.1 ± 7.8 ?M, respectively). Our findings show that A. sisalana crude extract constitutes an effective larvicidal agent against Ae. aegypti larvae due to its necrotizing activity in hemocytes and inhibition of the NO production.

349) Effect of confertifolin from Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L.
Autor: Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Assunto: Polygonum hydropiper; Confertifolin; Larvicidal; Ovicidal; Repellent; Oviposition deterrent; Adulticidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 22, n. 11, p. 8280-8287, 2015
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: The essential oil from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) was tested against Aedes aegypti L. The LC50 values were 190.72 and 234.37 ppm against second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. Confertifolin (6,6,9a-trimethy 1-4,5,5a,6,7,8,9,9a-octahydronaphtho [1,2-c] furan-3 (1H)-one) was isolated from the essential oil of P. hydropiper leaves using silica gel column chromatography. The LC50 values were 2.90 and 2.96 ppm for second and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti, respectively. At 10 ppm, the concentration of confertifolin showed ovicidal activity of 100, 100, and 77.6 % on 0-6, 6-12, and 12-18 h old eggs; the repellent activity was 323.2 min; and oviposition deterrent activity was 97.52 % and adulticidal activity was 100 % against A. aegypti. The results were statistically significant at P<0.05 level. The results suggested that confertifolin as an effective major constituent against A. aegypti and might be considered as a potent source for the production of superior natural mosquitocides.

350) Relationship between insecticide resistance and kdr mutations in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Southern China
Autor: Li Chun-Xiao,Kaufman Phillip E,Xue Rui-De,Zhao Ming-Hui,Wang Gang,Yan Ting,Guo Xiao-Xia,Zhang Ying-Mei,Dong Yan-De,Xing Dan,Zhang Heng-Duan,Zhao Tong-Yan
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Kdr mutation; China
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 325, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for dengue virus and thus has been targeted with pyrethroid insecticides in many areas of the world. As such, resistance has been detected to several of these insecticides, including in China, but the mechanisms of the resistance are not well understood in this country. Using the World Health Organization larval mosquito bioassay, five field populations of Aedes aegypti from Southern China were characterized for their resistance to cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. RNA extraction with PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the sodium channel gene was followed by comparisons of susceptible and wild mosquito strains Additionally, genomic DNA was used for Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) genotyping of the sodium channel genes to detect S989P, V1016G and F1534C mutations and allow for correlation analysis of resistance expression for the different mutations. All wild strains expressed resistance to cypermethrin and cyhalothrin and the resistance expression between the two insecticides was highly correlated suggesting cross-resistance between these two pyrethroids. The AS-PCR technique effectively distinguished individual genotypes for all three mutations. Among the five wild strains tested, two strains carried all three mutations. Although the S989P and V1016G mutations were positively correlated to resistance expression of both pyrethroids, the F1534C mutation was negatively correlated. Our methodology proved highly reliable and will aid future detection of kdr mutations. The three sodium channel mutations were common in the Ae. aegypti strains sampled from Southern China. The V1016G mutation appears to be the most important kdr mutation in Ae. aegypti strains in Southern China.

351) Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Ovicidal activity; Pupicidal activity; Repellent activity; Oxystelma esculentum; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, v. 3, n. 4, p. 326-332, 2015
ISSN: 2309-5288
Resumo: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm(2) under laboratory conditions. The LC50 value of methanol extract of Oxystelma esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Aedes aegypti at 280 mg/L. The present results suggest that the Oxystelma esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquito.

352) Studies on insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Linn) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) vectors of dengue and chikungunya in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Autor: Sivan Arun, Shriram A N, Sunish I P, Vidhya P T
Assunto: Aedes (Stegomyia); Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Diagnostic dose; India; Insecticide susceptibility
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4693-4702, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Dengue and chikungunya are important arboviral infections in the Andaman Islands. Competent vectors viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent. The most effective proven method for interrupting the transmission of these arboviruses is vector control, mediated through insecticides. Currently, DDT and temephos are the insecticides used for vector control in these islands. Lack of information on susceptibility necessitated assessing the susceptibility profile of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. F1 generation of adult and larvae were assayed, and LT50 and LT90 values were interpreted following the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Adults were found resistant to DDT-4 % while susceptible to dieldrin-0.4 %. Against organophosphates, both showed resistance to fenitrothion but susceptible to malathion-5 %. Both species showed resistance to carbamate and bendiocarb-0.1 % while susceptible to propoxur-0.1 %. Of the four synthetic pyrethroids, both were susceptible to deltamethrin-0.05 %, while resistant to permethrin-0.75 %, lambdacyhalothrin-0.05 % and cyfluthrin-0.15 %. Larvae of both species showed resistance to temephos at 0.02 mg/L but susceptible to malathion at 1 mg/L and fenthion at 0.05 mg/L. Currently, there is no prescribed WHO dose for adult-insecticide susceptibility testing. The emergence of resistance to DDT and temephos in the vector population poses a challenge to the on-going vector control measures. The results highlight the need for monitoring resistance to insecticides in the vector population. Impetus for source reduction and alternative choices of control measures are discussed for tackling future threat of arboviral infections in these islands.

353) Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale
Autor: Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Goncalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sergio L. B.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti diptera; Dengue; Chikungunya; Albopictus; Dispersal; Culicidae; Area; Containers; Wolbachia; Outbreaks
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: BackgroundMosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 'dissemination stations' (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a > 10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000-3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination.Conclusions/SignificanceBy expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics.

354) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola, Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

355) Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan
Assunto: Larvicidal activity; Silver nanoparticles; Mukia maderaspatana; FESEM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1407-1415, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

356) T Cell Epitope Redundancy: Cross-conservation of the TCR face between Pathogens and Self and its Implications for Vaccines and Auto-immunity
Autor: Moise Leonard,Beseme Sarah,Tassone Ryan,Liu Rui,Kibria Farzana,Terry Frances,Martin William,De Groot Anne S
Assunto: Autoimmune disease; Bacteria; Cancer Vaccine; Cross-conservation; Guillain Barre Syndrome; H7N9; HCV; HIV; Immunoinformatics; Influenza Vaccine; Molecular mimicry; Multiple Sclerosis; Narcolepsy; Off Target Effects; Parasite; Regulatory T cell; T cell epitope; T cell receptor; TCR; TCR Degeneracy; Vaccine; Virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Genome ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Expert Review of Vaccines, v. 15, n. 5, p. 607-617, 2015
ISSN: 1744-8395
Resumo: T cells are extensively trained on 'self' in the thymus and then move to the periphery, where they seek out and destroy infections and regulate immune response to self-antigens. T cell receptors (TCR) on T cells' surface recognize T cell epitopes, short linear strings of amino acids presented by antigen-presenting cells. Some of these epitopes activate T effectors, while others activate regulatory T cells. It was recently discovered that T cell epitopes that are highly conserved on their TCR face with human genome sequences are often associated with T cells that regulate immune response. These TCR-cross-conserved or 'redundant epitopes' are more common in proteins found in pathogens that have co-evolved with humans than in other non-commensal pathogens. Epitope redundancy might be the link between pathogens and autoimmune disease. This article reviews recently published data and addresses epitope redundancy, the elephant in the room" for vaccine developers and T cell immunologists."

357) Multi-character approach reveals a discordant pattern of phenotypic variation during ontogeny in Culex pipiens biotypes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Krtinic, B.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.
Assunto: Diagnostic traits; Larval traits; Sexual dimorphism; Wing trait variation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 1, p. 129-138, 2015
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Culex (Culex) pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) comprises two distinct biotypes, pipiens (`rural') and molestus (`urban'), both of which are thought to have differing capacities due to different host preferences. To better understand West Nile encephalitis epidemiology and improve risk assessment, local distinction between these forms is essential. This study assesses phenotypic variation at larval and adult stages of `urban' and `rural' biotypes of the species by complementary use of meristic, univariate and multivariate traits analyzed by traditional and geometric morphometrics. Third-and fourth-instar larvae from a broad area of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia) were collected and reared in the laboratory. After adult eclosion, the sex of each larva was recorded based on the sex of the corresponding adult. Examination of the association between variations of larval traits revealed contrasting variations regarding pecten spines vs. siphonal size and siphonal shape in the 'rural' biotype. Siphons of larvae collected in marshes and forest ecosystems outside urban areas were found to be the largest, but possessed the smallest number of pecten spines. In addition, statistically significant female-biased sexual dimorphism was observed in siphonal size, wing size and wing shape. Finally, we propose that an integrative approach is essential in delimitation of Cx. pipiens s.l. biotypes, since their differentiation was not possible based solely on larval and adult traits. Our findings shed light on the phenotypic plasticity important for population persistence in the changing environment of these medically important taxa.

358) Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral
Autor: Vilibic-Cavlek Tatjana, Pem-Novosel Iva, Kaic Bernard, Babi?-Erceg Andrea, Kucinar Jasmina, Klobucar Ana, Medic Alan, Pahor Djana, Barac-Juretic Katija, Gjenero-Margan Ira
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Croatia; Entomology; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica, v. 62, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1217-8950
Resumo: During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from r-omly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) - only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

359) Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding
Autor: Choo, Young-Moo; Buss, Garrison K.; Tan, Kaiming; Leal, Walter S.
Assunto: Proboscis; Oviposition attractant; 4-ethylphenol; CquiOR99; Olfaction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Frontiers in Physiology, v. 6, n. , p. -, 2015
ISSN: 1664-042X
Resumo: Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional "antenna" has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum toward a blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR) from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol), CquiOR99, and a receptorf for the insect repellent DEFT, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated) laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEFT-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated with 4EP, i.e., they engaged more rapidly in continuous blood feeding as compared to untreated blood. The time of engagement for feeding in skatole-containing blood vs untreated blood did not differ significantly. Taken together, these data suggest that 4EP reception by the labrum is important not only for oviposition decisions, but also for reducing probing and initiation of blood feeding.

360) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola,Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

361) Fighting back against chikungunya
Autor: Rudd Penny A, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 54, p. 88-89, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

362) (E)-Caryophyllene and [alpha]-Humulene: Aedes aegypti oviposition deterrents elucidated by gas chromatography-electrophysiological assay of Commiphora leptophloeos leaf oil
Autor: Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos da; Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Silva, Patrícia Cristina Bezerra da; Silva, Alexandre Gomes da; Silva, Marcia Vanusa da; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Silva, Nicácio Henrique da
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 12, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of dengue, a disease that infects millions of people each year. Although essential oils are well recognized as sources of compounds with repellent and larvicidal activities against the dengue mosquito, much less is known about their oviposition deterrent effects. Commiphora leptophloeos, a tree native to South America, has important pharmacological properties, but the chemical profile and applicability of its essential oil in controlling the spread of the dengue mosquito have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of C. leptophloeos leaf oil and to evaluate its larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti. Fifty-five components of the essential oil were detected by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry, with [alpha] -phellandrene (26.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (18.0%) and [Beta]-phellandrene (12.9%) identified as the major constituents. Bioassays showed that the oil exhibited strong oviposition deterrent effects against A. aegypti at concentrations between 25 and 100 ppm, and possessed good larvicidal activity (LC50 = 99.4 ppm). Analysis of the oil by GC coupled with electroantennographic detection established that seven constituents could trigger antennal depolarization in A. aegypti gravid females. Two of these components, namely (E)-caryophyllene and [alpha] -humulene, were present in substantial proportions in the oil, and oviposition deterrence assays confirmed that both were significantly active at concentrations equivalent to those present in the oil. It is concluded that these sesquiterpenes are responsible, at least in part, for the deterrent effect of the oil. The oviposition deterrent activity of the leaf oil of C. leptophloeos is one of the most potent reported so far, suggesting that it could represent an interesting alternative to synthetic insecticides. The results of this study highlight the importance of integrating chemical and electrophysiological methods for screening natural compounds for their potential in combating vectors of insect-borne diseases.

363) A household serosurvey to estimate the magnitude of a dengue outbreak in Mombasa, Kenya, 2013
Autor: Ellis, Esther M.; Neatherlin, John C.; Delorey, Mark; Ochieng, Melvin; Mohamed, Abdinoor Haji; Mogeni, Daniel Ondari; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Patta, Shem; Gikunju, Stella; Waiboic, Lilian; Fields, Barry; Ofula, Victor; Konongoi, Samson Limbaso; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Marano, Nina; Sang, Rosemary; Margolis, Harold S.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Tomashek, Kay M.
Assunto: Linked ? Immunosorbent - Assay; Arboviral infections; Virus - infection; Aedes aegypti; Clinical - Manifestations; Hemorrhagic - Fever; West - Africa; Malaria; Diagnosis; Oviposition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue appears to be endemic in Africa with a number of reported outbreaks. In February 2013, several individuals with dengue-like illnesses and negative malaria blood smears were identified in Mombasa, Kenya. Dengue was laboratory confirmed and an investigation was conducted to estimate the magnitude of local transmission including a serologic survey to determine incident dengue virus (DENV) infections. Consenting household members provided serum and were questioned regarding exposures and medical history. RTPCR was used to identify current DENV infections and IgM anti-DENV ELISA to identify recent infections. Of 1,500 participants from 701 households, 210 (13%) had evidence of current or recent DENV infection. Among those infected, 93 (44%) reported fever in the past month. Most (68, 73%) febrile infected participants were seen by a clinician and all but one of 32 participants who reportedly received a diagnosis were clinically diagnosed as having malaria. Having open windows at night (OR = 2.3; CI: 1.1-4.8), not using daily mosquito repellent (OR = 1.6; CI: 1.0-2.8), and recent travel outside of Kenya (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.1-5.4) were associated with increased risk of DENV infection. This survey provided a robust measure of incident DENV infections in a setting where cases were often unrecognized and misdiagnosed.

364) Susceptibility of indigenous and transplanted mosquito spp. to dengue virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Isawa, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Sawabe, Kyoko
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Interspecific relationships; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Aircraft; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

365) Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N.; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Biotoxicity; Nanobiotechnology; Nontarget effect; severe dengue; EDX; FTIR; SEM; XRD
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4349-4361, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 mu g/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

366) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

367) Dissecting the role of E2 protein domains in alphavirus pathogenicity
Autor: Weger-Lucarelli James, Aliota Matthew T, Wlodarchak Nathan, Kamlangdee Attapon, Swanson Ryan, Osorio Jorge E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2418-2433, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses represent a diverse set of arboviruses, many of which are important pathogens. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritis-inducing alphavirus, is the cause of a massive ongoing outbreak in the Caribbean - South America. In contrast to CHIKV, other related alphaviruses, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) - Semliki Forest virus (SFV), can cause encephalitic disease. E2, the receptor binding protein, has been implicated as a determinant in cell tropism, host range, pathogenicity, - immunogenicity. Previous reports also have demonstrated that E2 contains residues important for host range expansions - monoclonal antibody binding; however, little is known about what role each protein domain (e.g., A, B, - C) of E2 plays on these factors. Therefore, we constructed chimeric cDNA clones between CHIKV - VEEV or SFV to probe the effect of each domain on pathogenicity in vitro - in vivo. CHIKV chimeras containing each of the domains of the E2 (?DomA, ?DomB, - ?DomC) from SFV, but not VEEV, were successfully rescued. Interestingly, while all chimeric viruses were attenuated compared to CHIKV in mice, ?DomB virus showed similar rates of infection - dissemination in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, suggesting differing roles for the E2 protein in different hosts. In contrast to CHIKV; ?DomB, - to a lesser extent ?DomA, caused neuron degeneration - demyelination in mice infected intracranially, suggesting a shift toward a phenotype similar to SFV. Thus, chimeric CHIKV/SFV provide insights on the role the alphavirus E2 protein plays on pathogenesis. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks of acute - chronic arthritis throughout Africa - Southeast Asia - has now become a massive public health threat in the Americas, causing an estimated 1.2 million human cases in just over a year. No approved vaccines or antivirals exist for human use against CHIKV or any other alphavirus. Despite the threat, little is known about the role the receptor binding protein (E2) plays on disease outcome in an infected host. To study this, our laboratory generated chimeric CHIKV containing corresponding regions of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) E2 (domains A, B, - C) substituted into the CHIKV genome. Our results demonstrate that each domain of E2 likely plays a critical, but dissimilar role in the viral life cycle. Our experiments show that manipulation of E2 domains can be useful for studies on viral pathogenesis - potentially the production of vaccines -/or antivirals.

368) Suramin inhibits Chikungunya virus entry and transmission
Autor: Ho Yi-Jung, Wang Yu-Ming, Lu Jeng-wei, Wu Tzong-Yuan, Lin Liang-In, Kuo Szu-Cheng, Lin Chang-Chi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0133511, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a profound global threat due to its high rate of contagion - the lack of vaccine or effective treatment. Suramin is a symmetric polyanionic naphthylurea that is widely used in the clinical treatment of parasite infections. Numerous studies have reported the broad antiviral activities of suramin; however, inhibition effects against CHIKV have not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the antiviral effect of suramin on CHIKV infection - to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition using plaque reduction assay, RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, - plaque assay. Microneutralization assay was used to determine the EC50 of suramin in the CHIKV-S27 strain as well as in three other clinical strains (0611aTw, 0810bTw - 0706aTw). Time-of-addition was used to reveal the anti-CHIKV mechanism of suramin. We also evaluated anti-CHIKV activity with regard to viral entry, virus release, - cell-to-cell transmission. Cytopathic effect, viral RNA, viral protein, - the virus yield of CHIKV infection were shown to diminish in the presence of suramin in a dose-dependent manner. Suramin was also shown the inhibitory activities of the three clinical isolates. Suramin inhibited the early progression of CHIKV infection, due perhaps to interference with virus fusion - binding, which subsequently prevented viral entry. Results of a molecular docking simulation indicate that suramin may embed within the cavity of the E1/E2 heterodimer to interfere with their function. Suramin was also shown to reduce viral release - cell-to-cell transmission of CHIKV. In conclusion, Suramin shows considerable potential as a novel anti-CHIKV agent targeting viral entry, extracellular transmission, - cell-to-cell transmission.

369) Sequence-specific modifications enhance the broad-spectrum antiviral response activated by RIG-I agonists
Autor: Chiang Cindy, Beljanski Vladimir, Yin Kevin, Olagnier David, Ben Yebdri Fethia, Steel Courtney, Goulet Marie-Line, DeFilippis Victor R, Streblow Daniel N, Haddad Elias K, Trautmann Lydie, Ross Ted, Lin Rongtuan, Hiscott John
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8011-8025, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The cytosolic RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) receptor plays a pivotal role in the initiation of the immune response against RNA virus infection by recognizing short 5'-triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing viral RNA - activating the host antiviral innate response. In the present study, we generated novel 5'ppp RIG-I agonists of varieous lengths, structures, - sequences - evaluated the generation of the antiviral - inflammatory responses in human epithelial A549 cells, human innate immune primary cells, - murine models of influenza - chikungunya viral pathogenesis. A 99-nucleotide, uridine-rich hairpin 5'pppRNA termed M8 stimulated an extensive - robust interferon response compared to other modified 5'pppRNA structures, RIG-I aptamers, or poly(I·C). Interestingly, manipulation of the primary RNA sequence alone was sufficient to modulate antiviral activity - inflammatory response, in a manner dependent exclusively on RIG-I - independent of MDA5 - TLR3. Both prophylactic - therapeutic administration of M8 effectively inhibited influenza virus - dengue virus replication in vitro. Furthermore, multiple strains of influenza virus that were resistant to oseltamivir, an FDA-approved therapeutic treatment for influenza, were highly sensitive to inhibition by M8. Finally, prophylactic M8 treatment in vivo prolonged survival - reduced lung viral titers of mice challenged with influenza virus, as well as reducing chikungunya virus-associated foot swelling - viral load. Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5'pppRNA can be rationally designed to achieve a maximal RIG-I-mediated protective antiviral response against human-pathogenic RNA viruses. The development of novel therapeutics to treat human-pathogenic RNA viral infections is an important goal to reduce spread of infection - to improve human health - safety. This study investigated the design of an RNA agonist with enhanced antiviral - inflammatory properties against influenza, dengue, - chikungunya viruses. A novel, sequence-dependent, uridine-rich RIG-I agonist generated a protective antiviral response in vitro - in vivo - was effective at concentrations 100-fold lower than prototype sequences or other RNA agonists, highlighting the robust activity - potential clinical use of the 5'pppRNA against RNA virus infection. Altogether, the results identify a novel, sequence-specific RIG-I agonist as an attractive therapeutic c-idate for the treatment of a broad range of RNA viruses, a pressing issue in which a need for new - more effective options persists.

370) Chikungunya on the move
Autor: Johansson Michael A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 31, n. 2, p. 43-45, 2015
ISSN: 1471-5007
Resumo: In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected - confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning - that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon.

371) Nectar protein content and attractiveness to Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens in plants with nectar/insect associations
Autor: Chen, Zhongyuan; Kearney, Christopher M.
Assunto: Nectar; Bait; Mosquito control; Oral toxicity; Imbibition
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 146, n. , p. 81-88, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: We chose five easily propagated garden plants previously shown to be attractive to mosquitoes, ants or other insects and tested them for attractiveness to Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. Long term imbibition was tested by survival on each plant species. Both mosquito species survived best on Impatiens walleriana, the common garden impatiens, followed by Asclepias curassavica, Campsis radicans and Passiflora edulis, which sponsored survival as well as the 10% sucrose control. Immediate preference for imbibition was tested with nectar dyed in situ on each plant. In addition, competition studies were performed with one dyed plant species in the presence of five undyed plant species to simulate a garden setting. In both preference studies I. walleriana proved superior. Nectar from all plants was then screened for nectar protein content by SDS-PAGE, with great variability being found between species, but with I. walleriana producing the highest levels. The data suggest that I. walleriana may have value as a model plant for subsequent studies exploring nectar delivery of transgenic mosquitocidal proteins. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

372) Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity
Autor: Long Feng, Fong Rachel H, Austin Stephen K, Chen Zhenguo, Klose Thomas, Fokine Andrei, Liu Yue, Porta Jason, Sapparapu Gopal, Akahata Wataru, Doranz Benjamin J, Crowe James E, Diamond Michael S, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto: Chikungunya virus-antibody complexes; Cryo-electron microscopy structure; Neutralizing mechanism; Viral fusion inhibition
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 45, p. 13898-13903, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute - chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine - human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 - 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A - B domains, as well as to the B domain's ?-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints of these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. This finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A - B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein - therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral - host membranes.

373) Neolignans and Other Metabolites from Ocotea cymosa from the Madagascar Rain Forest and Their Biological Activities
Autor: Rakotondraibe, L. Harinantenaina; Graupner, Paul R.; Xiong, Quanbo; Olson, Monica; Wiley, Jessica D.; Krai, Priscilla; Brodie, Peggy J.; Callmander, Martin W.; Rakotobe, Etienne; Ratovoson, Fidy; Rasannison, Vincent E.; Cassera, Maria B.; Hahn, Donald R.; Kingston, David G. I.; Fotso, Serge
Assunto: Piper capense; Dry forest; Ocobullenone; Lauraceae; Bullata; Alkaloids
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 78, n. 3, p. 431-440, 2015
ISSN: 0163-3864
Resumo: Ten new neolignans including the 6'-oxo-8.1'-lignans cymosalignans A (1a), B (2), and C (3), an 8.O.6'-neolignan (4a), ococymosin (5a), didymochlaenone C (6a), and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoids 7-10 were isolated along with the known compounds 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, 3,4,5,3'-tetramethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan, didymochlaenone B, virologin B, ocobullenone, and the unusual 2'-oxo-8.1'-lignan sibyllenone from the stems or bark of the Madagascan plant Ocotea cymosa. The new 8.O.6'-neolignan 4a, dihydrobenzofuranoid 5a, and the bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid 7a had in vitro activity against Aedes aegypti, while the new compounds 5a, 7a, 8, and 10a and the known virolongin B (4b) and ocobullenone (10b) had antiplasmodial activity. We report herein the structure elucidation of the new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra, electronic circular dichroism, and mass spectrometry, and the biological activities of the new and known compounds.

374) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G, Sinka Marianne E, Duda Kirsten A, Mylne Adrian, Shearer Freya M, Brady Oliver J, Messina Jane P, Barker Christopher M, Moore Chester G, Carvalho Roberta G, Coelho Giovanini E, Van Bortel Wim, Hendrickx Guy, Schaffner Francis, Wint G R William, Elyazar Iqbal R F, Teng Hwa-Jen, Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue - chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy - sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus between 1960 - 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature - unpublished studies including national entomological surveys - expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management - quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 - 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping - spatial analyses of the vectors -, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

375) Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India
Autor: Singhi, Manju; Purohit, Anil; Chattopadhyay, Sushmita
Assunto: Calotropis procera; Dengue vectors; Larvicide; Methanol extracted latex
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 142-146, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement

376) The spread of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France: Contribution of environmental drivers and human activities and predictions for a near future
Autor: Roche Benjamin, Léger Lucas, L'Ambert Grégory, Lacour Guillaume, Foussadier Rémi, Besnard Gilles, Barré-Cardi Hélène, Simard Frédéric, Fontenille Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5, p. e0125600, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Invasion of new territories by insect vector species that can transmit pathogens is one of the most important threats for human health. The spread of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Europe is emblematic, because of its major role in the emergence - transmission of arboviruses such as dengue or chikungunya. Here, we modeled the spread of this mosquito species in France through a statistical framework taking advantage of a long-term surveillance dataset going back to the first observation of Ae. albopictus in the Metropolitan area. After validating the model, we show that human activities are especially important for mosquito dispersion while l- use is a major factor for mosquito establishment. More importantly, we show that Ae. albopictus invasion is accelerating through time in this area, resulting in a geographic range extending further - further year after year. We also show that sporadic jump" of Ae. albopictus in a new location far from the colonized area did not succeed in starting a new invasion front so far. Finally, we discuss on a potential adaptation to cooler climate - the risk of invasion into Northern latitudes."

377) A male-determining factor in the mosquito aedes aegypti
Autor: Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Biedler, James K.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Sex determination; Doublesex gene; Drosophila; Differentiation; Chromosome; Pathway; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Science, v. 348, n. 6240, p. 1268-1270, 2015
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

378) Global virology I-identifying and investigating viral diseases
Autor: Shapshak P., Sinnott J.T., Somboonwit C., Kuhn J.H.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Global Virology I-Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases, p. 1-813,2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This book provides trajectories and illustrations of viruses that have catapulted into the global arena (linked to humans, animals, and vectors) due to human behaviors in recent years, as well as viruses that have already shown expansion among humans, animals, and vectors just a few decades ago. Topics in the current book include: vaccines environmental impact emerging virus transmission Filovirus (Ebola) hemorrhagic fevers flaviviruses Dengue evasion papillomaviruses Hepatitis C Nipah virus giant viruses hantaviruses bunyaviruses encephalitides West Nile virus Zika virus XMRV henipaviruses human respiratory syncytial virus influenza A virus several aspects of HIV-1 © Springer Science+Business Media New York2015.

379) Present and future projections of habitat suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito, a vector of viral pathogens, from global climate simulation
Autor: Proestos Y, Christophides G K, Ergüler K, Tanarhte M, Waldock J, Lelieveld J
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Climate change; Global climate modelling; Habitat suitability; Vector distribution model; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 370, n. 1665, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2970
Resumo: Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations - evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever - various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation - relative humidity, we present both global - regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe - provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties - performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway - using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria - combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, - adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a l- area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology - climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional - global spreading of VBDs to support disease control - policy making.

380) The hub protein loquacious connects the microRNA and short interfering RNA pathways in mosquitoes
Autor: Haac, Mary Etna; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Eggleston, Heather; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Assunto: Genomes; Viruses; Proteins; Immunity; Nucleic acids; Disease transmission; Public health; Transposons; siRNA; Dengue; Double-stranded RNA; Gene regulation; miRNA; Vectors; Specialization; RNA-mediated interference; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Nucleic Acids Research, v. 43, n. 7, p. 3688-3700, 2015.
ISSN: 0305-1048
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes vector several arboviruses of global health significance, including dengue viruses and chikungunya virus. RNA interference (RNAi) plays an important role in antiviral immunity, gene regulation and protection from transposable elements. Double-stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs) are important for efficient RNAi; in Drosophila functional specialization of the miRNA, endo-siRNA and exo-siRNA pathway is aided by the dsRBPs Loquacious (Loqs-PB, Loqs-PD) and R2D2, respectively. However, this functional specialization has not been investigated in other dipterans. We were unable to detect Loqs-PD in Ae. aegypti; analysis of other dipteran genomes demonstrated that this isoform is not conserved outside of Drosophila. Overexpression experiments and small RNA sequencing following depletion of each dsRBP revealed that R2D2 and Loqs-PA cooperate non-redundantly in siRNA production, and that these proteins exhibit an inhibitory effect on miRNA levels. Conversely, Loqs-PB alone interacted with mosquito dicer-1 and was essential for full miRNA production. Mosquito Loqs interacted with both argonaute 1 and 2 in a manner independent of its interactions with dicer. We conclude that the functional specialization of Loqs-PD in Drosophila is a recently derived trait, and that in other dipterans, including the medically important mosquitoes, Loqs-PA participates in both the miRNA and endo-siRNA based pathways.

381) Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication
Autor: Scholte Florine E M, Tas Ali, Albulescu Irina C, ?usinaite Eva, Merits Andres, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4457-4469, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Stress granules (SGs) are protein-mRNA aggregates that are formed in response to environmental stresses, resulting in translational inhibition. SGs are generally believed to play an antiviral role - are manipulated by many viruses, including various alphaviruses. GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is a key component - commonly used marker of SGs. Its homolog G3BP2 is a less extensively studied SG component. Here, we demonstrate that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules that differ from bona fide SGs in terms of morphology, composition, - behavior. For several Old World alphaviruses it has been shown that nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with G3BPs, presumably to inhibit SG formation, - we have confirmed this interaction in CHIKV-infected cells. Surprisingly, CHIKV also relied on G3BPs for efficient replication, as simultaneous depletion of G3BP1 - G3BP2 reduced viral RNA levels, CHIKV protein expression, - viral progeny titers. The G3BPs colocalized with CHIKV nsP2 - nsP3 in cytoplasmic foci, but no colocalization with nsP1, nsP4, or dsRNA was observed. Furthermore, G3BPs could not be detected in a cellular fraction enriched for CHIKV replication/transcription complexes, suggesting that they are not directly involved in CHIKV RNA synthesis. Depletion of G3BPs did not affect viral entry, translation of incoming genomes, or nonstructural polyprotein processing but resulted in severely reduced levels of negative-str-ed (- consequently also positive-str-ed) RNA. This suggests a role for the G3BPs in the switch from translation to genome amplification, although the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be explored. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a severe polyarthritis that has affected millions of people since its reemergence in 2004. The lack of approved vaccines or therapeutic options - the ongoing explosive outbreak in the Caribbean underline the importance of better underst-ing CHIKV replication. Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic protein-mRNA aggregates formed in response to various stresses, including viral infection. The RNA-binding proteins G3BP1 - G3BP2 are essential SG components. SG formation - the resulting translational inhibition are generally considered an antiviral response, - many viruses manipulate or block this process. Late in infection, we - others have observed CHIKV nonstructural protein 3 in cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules. These virally induced foci differed from true SGs - did not appear to represent replication complexes. Surprisingly, we found that G3BP1 - G3BP2 were also needed for efficient CHIKV replication, likely by facilitating the switch from translation to genome amplification early in infection.

382) The global virus network: Challenging chikungunya
Autor: McSweegan Edward, Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc, Frieman Matthew, Morrison Thomas E, Hrynkow Sharon
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Emerging virus; Global Virus Network; Vector-borne
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 147-152, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection - management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources - expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses - international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, - advocates for funding - evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps - opportunities, including models of infection - disease, c-idate vaccines - antivirals, epidemiology - vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, - policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World"."

383) The microbiome modulates arbovirus transmission in mosquitoes
Autor: Hegde Shivanand, Rasgon Jason L, Hughes Grant L
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 97-102, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Mosquito-transmitted arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, - West Nile virus constitute a major public health burden - are increasing in severity - frequency worldwide. The microbiota associated with mosquitoes (comprised of viruses, bacteria, fungi - protozoa) can profoundly influence many host phenotypes including vector competence, which can either be enhanced or suppressed. Thus, the tripartite interactions between the mosquito vector, its microbiota - the pathogens they transmit offer novel possibilities to control arthropod-borne diseases.

384) Pathogen inactivation: Emerging indications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kleinman S.
Assunto: blood safety, blood transfusion, hematological procedure, pathogen inactivation, transfusion transmitted arbovirus infection (prevention), virus infection (prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Hematology, v. 22, n. 6, p. 547-553, 2015
ISSN: 1531-7048 (electronic),1065-6251
Resumo: Purpose of review To review data about transfusion-transmitted infections so as to assess potential safety benefits of applying pathogen inactivation technology to platelets. Recent findings Residual bacterial risk still exists. Multiple arbovirus epidemics continue to occur and challenge blood safety policy makers in nonendemic developed countries. There is new documentation of transfusion transmission of dengue and Ross River viruses, and new or increased concern about chikungunya and Zika viruses. Pathogen inactivation has been shown to inactivate almost all bacterial species and several epidemic arboviruses that pose a transfusion transmission risk. The two available platelet pathogen inactivation technologies show different levels of pathogen inactivation as measured by in-vitro infectivity assays; the clinical significance of this finding is not known. Summary Pathogen inactivation can mitigate infectious risk and should do so more completely than other interventions such as donor questioning, donor/component recall, or donor testing. However, pathogen inactivation increases the cost of the pathogen-reduced blood component, which is a significant obstacle in the current healthcare environment. This may inhibit the ability to move forward with an effective new paradigm for blood safety that fulfills the implicit public trust in the blood system.

385) Effects of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Barros, Maria Ester S. B.; Freitas, Juliano C. R.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Santos da Silva, Rayane Cristine; Pontual, Emmanuel V.; Paiva, Patricia M. G.; Napoleao, Thiago H.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Menezes, Paulo H.
Assunto: Lactones; Oviposition; Larvicidal; Gut trypsin; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 156, p. 37-41, 2015
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L-4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L-4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill 1.4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), Se (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited 1.4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 mu g/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

386) High rate of subclinical Chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines
Autor: Yoon In-Kyu, Alera Maria Theresa, Lago Catherine B, Tac-An Ilya A, Villa Daisy, Fernandez Stefan, Thaisomboonsuk Butsaya, Klungthong Chonticha, Levy Jens W, Velasco John Mark, Roque Vito G, Salje Henrik, Macareo Louis R, Hermann Laura L, Nisalak Ananda, Srikiatkhachorn Anon
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003764, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical - symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation. A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ?6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, - 8 day visits, - at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute - 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples -/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment - 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ?8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation - envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) - 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ?10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia - the Caribbean. Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, underst-ing virus transmission, - supporting vaccine development.

387) From imported to an endemic disease: Impact of Chikungunya virus disease in the hospital epidemiology, Tolima, Colombia, 2014-2015
Autor: Jimenez-Canizales Carlos E, Medina-Gaitan David A, Mondragon-Cardona Álvaro E, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery, v. 10, n. 1, p. 64-66, 2015
ISSN: 2212-4071
Resumo:

388) Discovery of novel peptidomimetics as irreversible CHIKV nsP2 protease inhibitors using quantum mechanical-based ligand descriptors
Autor: El-Labbad Eman M, Ismail Mohammed A H, Abou Ei Ella Dalal A, Ahmed Marawan, Wang Feng, Barakat Khaled H, Abouzid Khaled A M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Admet; Atomic condensed Fukui functions; Covalent docking; Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies; Peptidomimetics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Chemical Biology & Drug Design, v. 86, n. 6, p. 1518-1527, 2015
ISSN: 1747-0285
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infections have been reported in Asia, Africa, - Europe. The symptoms of CHIKV infection include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, rash, - chronic persistent arthralgia. To date, no vaccines or selective antiviral drugs against this important emerging virus have been reported. In this study, the design, synthesis, - antiviral activity screening of new topographical peptidomimetics revealed three potential prototype agents 3a, 4b, - 5d showing 93-100% maximum inhibition of CHIKV replication in cell-based assay having EC90 of 8.76-9.57 ?g/mL. Intensive molecular modeling studies including covalent docking, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, - the atomic condensed Fukui functions calculations strongly suggested the covalent binding of peptidomimetics 3a, 4b, - 5d to CHIKV nsP2 protease leading to permanent enzyme inactivation via Michael adduct formation between ?/?-unsaturated ketone functionality in our designed peptidomimetics - active site catalytic cysteine1013. Furthermore, small molecular weight peptidomimetics 3a - 4b satisfied the Lipinski rule of five for drug-likeness - showed promising intestinal absorption - aqueous solubility via computational admet studies making them promising hits for further optimization.

389) Effects of artesunate treatment on Plasmodium gallinaceum transmission in the vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Pruck-Ngern, Mintra; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Buddhirakkul, Prayute; Saiwichai, Tawee
Assunto: Artesunate; Avian malaria; Gametocytocidal action; Transmission; Vectors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Veterinary Parasitology, v. 207, n. 1-2, p. 161-165, 2015
ISSN: 0304-4017
Resumo: In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy is an effective and economical way for controlling malaria. Development of anti-malarial drugs that target pathogenic blood stage parasites and gametocytes is preferable for the treatment as it can alleviate the host's morbidity and mortality and block transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. Recently, our laboratory has developed an in vivo transmission blocking assay that involves administration of 7 consecutive daily doses of a test compound into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. To compromise the cost and time for artesunate (ATN) treatment, this study aimed to investigate effects of a 5-day consecutive administration of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) ATN on P. gallinaceum infection in chickens and transmission to two natural vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Our study showed that the treatment with 10 mg/kg ATM for 7 days, but not 5 days, completely eliminated blood stage infections, prevented recrudescence and blocked gametocyte production and transmission of P. gallinaceum to its vectors, thereby confirming the potent schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activities of ATN. This regimen should be further evaluated in field trials. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

390) Genomic assays for identification of Chikungunya virus in blood donors, Puerto Rico, 2014
Autor: Chiu Charles Y, Bres Vanessa, Yu Guixia, Krysztof David, Naccache Samia N, Lee Deanna, Pfeil Jacob, Linnen Jeffrey M, Stramer Susan L
Assunto: ViroChip microarray; Blood donor; Chikungunya virus; Next-generation sequencing; Transcription-mediated amplification; Transfusion-transmitted infection; Viruses; Whole-genome sequencing
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1409-1413, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: A newly developed transcription-mediated amplification assay was used to detect chikungunya virus infection in 3 of 557 asymptomatic donors (0.54%) from Puerto Rico during the 2014-2015 Caribbean epidemic. Viral detection was confirmed by using PCR, microarray, - next-generation sequencing. Molecular clock analysis dated the emergence of the Puerto Rico strains to early 2013.

391) Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and spinosad on adult emergence of the non-biting midges Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in coastal wetlands
Autor: Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Lagadic, Laurent; Lagneau, Christophe
Assunto: Biological insecticide; Mosquito control; Field enclosure; Non-biting midge; Non-target invertebrate
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 115, p. 272-278, 2015
ISSN: 0147-6513
Resumo: To optimize their efficacy, some insecticides used for mosquito control are introduced into aquatic ecosystems where mosquito larvae develop (marshes, ponds, sanitation devices) and cannot escape from the treated water. However, this raises the question of possible effects of mosquito larvicides on nontarget aquatic species. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), which is well-known for its selectivity for Nematocera dipterans, is widely used for mosquito control all over the world. Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyns A and D known as fermentation products of a soil actinomycete (Saccharopolyspora spinosa), is a biological neurotoxic insecticide with a broader action spectrum. It is a candidate larvicide for mosquito control, but some studies showed that it may be toxic to beneficial or non-target species, including non-biting midges. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the impact of Bti and spinosad on natural populations of Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse) and Tanytarsus curticornis Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in field enclosures implemented in Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Unlike Bti, spinosad had a strong lethal effect on Polypedilum nubifer and seems to affect Tanytarsus curticornis at presumed recommended rates for field application. Differences in the sensitivity of these two species to spinosad confirm that population dynamics need to be known for a proper assessment of the risk encountered by chironomids in wetlands where larvicide-based mosquito control occurs. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

392) Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia
Autor: Aguirre-Obando, Oscar A.; Dalla Bona, Ana C.; Duque L., Jonny E.; Navarro-Silva, Mário A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Bioassays; Insecticides; Genetic isolation; Pest control; Public health; Haplotypes; Gene flow; Mitochondria; Genetic diversity; Vaccines; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Zoologia, v. 32, n. 1, p. 14-22, 2015.
ISSN: 1984-4670
Resumo: Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca and Montenegro) were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca, Montenegro and Barcelona). Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% plus or minus 2) and Calarca (62% plus or minus 14), and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% plus or minus 8). The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro) to 6.0 (Calarca). The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val) and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile). The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindio is required.

393) Mutations conferring a noncytotoxic phenotype on Chikungunya virus replicons compromise enzymatic properties of nonstructural protein 2
Autor: Utt Age, Das Pratyush Kumar, Varjak Margus, Lulla Valeria, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 6, p. 3145-3162, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (genus Alphavirus) has a positive-sense RNA genome. CHIKV nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) proteolytically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein, possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), RNA triphosphatase, - RNA helicase activities, - induces cytopathic effects in vertebrate cells. Although alphaviral nsP2 mutations can result in a noncytotoxic phenotype, the effects of such mutations on nsP2 enzymatic activities are not well understood. In this study, we introduced a P718G (PG) mutation - selected for additional mutations in CHIKV nsP2 that resulted in a CHIKV replicon with a noncytotoxic phenotype in BHK-21 cells. Combinations of PG - either an E116K (EK) substitution or a GEEGS sequence insertion after residue T648 (5A) markedly reduced RNA synthesis; however, neither PG nor 5A prevented nsP2 nuclear translocation. Introducing PG into recombinant nsP2 inhibited proteolytic cleavage of nsP1/nsP2 - nsP3/nsP4 sites, reduced GTPase - RNA helicase activities, - abolished RNA stimulation of GTPase activity. 5A - EK modulated the effects of PG. However, only the RNA helicase activity of nsP2 was reduced by both of these mutations, suggesting that defects in this activity may be linked to a noncytotoxic phenotype. These results increase our underst-ing of the molecular basis for the cytotoxicity that accompanies alphaviral replication. Furthermore, adaptation of the CHIKV replicon containing both 5A - PG allowed the selection of a CHIKV replicon with adaptive mutations in nsP1 - nsP3 that enable persistence in human cell line. Such cell lines represent valuable experimental systems for discovering host factors - for screening inhibitors of CHIKV replication at lower biosafety levels. CHIKV is a medically important pathogen that causes febrile illness - can cause chronic arthritis. No approved vaccines or antivirals are available for CHIKV. The attenuation of CHIKV is critical to the establishment of experimental systems that can be used to conduct virus replication studies at a lower biosafety level. We applied a functional selection approach to develop, for the first time, a noncytotoxic CHIKV replicon capable of persisting in human cell lines. We anticipate that this safe - efficient research tool will be valuable for screening CHIKV replication inhibitors - for identifying - analyzing host factors involved in viral replication. We also analyzed, from virological - protein biochemistry perspectives, the functional defects caused by mutations conferring noncytotoxic phenotypes; we found that all known enzymatic activities of CHIKV nsP2, as well as its RNA-binding capability, were compromised by these mutations, which led to a reduced capacity for replication.

394) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

395) Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura
Assunto: Cananga odorata; Aedes aepypti; Anopheles dirus; Culex quinquefasciatus; Oviposition deterrent; Ovicidal; Insecticidal; Repellent
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 12, p. 4531-4543, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), < 1 % (for An. dirus), and < 1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

396) The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India
Autor: Rodríguez-Barraquer Isabel, Solomon Sunil S, Kuganantham Periaswamy, Srikrishnan Aylur Kailasom, Vasudevan Canjeevaram K, Iqbal Syed H, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Solomon Suniti, Mehta Shruti H, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, p. e0003906, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue - chikungunya are rapidly exp-ing viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, - a high suitability for transmission. We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty r-omly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample - to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic - daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue - chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) - IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection - basic reproductive number) - to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue - 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, - 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue - suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue - chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual - household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia - the Americas. These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue - chikungunya in Chennai - underscore the need for enhanced surveillance - control methods.

397) Chikungunya: bmerging threat to the United States
Autor: Stamm Lola V
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Dermatology, v. 151, n. 3, p. 257-258, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6084
Resumo:

398) Larvicidal, molluscicidal and nematicidal activities of essential oils and compounds from Foeniculum vulgare
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sousa, Rose Marie O. F.; Rosa, Jose S.; Silva, Claudia A.; Almeida, Maria Teresa M.; Teresa Novo, M.; Cunha, Ana C.; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel
Assunto: Biopesticides; Bitter fennel essential oils; Anopheles atroparvus; Meloidogyne javanica; Radix peregra; Brine shrimp lethality assay
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Pest Science, v. 88, n. 2, p. 413-426, 2015
ISSN: 1612-4758
Resumo: Plant-based products, namely essential oils (EOs), are environmentally friendly alternatives for the control of disease vectors, hosts and/or parasites. Here, we studied the general toxicity and biopesticidal potential of EOs and phenylpropanoids from Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare (bitter fennel), a perennial plant well adapted to temperate climates. EO/compound toxicity was tested against a freshwater snail and potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Radix peregra), a mosquito and former European malaria vector (Anopheles atroparvus) and one of the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica). Lethal concentrations (LC50; LC90) of EOs (infrutescences/stems with leaves) and compounds were calculated by probit analysis. All displayed noteworthy activity against R. peregra adults (LC50 21-39 A mu g ml(-1)) and A. atroparvus larvae (LC50 16-56 A mu g ml(-1)). trans-Anethole revealed acute nematicidal activity after 24 and 48 h (LC50 310 and 249 A mu g ml(-1), respectively), and estragole (1,000 A mu g ml(-1)) showed some effectiveness against M. javanica hatching and juveniles after 15 days. Plant and EO yields were determined to evaluate the bitter fennel productivity. The chemical composition of the EOs was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. EOs extracted from whole plants, infrutescences and stems with leaves were characterized by estragole-dominant profiles (28-65 %), considerable amounts of phellandrene (10-34 %) and fenchone (6-16 %), and minor trans-anethole contents (1-4 %). Although additional toxicological studies against nontarget organisms are required, our study demonstrates that bitter fennel is a productive source of molluscicides and larvicides, and thus a potential sustainable biological agent to control particular host species, namely freshwater snails and mosquitoes.

399) Mycogenesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Aspergillus niger culture filtrate and their applications for antibacterial and larvicidal activities
Autor: Gopinath, K.; Karthika, V.; Sundaravadivelan, C.; Gowri, S.; Arumugam, A.
Assunto: Cerium; Pest control; Transmission loss; Antibiotics; Mortality causes; Antibacterial activity; Dengue; Transmission electron microscopy; Nanoparticles; Streptococcus; Proteus vulgaris; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Aedes aegypti; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Aspergillus niger
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, v. 5, n. 3, p. 295-303, 2015.
ISSN: 2008-9244
Resumo: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO sub(2) NPs) were synthesized using Aspergillus niger culture filtrate. The mycosynthesized CeO sub(2) NPs were characterized by UV-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro Raman, Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA), Photoluminescence, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses. UV-Vis spectrum exhibited a corresponding absorption peak for CeO sub(2) NPs at 296 nm, and the functional groups present in the fungal filtrate responsible for the synthesis of NPs were analyzed by FT-IR. The further characterization of the mycosynthesized CeO sub(2) NPs revealed particles of the cubic structure and spherical shape, with the particle sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm. The antibacterial activity of CeO sub(2) NPs was examined in respect of two Gram-positive (G+) bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative (G-) bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method. The test results for CeO sub(2) NPs at a concentration of 10 mg/mL showed higher activities on the zone of inhibition of up to 10.67 plus or minus 0.33 and 10.33 plus or minus 0.33 mm against Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis, respectively, The CeO sub(2) NPs caused 100 % mortality on first instar of Aedes aegypti at 0.250 mg/L concentration after 24-h exposure. The mycosynthesis of CeO sub(2) NPs is a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly approach and it will also potentially helpful to control pathogenic bacteria and dengue vector. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

400) Public health response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes invading California, USA
Autor: Porse Charsey Cole, Kramer Vicki, Yoshimizu Melissa Hardstone, Metzger Marco, Hu Renjie, Padgett Kerry, Vugia Duc J
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; California; Invasive Aedes mosquitoes; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Control; Dengue; Dengue virus; Education; Mosquitoes; Public health response; Surveillance; Vectors; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1827-1829, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue - chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human - mosquito surveillance, education, - intensive mosquito control.

401) Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana
Assunto: Ae. Albopictus; Aedes (Ae.) aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Geographic expansion; Mosquito-vector interactions; RNA strategies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 231-240, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa - the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti -, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic - geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference - other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, - the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, - in Central - South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, - Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term - long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife - people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

402) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

403) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Sivakumar Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial - labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical - subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, - methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica - root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, - Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, - 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, - the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica - root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus - E. indica plants.

404) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

405) Travelers with Chikungunya virus infection returning to Northwest Italy from the Caribbean and Central America during June-November 2014
Autor: Burdino Elisa, Ruggiero Tina, Milia Maria Grazia, Proietti Alex, Sergi Giuseppina, Torta Ilaria, Calleri Guido, Caramello Pietro, Tiberti Donatella, Ghisetti Valeria
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 341-344, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently emerged in the Caribbean. In Italy, CHIKV vector is documented in the Po river valley; therefore, a risk for autochthonous outbreaks is present. We report a case series of seven imported CHIKV infections in travelers returning from the Caribbean - Latin America occurring between June - November 2014, in the area of Turin, Northwest Italy, 3 years after the last imported cases were reported. These cases are a reminder of the need to always consider CHIKV infection in travelers from these epidemic areas as well as the importance of a prompt diagnosis.

406) Dengue and other flavivirus infections
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choumet V., Desprès P.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), v. 34, n. 2, p. 467-478, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0253-1933
Resumo: Flaviviruses are responsible for yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue, all of which are major human diseases found in tropical regions of the globe. They are zoonoses with a transmission cycle that involves primates as reservoirs and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes as vectors. The recent upsurge of urban epidemics of yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue has involved human-to-human transmission with mosquitoes as the vector. This paper is primarily concerned with dengue, which has become the pre-eminent arbovirosis in terms of public health.

407) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

408) Antiviral activity of chloroquine against dengue virus type 2 replication in aotus monkeys
Autor: Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, Jose Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto: Antiviral agents; Viral diseases; Nucleotide sequence; Aspartate aminotransferase; Chloroquine; RNA viruses; Antiviral activity; Disease transmission; Reverse transcription; Viremia; Dengue; Immunology; Hematology; Aedes aegypti; Aotus; Dengue virus type 2; Aedes albopictus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Inflammation ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 3, p. 161-169, 2015.
ISSN: 0882-8245
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0-10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys.

409) Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors
Autor: Soonwera, Mayura; Phasornkusolsill, Siriporn
Assunto: Repellency; Cananga odorata oil; Cymbopogon citratus oil; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefasciatus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 142, n. , p. 127-130, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(R) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(R)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 mu l/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The Cananga odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7 +/- 10.4 min. In addition, Cymbopogon citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of Culex quinquefasciatus for 170.0 +/- 9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0 +/- 7.1-182.0 +/- 12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against Aedes aegypti than Culex quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that Cananga odorata oil and Cymbopogon citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

410) Arterial hypertension and skin allergy are risk factors for progression from dengue to dengue hemorrhagic fever: a case control study
Autor: Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Paixao, Enny S.; Costa, Maria da Conceicao N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Pamplona, Luciano; Dias, Juarez P.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Figueiredo, Maria Aparecida A.; Blanton, Ronald; Morato, Vanessa; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Rodrigues, Laura C.
Assunto: Dengue fever; Epidemics; Physicians; Hypertension; Public health; Pathogenesis; Immunology; Risk factors; Hypotheses; Chronic illnesses; Mortality; Diabetes
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a virus disease that has already reached more than 100 countries worldwide, transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, mainly Aedes aegypti. It is estimated that annually nearly 96 million symptomatic cases and about 22,000 deaths occur. This virus most often manifests itself in the form of Dengue Fever (DF), which in some cases progresses to severe forms, also called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). However, the current knowledge does not allow early prediction of which cases of DF will progress to DHF. But it is important to know the factors Involved in this process so that physicians may intervene early to prevent progression and avoid deaths. One of the proposed explanations is that preexisting comorbidities would increase the risk of progression from DF to DHF. This study showed that cases of DF associated with hypertension or skin allergy are more likely to progress to DHF. Monitoring and early appropriate clinical management of these cases can save lives.

411) The use of serum spotted onto filter paper for diagnosing and monitoring Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Matheus Séverine, Huc Patricia, Labeau Bhety, Bremand Laetitia, Enfissi Antoine, Merle Olivier, Flusin Olivier, Rousset Dominique, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle
Assunto: Chikungunya; Diagnosis; Filter paper
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 71, p. 89-92, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: The recent emergence of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Americas constitutes a major public health problem on this continent, where the mosquito vector is widespread. The rapid diagnosis of suspected cases is essential for the monitoring - control of this ongoing outbreak. However, this requires reliable tools that are difficult to establish in areas without specialized laboratories. The aim was to evaluate the performances of serum samples spotted onto filter paper for molecular - serological diagnosis of Chikungunya infection. Analyses were performed from frozen sera - serum spotted onto filter paper provided from 121 Chikungunya suspected cases collected at a biological laboratory on Saint-Martin Isl-. This approach performed well in comparisons with st-ard methods, with a sensitivity of 100% - a specificity of 93.6% for the combined technical approaches (RT-PCR - serological results). Comparisons of serum samples spotted onto filter paper - frozen samples showed a concordance rate of 94.8% in molecular tests - 98.2% in serological tests. This simple sampling technique could overcome the problems of the lack of efficient CHIKV diagnosis tools in remote regions, providing good results regardless of the molecular or serological approach used. This simple filter paper-based method can be used to diagnose both chikungunya - dengue infections, as previously demonstrated following transport at ambient temperature to specialized laboratories. Given the set-up costs - high performance of this method, it could be recommended for the monitoring - control of Chikungunya virus expansion in the Americas - in other affected regions.

412) Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Rajeswary Mohan
Assunto: Albizia lebbeck; Leaf; Seed; Ovicide; Adulticide; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Ovicida ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 5, p. 1949-1961, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, - methanol extracts of leaf - seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, - Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract - directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, - 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract - 375, 300, - 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, - An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf - seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC?? - LC?? values were 65.12 - 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, - methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf - seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

413) ?? T cells play a protective role in chikungunya virus-induced disease
Autor: Long Kristin M, Ferris Martin T, Whitmore Alan C, Montgomery Stephanie A, Thurlow Lance R, McGee Charles E, Rodriguez Carlos A, Lim Jean K, Heise Mark T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 433-443, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of polyarthralgia in humans. Because CHIKV is initially introduced via the skin, where ?? T cells are prevalent, we evaluated the response of these cells to CHIKV infection. CHIKV infection led to a significant increase in ?? T cells in the infected foot - draining lymph node that was associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines - chemokines in C57BL/6J mice. ?? T cell(-/-) mice demonstrated exacerbated CHIKV disease characterized by less weight gain - greater foot swelling than occurred in wild-type mice, as well as a transient increase in monocytes - altered cytokine/chemokine expression in the foot. Histologically, ?? T cell(-/-) mice had increased inflammation-mediated oxidative damage in the ipsilateral foot - ankle joint compared to wild-type mice which was independent of differences in CHIKV replication. These results suggest that ?? T cells play a protective role in limiting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory response - subsequent tissue - joint damage. Recent epidemics, including the 2004 to 2007 outbreak - the spread of CHIKV to naive populations in the Caribbean - Central - South America with resultant cases imported into the United States, have highlighted the capacity of CHIKV to cause explosive epidemics where the virus can spread to millions of people - rapidly move into new areas. These studies identified ?? T cells as important to both recruitment of key inflammatory cell populations - dampening the tissue injury due to oxidative stress. Given the importance of these cells in the early response to CHIKV, this information may inform the development of CHIKV vaccines - therapeutics.

414) First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil
Autor: Zanluca C., De Melo V.C.A., Mosimann A.L.P., Dos Santos G.I.V., dos Santos C.N.D., Luz K.
Assunto: Chikungunya Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 4, p.569-572,2015.
ISSN: 740276
Resumo: In the early2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil. ©2015 Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

415) Zika virus in an american recreational traveler
Autor: Summers Dyan J, Acosta Rebecca Wolfe, Acosta Alberto M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, - bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination - travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, - West Nile virus; - recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical - laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

416) Ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Tennyson, Samuel; Ravindran, John; Eapen, Alex; William, John
Assunto: Ageratum houstonianum; Crude leaf extracts; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Culex quinquefasciatus; Ovicidal activity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. 3, p. 199-203, 2015.
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: To study the ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum (A. houstonianum) leaf extracts against the eggs of vector mosquitoes and to develop additional tools for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods: The ovicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf extracts of A. houstonianum were assayed for their toxicity against the eggs of three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L of the crude extract. Results: All extracts showed activity. The minimum concentration at which maximum egg mortality rate of 80% and above obtained was 10.0 mg/L in the case of methanol and ethyl acetate against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti respectively and 5.0 mg/L in ethyl acetate extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. One hundred per cent egg mortality was obtained only in ethyl acetate extract at 20.0 mg/L against Aedes aegypti. Conclusions: The crude leaf extracts of A. houstonianum did not exhibit potential ovicidal activity against the vector species studied. Among the crude leaf extracts tested, the activity of ethyl acetate extract was more effective. More research on the screening of phytochemicals as a potential ovicidal agent is warranted to add more tools in the control of mosquitoes.

417) Efficacy of Two Larvasonic? Units Against Culex Larvae and Effects on Common Aquatic Nontarget Organisms in Harris County, Texas
Autor: Fredregill, Chris L.; Motl, Greg C.; Dennett, James A.; Bueno, Rudy, Jr.; Debboun, Mustapha
Assunto: Integrated pest management; Larvasonic; Larvicide; Physical control; Ultrasonic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 366-370, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Larvasonic (TM) Field Arm Mobile Wetlands Unit and SD-Mini were tested for efficacy against Culex larvae, and effects on aquatic nontarget organisms (NTO). The Field Arm provided 84.61% to 100% control of caged Culex larvae out to 0.91-m distance in shallow ditches and 60.45% control of Culex larvae at 0.61-m without any effects to caged NTO. Slow ditch treatment achieved 77.35% control compared to fast treatment (20.42%), whereas 77.65% control was obtained along edges of a neglected swimming pool, compared to near the middle (23.97%). In bucket tests, the SD-Mini provided >97% control of Culex and 85.35% reduction of immature giant water bugs, which decreased slightly (83.45%) over the monitoring period, which was not significantly different from cannibalistic damselflies (62.80%), with reduction of both being significantly higher than other NTO tested. There was a small (0.37%) reduction of dragonflies (naiads), due to cannibalism. Both Larvasonic units could effectively augment conventional larvicide operations in smaller areas without causing resistance within mosquito populations or harming NTO when used properly.

418) An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enserink, Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Science, v. 350, n. 6264, p. 1012-1013, 2015.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: A little-known virus called Zika has caused outbreaks in Pacific Ocean islands the past few years and has arrived in South America this year. Scientists predict it will spread far and wide in the Western Hemisphere, and perhaps in southern Europe as well, because the Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus are so widespread. Scientifically speaking, Zika virus is still largely terra incognita. Its symptoms, including rash, fatigue, headaches, muscle pains, and swollen and painful joints, appear to be generally mild, but during an outbreak in French Polynesia that started in 2013, some patients developed a serious neurological condition named Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although it is primarily spread by mosquitoes, some evidence suggests sexual transmission is possible as well.

419) IFIT1 differentially interferes with translation and replication of alphavirus genomes and promotes induction of type I interferon
Autor: Reynaud Josephine M, Kim Dal Young, Atasheva Svetlana, Rasalouskaya Aliaksandra, White James P, Diamond Michael S, Weaver Scott C, Frolova Elena I, Frolov Ilya
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004863, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human - animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-?, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry - nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5'UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5'UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5'end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5'UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis - chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, - thus could serve as novel vaccine c-idates.

420) Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein
Autor: Tong W, Yin X-X, Lee B-J, Li Y-G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Virologica, v. 59, n. 2, p. 189-193, 2015
ISSN: 0001-723X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia - severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment - no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient - easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein - the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

421) Towards antivirals against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Abdelnabi Rana, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen
Assunto: Antiviral therapy; Arbidol; Chikungunya virus; Favipiravir; Monoclonal antibodies; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 59-68, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in recent decades, causing major outbreaks of chikungunya fever in many parts of Africa - Asia, - since the end of 2013 also in Central - South America. Infections are usually associated with a low mortality rate, but can proceed into a painful chronic stage, during which patients may suffer from polyarthralgia - joint stiffness for weeks - even several years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections. Current therapy therefore consists solely of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics - anti-inflammatory agents to relieve symptoms. We here review molecules that have been reported to inhibit CHIKV replication, either as direct-acting antivirals, host-targeting drugs or those that act via a yet unknown mechanism. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

422) Assessing carbon dioxide and synthetic lure-baited traps for dengue and chikungunya vector surveillance
Autor: Harwood, James F.; Arimoto, Hanayo; Nunn, Peter; Richardson, Alec G.; Obenauer, Peter J.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Carbon dioxide; Disease transmission; Public health; Dengue; Light traps; Vectors; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, 242 p, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the standard trap for DENV and CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable and better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, and relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield and field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV and CHIKV vectors than the standard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, and BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

423) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola, Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa - Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia - State of Rio Gr-e do Norte, - one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti - Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology - epidemiology, including the distribution - vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, - yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil - neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission - the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities - introduction in Brazil.

424) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Monroy-Martinez, Veronica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutierrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Dengue fever; West Nile virus; Vector competence; Proteins; Pathogenesis; Infections; Biomedical research
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. Aedes CSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to alpha -2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia- alpha -2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

425) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Autor: Newton Irene L G, Savytskyy Oleksandr, Sheehan Kathy B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004798, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus - important human pathogens such as Dengue - Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within - transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221/+) - chic(1320/+)) or villin (qua(6-396/+)) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results - cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, - number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies - chic(221) heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype - conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission - maintenance within Drosophila.

426) Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan
Autor: Chen Tien-Huang, Jian Shu-Wan, Wang Chih-Yuan, Lin Cheo, Wang Pei-Feng, Su Chien-Ling, Teng Hwa-Jen, Shu Pei-Yun, Wu Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus; Taiwan; Mosquito infection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 114, n. 6, p. 546-552, 2015
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus - Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to underst- the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain - mosquito species - strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype - that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk.

427) Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil fatty acids or their esters and three terpenoids to Stomoxys calcitrans
Autor: Tran Trung Hieu; Choi, Won Sil; Kim, Soon-Il; Wang, Mo; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Stable fly; Calophyllum inophyllum; Natural insect repellent; Fatty acid; Structure-activity relationship; Synergy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Pest Management Science, v. 71, n. 9, p. 1213-1218, 2015
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Background: An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm(-2)) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and -phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm(-2)), using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of synthetic repellent DEET (0.25 mg cm(-2)).RESULTSBased upon protection time (PT) (time to first bite of stable fly), oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl oleate or methyl linoleate synergised the repellency of each monoterpenoid and DEET. For example, the binary mixture of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol (PT 2.05 h) resulted in significantly greater repellency than either oleic acid (0.55 h), cuminyl alcohol (0.70 h) or DEET alone (1.50 h). The binary mixtures of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol or DEET (PT 2.10 h) did not differ significantly in repellency. The structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length and the functional group of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid repellency to stable flies.CONCLUSIONMixtures formulated from fatty acid and monoterpenoid could be useful as potential repellents for protecting humans and possibly domestic animals from bites caused by stable fly. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

428) The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert
Assunto: Diets; Feeding experiments; Vaccines; Age determination; Hygiene; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Sugar; Age composition; Age; Vector-borne diseases; Vectors; Models; Blood; I.R. spectroscopy; Dengue; Thorax; Infants; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 1070-1075, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (> or = 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or Infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water + or - blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group ( or = 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

429) Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, first-in-man trial
Autor: Ramsauer Katrin, Schwameis Michael, Firbas Christa, Müllner Matthias, Putnak Robert J, Thomas Stephen J, Desprès Philippe, Tauber Erich, Jilma Bernd, Tangy Frederic
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 519-527, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA - Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity - safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a r-omised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men - women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were r-omly assigned, by computer-generated block r-omisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-r-omised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants - study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat - per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, - Feb 25, 2014, we r-omly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The c-idate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, - 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the c-idate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the c-idate vaccine groups. The c-idate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, - the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose - volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, - had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH.

430) Assessing dengue infection risk in the southern region of Taiwan: implications for control
Autor: Liao, C. M.; Huang, T. L.; Cheng, Y. H.; Chen, W. Y.; Hsieh, N. H.; Chen, S.C.; Chio, C. P.
Assunto: Dengue; Modelling; Mosquito; Risk assessment; Vector control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 5, p. 1059-1072, 2015.
ISSN: 0950-2688
Resumo: Dengue, one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, is a major international public health concern. This study aimed to assess potential dengue infection risk from Aedes aegypti in Kaohsiung and the implications for vector control. Here we investigated the impact of dengue transmission on human infection risk using a well-established dengue-mosquito-human transmission dynamics model. A basic reproduction number (R sub(0))-based probabilistic risk model was also developed to estimate dengue infection risk. Our findings confirm that the effect of biting rate plays a crucial role in shaping R sub(0) estimates. We demonstrated that there was 50% risk probability for increased dengue incidence rates exceeding 0.5-0.8 wk super(-1) for temperatures ranging from 26 degree C to 32 degree C. We further demonstrated that the weekly increased dengue incidence rate can be decreased to zero if vector control efficiencies reach 30-80% at temperatures of 19-32 degree C. We conclude that our analysis on dengue infection risk and control implications in Kaohsiung provide crucial information for policy-making on disease control.

431) Therapeutics and vaccines against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Ahola Tero, Courderc Therese, Ng Lisa F P, Hallengärd David, Powers Ann, Lecuit Marc, Esteban Mariano, Merits Andres, Roques Pierre, Liljeström Peter
Assunto: Antibodies; Antiviral; Attenuated virus; Chikungunya; DNA chimeric viruses; Polymerase; Protease; Vaccine; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 250-257, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 - Kaur - Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.

432) The olfactory nerve: A shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system
Autor: van Riel Debby, Verdijk Rob, Kuiken Thijs
Assunto: CNS; H5N1; Cell-to-cell transmission; Influenza; Olfactory nerve; Olfactory receptor neuron; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Pathology, v. 235, n. 2, p. 277-287, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9896
Resumo: The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons - directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, - on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, - bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve - subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport - microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis - neurodegenerative disease.

433) Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect
Autor: Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal
Assunto: Couroupita guianensis; Silver nanoparticles; Absorbance spectra; TEM; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biosynthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , v. 135, n. , p. 110-115, 2015
ISSN: 1386-1425
Resumo: Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FUR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568,84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

434) Spatial and temporal clustering of Chikungunya virus transmission in Dominica
Autor: Nsoesie Elaine O, Ricketts R Paul, Brown Heidi E, Fish Durland, Durham David P, Ndeffo Mbah Martial L, Christian Trudy, Ahmed Shalauddin, Marcellin Clement, Shelly Ellen, Owers Katharine, Wenzel Natasha, Galvani Alison P, Brownstein John S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, p. e0003977, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Using geo-referenced case data, we present spatial - spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013-2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Dominica, an isl- in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 - March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial - spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas - observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, - education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk - provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks.

435) Vector-borne diseases in Haiti: A review
Autor: Ben-Chetrit Eli, Schwartz Eli
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Filaria; Haiti; Malaria
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 13, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2015
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Haiti lies on the western third of the isl- of Hispaniola in the Caribbean, - is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere. Haiti attracts a lot of medical attention - support due to severe natural disasters followed by disastrous health consequences. Vector-borne infections are still prevalent there with some unique aspects comparing it to Latin American countries - other Caribbean isl-s. Although vector-borne viral diseases such as dengue - recently chikungunya can be found in many of the Caribbean isl-s, including Haiti, there is an apparent distinction of the vector-borne parasitic diseases. Contrary to neighboring Carribbean isl-s, Haiti is highly endemic for malaria, lymphatic filariasis - mansonellosis. Affected by repeat natural disasters, poverty - lack of adequate infrastructure, control of transmission within Haiti - prevention of dissemination of vector-borne pathogens to other regions is challenging. In this review we summarize some aspects concerning diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens in Haiti.

436) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

437) Entomological Indicators to Assess Larval Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) Control in Baja California Sur, Mexico
Autor: Tovar-Zamora, Ivonne; Ramos-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Mendez Galvan, Jorge Fernando; Servin-Villegas, Rosala
Assunto: Dengue transmission; North queensland; Vector control; Pupal survey; Culicidae; Mosquito; Indexes; Diptera; Australia; Virus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Southwestern Entomologist, v. 40, n. 1, p. 81-95, 2015
ISSN: 0147-1724
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) is the mosquito species responsible for transmission of yellow and dengue fevers. Different strategies are used worldwide to reduce its abundance, but effectiveness is not well understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of larvae of this species using different indices before and after application at three locations in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The presence of Ae. aegypti larvae was evaluated by three larval indices: house index, container index, and Breteau index at three locations at Cabo San Lucas, La Paz, and San Jose del Cabo during 3 years (2011-2013) before and after chemical control and reduction of potential breeding sites by the Secretaria de Salud (health department of Baja California Sur). The data showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) in the relative abundance of Ae. aegypti larvae before and after applying larvicide (Temephos (R)) and by removing water containers where mosquitoes reproduce, regardless of the type of index used for the analysis. In La Paz, the average of the housing index was reduced from 16-83% to 0-5% after control during the 3 years. In Cabo San Lucas, the value was reduced from 2-40% to <1% and in San Jose del Cabo such variation was 4-46% to 0-7%. The index of positive containers before and after management varied in La Paz from 6-34% to 0-4.7%; in Cabo San Lucas from 0.2-23% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 0.6-11% to <1.2%. The Breteau index in La Paz varied from 48-358% to 0-12.5%, in Cabo San Lucas, values decreased from 3-67% to <1%, and in San Jose del Cabo from 3-174% to 0-16% after vector-control measures were applied. Our data suggested that controls applied in Baja California Sur on Ae. aegypti larvae were effective enough to reduce the relative abundance of larvae of the species. However, other strategies are necessary to ensure elimination of Ae. aegypti larvae homes, thereby reducing impact on human health in the zone.

438) Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Correa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.
Assunto: Flight-Muscle Mitochondria; Hydrogen-Peroxide Release; Oxygen Species Generation; Brown Adipose-Tissue; Reactive Oxygen; Insect Flight; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Oxidative-Metabolism; Amino-Acids; Complex I
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Protein synthesis ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.

439) Virus evolution and transmission in an ever more connected world
Autor: Pybus Oliver G, Tatem Andrew J, Lemey Philippe
Assunto: Epidemiology; Evolution; Geography; Phylogenetics; Transmission; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society, v. 282, n. 1821, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2954
Resumo: The frequency - global impact of infectious disease outbreaks, particularly those caused by emerging viruses, demonstrate the need for a better underst-ing of how spatial ecology - pathogen evolution jointly shape epidemic dynamics. Advances in computational techniques - the increasing availability of genetic - geospatial data are helping to address this problem, particularly when both information sources are combined. Here, we review research at the intersection of evolutionary biology, human geography - epidemiology that is working towards an integrated view of spatial incidence, host mobility - viral genetic diversity. We first discuss how empirical studies have combined viral spatial - genetic data, focusing particularly on the contribution of evolutionary analyses to epidemiology - disease control. Second, we explore the interplay between virus evolution - global dispersal in more depth for two pathogens: human influenza A virus - chikungunya virus. We discuss the opportunities for future research arising from new analyses of human transportation - trade networks, as well as the associated challenges in accessing - sharing relevant spatial - genetic data.

440) New approaches to Chikungunya virus vaccine development
Autor: Garcia Alexis, Diego Lema, Judith Barroso
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccines; Immune response; Vaccines; Virus particles; Viral vectors
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery, v. 9, n. 1, p. 31-37, 2015
ISSN: 1872-213X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne human pathogen that affects millions of individuals each year by causing non-specific flu-like symptoms, with a characteristic rash accompanied by joint pain that may last for a long time after the resolution of the infection. Despite intense research efforts, no approved vaccine or antiviral therapy is yet available. This review is based on articles retrieved by PubMed - clinical trials since 1980 to present. Virus complexity, protective - non-protective immune responses against the virus, - the most important a new patented approaches for Chikungunya vaccine development are discussed.

441) Characterization of the doublesex gene within the Culex pipiens complex suggests regulatory plasticity at the base of the mosquito sex determination cascade
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Price, Dana C.; Egizi, Andrea; Fonseca, Dina M.
Assunto: Doublesex; Mab-3; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex pipiens; Sterile insect technique; Vector biology; Sex determination
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 15, n. 108, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2148
Resumo: The doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation of many metazoan species, including the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). As in other studied dipteran dsx homologs, the gene maintains functionality via evolutionarily conserved protein domains and sex-specific alternative splicing. The upstream factors that regulate splicing of dsx and the manner in which they do so however remain variable even among closely related organisms. As the induction of sex ratio biases is a central mode of action in many emerging molecular insecticides, it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors.Results: Here we report the full-length gene sequence of the doublesex gene in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cxqdsx) and its male and female-specific isoforms. Cxqdsx maintains characteristics possibly derived in the Culicinae and present in the Aedes aegypti dsx gene (Aeadsx) such as gain of exon 3b and the presence of Rbp1 cis-regulatory binding sites, and also retains presumably ancestral attributes present in Anopheles gambiae such as maintenance of a singular female-specific exon 5. Unlike in Aedes aegypti, we find no evidence for intron gain in the female transcript(s), yet recover a second female isoform generated via selection of an alternate splice donor. Utilizing next-gen sequence (NGS) data, we complete the Aeadsx gene model and identify a putative core promoter region in both Aeadsx and Cxqdsx. Also utilizing NGS data, we construct a full-length gene sequence for the dsx homolog of the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens form pipiens (Cxpipdsx). Analysis of peptide evolutionary rates between Cxqdsx and Cxpipdsx (both members of the Culex pipiens complex) shows the male-specific portion of the transcript to have evolved rapidly with respect to female-specific and common regions.Conclusions: As in other studied insects, doublesex maintains sex-specific splicing and conserved doublesex/mab-3 domains in the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. The cis-regulated splicing of Cxqdsx does not appear to follow either currently described mosquito model (for An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti); each of the three mosquito genera exhibit evidence of unique cis-regulatory mechanisms. The male-specific dsx terminus exhibits rapid peptide evolutionary rates, even among closely related sibling species.

442) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

443) Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Lee, Siu Fai; White, Vanessa Linley; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy Margaret
Assunto: Pyrethroid; Mosquito; Bioassay; HRM; Vssc
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular screening
Fonte: Insects, v. 6, n. 3, p. 658-685, 2015
ISSN: 2075-4450
Resumo: Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations.

444) Mechanisms of innate immune evasion in re-emerging RNA viruses
Autor: Ma Daphne Y, Suthar Mehul S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 12, p. 26-37, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Recent outbreaks of Ebola, West Nile, Chikungunya, Middle Eastern Respiratory - other emerging/re-emerging RNA viruses continue to highlight the need to further underst- the virus-host interactions that govern disease severity - infection outcome. As part of the early host antiviral defense, the innate immune system mediates pathogen recognition - initiation of potent antiviral programs that serve to limit virus replication, limit virus spread - activate adaptive immune responses. Concordantly, viral pathogens have evolved several strategies to counteract pathogen recognition - cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. In this review, we highlight the major mechanisms of innate immune evasion by emerging - re-emerging RNA viruses, focusing on pathogens that pose significant risk to public health.

445) Comparison of vector competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for dengue virus: implications for dengue control in the Caribbean
Autor: Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Disease control; Pest control; Hosts; Vaccines; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Serotypes; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Prevention; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 1; Dengue virus type 4
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue is a potentially life-threatening tropical disease caused by four serotypes of virus, dengue virus 1, -2, -3, and -4. Worldwide, as many as 390 million people become infected with dengue virus each year after being bitten by infectious Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, there is no commercially available vaccine to prevent dengue; so, dengue prevention is attempted by controlling Aedes mosquitoes. Since the Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for most dengue virus infections worldwide, most dengue control efforts target this mosquito. However, Aedes mediovittatus, a common mosquito in the Caribbean, may also transmit dengue virus in Puerto Rico. Our goal was to compare dengue virus transmission by Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for four serotypes of dengue virus. In the laboratory, we exposed Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus-1-4. We found that similar numbers of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes became infected with dengue virus-1-3, but differed in dengue virus 4 infection rates.

446) Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis
Autor: Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Assunto: Trichoderma atroviride; Culture filtrates; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Dengue; CLSM
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, v. 22, n. 16, p. 12559-12565, 2015.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 degree C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC sub(90) and LC sub(99) values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.

447) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis aubl. (negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus
Autor: Aguiar, Raimundo WagnerSouza; Santos, Suetonio Fernandesdos; Morgado, Fabricio daSilva; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; Lopes, Magnolia deMendonca; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais
Assunto: Repellents; Pupae; Pollution effects; Pest control; Toxicity; Larval development; Necrosis; Skin; Insect cells; Developmental stages; Essential oils; Eggs; Mortality; Larvae; Insects; Urban areas; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 2, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 mu g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

448) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

449) Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ramanibai, R.; Velayutham, K.
Assunto: Melia azedarach; Mosquito; Electron microscope study
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Research in Veterinary Science, v. 98, p. 82-88, 2015
ISSN: 0034-5288
Resumo: Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fiuorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90= 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 mu g/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 mu g/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

450) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rúa Anubis, Lourenço-de-Oliveira Ricardo, Mousson Laurence, Vazeille Marie, Fuchs Sappho, Yébakima André, Gustave Joel, Girod Romain, Dusfour Isabelle, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Vanlandingham Dana L, Huang Yan-Jang S, Lounibos L Philip, Mohamed Ali Souand, Nougairede Antoine, de Lamballerie Xavier, Failloux Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003780, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mainly transmitted in urban areas by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, constitutes a major public health problem. In late 2013, CHIKV emerged on Saint-Martin Isl- in the Caribbean - spread throughout the region reaching more than 40 countries. Thus far, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes have been implicated as the sole vector in the outbreaks, leading to the hypothesis that CHIKV spread could be limited only to regions where this mosquito species is dominant. We determined the ability of local populations of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus from the Americas - Europe to transmit the CHIKV strain of the Asian genotype isolated from Saint-Martin Isl- (CHIKV_SM) during the recent epidemic, - an East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype CHIKV strain isolated from La Réunion Isl- (CHIKV_LR) as a well-characterized control virus. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus. We found that (i) Aedes aegypti from Saint-Martin Isl- transmit CHIKV_SM - CHIKV_LR with similar efficiency, (ii) Ae. aegypti from the Americas display similar transmission efficiency for CHIKV_SM, (iii) American - European populations of the alternative vector species Ae. albopictus were as competent as Ae. aegypti populations with respect to transmission of CHIKV_SM - (iv) exposure of European Ae. albopictus to low temperatures (20°C) significantly reduced the transmission potential for CHIKV_SM. CHIKV strains belonging to the ECSA genotype could also have initiated local transmission in the new world. Additionally, the ongoing CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- - Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas with possible imported cases of CHIKV to Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. Colder temperatures may decrease the local transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus, potentially explaining the lack of autochthonous transmission of CHIKV_SM in Europe despite the hundreds of imported CHIKV cases returning from the Caribbean.

451) Isolation and characterization of broad and ultrapotent human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Smith Scott A, Silva Laurie A, Fox Julie M, Flyak Andrew I, Kose Nurgun, Sapparapu Gopal, Khomandiak Solomiia, Khomadiak Solomiia, Ashbrook Alison W, Kahle Kristen M, Fong Rachel H, Swayne Sherri, Doranz Benjamin J, McGee Charles E, Heise Mark T, Pal Pankaj, Brien James D, Austin S Kyle, Diamond Michael S, Dermody Terence S, Crowe James E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell Host & Microbe, v. 18, n. 1, p. 86-95, 2015
ISSN: 1934-6069
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted RNA virus that causes acute febrile infection associated with polyarthralgia in humans. Mechanisms of protective immunity against CHIKV are poorly understood, - no effective therapeutics or vaccines are available. We isolated - characterized human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize CHIKV infectivity. Among the 30 mAbs isolated, 13 had broad - ultrapotent neutralizing activity (IC50 < 10 ng/ml), - all of these mapped to domain A of the E2 envelope protein. Potent inhibitory mAbs blocked post-attachment steps required for CHIKV membrane fusion, - several were protective in a lethal challenge model in immunocompromised mice, even when administered at late time points after infection. These highly protective mAbs could be considered for prevention or treatment of CHIKV infection, - their epitope location in domain A of E2 could be targeted for rational structure-based vaccine development.

452) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

453) Asymmetric mating interference between two related mosquito species: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P.; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Emmanouel, Nickolaos
Assunto: Competitive displacement; Female monogamy; Aegypti diptera; Reproductive isolation; Sexual receptivity; Aedini diptera; Culicidae; Vectors; Strains; Greece
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 5, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. Albopictus developing quite higher population densities than Ae. Cretinus. The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females) females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. Cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. Albopictus females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. Cretinus females (31%) in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. Albopictus females with Ae. Cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. Cretinus females was weaker (4%). Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. Albopictus or Ae. Cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. Cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. Albopictus males, compared to 100% when Ae. Cretinus females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

454) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

455) Assessment of the impact of potential tetracycline exposure on the phenotype of Aedes aegypti OX513A: implications for field use
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Curtis, Zoe; Matzen, Kelly; Oviedo, Marco Neira; Nimmo, Derric; Gray, Pamela; Winskill, Peter; Locatelli, Marco A. F.; Jardim, Wilson F.; Warner, Simon; Alphey, Luke; Beech, Camilla
Assunto: Solid - Phase extraction; Tandem mass - Spectrometry; Waste water; Septic tanks; Hong kong; Antibiotics; Dengue; Sulfonamide; Ph; Oxytetracycline
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever, a viral disease which has an estimated incidence of 390 million infections annually. Conventional vector control methods have been unable to curb the transmission of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of vector control using a tetracycline repressible self-limiting strain of Ae. aegypti OX513A which has achieved > 90% suppression of wild populations.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe investigated the impact of tetracycline and its analogues on the phenotype of OX513A from the perspective of possible routes and levels of environmental exposure. We determined the minimum concentration of tetracycline and its analogues that will allow an increased survivorship and found these to be greater than the maximum concentration of tetracyclines found in known Ae. aegypti breeding sites and their surrounding areas. Furthermore, we determined that OX513A parents fed tetracycline are unable to pre-load their progeny with sufficient antidote to increase their survivorship. Finally, we studied the changes in concentration of tetracycline in the mass production rearing water of OX513A and the developing insect.Conclusion/SignificanceTogether, these studies demonstrate that potential routes of exposure of OX513A individuals to tetracycline and its analogues in the environment are not expected to increase the survivorship of OX513A.

456) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from brazilian legal Amazon plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: culicidae)
Autor: Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patricia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonca do; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto: Chemical composition; Disease control; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Vectors; Mass spectroscopy; Dengue; Monoterpenes; Essential oils; Vaccines; Plant extracts; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC sub(50) ) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

457) Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review
Autor: Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Pest Management Science [Pest Manage. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1471-1485. Nov 2015.
ISSN: 1526-498X
Resumo: Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus , Ae. aegypti , Ae. japonicus japonicus , Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus . These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Wolbachia ), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

458) Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes Mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe
Autor: Vega-Rua, Anubis ; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Mousson, Laurence; Vazeille, Marie; Fuchs, Sappho; Yebakima, Andre; Gustave, Joel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lounibos, LPhilip; Mohamed Ali, Souand; Nougairede, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Biological surveys; Barriers; Pest control; Genotypes; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Data processing; Biting; Travellers; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: More than one million chikungunya cases have been reported in the Americas since October 2013, when the Asian genotype of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was imported by a traveller returning from Asia. CHIKV is mainly transmitted in urban areas by the domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we evaluate the potential for the CHIKV circulating in the Caribbean to initiate outbreaks in Aedes-infested regions of continental America and Europe by assessing the ability of local mosquitoes to experimentally transmit the virus. Mosquitoes were exposed to a blood-meal containing the virus which must overcome several barriers to infect various tissues in the vector before being secreted in the mosquito saliva when biting a host. We found that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus transmitted similarly the virus. When exposing Ae. albopictus from Europe at a temperature of 20 degree C after infection, we detect a significant drop of CHIKV transmission potential. Our results suggest that the CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas however with a limited risk of spillovers in Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. These data will be useful for adapting vector control strategies and epidemiological surveillance.

459) Boric acid ovicidal trap for the management of Aedes species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bhami, L. Charlet; Das, S. Sam Manohar
Assunto: Aedes; Boric acid; Larvicidal assay; Ovicidal assay; Ovicidal trap
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, v. 52, n. 2, p. 147-152, 2015
ISSN: 0972-9062
Resumo: The use of low concentrations of boric acid as a potential and effective control agent for the eggs and immature stages of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is found to be safe and effective as compared to synthetic chemical insecticides. The study aims to determine the ovicidal concentration of boric acid, its effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the larval mortality concentration for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.Methods: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid was determined by incubating the eggs in different concentrations of boric acid (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%). Different dilutions of boric acid were taken in the oviposition cup and the ovicidal concentration, effective concentration for oviposition attraction and the mean survival/mortality rate of III and IV instar Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined.Results: The ovicidal concentration of boric acid for 100% mortality in Aedes sp eggs is 1%. Effective concentration for the oviposition attraction is 0.5%. At 1% concentration, larvae of both the species died within 24 h.Interpretation & conclusion: Boric acid is less toxic compared to different pesticides, and in low concentrations, it attracts the ovipositing female Aedes sp as well as fertile males. Dilute boric acid solution is an effective ovitrap since the eggs laid by mosquitoes either die or the larvae that hatch out from them do not survive in boric acid. Boric acid kills the males that come in contact with the solution, which are attracted to the trap by the females hovering around.

460) Is a universal flu vaccine on the horizon?
Titulo Alternativo: Un vaccin anti-grippal à large spectre pour le futur?
Autor: Fourati S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 238-239, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1950-6961 (electronic),1267-8694
Resumo:

461) Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Jang, Myung Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Ahn, Young-Joon
Assunto: Millettia pinnata; Fabaceae; Seed; Natural mosquito larvicide; Flavonoids; Fatty acids; Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Octopaminergic receptor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and A. aegypti as well as wild A. albopictus. Efficacy of 12 experimental liquid formulations containing M. pinnata seed methanol extract and hydrodistillate (0.5-10.0% liquids) was also assessed.Methods: The contact toxicities of all compounds and 12 formulations were compared with those of two larvicides, temephos and fenthion and the commercial temephos 200 g/L emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The possible mode of larvicidal action of the constituents was elucidated using biochemical methods. Larval mortality and cAMP level were analyzed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparison method.Results: Potent toxicity was produced by karanjin, oleic acid, karanjachromene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, pongamol, pongarotene, and elaidic acid toward C. pipiens pallens larvae (24 h LC50, 14.61-28.22 mg/L) and A. aegypti larvae (16.13-37.61 mg/L). Against wild A. albopictus larvae, oleic acid (LC50, 18.79 mg/L) and karanjin (35.26 mg/L) exhibited potent toxicity. All constituents were less toxic than either temephos or fenthion. Structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length, and the geometric isomerism of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the main site of action of the flavonoids, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. The mechanism of larvicidal action of elaidic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid might be due to interference with the octopaminergic system. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid might act on both AChE and octopaminergic receptor. M. pinnata seed extract or hydrodistillate applied as 10% liquid provided 100% mortality toward the three mosquito species larvae and the efficacy of the liquids was comparable to that of temephos 200 g/L EC.Conclusion: Further studies will warrant possible applications of M. pinnata seed-derived products as potential larvicides for the control of mosquito populations.

462) Proteomics profiling of chikungunya-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells reveal important mosquito cell factors in virus replication
Autor: Lee Regina Ching Hua, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003544, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the only causative agent of CHIKV fever with persistent arthralgia, - in some cases may lead to neurological complications which can be highly fatal, therefore it poses severe health issues in many parts of the world. CHIKV transmission can be mediated via the Aedes albopictus mosquito; however, very little is currently known about the involvement of mosquito cellular factors during CHIKV-infection within the mosquito cells. Unravelling the neglected aspects of mosquito proteome changes in CHIKV-infected mosquito cells may increase our underst-ing on the differences in the host factors between arthropod - mammalian cells for successful replication of CHIKV. In this study, the CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells with differential cellular proteins expression were profiled using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). 2DE analysis on CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells has shown 23 mosquito cellular proteins that are differentially regulated, - which are involved diverse biological pathways, such as protein folding - metabolic processes. Among those identified mosquito proteins, spermatogenesis-associated factor, enolase phosphatase e-1 - chaperonin-60kD have been found to regulate CHIKV infection. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown of these proteins has demonstrated the biological importance of these host proteins that mediate CHIKV infection. These findings have provided an insight to the importance of mosquito host factors in the replication of CHIKV, thus providing a potential channel for developing novel antiviral strategies against CHIKV transmission.

463) Long-term Effects of Carbohydrate Availability on Mating Success of Newly Eclosed Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Males
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Villiard, Alexandra; Gaugler, Randy
Assunto: Aedes Albopictus; Carbohydrate; Fitness; SIT; Sugar
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 3, p. 308-314, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Sugar availability varies greatly in nature, and determining how this affects male mosquito fitness is essential for understanding population dynamics. We allowed male Aedes albopictus (Skuse) carbohydrate access for increasing intervals of time immediately after eclosion and we evaluated their fitness by comparing mortality, mating success, and sperm transfer. We compared individual male Ae. albopictus, which were offered water or 20% sucrose solution for 24, 48, or 72 h. As predicted, there were significant increases in fitness for each additional day of sucrose access. Following sugar exposure, we allowed males daily access to three virgin females. We assessed mating success through observation of spermatozoa in the female spermathecae. When individuals of the same age were compared, males with sugar access exhibited significantly greater mating success than water-treated males in all treatments. The total number of spermathecae filled by males with sugar access in the 48- and 72-h treatments was also significantly greater on some days; these were 3-5 d posteclosion in the 48-h treatment and 5-6 d posteclosion in the 72-h treatment. We conclude that extended sugar access at eclosion is important for maximizing fitness in male Ae. albopictus and should be applicable to sterile male release efforts, especially when laboratory-reared males suffered from other disadvantages. We recommend retaining adult males for 3 d posteclosion prior to release to improve their mating success in male release initiatives.

464) Loss of TLR3 aggravates CHIKV replication and pathology due to an altered virus-specific neutralizing antibody response
Autor: Her Zhisheng, Teng Terk-Shin, Tan Jeslin J L, Teo Teck-Hui, Kam Yiu-Wing, Lum Fok-Moon, Lee Wendy W L, Gabriel Christelle, Melchiotti Rossella, Andiappan Anand K, Lulla Valeria, Lulla Aleksei, Win Mar K, Chow Angela, Biswas Subhra K, Leo Yee-Sin, Lecuit Marc, Merits Andres, Rénia Laurent, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; TLR3; Innate immunity; Joint inflammation; Neutralizing antibodies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: EMBO Molecular Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 24-41, 2015
ISSN: 1757-4684
Resumo: RNA-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immunity - regulate anti-viral response. We show here that TLR3 regulates host immunity - the loss of TLR3 aggravates pathology in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Susceptibility to CHIKV infection is markedly increased in human - mouse fibroblasts with defective TLR3 signaling. Up to 100-fold increase in CHIKV load was observed in Tlr3-/- mice, alongside increased virus dissemination - pro-inflammatory myeloid cells infiltration. Infection in bone marrow chimeric mice showed that TLR3-expressing hematopoietic cells are required for effective CHIKV clearance. CHIKV-specific antibodies from Tlr3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower in vitro neutralization capacity, due to altered virus-neutralizing epitope specificity. Finally, SNP genotyping analysis of CHIKF patients on TLR3 identified SNP rs6552950 to be associated with disease severity - CHIKV-specific neutralizing antibody response. These results demonstrate a key role for TLR3-mediated antibody response to CHIKV infection, virus replication - pathology, providing a basis for future development of immunotherapeutics in vaccine development.

465) Larvicidal activity of Illicium difengpi BN Chang (Schisandraceae) Stem Bark and its Constituent Compounds against Aedes aegypti L
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Ying; Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qi Yong; Niu, Chang; Liu, Zhi Long
Assunto: Illicium Difengpi; Aedes Aegypti; Larvicidal Activity; Myristicin; Safrole; 1,8-Cineole; Linalool
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Larvicide
Fonte: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 14, n. 1, p. 103-109, 2015
ISSN: 1596-5996
Resumo: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Illicium difengpi B.N. Chang stem bark (Schisandraceae) and its major constituents against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L.Methods: Essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mas spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its major constituents was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti for 24 h, and larval mortalities recorded at essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 6.0 - 200 mu g/mL.Results: A total of 36 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The principal compounds are safrole (18.21 %), linalool (13.47 %), 1,8-cineole (12.84 %), and myristicin (8.06 %) followed by a-terpineol (4.77 %), beta-pinene (4.45 %) and 4-terpineol (4.38 %). The essential oil exhibited larvicidal activity against A. aegypti with LC50 (median lethal concentration) of 31.68 mu g/mL. The major constituents, myristicin, safrole, and 1, 8-cineole, exhibited LC50 of 15.26, 39.45, and 72.18 mu g/mL, respectively.Conclusion: The findings obtained indicate that the essential oil of I. difengpi and its major constituents have potentials for use in the control of A. aegypti larvae and may therefore be useful in the search for newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

466) Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil
Autor: Nunes Marcio Roberto Teixeira, Faria Nuno Rodrigues, de Vasconcelos Janaina Mota, Golding Nick, Kraemer Moritz U G, de Oliveira Layanna Freitas, Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva, da Silva Daisy Elaine Andrade, da Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto, da Silva Sandro Patroca, Carvalho Valéria Lima, Coelho Giovanini Evelim, Cruz Ana Cecília Ribeiro, Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro, Vianez Joao Lídio da Silva Gonçalves, Nunes Bruno Tardelli Diniz, Cardoso Jedson Ferreira, Tesh Robert B, Hay Simon I, Pybus Oliver G, Vasconcelos Pedro Fernando da Costa
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; National surveillance; Public health; Spatial prediction; Statistical methods
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 13, p. 102, 2015
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, - in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. We compiled epidemiological - clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil - polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April - September 2014. Two imported - four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, - phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities. We detected 41 CHIKV importations - 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological - phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola - developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country - provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil. The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian - ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance - vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

467) Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes
Autor: Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi;Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou;Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles stephensi; Biological control; Copepods Lemongrass; Nanotechnology; Mesocyclops aspericorni
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Experimental Parasitology, v. 153, p. 129-138, 2015.
ISSN: 0014-4894
Resumo: Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC50 of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32ppm to 471.36ppm. LC50 of AuN ranged from 18.80ppm to 41.52ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs.

468) Structural studies of Chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with human antibodies: Neutralization and cell-to-cell transmission
Autor: Porta Jason, Mangala Prasad Vidya, Wang Cheng-I, Akahata Wataru, Ng Lisa F P, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 3, p. 1169-1177, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a positive-str-ed RNA alphavirus. Structures of chikungunya virus-like particles in complex with strongly neutralizing antibody Fab fragments (8B10 - 5F10) were determined using cryo-electron microscopy - X-ray crystallography. By fitting the crystallographically determined structures of these Fab fragments into the cryo-electron density maps, we show that Fab fragments of antibody 8B10 extend radially from the viral surface - block receptor binding on the E2 glycoprotein. In contrast, Fab fragments of antibody 5F10 bind the tip of the E2 B domain - lie tangentially on the viral surface. Fab 5F10 fixes the B domain rigidly to the surface of the virus, blocking exposure of the fusion loop on glycoprotein E1 - therefore preventing the virus from becoming fusogenic. Although Fab 5F10 can neutralize the wild-type virus, it can also bind to a mutant virus without inhibiting fusion or attachment. Although the mutant virus is no longer able to propagate by extracellular budding, it can, however, enter the next cell by traveling through junctional complexes without being intercepted by a neutralizing antibody to the wild-type virus, thus clarifying how cell-to-cell transmission can occur. Alphaviral infections are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which belongs to the Alphavirus genus, has a wide distribution in the Old World that has exp-ed in recent years into the Americas. There are currently no vaccines or drugs against alphaviral infections. Therefore, a better underst-ing of CHIKV - its associated neutralizing antibodies will aid in the development of effective treatments.

469) Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli farner as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013
Autor: Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane
Assunto: Ocean currents; Epidemics; Hosts; Introduced species; Hygiene; Strains; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Indigenous species; Islands; Vectors; Infection; Aedes; Chikungunya virus; Marine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti